The materials were scheduled to be delivered the day after tomorrow.
I've got enough materials to make you fourteen.
The materials mixed with the iron borings cause them to rust into a solid mass, and in doing so a slight expansion takes place.
The materials, however, were mainly those of the hall set up in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851.
or so, and thoroughly drained, and layers of different materials (gravel, cinders, moulds, silver-sand) laid down before the final covering of turf, 21 or 3 in.
Before the tariff reform of 1887 manufactured articles, alimentary products and raw materials for manufacture held the principal places in the imports.
of the deep-sea cables within the first twelve years, placed the probable life of a cable as low as fifteen years, but the weeding out of unserviceable types of construction, and the general improvement in materials, have by degrees extended that first estimate, until now the limit may be safely placed at not less than forty years.
Good building materials are obtained from many of the rocks of the country, among which the Raialo limestone (a fine-grained crystalline marble) and the Jaisalmer limestone stand pre-eminent.
These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
If you take low-worth items or raw materials and apply labor to them to make something that has value, you have created wealth.
Students will find the chief materials in the following collections: Archiv fiir Litteratur and Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters (ed.
In the exports, alimentary products came first, while raw materials for manufacture and manufactured articles were of little account.
Most raw materials in the world are essentially unlimited.
The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
Dr Ginsburg had one predecessor in the field, the learned Jacob ben Chajim, who in 1524-1525 published the second Rabbinic Bible, containing what has ever since been known as the Massorah; but neither were the materials available nor was criticism sufficiently advanced for a complete edition.
On the formation of the Wirth ministry in May 1921 he was appointed Minister of Reconstruction, and in that capacity negotiated with the French minister, Loucheur, a convention for supplying German materials for the restoration of the devastated area in France, and thus paying in kind part of the reparation which the German Reich had undertaken to pay in gold.
Water traffic, which is chiefly in heavy merchandise, as coal, building materials, and agriculture and food produce, more than doubled in volume between 1881 and 1905.
Raw Materials i 1886-1890 85,778 50.8 33,848 24.6
Amongst exports manufactured goods (silk, cotton and woollen goods, fancy wares, apparel, &c.) come before raw materials and articles of food (wine and dairy products bought chiefly by England).
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
The first consists of cutting up the various fabrics and materials employed into shapes suitable for forming the leaves, petals, &c.; this may be done by scissors, but more often stamps are employed which will cut through a dozen or more thicknesses at one blow.
Amongst imports raw materials (wool, cotton and silk, coal, oilseeds, timber, &c.) hold the first place, articles of food (cereals, wine, coffee, &c.) and manufactured goods (especially machinery) ranking next.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
The second would be to argue that the cost of materials to build the Mercedes won't fall by a thousandfold.
These are all the materials, excepting the timber, stones, and sand, which I claimed by squatter's right.
A comfortable house for a rude and hardy race, that lived mostly out of doors, was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands.
The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.
Extensive use is made of building materials from the Roman station of Corstopitum (also called Corchester), which lay half a mile west of Corbridge at the junction of the Cor with the Tyne.
Again, the materials to build the car are abundant; their cost is high because of technology deficiencies around retrieving and refining them, not an underlying rarity.
Houses will be built by robots using materials not yet invented that are cheaper and more energy efficient.
The nearest that I came to actual possession was when I bought the Hollowell place, and had begun to sort my seeds, and collected materials with which to make a wheelbarrow to carry it on or off with; but before the owner gave me a deed of it, his wife--every man has such a wife--changed her mind and wished to keep it, and he offered me ten dollars to release him.
The valonia of commerce, one of the richest of tanning materials, is the acorn of Q.
With a little more wit we might use these materials so as to become richer than the richest now are, and make our civilization a blessing.
It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant, the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.
It is only necessary to bear in mind the great part played by sterilization in the laboratory, and pasteurization on the fermentation industries and in the preservation of food materials.
When this is done we shall have the materials for pronouncing a judgment upon the text as directly transmitted.
C. Miscellaneous 1.1 Hpo/ Xb,LCara: Problemata: Problems on various subjects [gradually collected by the Peripatetics from partly Aristotelian materials, according to Zeller].
He would even be drawn into this process by his writing materials, which were papyrus rolls of some magnitude; he would tend to write discourses on separate rolls, and then fasten them together in a bundle into a treatise.
Sulphurous and other mineral springs, both hot and cold, exist in several districts, and deposits of silver, iron, copper, sulphur, coal and other minerals have been discovered; but the exploitation of these is retarded by lack of communications, and, apart from building materials, sulphur and salt, the actual output is insignificant.
The larger materials include gravel of all degrees of coarseness; carbonaceous matter is often an important element.
Meanwhile (January 1880) stores and materials were landed, and Assab was permanently occupied.
If the God of the Design argument seems a limited being, working as an artist upon given materials,' he is hardly God at all.
In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).
All parts of matter are capable of developing into all forms; thus the materials of the table and chair may under proper circumstances be developed to the life of the plant or of the animal.
In shape it resembled a porkpie but in materials it was a rich plum-pudding.
Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.
So long as they are connected together mechanically they have apparently the power of influencing one another in various ways, and of passing liquid or gaseous materials from one to another.
The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
The formation of living substance is a process of building up from simple or relatively simple materials; the construction of its cellulose framework and supporting substance is done by the living substance after its own formation is completed, and is attended by a partial decomposition of such living substance.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
A third phenomenon observable in stich healing tissues is the increased flow and accumulation of plastic materials at the seat of injury.
Deducting from the total value of manufactured products in 1905 the cost of partially manufactured materials, including mill supplies; a net or true value of $9,821,205,387 remains.
is the value added to materials by manufacturing processes.
Both in 1905 and in 1900 the group of industries classed as of food and kindred products ranked first in the cost of materials used and the value of products; the group of iron and steel ranking first in capital and in wages paid; and textiles in the number of wage-earners employed.
In the manufacture of food products the United States holds a lead that is the natural result of immense advantages in the production of raw materials.
The basis of this position is generally considered to be, partly, immense natural resources available as materials, and, partly, an immense home market.
Classifying imports and domestic exports as of six groups: (I) crude foodstuffs and good animals; (2) foodstuffs partly or wholly prepared; (3) raw materials for use in manufacturing; (4) manufactured articles destined to serve as materials in further processes of manufacture; (5) finished manufactures; (6) miscellaneous productsthe table on p. 645 shows the distribution of imports and exports among these six classes since 182o.i It will be seen from the table that the share of the first two classes in both imports and exports has been relatively constant.
Coal, iron ore, building materials, lumber, livestock, cotton, fruits, vegetables, tobacco and grain are the great items in the domestic commerce of the country, upon its railways, inland waterways, and in the coasting trade.
More than half of these were crude materials for manufactures.
He had seen Cyrene from the sea, probably on his voyage from Puteoli to Alexandria, where he remained a long time, probably amassing materials, and studying astronomy and mathematics.
He designed his geography as a sequel to his historical writings, and it had as it were grown out of his historical materials, which were chiefly Greek.
While these ancient events shaped the topography in a broad way, its final development was comparatively recent, during the glacial period, when the loose materials were scoured from some regions and spread out as boulder clay, or piled up as moraines in others; and the original water-ways were blocked in many places.
