# How to use *Mathematician* in a sentence

Tobit ben Korra (836-901), born at Harran in Mesopotamia, an accomplished linguist,

**mathematician**and astronomer, rendered conspicuous service by his translations of various Greek authors.However, this approach will not create a skilled

**mathematician**.Giordano was distinguished both as a

**mathematician**and an architect.Euler's eulogium was enhanced by his desire to quit Berlin, d'Alembert's by his dread of a royal command to repair thither; and the result was that an invitation, conveying the wish of the "greatest king in Europe" to have the "greatest

**mathematician**" at his court, was sent to Turin.It might be said that Laplace was a great

**mathematician**by the original structure of his mind, and became a great discoverer through the sentiment which animated it.AdvertisementAda Lovelace was not the only woman

**mathematician**around at the time.In his treatise on painting, da Vinci warns ' Let no one who is not a

**mathematician**read my work '.In his thirteen volume work Elements, the

**mathematician**Euclid, referred to a dividing line at the point of 0.6180399.Euclid of Alexandria, a famed

**mathematician**of the time, wrote the influential thirteen volume textbook Elements.Af ter Gyorgyich the Servian literature of Ragusa and Dalmatia during the 18th century has no great name to show, except that of the

**mathematician**, Ruggiero Boshkovich (see Boscovicu).AdvertisementBorn at Pitane in Aeolis, he was trained by Autolycus, the

**mathematician**, and later at Athens by Theophrastus and Crantor, by whom he was led to join the Academy.His various works give satisfactory evidence of his abilities as a theologian,

**mathematician**, geographer, antiquary, historian and poet.By his English contemporaries Barrow was considered a

**mathematician**second only to Newton.He was undoubtedly a clear-sighted and able

**mathematician**, who handled admirably the severe geometrical method, and who in his Method of Tangents approximated to the course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between mathematics and philosophy.He was a great

**mathematician**in an age which produced Descartes, Fermat, Huygens, Wallis and Roberval.AdvertisementHe was educated at Merton College, Oxford, where he took the degree of doctor of divinity, and acquired the reputation of a profound scholar, a skilful

**mathematician**and an able divine.Later on in life he migrated to Athens and continued his studies under Marinus, the

**mathematician**, Zenodotus, and Isidore, the dialectician.Maupertuis was unquestionably a man of considerable ability as a

**mathematician**, but his restless, gloomy disposition involved him in constant quarrels, of which his controversies with Konig and Voltaire during the latter part of his life furnish examples.He was a man of some property, and is spoken of on his tombstone as an excellent lawyer and

**mathematician**.Bacon was no

**mathematician**, and so was out of touch with the main army of progress.AdvertisementLanfranc, Pope John XIV., Porta the anatomist and Cremona the

**mathematician**were born in the city.He is indeed taken by some authorities to be identical with the

**mathematician**Bhaskara Acharya, who is known to 'have completed his chief work in A.D.In all these fields of labour he made important contributions to science, and showed himself to be equally great as a

**mathematician**and a physicist.The invention of continued fractions is ascribed generally to Pietro Antonia Cataldi, an Italian

**mathematician**who died in 1626.His family, which was of Jewish extraction, had been settled in the Lyonnais for many centuries, and had reached distinction in the third generation before Frederic through Jacques Ozanam (1640-1717), an eminent

**mathematician**.AdvertisementAs a

**mathematician**Salmon was a fellow of the Royal Society, and was president of the mathematical and physical section of the British Association in 1878.And he was no

**mathematician**.The ranks of scientists include the cosmographer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), a famous

**mathematician**, and the botanist Garcia da Orta, whose Colloquios dos simples e drogas was the first book to be printed in the East (1563), while the form of Aristotelian scholastic philosophy known as Philosophia conimbricensis had a succession of learned exponents.His powers as a

**mathematician**were of the highest order.Other buildings are the sheriff court house, and the Spence Library, founded by the widow of William Spence the

**mathematician**.This author, distinguished alike as a physiologist,

**mathematician**and mechanician, describes and figures a bird with artificial wings, each of which consists of a rigid rod in front and flexible feathers behind.Pratt was also a

**mathematician**of some note.The hair having by some unknown means disappeared, Conon of Samos, the

**mathematician**and astronomer, explained the phenomenon in courtly phrase, by saying that it had been carried to the heavens and placed among the stars.He had formed a new and close friendship with Luca Pacioli of Borgo San Sepolcro, the great

**mathematician**, whose Summa de aritmetica, geometrica, &c., he had eagerly bought at Pavia on its first appearance, and who arrived at the Court of Milan about the moment of the completion of the "Cenacolo."It was in the successful effort to open this treasure-house that Hamilton's mind received its final temper, " Des-lors it commenga a marcher seul," to use the words of the biographer of another great

