All scientific material from the past is making its way online.
She collected a handful of the material in modest protest.
She had nothing material to report.
I'm not about to waste my best material on a machine!
A hood made of rough material was thrown over her head and her hands bound before she could scream.
Katie found some material to match and made quilts for the cribs.
This material is used for stuffing mattresses or pillows, and also in upholstery.
Her first impression was confirmed—the men in the room were UFC material, all well over six feet and solid.
We are all sculptors and painters, and our material is our own flesh and blood and bones.
It was light, a curved grey sword made of the same material as the beds and spaceships.
The material was pure, and his art was pure; how could the result be other than wonderful?
There is much new material in George Sand et sa fille, by S.
When all the factories run themselves, when energy is free, when scarcity is ended, when material needs are all met, it will be a different world.
Deidre clutched at the material of his shirt.
She didn't think he was celebrity material before seeing him in action.
I am forbidden from creating deals with material outcomes.
The princess style made her waist look small, and the material fell softly from her hips.
It was muted black, made out of material smoother than silk that draped over her arm like a second skin.
Oh, and they change color if they detect structural weakness in the material to which they are affixed.
His elbows were propped on his knees, the trench falling back to show a lean body, flat stomach and muscular thighs outlined by the soft material of his pants.
But this formal agreement includes material differences, and the spirit which breathes in Lotze's writings is more akin to the objects and aspirations of the idealistic school than to the cold formalism of Herbart.
It also becomes clear that only where such mental life really appears need we assign an independent existence, but that the purposes of everyday life as well as those of science are equally served if we deprive the material things outside of us of an independence, and assign to them merely a connected existence through the universal substance by the action of which alone they can appear to us.
Without it they wouldn't have had so many material things, but their love wouldn't have been any different.
This speaks to the fabulous wealth of this country and how our expectation of material possessions has risen so fast that we have redefined poverty to include what once were deemed luxury items.
It will be regarded as interest payments on the accumulated riches of one thousand years of technical and material progress.
"It's the material, not the color," he replied.
The material employed in all cases is the droppings of horses, which should be collected fresh, and spread out in thin layers in a dry place, a portion of the short litter being retained well moistened by horse-urine.
"That there's some pretty spicy material for the boy," Fred cautioned.
The crisp cotton material moved around smoothly as she turned to leave the room.
She pulled on the jumper, not expecting it to fit and surprised to find the leather-like material as flexible as spandex.
In the earliest the conductor was represented by long metal wires, supported by silk or other insulating material, and left to pick up the air's potential.
Made of material softer than silk, the black dress she wore pooled at the top of her feet.
He proceeded instantly to the forest for wood, being resolved that it should not be made of unsuitable material; and as he searched for and rejected stick after stick, his friends gradually deserted him, for they grew old in their works and died, but he grew not older by a moment.
There was enough material there to enable him to prepare several new tricks which he had learned from some of the jugglers in the circus, and he had passed part of the night in getting them ready.
She scrunched her head down until her fingertips brushed the rough material across her eyes.
The material hugged the natural curves of her body, pooling at the top of her feet.
Its material may be linen, wool, cotton or silk; but silk only is the rule for deacons.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
The expression is anthropomorphic, no less than the dogma of material creation; but it is an attempt to affirm the unity of the intellectual and the material world.
The difficulties of the harbour were increased by the continued silting up, produced by the enormous amount of solid material brought down by the river.
He anticipated the ideals of Peter the Great, and only failed in realizing them because his material resources were inadequate.
"You spoke to me of inflammable material," said he, "but you said nothing about firing it."
There is no definite rule as to the material or character of the ornamentation, and attempts have been made, especially in England, to revive the use of the apparelled alb.
We may doubt that we have hands'or feet, that we sleep or wake, and that there is a world of material things around us; but we cannot doubt that we are doubting.
Not that sort of victory which is defined by the capture of pieces of material fastened to sticks, called standards, and of the ground on which the troops had stood and were standing, but a moral victory that convinces the enemy of the moral superiority of his opponent and of his own impotence was gained by the Russians at Borodino.