From the former come most of the manufactured goods imported and large quantities of raw materials; to the latter are sent food-stuffs.
The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
Because nanites are so small, they require little in the way of raw materials, just a few molecules here and there.
Labor will fall, material costs will fall, materials will be better, stronger, greener, prettier, lighter, more malleable, and just altogether better.
About clothes, and how robots will weave garments that never wear out from materials not yet invented that will cost very little.
I had the previous winter made a small quantity of lime by burning the shells of the Unio fluviatilis, which our river affords, for the sake of the experiment; so that I knew where my materials came from.
Deliver me from a city built on the site of a more ancient city, whose materials are ruins, whose gardens cemeteries.
Directly opposite to him came a strange one-horse vehicle, evidently rigged up by soldiers out of any available materials and looking like something between a cart, a cabriolet, and a caleche.
The joists are covered with a waterproof material such as asphalt, lead, zinc or copper, the three last materials being usually laid upon boarding, which stiffens the structure and forms a good surface to fix the weatherproof covering upon.
" Lean-to," " shed," or " pent " roofs are practically developments of the flat roof, one end of the joists (which are now called " rafters ") being tipped up to form a decided slope, which enables slates, tiles, corrugated iron and other materials to be employed which cannot be used upon a " flat " roof.
In prison she won the affections of the guards, and was allowed the privilege of writing materials and the occasional visits of devoted friends.
The materials required are iron borings, sal-ammoniac and sulphur; these are mixed together, moistened with water, and rammed into the socket, which is previously half filled with yarn, well caulked.
Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
in diameter, and the smallest 2 in., are wrapped in asbestos, felt and other non-conducting materials, and are placed in wooden tubes laid under ground like water and gas pipes.
The principal classes of products affected are foods, wearing apparel, building materials, furniture, &c., chemical products, printing and allied trades, and sundry others, such as cigars, matches, tanning, paints, &c. In some manufactures the raw material is imported partly manufactured, such as thread for weaving.
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
1914 as the founder and director of organizations for providing raw materials, during the World War, for Prussia and the German Empire.
rubra; the bark is one of the best tanning materials of the country.
Closely connected with the manufacture of lumber is the making of paper and wood pulp, centralized at Bellows Falls, with waterpower on the Connecticut river and with the raw materials near; the product was valued in 1905 at $3,831,448.
Though she tried hard not to fear death, she wondered what kind of creature was capable of breaking through bars made of materials she'd never before seen and held in place with some sort of magic.
being here - in a part of the city known as "Ampere") and pharmaceutical materials.
He left open the question whether the capability of sensation belongs to all matter, or is confined to the combinations of certain materials.
Strength Of Materials >>
Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.
Identity of the Food of Animals and Plants.rt is evidently to the actual seats of consumption of food, and of consequent nutrition and increase of living substance, that we should turn when we wish to inquire what are the nutritive materials of plants.
If we go back to the first instance cited, the embryo in the seed and its development during germination, we can ascertain what is necessary for its life by inquiring what are the materials which are deposited in the seed, and which become exhausted by consumption as growth and development proceed.
It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.
In many cases the digestion of reserve food materials is effected by the direct action of the protoplasm, without the intervention of enzymes.
The growth of such a cell will be found to depend mainly upon five conditions: (I) There must be a supply of nutritive or plastic materials, at the expense of which the increase of its living substance can take place, and which supply the needed potential energy.
This latter fact is no doubt due to the production of an excess of plastic materials over and above what the tree requires for its immediate needs.
Full materials for his life are found in his Memoirs, written by himself (translated into English by Leyden and Erskine (London, 1826); abridged in Caldecott, Life of Baber (London, 1844).
He went to Rome after the termination of the civil wars, and spent twenty-two years in studying the Latin language and literature and preparing materials for his history.
Besides these five books, Fordun wrote part of another book, and collected materials for bringing down the history to a later period.
These materials were used by a continuator who wrote in the middle of the 15th century, and who is identified with Walter Bower,' abbot of the monastery of Inchcolm.
It is im 1 The materials are in Baur, Das manichaische Religionssystem (1831), p. 162, &c.
In a third tragedy, Love's Sacrifice (acted c. 1630; printed in 1633), he again worked on similar materials; but this time he unfortunately essayed to base the interest of his plot upon an unendurably unnatural possibility - doing homage to virtue after a fashion which is in itself an insult.
Europe, with this difference that it makes its appearance without See Collection of Materials on the Village Community, vol.
i.; Collection of Materials on Landholding, and Statistical Descriptions of Separate Governments, published by several zemstvos (Moscow, Tver, Nyzhniy-Novgorod, Tula, Ryazan, Tambov, Poltava, Saratov, &c.); Kawelin, The Peasant Question; Vasilchikov, Land Property and Agriculture (2 vols.), and Village Life and Agriculture; Ivanukov, The Fall of Serfdom in Russia; Shashkov, " Peasantry in the Baltic Provinces," in Russkaya Mysl.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
With regard to the imports into Russia-they consist mainly of raw materials and machinery for the manufactures, and of provisions, the principal items being raw cotton, 17% of the aggregate; machinery and metal goods, 13%; tea, 5%; mineral ores, 5%; gums and resins, 4%; wool and woollen yarns, 32%; textiles, 3%; fish, 3%; with leather and hides, chemicals, silks, wine and spirits, colours, fruits, coffee, tobacco and rice.
The intervening distance, through country exceedingly unhealthy for white men, and therefore promising no traffic except raw materials, does not seem a likely field for rapid railway extension.
The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.
or rather more under the sleepers, and the materials of the surface layers are often chosen so as to be more or less dustless.
In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
A locomotive depot further includes stores of the various materials required in working the engines, coal stages at which they are loaded with coal, and an ample supply of water.
manure, &c., and a covered shed for loading and unloading packages and materials which it is undesirable to expose to the weather.
This" communion of the body and blood of Christ,"which in early writings is clearly distinguished from the thankoffering which preceded it, and which furnished the materials for it, gradually came to supersede the thank-offering in importance, and to exercise a reflex influence upon it.
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
If these things, however, indicate Prescott's deficiencies from the point of view of ideal history, few historians have had in a higher degree that artistic feeling in the broad arrangement of materials which ensures popular interest.
The materials already collected for a third volume were suppressed.
Even then it appears from his own confession that he long brooded over the chaos of materials he had amassed before light dawned upon it.
This prolonged meditation on his design and its execution was ultimately well repaid by the result: so methodical did his ideas become, and so readily did his materials shape themselves, that, with the above exceptions, the original MS. of the entire six quartos was sent uncopied to the printers.
To the first part unstinted praise must be accorded; it may be said that, with the materials at the author's disposition, it hardly admitted of improvement, except in trifling details.
He continued to work at his editions of the Apostolic Fathers, and in 1885 published an edition of the Epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp, collecting also a large store of valuable materials for a second edition of Clement of Rome, which was published after his death (1st ed., 1869).
One tradition describes how Neagoe Bassarab, while a hostage in Constantinople, designed a splendid mosque for the sultan, returning to build the cathedral out of the surplus materials.
The materials of each ring would continue to cool and to contract until they passed from the gaseous to the liquid condition.