**mathematician**.Having detected an important defect in one of Laplace's demonstrations, he was induced by a friend to write out his remarks, that they might be shown to Dr John Brinkley (1763-1835), afterwards bishop of Cloyne, but who was then the first royal astronomer for Ireland, and an accomplished

**mathematician**.He wrote a paper Analysis per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas, which he put, probably in June 1669, into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian professor of mathematics), at the same time giving him permission to communicate the contents to their common friend John Collins (1624-1683), a

**mathematician**of no mean order.In 1699 Newton's position as a

**mathematician**and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences..In the middle of 1708 Newton's consent was obtained, but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young

**mathematician**of great promise, Roger Cotes, fellow of Trinity College, who had been recently appointed the first Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy.Eusebius accepted the small bishopric of Emesa (the modern Horns) in Phoenicia, but his powers as

**mathematician**and astronomer led his flock to accuse him of practising sorcery, and he had to flee to Laodicea.Throughout his logical writings De Morgan was led by the idea that the followers of the two great branches of exact science, logic and mathematics, had made blunders, - the logicians in neglecting mathematics, and the mathematicians in neglecting logic. He endeavoured to reconcile them, and in the attempt showed how many errors an acute

**mathematician**could detect in logical writings, and how large a field there was for discovery.His promise as a

**mathematician**induced his parents to send him to the university of Cambridge, and in October 1839 he entered as a sizar at St John's College.He went so far as to quit Leipzig altogether, and betook himself to Jena, where he formed an intimate friendship with Erhard Weigel the

**mathematician**, whose influence helped to develop his remarkable independence of character.He was famous for his versatility, and besides being a distinguished lawyer, jurist and political leader, was "a

**mathematician**, a chemist, a physicist, a mechanician, an inventor, a musician and a composer of music, a man of literary knowledge and practice, a writer of airy and dainty songs, a clever artist with pencil and brush and a humorist of unmistakeable power" (Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution).The cathedral has some fine stained glass, a sculptured pulpit and the famous astronomical clock in the south transept; this contains some fragments of the clock built by the

**mathematician**, Conrad Dasypodius, in 1574.Thus it comes about that the observer, the computer, and the

**mathematician**have in astronomical science a practically unlimited field for the exercise of their powers.The purpose of the present article is to convey a general idea of the methods by which the results of celestial mechanics are reached, without entering into those technical details which can be followed only by a trained

**mathematician**.In or near Iioo B.C., Chou Kung, an able

**mathematician**, determined with surprising accuracy the obliquity of the ecliptic; but his attempts to estimate the sun's distance failed hopelessly as being grounded on belief in the flatness of the earth.We hear also of one Master Peter, who inscribed and illuminated maps for the infante; the

**mathematician**Pedro Nunes declares that the prince's mariners were well taught and provided with instruments and rules of astronomy and geometry "which all map-makers should know"; Cadamosto tells us that the Portuguese caravels in his day were the best sailing ships afloat; while, from several matters recorded by Henry's biographers, it is clear that he devoted great attention to the study of earlier charts and of any available information he could gain upon the trade-routes of north-west Africa.A journey to Nice in the autumn of the same year with his friend Dr Isaac Milner (1750-1820), who had been a master at Hull grammar school when Wilberforce was there as a boy, and had since made a reputation as a

**mathematician**, and afterwards became president of Queens' College, Cambridge, and dean of Carlisle, led to his conversion to Evangelical Christianity and the adoption of more serious views of life.After Galileo's death Torricelli was nominated grand-ducal

**mathematician**and professor of mathematics in the Florentine academy.A share in the work has been claimed on dubious grounds for Benjamin Robins, the

**mathematician**.He was a competent

**mathematician**, wrote with considerable ability on the theory and practice of music, and was especially distinguished amongst his contemporaries for the grace and skill of his performance upon the lute.His discovery of the "Medicean Stars" was acknowledged by his nomination (July 1610) as philosopher and

**mathematician**extraordinary to the grand-duke of Tuscany.The extraordinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical analysis to physical problems. As a pure

**mathematician**he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one among his pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative grasp of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with Fermat, Descartes or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz.But they see in him the pioneer of a literary and scientific movement; not merely a great ecclesiastic who patronized learning in his leisure hours, but the first

**mathematician**and physicist of his age.This revolution is called the Eulerian motion, after the

**mathematician**who discovered it.As he grew older, however, his social successes ceased, and he began to dream of more lasting distinctions, stimulated by the success of Maupertuis as a

**mathematician**, of Voltaire as a poet, of Montesquieu as a philosopher.A profound

**mathematician**, Cauchy exercised by his perspicuous and rigorous methods a great influence over his contemporaries and successors.He retained an enduring fondness for the college that witnessed his development from a rebellious teenager to a professional