This conception is the one handle by means of which the material of history, as at present expounded, can be dealt with, and anyone who breaks that handle off, as Buckle did, without finding some other method of treating historical material, merely deprives himself of the one possible way of dealing with it.
In some cases the material traverses the chamber from the coolest to the hottest part on a conveyer or in wagons.
Moreover, small particles do not seem to exist in the water until it is broken up; so far as we can see, the material of the water is continuous not granular.
The joists are covered with a waterproof material such as asphalt, lead, zinc or copper, the three last materials being usually laid upon boarding, which stiffens the structure and forms a good surface to fix the weatherproof covering upon.
in 1309, made several raids into the island, which suffered much material injury.
The God of Descartes is not merely the creator of the material universe; he is also the father of all truth in the intellectual world.
Labor will fall, material costs will fall, materials will be better, stronger, greener, prettier, lighter, more malleable, and just altogether better.
The free enterprise system—the greatest creator of wealth the world has known—will continue to produce the material gains we enjoy today and to reward most those who serve their fellow humans best.
The material was sand of every degree of fineness and of various rich colors, commonly mixed with a little clay.
What evil and error are there in it, if people were dying of disease without help while material assistance could so easily be rendered, and I supplied them with a doctor, a hospital, and an asylum for the aged?
A happiness lying beyond material forces, outside the material influences that act on man--a happiness of the soul alone, the happiness of loving.
On the contrary, the army had never under the best material conditions presented a more cheerful and animated aspect.
The mistletoe figures also in Scandinavian legend as having furnished the material of the arrow with which Balder (the sun-god) was slain by the blind god Hoder.
It is wonderful how rapidly yet perfectly the sand organizes itself as it flows, using the best material its mass affords to form the sharp edges of its channel.
I thought maybe I wasn't high society material.
The name "flock" is given to a material formed of wool or cotton refuse, or of shreds of old woollen or cotton rags, torn by a machine known as a "devil."
Genius is not a retainer to any emperor, nor is its material silver, or gold, or marble, except to a trifling extent.
Moreover, the waves, I suspect, do not so much construct as wear down a material which has already acquired consistency.
In such a state of affairs, whatever your ultimate plans may be, the interest of Your Majesty's service demands that the army should be rallied at Smolensk and should first of all be freed from ineffectives, such as dismounted cavalry, unnecessary baggage, and artillery material that is no longer in proportion to the present forces.
He had been fortunate in obtaining the aid of Don Pascual de Gayangos, then professor of Arabic literature at Madrid, by whose offices he was enabled to obtain material not only from the public archives of Spain but from the muniment rooms of the great Spanish families.
No, Alex certainly didn't meet her requirements for husband material.
complex spectra of stars of the solar type this is by no means the case; for, as Dr Hartmann remarks, " in the first place the lines in these spectra are so numerous that their complete measurement and reduction would require many days, and in the second place a rigorous reduction of such material has hitherto not been at all possible because the wave-lengths of the lines are not known with sufficient accuracy.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
The spirit in the Old Testament is a refined material thing that may come or be poured out on men.
It forms the raw material of some important industries.
Here was material enough for an explosion, even if personal misunderstandings and aggravations, adding fuel to the fire, had not naturally occurred (or even been deliberately plotted) during the negotiations.
Haggai argued that material prosperity was conditioned by zeal in worship; the prevailing distress was an indication of divine anger due to the people's religious apathy.
To the latter the material temple is no more than a detail in the picture of a work of restoration eminently ideal and spiritual, and he expressly warns his hearers against attaching intrinsic importance to it (Isa.
Cylinders, tanks and independent boilers should be encased in a non-conducting material such as silicate cotton, thick felt or asbestos composition.
the figures as written down are 12510 6255 14595 1534560 Napier's rods or bones consist of ten oblong pieces of wood or other material with square ends.
The principal classes of products affected are foods, wearing apparel, building materials, furniture, &c., chemical products, printing and allied trades, and sundry others, such as cigars, matches, tanning, paints, &c. In some manufactures the raw material is imported partly manufactured, such as thread for weaving.