The effect of such contraction would be to draw the materials of the ring into a single mass, and thus we would have a planet formed, while the satellites of that planet would be developed from the still nascent planet in the same way as the planet itself originated from the sun.
All the Old-French materials have not yet been thoroughly examined, and it is far from improbable that some versions of the book either remain to be detected or are now lost past recovery.
Bruckner, Materials for the Biography of Count Panin (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1888).
460 seq.), whose rich collection of materials was used by Bromata, Vita di Paolo IV.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
The cave sanctuary of the Dictaean Zeus has been explored, and throughout the whole length and breadth of the island a mass of early materials has now been collected.
Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.
In 1866 he received three years' leave of absence to collect fresh materials, and in 1869 succeeded Heinrich Ewald as professor of oriental languages at Gottingen.
They are frequently provided with "pseudo-bulbs," large solid swellings of the stem, in the tissues of which water and nutritive materials are stored.
In northern Asia are found other aborigines, such as the Ainus of Japan and the so-called hyperborean races (Chukchis, &c.), but no materials are at present forthcoming for their history.
The materials for the study of their institutions and population are abundant, but lend themselves to discussion rather than to a summary of admitted facts.
Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.
After he became field marshal, in 1784, he introduced many reforms into the army, and built a fleet in' the Black Sea, which, though constructed of very bad materials, did excellent service in Catherine's second Turkish War (1787-92).
His wide reading and capacious memory enabled him to carry in his mind the materials of a sound historical theology, but these materials were unsifted by criticism.
In 1818 he was appointed political agent for the states of western Rajputana, where he conciliated the chieftains, settled their mutual feuds and collected materials for his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (2 vols., 1829-1832).
The materials thus obtained formed the basis of his historical and biographical works, which relate chiefly to the period of the Reformation.
The greater portions of his original materials have been preserved, and are included in the Lansdowne manuscripts in the British Museum.
His works can scarcely be entitled original compositions, his labour having consisted chiefly in the arrangement of his materials, but on this very account they are of considerable value as convenient books of reference, easier of access and almost as trustworthy as the original documents.
Libby Prison, which stood on the northern bank of a canal, near the river, in the eastern part of the city, was taken down in 1888-89, and its materials removed to Chicago, where it was reconstructed, in as nearly as possible its original form, and became the Libby Prison War Museum.'
It is the improvements in methods, implements and materials, brought about by the application of science, that distinguish the husbandry of the 10th century from that of medieval and ancient times.
carbon from the atmosphere, and produce, besides nitrogenous food materials, a very large amount of the carbohydrate sugar, as respiratory and fat-forming food for the live stock of the farm.
Materials for forming such an estimate no doubt exist, but before doing so we have to study in infinite detail a vast number of separate manors, municipalities or other separate economic areas.
The fact that Adam Smith, with the meagre materials of the 18th century at his disposal, saw his way to important generalizations which later research has established on a firm basis, may enhance greatly the reputation of Adam Smith, but does not strengthen the generalizations.
It they are to be tested, an indefinitely large number of special studies must be made, for which the original materials must be collected and examined.
All the materials for investigation, all the facts and figures from which illustrations are drawn, all methods of keeping accounts in England, assume the ordinary English tongue.
The nature of the work, the materials from which it was composed, and the circumstances under which it was written are, however, in themselves exceptional, and necessarily tended to this result.
With the assistance of neighbouring princes and of many of the influential Dihkans, Mahmud collected a vast amount of materials for the work, and after having searched in vain for a man of sufficient learning and ability to edit them faithfully, and having entrusted various episodes for versification to the numerous poets whom he had gathered round him, he at length made choice of Firdousi.
(a) Domestic, such as vessels of all sorts and in many materials, from huge store-jars down to tiny unguentpots; culinary and other implements; thrones, seats, tables, &c., these all in stone or plastered terra-cotta.
The manufacture, modelling and painting of faience objects, and the making of inlays in many materials were also familiar to Aegean craftsmen, who show in all their best work a strong sense of natural form and an appreciation of ideal balance and decorative effect, such as are seen in the best products of later Hellenic art.
The British Museum had been formed, and he had access to everything it contained in addition to the abundant materials afforded him by the private museum of Sir Ashton Lever.'
Considering the extent of their materials, which was limited to the bodies of such animals as they could obtain from dealers and the several menageries that then existed in or near London, the progress made in what has since proved to be the right direction is very wonderful.
It seems that this was issued as much with the object of inviting assistance from others in view of future labours, since the materials at his disposal were comparatively scanty, as with that of making known the results to which his researches had already led him.
He kept on diligently collecting materials, and as he did so was constrained to modify some of the statements he had published.
Looking on Miller's labours as we now can, we see that such errors as he committed are chiefly due to his want of special knowledge of ornithology, combined with the absence in several instances of sufficient materials for investigation.
Consequently the materials available for the comparison of different forms consisted in great part of heads only.
began to appear in 1867, and was completed in 1871 the more so, since the exigencies of his undertaking compelled him to use materials that had been almost wholly neglected by other investigators.
He was not jealous of brother friars because of their funds, instruments and materials for copying and their ability as skilled copyists.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
The culture developed in the West during the 13th century was not only permitted to develop by the protection of the Crusades, it grew upon materials which the Crusades enabled it to import from the East.
9, 1098); he put the besiegers in touch with the Genoese ships lying in the harbour of St Simeon, the port of Antioch (March 1098) - a move which at once served to remedy the want of provisions from which the crusaders suffered, and secured materials for the building of castles, with which Bohemund sought - in the Norman fashion - to overawe the besieged city.
During 1822 and the succeeding years he travelled about Europe on the search for materials for his Collection des chroniques rationales fran4aises ecrites en langue vulgaire cat XIII e au X VI' siècle (47 vols., 1824-1829).
Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
Ox and sheep tallow, with the addition of resin, are the primary materials for making the hard yellow or primrose soaps; these tallows are often adulterated.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
Autoclaves, in which the materials are boiled under pressure, are also employed for certain soaps.
The soap is from this again grained off or salted out, and the underlye so thrown down carries with it coloured impurities which may have been in the materials or which arise from contact with the boiler.
Such washing process may have to be repeated several times when impure materials have been used.
The vast materials which he had accumulated on kinship were edited by his widow and A.
C. Robertson in Materials for the History of Thomas Becket ('7 vols., Rolls Series, 1875-1885).
57), but no certain traces of such a wall have been discovered; the materials may have been removed to build the walls of Themistocles.
For winter quarters they build more elaborate houses of conical or dome-like form, composed of sedges, grasses and similar materials plastered together with mud.
From this it would appear that the documents were merely materials collected from various sources and possibly with a view to the compilation of a homogeneous law.
These materials were apparently brought together at the beginning of the 9th century, at a time of intense legislative activity at the court of Charlemagne.
The tree which supplies the materials for the pith paper of the Chinese is not uncommon, and the cassia tree is found in the mountains.
His materials, he tells us, were collected from foreign rather than native sources, the latter of which had been put beyond his reach by circumstances.
The materials of the native styles of India, however, did not lend themselves to their utilization as in Syria, Egypt and North Africa, where the columns and capitals formed the substructure of the arcades which surrounded their courts.