**mathematician**.Indeed it could be said that Turing treated mathematical logic like an applied

**mathematician**.I never became a modern

**mathematician**, never learned any of the abstract stuff.Hardy was a pure

**mathematician**who hoped his mathematics could never be applied.He was the most prolific

**mathematician**that has ever lived.Wren is most famous as an architect but he was also a distinguished

**mathematician**.That would make him the highest-paid university

**mathematician**in the country.The 19th century

**mathematician**Kronecker famously claimed that " God made the integers, all the rest is the work of man.He studied at Alexandria and doubtless met there Conon of Samos, whom he admired as a

**mathematician**and cherished as a friend, and to whom he was in the habit of communicating his discoveries before publication.With the exception of Augustus de Morgan, Boole was probably the first English

**mathematician**since the time of John Wallis who had also written upon logic. His novel views of logical method were due to the same profound confidence in symbolic reasoning to which he had successfully trusted in mathematical investigation.Archimedes, the famous

**mathematician**, had a celestial globe of glass, in the centre of which was a small terrestrial globe.He was wont to mention the following as the two incidents in his life which had afforded him the greatest pleasure, - that a stranger, whom he had met as a travelling companion in his youth, made to his declaration "I am Daniel Bernoulli" the incredulous and mocking reply, "And I am Isaac Newton"; and that, while entertaining Kdnig and other guests, he solved without rising from table a problem which that

**mathematician**had submitted as difficult and lengthy.As a

**mathematician**he devised various elaborate magic squares and novel magic circles, of which he speaks apologetically, because they are of no practical use.But we have to picture him as anon coming out and gathering about him a tatterdemalion company, and jesting with them until they were in fits of laughter, for the sake of observing their burlesque physiognomies; anon as eagerly frequenting the society of men of science and learning of an older generation like the

**mathematician**Benedetto Aritmetico, the physician, geographer and astronomer Paolo Toscanelli, the famous Greek Aristotelian Giovanni Argiropoulo; or as out-rivalling all the youth of the city now by charm of recitation, now by skill in music and now by feats of strength and horsemanship; or as stopping to buy caged birds in the market that he might set them free and watch them rejoicing in their flight; or again as standing radiant in his rose-coloured cloak and his rich gold hair among the throng of young and old on the piazza, and holding them spellbound while he expatiated on the great projects in art and mechanics that were teeming in his mind.This phenomenon brought the

**mathematician**, Euclid (300 B.C.) to the conclusion that this ratio was divine.Napier's priority in the publication of the logarithms is unquestioned and only one other contemporary

**mathematician**seems to have conceived the idea on which they depend.Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a

**mathematician**.Frankl; the pianist Moscheles, the dramatist Mosenthal, and the actor Sonnenthal, the

**mathematician**Spitzer and the chess-player Steinitz are some of the most prominent names.Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher, astronomer and

**mathematician**," as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame - James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was particularly skilful in making telescopes.The only teacher whom he respected was a certain Petrus de Maharncuria Picardus, or of Picardy, probably identical with a certain

**mathematician**, Petrus Peregrinus of Picardy, who is perhaps the author of a MS. treatise, De Magnete, contained in the Bibliotheque Imperiale at Paris.Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure

**mathematician**, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied**mathematician**.One stirring social incident at least marked this part of his life, for, during the revolutionary insurrection in March 1848, the young

**mathematician**, as a member of a company of student volunteers, kept guard in the royal palace from 9 o'clock on the morning of the 24th of March till 1 o'clock on the afternoon of the following day.This memoir excited the admiration of Gauss, and at once marked its author's rank as a

**mathematician**.It was eagerly welcomed by the Berlin

**mathematician**, who had the generosity to withhold from publication his own further researches on the subject, until his youthful correspondent should have had time to complete and opportunity to claim the invention.In analytical invention, and mastery over the calculus, the Turin

**mathematician**was admittedly unrivalled.There was a certain learned

**mathematician**who sent his algebra, written in the Syriac language, to Alexander the Great, and he named it almucabala, that is, the book of dark or mysterious things, which others would rather call the doctrine of algebra.The earliest Indian

**mathematician**of whom we have certain knowledge is Aryabhatta, who flourished about the beginning of the 6th century of our era.The fame of this astronomer and

**mathematician**rests on his work, the Aryabhattiyam, the third chapter of which is devoted to mathematics.Ganessa, an eminent astronomer,

**mathematician**and scholiast of Bhaskara, quotes this work and makes separate mention of the cuttaca (" pulveriser "), a device for effecting the solution of indeterminate equations.We have next to consider the works of Albert Girard, a Flemish

**mathematician**.The Opus Palatinum of Rheticus was published by Valentine Otho,

**mathematician**to the electoral prince palatine, in 1596.He visited Paris from time to time and established intimate relations with the abbe de Saint Pierre, the abbe Vertot and the