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
Both descriptions of rock yielded good material for building; while in the soft meleke tanks, underground chambers, tombs, &c., were easily excavated.
The significance of seven throughout Babylonian literature is very marked, and most of the material has been collected by J.
The commerce of the lake consists principally of coal, wood pulp and building material, besides general merchandise.
- For physical description and material on minerals see the Report on the Geology of Vermont: Descriptive, Theoretical, Economical and Scenographical (2 vols., Claremont, N.H., 1861); G.
An important product of oak woods is the bark that from a remote period has been the chief tanning material of Europe.
Common throughout the northern and middle states and Canada, the red oak attains a large size only on good soils; the wood is of little value, being coarse and porous, but it is largely used for cask-staves; the bark is a valuable tanning material.
For the preparation of yttrium compounds the best raw material is gadolinite, which, according to Kiinig, consists of 22.61% of silica, 34.64.
But, secondly, the pneumatic utterances technically known as speaking with tongues failed to reach this level of intelligibility; for Paul compares "a tongue" to a material object which should merely make a noise, to a pipe or harp twanged or blown at random without tune or time, to a trumpet blaring idly and not according to a code of signal notes.
On the 15th of December 1796 the expedition, consisting of forty-three sail and carrying about 15,000 men with a large supply of war material for distribution in Ireland, sailed from Brest.
However, someone may come along and edit the material to for example, combine the writings of two or more individuals into a single piece.
"It is hardly necessary to add," he remarks, "that anything which any insulated body or system of bodies can continue to furnish without limitation cannot possibly be a material substance; and it appears to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communicated in the manner that heat was excited and communicated in these experiments, except it be motion."
The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.
The from- ', bone parts are on exactly the same material as the voice, which in fact forms with them a five-part fugue-texture.
The date of this famous letter was 1767, but after Alceste Gluck was still able to use material from earlier work; and the overture to Armide is adapted from that of Telemacco, written in the year of Bach's death (1750).
Haydn finds the pianoforte so completely capable of expressing his meaning that he is at a loss to find independent material for any accompanying instruments; and the violoncello in his trios has, except perhaps in four passages in the whole collection of thirty-three works, not a note to play that is not already in the bass of the pianoforte; while the melodies of the violin are, more often than not, doubled in the treble.
are eight horns in the orchestra their material should be indistinguishable from pianoforte writing, and that, in short, the part of every instrument should look exactly like the part of every other - such questions are for posterity to decide.
The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.
The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive without being exhaustive.
the Code ") has, however, made a more systematic study possible than could have resulted from the classification and interpretation of the other material.
This material dates from the earliest times down to the commencement of our era.
17 and a thickness of insulating material which formerly would have been considered quite insufficient is now very generally adopted with complete success.
Over the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction perpendicular to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.
E is the ear-piece made of ebonite; F is a cap of the same material enclosing the receiver terminals, which are mounted upon the ebonite block G, attached to the distance piece I.
4), in an early form, consisted of a cell of insulating material having at its bottom a flat-headed platinum screw G; on the top of G was a layer of carbon powder C, on the top of that a platinum disk D, and above that again, forming the cover of the cell, a disk of ivory B, held in position by a ring E.
Of the secondary and higher educatory methods, in the normal schools and licei the state provides for the payment of the staff and for scientific material, and often largely supports the ginnasi and technical schools, which should by law be supported by the communes.
In his singlehanded duel with the strength of Germany, Gregory received material assistance from the Countess Matilda of Tuscany.
Burghers of all denominations are enrolled in one or other of the arts or gilds, and these trading companies furnish the material from which the government or signoria bf the city is composed.
The Roman territory was divided into two departmentsthe Tiber and Trasimenus; the Code Napoleon was introduced, public works were set on foot and great advance was made in the material sphere.
A vast amount of material on the Risorgimenti has been published both in Italy and abroad as well as numeron works of a literary and critical nature.