The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
Every year is attended by fresh " discoveries " in this prolific source of elementary substances, but the paucity of materials and the predilections of the investigators militate in some measure against a just valuation being accorded to such researches.
He chose the legend of Tannhauser, collecting his materials from the ancient Tannhauser-Lied, the Volksbuch, Tieck's poetical Erzahlung, Hoffmann's story of Der Sangerkrieg, and the medieval poem on Der Wartburgkrieg.
In 1795 he visited England, one incident of his journey being the loss of all his private papers, including the materials for an autobiography, which were contained in a box stolen from off his postchaise in St Paul's Churchyard.
Ouro Preto has several historic buildings; they are of antiquated appearance and built of the simplest materials - broken stone and mortar, with an exterior covering of plaster.
The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.
As a river-port it has a brisk trade in the produce of the surrounding district as well as in the raw materials of its manufactures, especially in wool from La Plata, Australia and Germany.
These materials generally include reconnaissance survey of small districts, route surveys and astronomical observations supplied by travellers, and information obtained from native sources.
The compiler, in combining these materials, is called upon to examine the various sources of information, and to form an estimate of their value, which he can only do if he have himself some knowledge of surveying and of the methods of determining positions by astronomical observation.
The methods of producing reliefs vary according to the scale and the materials available.
In this task he was much helped by the materials collected in his library.
Further materials serviceable to the compilers of maps were supplied by numerous Arabian travellers and geographers, among FIG.
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
He did not avail himself of the materials available in his day.
32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.
Valuable materials have likewise been acquired by several river surveys including those of the Amazonas by Azevedo and Pinto (1862-1864) and W.
Of the stem of the plant were made boats, sails, mats, cloth, cords, and, above all, writing materials.
There is evidence to show that in the Toth century papyrus was used, to the exclusion of other materials, in papal deeds.
Kulakovsky in Materials for Russian Archaeology (St Petersburg, 1896; a publication of the Russian Imperial Archaeological Commission), but it is written in Russian, as also is the account by V.
From 1890 to 1900 the capital invested, the cost of materials used and the value of output (in 1goo, $1 21,181,683) increased respectively 22 5'4, 1 47.3 and 109 6%.
Documentary materials on the greater " Louisiana " between the Gulf of Mexico and Canada will be found in the Jesuit Relations, edited by R.
The residual gas is then passed through a tube containing porous materials, such as woodor bone-charcoal, platinized pumice or spongy platinum, then mixed with steam and again forced through the tube.
The imports consist principally of food stuffs, building materials, drinks, sugar, machinery, glass, fats, clothes, wooden and stone wares, and various manufactured goods.
No adequate history of Bosnia was published up to the 10th century; but the chief materials for such a work are contained in the following books: - A.
See also Christopher Walton, Notes and Materials for a Complete Biography of W.
All the buildings, both public and private, are constructed of furnaceburnt bricks of a yellowish-red colour, principally derived from the ruins of other places, chiefly Madain (Ctesiphon), Wasit and Babylon, which have been plundered at various times to furnish materials for the construction of Bagdad.
She spent the summer at the chateau with a brilliant company; in the autumn she journeyed to Italy accompanied by Schlegel and Sismondi, and there gathered the materials of her most famous work, Corinne.
Abundant supplies of berroquena, a granitelike stone, were obtained in the neighbourhood, and for rarer materials the resources of both the Old and the New World were put under contribution.
The charters of Cardiff and "Materials for a History of the County Borough from the Earliest Times" were published by order of the corporation in Cardiff Records (5 vols., 1898, sqq.).
Building materials, brandy and coal are among the imports.
of rough materials, such as broken bricks or mortar rubbish, over which should be placed a layer of rough turf with the grassy side downwards, and then the good loamy soil to form the border, which should have a depth of about 2 ft.
The extraordinary numbers of utilizable water-powers, the unusual transport facilities affording ample means of reaching the great markets, and finally the proximity to the raw materials of manufacture, have made Minnesota of great importance as a manufacturing state.
Consult also Materials for the Future History of Minnesota, published by the State Historical.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
Clearly, however, the vast quantity of living substance in the ocean is built up from materials that are present in the sea-water as an exceedingly dilute solution, and the solution is dilute just because organisms are incessantly utilizing it.
in coal and building materials.
The proportion and nature of the proteids or albuminous materials varies considerably in different latices.
Caoutchouc is a bad conductor of heat and electricity, and alone or mixed with other materials is employed as an electrical insulator.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.
There was a play by Chaeremon called Achilles the Thersites-slayer, probably a satyric drama, the materials of which were taken from the Aethiopis of Arctinus.
Consult further Materials for the Study of the Economic Conditions of West Siberia (22 vols., St Petersburg, 1889-1898), condensed in Peasant Land-Tenure and Husbandry in Tobolsk and Tomsk (St Petersburg, 1894), both in Russian.
Similar Materials for the Altai region, published at St Petersburg by the Cabinet of the emperor, and for Irkutsk and Yeniseisk (12 fasc., Irkutsk, 1889-1893); Materials for Transbaikalia (16 vols., St Petersburg, 1898), summed up in Transbaikalia, by N.
The Horologium oscillatorium, published with a dedication to his royal patron in 1673, contained original discoveries sufficient to have furnished materials for half a dozen striking disquisitions.
In addition to his Sunday labours he lectured throughout the States, and prosecuted his wide studies, collecting particularly the materials for an opus magnum on the development of religion in mankind.
of his autobiography with the aid of the other materials collected by J.
Fleming rightly regards it as not a little curious that for materials differing so much as this cast cobalt and soft annealed iron the hysteretic exponent should in both cases be so near to 1.6.
Modern industrial development in some of the states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for consumption by some cities.
Other industries are carried on entirely with imported materials, and are national only in name.
The manufacture of boots and shoes has also received much attention, but the materials used are for the most part imported.
Fine white freestone abounds in the immediate vicinity (as at Craigleith, from the vast quarry of which, now passing into disuse, the stone for much of the New Town was obtained) and furnishes excellent building material; while the hard trap rock, with which the stratified sandstones of the Coal formation have been extensively broken up and overlaid, supplies good materials for paving and road-making.
In 1763 he was elected an associate of the Academy of Inscriptions, and began to arrange for the publication of the materials he had collected during his eastern travels.
Of the various materials which go to the fabrication of plaited head-gear the most important is wheaten straw.
The Codex diplomaticus of Gyorgy Fejer (40 vols., Buda, 1829-1844), though full of errors, remains an inexhaustible storehouse of materials.
by Farkas Deal(and others (Pest, 1878-1891); Monumenta Vaticana historiam regni Hungariae illustrantia (8 vols., Budapest, 1885-1891), a valuable collection of materials from the Vatican archives, edited under the auspices of the Hungarian bishops; Principal Sources for the Magyar Conquest (Mag.), by Gyula Pauler and Sandor Szilagyi (ib.
He was under the general influence of the mercantilist views, and approved of energetic governmental interference in industrial matters, of high taxes on foreign manufactures and low duties on raw materials and articles of food, and attached great importance to a dense population.
Bishop Stubbs belongs to the front rank of historical scholars both as an author and a critic. Among Englishmen at least he excels all others as a master of every department of the historian's work, from the discovery of materials to the elaboration of wellfounded theories and literary production.