**mathematician**Pierre Varignon.In 1751, seconded by Lord Macclesfield, president of the Royal Society, and Bradley, the eminent

**mathematician**, he distinguished himself greatly in the debates on the calendar, and succeeded in making the new style a fact.She was an accomplished linguist, musician and

**mathematician**, and deeply interested in metaphysics.Rudolf Snellius (Snel van Roijen, 15 4 6-1613), the

**mathematician**, a native of Oudewater, then a professor at Marburg, happening at the time to visit his early home, met the boy, saw promise in him and undertook his maintenance and education.About the same time Francesco Maurolico, or Maurolycus, the eminent

**mathematician**of Messina, in his Theore y nata de Lumine et Umbra, written in 1521, fully investigated the optical problems connected with vision and the passage of rays of light through small apertures with and without lenses, and made great advances in this direction over his predecessors.As a

**mathematician**, he was the only Englishman after Sir Isaac Newton and Roger Cotes capable of holding his own with the Bernoullis; but a great part of the effect of his demonstrations was lost through his failure to express his ideas fully and clearly.The early death of this talented

**mathematician**, of whom Legendre said "quelle tete celle du jeune Norvegien!", cut short a career of extraordinary brilliance and promise.He was far however from neglecting the science and art of war, for thus early he had begun to make his name as a theorist as well as a

**mathematician**.Jacques Bernoulli (1654-I 705),

**mathematician**, was born at Basel on the 27th of December 1654.He was first known as a

**mathematician**by his essays in the Ladies' Diary for 1744.Lobachevskiy he probably ranks as the most distinguished

**mathematician**Russia has produced.A solution by means of the parabola and hyperbola was given by Dionysodorus of Amisus (c. 1st century B.c), and a similar problem - to construct a segment equal in volume to a given segment, and in surface to another segment - was solved by the Arabian

**mathematician**and astronomer, Al Kuhi.As a

**mathematician**he occupied himself with many branches of his favourite science, more especially with higher algebra, including the theory of determinants, with the general calculus of symbols, and with the application of analysis to geometry and mechanics.Payments of arrears, now amounting to upwards of 4000 florins, was not, however, in the desperate condition of the imperial finances, to be hoped for; and he was glad, while retaining his position as court astronomer, to accept (in 1612) the office of

**mathematician**to the states of Upper Austria.His contemporary, Dempster, called him the "phoenix of his age, a philosopher profoundly skilled in the Greek and Latin languages, and a

**mathematician**worthy of being compared with the ancients."Meanwhile, however, the truth about the Eudemian Ethics in general is that it was an earlier rudimentary sketch written by Aristotle, when he was still struggling, without quite succeeding, to get over Plato's view that there is one philosophical knowledge of universal good, by which not only the dialectician and

**mathematician**must explain the being and becoming of the world, but also the individual and the statesman guide the life of man.This extraordinary man, associated by tradition with Omar Khayyam, the well-known

**mathematician**and free-thinking poet, and with Hassan (ibn) Sabbah, afterwards the founder of the sect of the Assassins (q.v.), was a renowned author and statesman of the first rank, and immortalized his name by the foundation of several universities (the Nizamiyah at Bagdad), observatories, mosques, hospitals and other institutions of public utility.Though he never became either a scholar or a

**mathematician**, he did enough accurate work to be placed in the honorary fourth class both in classics and in mathematics.This period was clearly important for his future development as a research

**mathematician**.However, the American

**mathematician**George Birkhoff showed in 1913 that a particular arrangement of four adjacent pentagons is reducible.Adams, who thought the query unessential, did not reply, and Airy for some months took no steps to verify by telescopic search the results of the young

**mathematician**'s investigation.More... Searching for jobs "

**Mathematician**required " is not a phrase you see very often in job ads.While flowers and paper folding both play important roles in Japanese culture, it was a modern

**mathematician**who officially created the origami rose.After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other

**mathematician**was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.His name first came before the public in 1683, when a prospectus was published in Edinburgh entitled An Account of the Scottish Atlas, stating that "the Privy Council of Scotland has appointed John Adair,

**mathematician**and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires."The first extant work which approaches to a treatise on algebra is by Diophantus, an Alexandrian

**mathematician**, who flourished about A.D.Dodgson periodically published mathematical works - An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867); Euclid, Book V., proved Algebraically (1874); Euclid and his Modern Rivals (1879), the work on which his reputation as a

**mathematician**largely rests; and Curiosa Mathematica (1888).On the other hand a map drawn on the surface of a sphere representing a terrestrial globe will prove true to nature, for it possesses, in combination, the qualities which the ingenuity of no

**mathematician**has hitherto succeeded in imparting to a projection intended for a map of some extent, namely, equivalence of areas of distances and angles.The first notable Arabian

**mathematician**was Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi, who flourished in the reign of Mamun.