Muratoris great collection, the Rerum Italicarum 5cr iptores in combination with his Dissertationes, the chronicles and other historical material published by the Archjvjo Storjco Italiano, and the woiks of detached annalists of whom the \Tjllanj are the most notable, take first rank.
The Archivii storici and Deputazloni di storia patria of the various Italian towns and provinces contain a great deal of valuable material for local history.
His material interests certainly did not suffer by compliance.
As regards the Brahmanas of the Rigveda, two of such works have been handed down, the Aitareya and the Kaushitaki (or Sankhayana)-Brahmanas, which have a large amount of their material in common.
It is, however, to the Brahmanas and Sutras of the Yajurveda, dealing with the ritual of the real offering-priest, the Adhvaryu, that we have to turn for a connected view of the sacrificial procedure in all its material details.
So our wealth of material narrows down in the ordinary handling to a single question.
The threatened dualism of ideal and material becomes for Aristotle mainly a contrast of matter and form; the lower stage in development desires or aims at the higher, matter more and more tending to pass into form, till God is form without any matter.
In the great Roman Stoics - Seneca, Epictetus; less material for theism perhaps.
The so-called "pure" acid is applied to infected living tissues, especially to tuberculous sinuses or wounds, after scraping them, in order to destroy any part of the tuberculous material still remaining.
Bark provides material for string, while baskets and mats are neatly and stoutly made from canes and buckets out of bamboo and wood.
In many Leptomedusae the otocysts are very small, inconspicuous and embedded completely in the tissues; hence they may be easily overlooked in badly-preserved material, and perhaps are present in many cases where they :: r simplest condition of the otocyst is a freely projecting club, a so-called (figs.
By budding is understood the formation of a new individual from a fresh growth of undifferentiated material.
This same way of looking at the origin of the material world is illustrated in the Egyptian notion of a cosmic egg out of which issues the god (Phta) who creates the world.
Out of this " principal thing " or " original nature " all material and spiritual existence issues, and into it will return.
The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.
Aristotle's distinction of form and matter, and his conception of becoming as a transition from actuality to potentiality, provides a new ontological way of conceiving the process of material and organic evolution.'
All things are said to be developed out of an original being, which is at once material (fire) and spiritual (the Deity), and in turn they will dissolve back into this primordial source.
This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.
The elementary parts of existence are the minima, or monads, which are at once material and mental.
On their material side they are not absolutely unextended, but spherical.
All material things are assimilated to one another as organic, the vitalizing principle being inherent in all matter.
All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.
Ray Lankester's term, homoplasy, has passed into currency as designating such cases where different genetic material has been pressed by similar conditions into similar moulds.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times.
Beads of'amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet.
The nodules are penetrated by cracks,;but the material can be worked on the lathe.
This beautiful material presents a great diversity of tints, but a rich hyacinth red is common.
It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria.
Holtzmann (1872) subjected both Colossians and Ephesians to a rigorous examination, and found in Colossians at least a nucleus of Pauline material.
von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
These vary considerably in completeness with its age; in its younger parts the outer cells wall undergoes the change known as cuticularization, the material being changed both in chemical composition and in physical properties.
When the tuber of a potato begins to germinate the shoots which it puts out derive their food from the accumulated store of nutritive material which has been laid up in the cells of the tuber.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
We find them to consist of representatives of the great classes of foodstuffs on which animal protoplasm is nourished, and whose presence renders seeds such valuable material for animal consumptien.
Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
The cell-walls of plants render the entry of solid material into the organism impossible.
Starch, indeed, wherever it appears in the plant seems to be a reserve store of carbohydrate material, deposited where it is found for longer or shorter periods till it is needed for consumption.
The readiness with which it is converted into sugar fits it especially to be a reserve or stored material.
Bonnier has drawn attention to the fact that the mistletoe in its turn, remaining green in the winter, contributes food material to its host when the latter has lost its leaves.
This energy is obtained especially by the chioroplastids, and part of it is at once devoted to the construction of carbohydrate material, being thus turned from the kinetic to the potential condition.