Such objects might be imitated in other materials and by successive copying lose their identity, or their first meaning might be otherwise forgotten, and they would ultimately exercise a purely decorative function.
Pelouze in 1838, who observed that when paper or cotton was immersed in cold concentrated nitric acid the materials, though not altered in physical appearance, became heavier, and after washing and drying were possessed of self-explosive properties.
The imports include manufactured articles of all kinds, hardware and building materials, earthenware and glassware, furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs, coal, petroleum and many other things.
The second great quality is the singular artistic skill and balance with which the Hippocratic physician used such materials and tools as he possessed.
Whether these observations were systematic or individual, and how they were recorded, are points of which we are quite ignorant, as the theory that the votive tablets in the temples supplied such materials must be abandoned.
The elaborate work Pharmaceutice rationalis (1674), based on these materials, had much influence in its time, though it was soon forgotten.
The fragments of the old tragedian Pacuvius and of the satirist Lucilius show that Lucretius had made use of their expressions and materials.
There is no really good detailed life of him, with complete examina tion of his work, in any language, though the works containing materials for such are numerous (the first of importance being that of T.
It is recommended that frankincense should enter as largely as possible into its composition, and that if inferior materials be employed at all they should not be allowed to preponderate.
We have no materials to judge of the number of inhabitants before the Norman Conquest, but we can guess that there were many open spaces within the walls that were afterwards filled up. It is scarcely worth while to guess as to the numbers in Saxon London, but it is possible that in the early period there were about 10,000 inhabitants, growing later to about 20,000.
- The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
Zimmer, Mechanical Handling of Materials, and Engineering Magazine, xiv.
In 1667 he had made the acquaintance of Anthony a Wood at Oxford, and when Wood began to gather materials for his invaluable Athenae Oxonienses, Aubrey offered to collect information for him.
Perhaps an intermediate view may be the most probable one; he may have obtained part of his materials, especially the hymns, from some source, and have skilfully worked these into his narrative.
The essential materials of which these mixtures are made are, for English flint glass, sand, carbonate of potash and red lead; for plate and sheet glass, sand, carbonate or sulphate of soda.
Glasses possessing special qualities have been required, and have been supplied by the introduction of new combinations of materials.
Semi-opacity and opacity are usually produced by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will remain in suspension in the glass, such as oxide of tin, oxide of arsenic, phosphate of lime, cryolite or a mixture of felspar and fluorspar.
Little is known about the actual cause of colour in glass beyond the fact that certain materials added to and melted with certain glass-mixtures will in favourable circumstances produce effects of colour.
Owing to impurities contained in the materials from which glasses are made, accidental coloration or discoloration is often produced.
With the exception of the heavier flint (lead) glasses, these can be produced so as to be free both from noticeable colour and from such defects as bubbles, opaque inclusions or " striae," but extreme care in the choice of all the raw materials and in all the manipulations is required to ensure this result.
Further, these glasses, when made from properly proportioned materials, possess a very considerable degree of chemical stability, which is amply sufficient for most optical purposes.
The refractive indices of all glasses at present available lie between 1.46 and 1 90, whereas transparent minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (calcium fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial production of large mineral crystals.
The raw materials are selected with great care to assure chemical purity, but whereas in most glasses the only impurities to be dreaded are those that are either infusible or produce a colouring effect upon the glass, for optical purposes the admixture of other glass-forming bodies than those which are intended to be present must be avoided on account of their effect in modifying the optical constants of the glass.
Constancy of composition of the raw materials and their careful and thorough admixture in constant proportions are therefore essential to the production of the required glasses.
The materials are generally used in the form either of oxides (lead, zinc, silica, &c.) or of salts readily decomposed by heat, such as the nitrates or carbonates.
Fragments of glass of the same composition as that aimed at are generally incorporated to a limited extent with the mixed raw materials to facilitate their fusion.
The crucibles or pots used for the production of optical glass very closely resemble those used in the manufacture of flint glass for other purposes; they are " covered " and the molten materials are thus protected from the action of the furnace gases by the interposition of a wall of fireclay, but as crucibles for optical glass are used for only one fusion and are then broken up, they are not made so thick and heavy as those used in flint-glass making, since the latter remain in the furnace for many weeks.
When a suitable temperature for the fusion of the particular glass in question has been attained, the mixture of raw materials is introduced in comparatively small quantities at a time.
These bubbles arise partly from the air enclosed between the particles of raw materials and partly from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials themselves.
The raw materials used in this manufacture are chosen with considerable care, since the requirements as to the colour of the product are somewhat stringent.
The materials ordinarily employed are the following: sand, of good quality, uniform in grain and free from any notable quantity of iron oxide; carbonate of lime, generally in the form of a pure variety of powdered limestone; and sulphate of soda.
The actual composition, however, of a mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be directly calculated from these figures and the known composition of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, particularly of alkali, occur during melting.
In a sheet-glass tank there is therefore a gradient of temperature and a continuous passage of material from the hotter end of the furnace where the raw materials are introduced to the cooler end where the glass, free from bubbles and raw material, is withdrawn by the gatherers.
It is important that the thermal expansion of the two materials which are thus incorporated should be nearly alike, as otherwise warping of the finished sheet is liable to result.
Charles Winston, after prolonged study of the coloured windows of the 13th, 14th and i 5th centuries, convinced himself that no approach to the colour effect of these windows could be made with glass which is thin and even in section, homogeneous in texture, and made and coloured with highly refined materials.
The materials are selected with a view to secure these qualities.
The following are typical analyses: The raw materials for the production of plate-glass are chosen.
The composition of these glasses is very similar to that of sheet-glass, but for the ordinary kinds of rolled plate much less scrupulous selection need be made in the choice of raw materials, especially of the sand.
The materials employed are sand, sulphate of soda, nitrate of soda, calcspar and in some works carbonate of barium.
Materials were available providing the essential ingredients of glass.
On one side of this a lion is engraved, and also a line of cuneiform characters, in which is the name of Sargon, king of Assyria, 722 B.C. Fragments of coloured glasses were also found there, but our materials are too scanty to enable us to form any decided opinion as to the degree of perfection to which the art was carried in Assyria.
In the 8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at Damascus, and in the 10th century the materials for the decoration of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by Romanus II.
Referring the reader to the article Elasticity for the theoretical and to the Strength Of Materials far the practical aspects of this subject, we give here a table of the "modulus of elasticity," E (column 2), for millimetre and kilogramme.
He left two other works in MS. - Memoirs of Reformers and Ministers of the Church of Scotland, and Analecta: or Materials for a History of Remarkable Providences, mostly relating to Scotch Ministers and Christians.
The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.
Layard's discovery of the library of Assurbani-pal put the materials for reconstructing the ancient life and history of Assyria and Babylonia into the hands of scholars.
Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for his buildings and statues were brought from all parts of western Asia, cedar wood from the Amanus mountains, quarried stones from Lebanon, copper from northern Arabia, gold and precious stones from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula) and timber from Dilmun in the Persian Gulf.
But the inconsistency has in part been explained by Gunkel, who has rightly emphasized that the writer did not freely invent his materials but derived them in the main from tradition, as he held that these mysterious traditions of his people were, if rightly expounded, forecasts of the time to come.