The material and the energy go together, the decomposition of the one in the cell setting free the other, which is used at once in the vital processes of the cell, being in fact largely employed in constructing protoplasm or storing various products.
As, however, we can easily see that the constructive processes are much greater than those which lead to the disappearance of material from the plant-body, there is generally to be seen a conspicuous increase in the substance of the plant.
Substances contained in the Protoplastn.Starch may be found in the chlorophyll bodies in the form of minute granules as the first visible product of the assimilation of carbon dioxide, and it occurs in large quantities as a reserve food material in the cells of various parts of plants.
Material Cause of DifferentiationIt may be inquired, in conclusion, if there are any facts which throw light upon the internal mechanism of differentiation, whether spontaneous or induced; if it is possible to refer it to any material cause.
Sachs was the first to formulate the theory that morphological differences are the expression of differences in material composition.
Certain ancient stringed instruments were played with a plectrum or plucker made of the quill of a bird's feather, and the word has thus been used of a plectrum made of other material and differing in shape, and also of an analogous object for striking the strings in the harpsichord, spinet or virginal.
The verb "to quill" is to fold lace, muslin or other light material into narrow flutes or pleats; when so pleated the material is called "quilling."
The first and simplest function of the land surface is that of guiding loose material to a lower level.
The downward pull of gravity suffices to bring about the fall of such material, but the path it will follow and the distance it will travel before coming to rest depend upon the land form.
The loose material may, and in an arid region does, consist only of portions of the higher parts of the surface detached by the expansion and contraction produced by heating and cooling due to radiation.
Such broken material rolling down a uniform scarp would tend to reduce its steepness by the loss of material in the upper part and by the accumulation of a mound or scree against the loti ii er part of the slope.
The slope of the river bed diminishes until the plain compels the river to move slowly, swinging in meanders proportioned to its size, and gradually, controlled by the flattening land, ceasing to transport material, but raising its banks and silting up its bed by the dropped sediment, until, split up and shoaled, its distributaries struggle across its delta to the sea.
The bone-bed of Axmouth in Devonshire and Westbury and Aust in Gloucestershire, in the Penarth or Rhaetic series of strata, contains the scales, teeth and bones of saurians and fishes, together with abundance of coprolites; but neither there nor at Lyme Regis is there a sufficient quantity of phosphatic material to render the working of it for agricultural purposes remunerative.
The Chloritic Marl in the Wealden district furnishes much phosphatic material, which has been extensively worked at Froyle.
Besides definite works of this kind, there was also being formed during this period a large body of exegetical and legal material, for the most part orally transmitted, which only received its literary form much later.
By this time the collection of halakhic material had become very large and various, and after several attempts had been made to reduce it to uniformity, a code of oral tradition was finally drawn up in the and century by Judah ha-Nasi, called Rabbi par excellence.
As the existing halakhoth were collected and edited in the Mishnah, so the much larger agadic material was gathered together and arranged in the Midrashim.
Very important for the study of Midrashic literature are the Yalgut (gleaning) Shim`oni, on the whole Bible, the Yalqut Mekhiri, on the Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, and the Midrash ha-gadhol, 2 all of which are of uncertain but late date and preserve earlier material.
The material thus accumulated, both halakhic and agadic, forming a commentary on and amplification of the Mishnah, was eventually written down under the name of Gemara (from gemar, to learn completely), the two together forming the Talmud (properly "instruction").
It is probable that notes or selections were from time to time written down to help in teaching and learning the immense mass of material, in spite of the fact that even in Sherira's time (11th century) such aids to memory were not officially recognized.
Owing to the fact that the material collected by Mordecai was left to his pupils to arrange, the work was current in two recensions, an Eastern (in Austria) and a Western (in Germany, France, &c.).
Much of the building material is a brown sandstone obtained from quarries only 3 m.
The architect was Mnesicles; the material Pentelic marble, with Eleusinian blackstone for dados and other details.
and that he travelled in England and Ireland, collecting material for his history.
It has the originality of rare genius, but it borrows its material (as industrious editors have shown) from very few sources - the Pugio Fidei, M.