The style is very vigorous and the materials of a strongly apocalyptic character.
in diameter, and it became clear that this temple had supplied building materials for S.
At his funeral obsequies the celebrated proselyte Aquila (Akylas Onkelos), reviving an ancient custom, burned costly materials to the value of seventy minae.
After being professor of sacred literature in the Bangor Theological Seminary for three years, he was president of Bowdoin College from 1839 to 1866, and introduced there many important reforms. From June 1867 to September 1868 Dr Woods worked in London and Paris for the Maine Historical Society, collecting materials for the early history of Maine; he induced J.
The subsoil not unfrequently contains materials which are deleterious to the growth of crops, and roots descending into it may absorb and convey these poisonous substances to other parts of the plant or be themselves damaged by contact with them.
At first sight few natural materials appear to be of less interest than the soil; yet its importance is manifest on the slightest reflection.
From it, directly or indirectly, are obtained all food materials needed by man and beast.
The inorganic materials within it supply some of the chief substances utilized by plants for their development and growth, and from plants animals obtain much of their sustenance.
Moreover the rain penetrates into the small interstices between its particles and dissolves out some of the materials which bind the whole into a solid stone, the surface then becoming a loose powdery mass which falls to the ground below or is carried away by the wind.
The proportional amount of these materials in a sandy soil on the Bagshot beds and a stiff Oxford clay is given below: - The pore-space within the soil, i.e.
guanos, bone-meal and all other organic materials, which are spread over or dug or ploughed into the land for the benefit of farm and' garden crops, is bound up with the action of these minute living beings.
It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.
Lime is a base and neutralizes the acid materials present in badly drained meadows and boggy pastures.
Gas-lime is a product obtained from gasworks where quicklime is used to purify the gas from sulphur compounds and other objectionable materials.
The burnt clay moreover carried Cl ay with it potash and other materials in a state readily available to the crops.
Ralph Lane, the first governor of Virginia, and Sir Francis Drake brought with them in 1586, from that first American possession of the English crown, the implements and materials of tobacco smoking, which they handed over to Sir Walter Raleigh.
The picked leaves are usually either prepared for market by simple exposure to the sun for a few days, or in addition are sprinkled with groundnut oil and sometimes other materials also, which result in an increase of strength.
Various flavouring materials, such as liquorice, tonka beans (Dipteryx odorata) and other ingredients are added, the natures of which are often trade secrets.
Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's are among the bestwritten books of travel in the language.
There exists, however, in a single MS. in Italian a longish gospel with this title, written from a Mahommedan standpoint, but probably embodying materials partly Gnostic in character and origin.
section Antiquities above), which have done service both by their own indication of a great civilization in Arabia for nearly (or more than) a thousand years before the Christian era, and by the new stimulus which they gave to the study and appreciation of the materials in the Assyrian inscriptions, the Old Testament, and the Greek and Roman writers.
The materials were supplied in the first place by oral tradition, in the second by the dictata of older scholars, and finally by various kinds of documents, such as treaties, letters, collections of poetry and genealogical lists.
Waqidi had much more copious materials than Ibn Ishaq, but gives way much more to a popular and sometimes romancing style of treatment.
The furnace used by Henri Moissan in his experiments on reactions at high temperatures, on the fusion and volatilization of refractory materials, and on the formation of carbides, suicides and borides of various metals, consisted, in its simplest form, of two superposed blocks of lime or of limestone with a central cavity cut in the lower block, and with a corresponding but much shallower inverted cavity in the upper block, which thus formed the lid of the furnace.
The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.
His small work De exceptionibus was probably written before he became pope; but the Apparatus in quinque libros decretalium, which displays both practical sense and a remarkable mastery of the available materials, was written at Lyons immediately after the council.
The drama that has made Castro's reputation is Las Mocedades del Cid (1 599 ?), to the first part of which Corneille was largely indebted for the materials of his tragedy.
So important was this traffic held at Constantinople that, when the portage to the Don was endangered by the irruption of a fresh horde of Turks (the Petchenegs), the emperor Theophilus himself despatched the materials and the workmen to build for the Khazars a fortress impregnable to their forays (834).
4, 6, where it is prescribed among the materials to be used for the cleansing of leprosy; but the wood there spoken of was probably that of the juniper.
In 1837 he visited the United States, and acquired there the materials for papers on the thermal springs and the geology of North America, read in 1838 before the Ashmolean Society and the British Association.
It is built of Roman materials from Minturnae, including several inscriptions and sculptures.
But the materials obtained were few, the shower having proved inconspicuous.
So long as writing materials were allowed him he employed himself in making a commentary on the Psalms, in which he restated all his doctrines.
Hercu- a ineum is believed to have been destroyed by these water h was, and there is reason to suppose that similar materials a lied the cellars and lower parts of Pompeii.
The modern cone of the mountain has been built up by suc~ssive discharges of lava and fragmentary materials round a Int of eruption, which lies a little south of the centre of the Tehistoric crater.
Almost the whole of its external arcades, with three tiers of arches, have now disappeared; it was partly thrown down by an earthquake in 1184, and subsequently used to supply building materials.
Rai Sanyo devoted twenty years to the preparation of his 22 volumes and took his materials from 259 Japanese and Chinese works.
has been for several years.engaged in collecting and collating materials for a history which will probably rank with anything of the kind in existence.
The materials used were water-colors, brushes, usually of deer-hair, and a surface of unsized paper, translucid silk or wooden panel.
Owari abounds in porcelain stone; but it does not occur in constant or particularly simple forms, and as the potters have not yet learned to treat their materials scientifically, their work is often marred by unforeseen difficulties.
Taking the renowned yao-pien-yao, or transmutation ware of China as a model, the Takatori potters endeavoured, by skilful mixing of coloring materials, to reproduce the wonderful effects of oxidization seen in the Chinese ware.
The faience of the Kioto artists never reached quite to the level of the Satsuma in quality of pdte and glowing mellowness of decoration; their materials were slightly inferior.
That the results achieved with these different materials are not comparable is a fact which every connoisseur must admit.
But to employ enamels successfully is an achievement demanding special training and materials not easy to procure or to prepare.
His vigorous and idiomatic version of Plutarch, Vies des hommes illustres, was translated into English by Sir Thomas North, and supplied Shakespeare with materials for his Roman plays.
Its merit consists entirely in the ample collection of materials.
It is one of the most curious of the Belgian periodicals of the 18th century, and contains most precious materials for the national history.
The materials for a life of Fox were first collected by his nephew, Lord Holland, and were then revised and rearranged by Mr Allen and Lord John Russell.
These materials appear as Memoirs and Correspondence of C. J.
At the express request of Malesherbes he furnished some arguments to the materials collected for the defence of the king.
In fact the uniformity of brass and bell-metal is only superficial; if we adopt the methods described in the article Metallography, and if, after polishing a plane face on a bit of gun-metal, we etch away the surface layer and examine the new surface with a lens or a microscope, we find a complex pattern of at least two materials.
The majority of alloys, when examined thus, prove to be complexes of two or more materials, and the patterns showing the distribution of these materials throughout the alloy are of a most varied character.
We learn also that solid solutions which exist at high temperatures often break up into two materials as they cool; for example, the bronze of fig.
1, which in that figure shows two materials so plainly, if chilled at a somewhat higher temperature but when it was already solid, is found to consist of only one material; it is then a uniform solid solution.
Thurston's Materials of Engineering, should be consulted for the more practical details.
He thus became the inventor of a new form of literature; and, if in his hands the satura was rude and indeterminate in its scope, it became a vehicle by which to address a reading public on matters of the day, or on the materials of his wide reading, in a style not far removed from the language of common life.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
The earliest efforts of his art (the Eclogues) reproduce the cadences, the diction and the pastoral fancies of Theocritus; but even in these imitative poems of his youth Virgil shows a perfect mastery of his materials.
His chief work was the arrangement of the writings of Aristotle and Theophrastus with materials supplied to him by Tyrannion.
§ 327, who shows that a composite or stratified dielectric composed of layers of materials of different dielectric constants and resistivities would exhibit the property of residual charge.
The stuff from the stamps is conveyed to the middle of the muller, and is distributed over the mercury, when the gold subsides, while the quartz and lighter materials are guided by the blades to the circumference and are discharged, usually into a second similar mill, and subsequently pass over blanket tables, i.e.
- The materials for the history of Montanism, although plentiful, are fragmentary, and require a good deal of critical sifting.
The materials are bound together by a tough white thread which is formed by a secretion of the kidneys of the male.
He finds that materials fail for Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt.
The Quicumque occurs in a collection of materials forming an introduction to the psalter.
It does not necessarily form part of the religion itself, but is the best which with the materials at its command, in its own defence and in its love for truth, the religion (and its advocates) can give.
M.)/n==Authorities== - In Dr Thomas Fowler's monograph on Shaftesbury and Hutcheson in the series of "English philosophers" (1882) he was able largely to supplement the printed materials for the Life by extracts from the Shaftesbury papers in the Record Office.
Dr Leith-Adams, working from more abundant materials, has shown that the number of ridges of each tooth, especially those at the posterior end of the series, is subject to individual variation, ranging in each tooth of the series within the following limits: 3 to 4, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, 9 to 15, 14 to 16, 18 to 27 - excluding the small plates, called " talons," at each end.
The ordinary houses are of wood; but the more important buildings are of more solid materials.
But though his work is thus, like that of many historians, coloured by his opinions, this was not the outcome of a conscious purpose, and he was scrupulously conscientious in collecting and weighing his materials.
pp. 78-9) he suggested that while the book is a unity the author made free use of older materials.
The symbols and myths in these are not the creation of the writer, but borrowed from the past, and in not a few instances the materials are too foreign to his subject to lend themselves to his purpose without the help of artificial and violent expedients.
From this standpoint it may be argued that every apocalypse is in a certain sense pseudonymous; for the materials are not the writer's own, but have come down to him as a sacred deposit - full of meaning for the seeing eye and the understanding heart.
463-76) holds mainly to the contemporary-historical method in his earlier works, though recognizing signs of a double historical background; but in his last work the importance of tradition as a source of the writer's materials is fully acknowledged.
1-13 we have a characteristic illustration of our author's dependence on traditional materials and his free adaptation of them to meanings other than originally belonged to them.
In other words, it has been taken over from pre-existing material - either Christian or Jewish - and the materials of which it is composed are ultimately derived from non-Jewish sources - either Babylonian, Greek or Egyptian - and bore therein very different meanings from those which belong to them in their present connexion.
cannot be pressed so far as to exclude the possibility that the extant book is a second edition of an earlier work, or that it incorporates earlier materials, and either hypothesis would sufficiently account for the few indications of a Neronic or Vespasianic date that have been found in it" (Apoc. of St John 2, p. civ.).
Waves and tidal currents produce their full effects in that region, and in high latitudes the effect of transport of materials by ice is very important; while in the warm water of the tropics the reefbuilding animals and plants (corals and calcareous algae) carry on their work most effectively there.
The most abundant of the terrigenous materials are the finest particles of clay and calcium carbonate as well as fragments derived from land vegetation, of which twigs, leaves, &c., may form a perceptible proportion as far as 200 m.
It was commonly made of earthenware, but sometimes of stone, glass or even more costly materials.
It is customary to have a curved sheet iron roof or bonnet when the cage is used for raising or lowering the miners, to protect them from injury by falling materials.
A good working mixture of these materials may be taken as being loo parts by weight of lime with 68 parts c arbide.
Although at first it was no uncommon thing to find z% of phosphuretted hydrogen present in the acetylene, this has now been so reduced by the use of pure materials that the quantity is rarely above oï¿½15%, and it is often not one-fifth of that amount.
Although excluded by a majority of the House from the list of the managers of that impeachment, Francis was none the less its most energetic promoter, supplying his friends Burke and Sheridan with all the materials for their eloquent orations and burning invectives.
Building materials of all sorts are obtained throughout the duchy.
They are important also as materials for linguistic study; and they have considerable historical value.
A rapid composer and a workman full of resource, Franklin was soon recognized as the master spirit of the shop. Sir William Keith (1680-1749), governor of the province, urged him to start in business for himself, and when Franklin had unsuccessfully appealed to his father for the means to do so, Keith promised to furnish him with what he needed for the equipment of a new printing office and sent him to England to buy the materials.
His knowledge of the metaphysics of Spinoza was such that he was selected by one of the professors to prepare materials for a treatise De Spinosismo, which was afterwards published.
The second part of the critical apparatus was devoted to a consideration of the various readings, and here Bengel adopted the plan of stating the evidence both against and in favour of a particular reading, thus placing before the reader the materials for forming a judgment.
Wetstein, on the other hand, accused him of excessive caution in not making freer use of his critical materials.
This situation opened up to him materials of which he made use in his first and most popular historical work, Histoire de la Vendee et des Chouans, 3 vols., 1806.
Though only four states of the Union are smaller, only three exceeded Massachusetts in 1905 in the value of manufactured products (six exceeding it in population); and this despite very scant native resources of raw materials and a very limited home market.
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
The materials made use of are driftwood, green willows, birch and poplars; also mud and stones intermixed in such a manner as contributes to the strength of the dam; but there is no particular method observed, except that the work is carried on with a regular sweep, and that all the parts are made of equal strength.
Their houses are formed of the same materials as the dams, with little order or regularity of structure, and seldom contain more than four old, and six or eight young beavers.
It would appear, however, that the production of power alcohol within the British Empire from waste materials, which can be collected and treated at low cost, offers the best chance of the solution of the problem of the supply to the United Kingdom of an alternative liquid fuel for internal-combustion engines.
The Indies were expected to supply precious metals and raw materials, and to take all manufactures from the mother country.
The materials for studying the American man biologically are abundant in the United States National Museum in Washington; the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, Massachusetts; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the Academy of Sciences and the Free Museum of Arts and Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Field Museum in Chicago; the National Museum, city of Mexico, and the Museum of La Plata.
To supply their wants the Americans invented modifications in natural materials, the working of which was their industries.
There were just as good materials and inspirations, but what could the best of them do without metal tools?
The special characteristics of each are to be seen partly in the skill and genius of their makers, and partly in the exigencies of the site and the available materials.