Certainly no early writer thought of providing material for such use.
It is a common opinion in Germany that our material is in fact too scanty or too self-contradictory.
This material world is no longer, as in Zoroastrianism, essentially a creation of the good God, but the powers of evil have created it with the aid of some stolen portions of light.
The material universally used for writing on is the prepared leaf of the lontar palm.
Many of the Hydrophilidae construct, for the protection of their eggs, a cocoon formed of a silky material derived from glands opening at the tip of the abdomen.
Occasionally the massive material is cut and polished for decorative purposes, though the application in this direction is far less extensive than that of malachite.
Fortune again favoured the Russian arms, but as Austria was less successful and signed a separate peace at Sistova in 1791, Catherine did not obtain much material advantage from the campaign.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
In soft material the excavation may be performed by mechanical excavators or " steam navvies," while in hard it may be necessary to resort to blasting.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.
Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.
The houses in many instances are built of stone (a circumstance which indicates the former wealth of the city, as the material had to be brought from a very considerable distance); and remains of a brick wall, 3 m.
Later followed the appearance of lights; quasi-human voices; musical sounds, produced, it is said, without instruments; the "materialization" or presence in material form of what seemed to be human hands and faces, and ultimately of complete figures, alleged to be not those of any person present, and sometimes claimed by witnesses as deceased relatives; "psychography," or "direct writing and drawing," asserted to be done without human intervention; "spirit-photography," or the appearance on photographic plates of human and other forms when no counterpart was visible before the camera to any but specially endowed seers; 3 unfastening of cords and bonds; elongation of the medium's body; handling of red-hot coals; and the apparent passage of solids through solids without disintegration.
obtained from various persons automatic script affording important new material for investigation and which prima facie supports the spiritualistic hypothesis.
and Mauss describe a sacrifice as "a religious act, which, by the consecration of a victim, modifies the moral state of the sacrificer or of certain material objects which he has in view," i.e.
It is possible to classify sacrifices according to (a) the occasion of the rite, (b) the end to be achieved, (c) the material object to be affected or (d) the form of the rite.
In the latter either some material object, not necessarily animate, is deprived of a portion of its sanctity and made fit for human use, or the sacrificer himself loses a portion of his sanctity or impurity.
For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
The corpse may be burnt, in part or as a whole; portions may be assigned to the priest, the sacrificer and the gods; the skull, bones, &c., may receive special treatment; the fat or blood may be set aside, and they or the ashes may be singled out as the share of the god, to be offered upon the altar; the skin of the victim may be employed as a covering for the idol or material representative of the god, either permanently or till the next annual sacrifice.
It is only possible here to refer in briefest enumeration to the material and external objects and forms of popular Hebrew religion.
(or massebah) was the material symbol of deity on which the blood of sacrifice was smeared, and in which the numen of the god resided.
Bathgen's Beitriige zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte (1888) is most useful, and contains valuable epigraphic material.
wide at the base, 150 in the middle and 90 at the top. The uppermost surface is paved with blocks of the same material forming nine concentric circles, the innermost consisting of nine blocks, and that on the outside of eighty-one blocks.
On the other side the right wing was commanded by the duke of Ferrara, who had like Navarro organized a mobile field artillery (the artillery material of this prince was thought to be the best conditioned in Europe).
He made two unsuccessful ventures in journalism, and in 1857 went to Central America, where he acquired material for another series of lectures.
They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things.
Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.
Older material (often of composite origin) has been used, not so much for the purpose of providing historical information, as with the object of showing the religious significance of past history; 3 Or land Israel, W.
Thus one may note the reshaping of older material to agree with later thought, the building up of past periods from the records of other periods, and a frequent loss of perspective.
titles of psalms, dates and headings of prophecies) involves a criticism of the historical traditions themselves, and thus the two major classes of material must be constantly examined both separately and in their bearing on one another.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
Surrounded by ancient civilizations where writing had long been known, and enjoying, as excavation has proved, a considerable amount of material culture, Palestine could look back upon a lengthy and stirring history which, however, has rarely left its mark upon our records.