The materials on the coast were clay and gravel wrought into concrete, sun-dried bricks and pise, or rammed work, cut stalks of plants formed with clay a kind of staff, and lintels were made by burying stems of cana brava (Gynerium saccharoides) in blocks of pise.
The most prolific source of Peruvian relics is the sepulchres or huacas, the same materials being used in their construction as in building the houses.
There are materials for misunderstanding here.
In the course of time it was noticed that certain materials, such as charcoal, had the power to some extent also of softening hard water and of removing organic matter, and at the beginning of the 19th century charcoal, both animal and vegetable, came into use for filtering purposes.
Innumerable forms of filters made with these and other materials were put on the market, and were extolled as removing impurities of every kind from water, and as affording complete protection against the communication of disease.
At all the more interesting sites he took up his abode for a time; he examined, he inquired, he made measurements, he accumulated materials.
All crucibles and other materials which might contain precious metal are ground up and washed in a pan, and the pannings together with a selection from the floor sweepings are remelted.
of the Congregational Historical Society's Transactions (1901-), themselves a growing store of fresh materials.
1, where W represents a portion of the wiring of the building and I a portion of the insulating materials surrounding it.
This has made it easy for the states to the west to contribute raw materials, notably coal and iron, adding these to the natural raw products of New York.
Rochester ranks first among the cities of the United States in the manufacture of photographic materials and apparatus and optical instruments.
From the materials at hand he constructed a circular chart, which was engraved on marble by Augustus and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla.
There is everywhere a readiness to handle traditional, largely historical, materials with a sovereign freedom, controlled and limited by doctrinal convictions and devotional experiences alone.
The materials for the allegory will have been certain Old Testament narratives, but especially the Synoptic accounts of Jesus' raisings of Jairus's daughter and of the widow's son (Mark v.; (Luke vii.).
Rods of different materials may be used as sounders in a Kundt's dust tube, and their Young's moduli may be compared, since: length of rod Then dO U = - ax dx or dt = - UK.
The character of the relics shows that in some cases the settlements have been the dwellings of a people using no materials but stone, bone and wood for their implements, ornaments and weapons; in others, of a people using bronze as well as stone and bone; and in others again the occasional use of iron is disclosed.
These have yielded upwards of 4000 implements, weapons and ornaments of bronze, among which were a large proportion of moulds and founders' materials.
The forms and the ornamentation of the implements and weapons of stone and bronze found in the lake dwellings are the same as those of the implements and weapons in these materials found in the soil of the adjacent regions, and both groups must therefore be ascribed to the industry of one and the same people.
- The materials for the investigation of this singular phase of prehistoric life were first collected and systematized by Dr Ferdinand Keller (1800-1881), of Zurich, and printed in Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zurich, vols.
I), though for these other materials may have been accessible.
The choice of the type to be adopted depends on many and complex considerations: - (r) The cost, having regard to the materials available.
The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the junction of the two materials.
(t) In erection on staging, the materials available determine the character of the staging; stacks of timber, earth banks, or builtup staging of piles and trestles have all been employed, also iron staging, which can be rapidly erected and moved from site to site.
Wohler's and Bauschinger's experiments give values of t, u, and s, for some materials.
For forty-six days before his trial he had been closely confined in a dungeon without lights, books or writing materials.
The old Austria was very richly provided with raw materials; the coal and iron supply was especially rich; in the years immediately preceding the war the production of these two commodities followed in general a rising curve.
(Thousands of tons.) The amount of manufactured iron produced was also on the ncrease; the quantities in thousands of tons were After 1908 the Austrian textile industry suffered from a serious depression; owing to the extraordinarily steep advance in the prices of raw materials the position of this industry was unfavourable, in spite of increased production and rising prices at the spinning mills.
In this respect Austria found herself in the same position as the German Empire; in fact, her position was in many respects considerably worse; many richly productive territories were temporarily occupied by the enemy; and as Austria was far less well provided with raw materials than Germany she was less in a position to produce goods for exchange.
The more complete the economic isolation of the monarchy the more the lack of raw materials made itself felt, both for the manufacture of indispensable war supplies and for the feeding of the civil population.
The quantity of raw materials which Austria had been in the habit of importing from abroad, and the quantity stored in the country at the outbreak of the war, were comparatively very small.
The Austrian and Hungarian ports were of little importance as ports of entry for raw materials, the goods stored there being mainly from the Levant.
These boards were now given the monopoly of the right to import certain wares (sometimes private buyers were allowed to purchase, but only on condition of selling the goods imported to the board); they were also entrusted with the reception of the instalments of raw materials already mentioned as released from bond in Germany.
The virtual stoppage of all supplies of raw materials from abroad necessitated the strictest economy in the use of those available at home, and this led to an elaborate system of Government control.
The associations, to which the manufacturers using these materials had to belong, were directed by elected committees; at the head of each was an expert appointed by the Government, which was represented on the board by a commissioner exercising the Government's right of supervision.
In this way there arose central boards for wool, cotton, oil and fat, hides and leather, and various metals - to name only the more important materials.
Briefly, the duty of maintaining industries was made obligatory, and in the last resort the military authorities were empowered to take them over, though this was not likely to happen as long as the high prices continued and the Government supplied raw materials.
It is parenthetically explained as payment for building materials, which, however, are otherwise accounted for (v.
The famous expedition sent by General Thomas Gage of Massachusetts to Lexington and Concord on the 18th-19th of April 1775 had for its object, besides the destruction of materials of war at Concord, the capture of Hancock and Adams, who were temporarily staying at Lexington, and these two leaders were expressly excepted in the proclamation of pardon issued on the 12th of June by Gage, their offences, it was said, being "of too flagitious a nature to admit of any other consideration than that of condign punishment."
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
But the materials for his biography are so controversial and so personal - his own Confessions and the memoirs of associates whose accuracy and honesty are disputed - that the correct historical view can hardly be said yet to be standardized.
The original materials for a life of St Columba are unusually full.
of the Red river valley granite and gneiss are found, but these materials are not quarried.
His materials are borrowed from the cyclic poems from which Virgil (with whose works he was probably acquainted) also drew, in particular the Aethiopis of Arctinus and the Little Iliad of Lesches.
Moses de Leon undoubtedly used old materials and out of them constructed a work of genius.
He worked diligently at original manuscript authorities at Simancas, the Record Office and Hatfield House; but he used his materials carelessly, and evidently brought to his investigation of them a mind already made up as to their significance.
Bauxite, probably derived from the decay of lavas, is found between Glenarm and Broughshane, associated with brown and red pisolitic iron-ores; both these materials are worked commercially.
Others still in existence are made of earthenware, but it seems probable that wax and wood were the ordinary materials.
Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.
The great bulk of the food supplies is brought from Damerghu, and the materials for clothing are also imported.
Our chief source of information is Zimmern's Beitreige zur Kenntniss der Babylon: Religion, pp. 81-95, from which Lagrange in his Etudes sur les religions semitiques 2 has chiefly derived his materials (ch.
It is less favourably placed in respect of the iron and textile industries, having to rely to a large extent upon the import of raw materials from abroad.
The war, of course, cut off the supply of raw materials for the textile trade, which in 1921 was still suffering from shortage, particular