But the surviving material is extremely uneven; vital events in these centuries are treated with a slightness in striking contrast to the relatively detailed evidence for the preceding period - evidence, however, which is far from being contemporary.
Where the material is fuller, serious discrepancies are found; and where external evidence is fortunately available, the independent character of the biblical history is vividly illustrated.
The scantiness of political information and the distinctive arrangement of material preclude the attempt to trace the relative position of the two rivals.
8, which is independent of the chronicler's artificial treatment of his material, apparently points to some tradition of Egyptian suzerainty.
The discovery of the inscription of a later king of Moab (q.v.) has proved that the east-Jordanic tribes were no uncivilized or barbaric folk; material wealth, a considerable religious and political organization, and the cultivation of letters (as exemplified in the style of the inscription) portray conditions which allow us to form some conception of life in Israel itself.
Reference may also be made, for illustrative material, to W.
Recent criticism goes to show that there is a very considerable body of biblical material, more important for its attitude to the history than for its historical accuracy, the true meaning of which cannot as yet be clearly perceived.
It was not a new religion that took root; older tendencies were diverted into new paths, the existing material was shaped to new ends.
They could be, and indeed had been made more edifying; but the very noteworthy conservatism of even the last compiler or editor, in contrast to the re-shaping and re-writing of the material in the book of Jubilees, indicates that the Priestly spirit was not that of the whole community.
Research is seriously complicated by the growing stores of material, which unfortunately are often utilized without attention to the principles of the various departments of knowledge or aspects of study.
It may be doubted, however, whether the material is sufficient for such restoration or reconstruction.'
Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.
Moreover, a spiritual revival mitigated the crushing effects of material ruin.
In Germany at the same period the feudal system debarred the Jews from holding land, and though there was as yet no material persecution they suffered moral injury by being driven exclusively into finance and trade.
The script also recurs on walls in the shape of graffiti, and on vases, sometimes ink-written; and from the number of seals originally attached to perishable documents it is probable that parchment or some similar material was also used.
South of the central court were found parts of a relief in the same material, showing a personage with a fleur-de-lis crown and collar.
Daru, in his history of Venice, mentions fourteen between the years 1207 and 1365, the most important being that of 1361-1364, - a revolt not of the natives against the rule of their Venetian masters, but of the Venetian colonists against the republic. But with all its defects their administration did much to promote the material prosperity of the country, and to encourage commerce and industry; and it is probable that the island was more prosperous than at any subsequent time.
The loss of the English did not exceed 700 killed and too() wounded; while the Irish, in their disastrous flight, lost about 7000 men, besides the whole material of the army.
Westward to Houston and southward to about 32° 48' on the Alabama boundary and occupying a much larger area than the other Cretaceous formations, is the Selma chalk, called "Rotten Limestone" by Hilgard; it is made up of a material of great uniformity, - a soft chalky rock, white or pale blue, composed chiefly of tenacious clay, and white carbonate of lime in minute crystals.
There is much material in the Encyclopaedia of Mississippi History (2 vols., Madison, Wisconsin, 1907), edited by Dunbar Rowland.
Circlet and arches are richly chased and jewelled; they are filled out by a cap of stiff material, often red velvet, ornamented with pictures in embroidery or appliqué metal.
The soul thus faces two ways - towards the vas, from which it springs, and towards the material life, which is its own product.
A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.
interests, the material progress of the Eastern world has appeared to remain stationary, yet large accessions to geographical knowledge have at least been made, and in some instances a deeper knowledge of the surface of the country and modern conditions of life has led to the straightening of many crooked paths in history, and a better appreciation of the slow processes of advancing civilization.
In Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia there is little to record of progress in material development beyond the promises held out by the Euphrates Valley railway concession to a A s i a German company.
It amounts to this, that Asiatics stand on a higher level than the natives of Africa or America, but do not possess the special material civilization of western Europe.
7) which cannot be used as historical material.
4 But what is lost as regards historical material is a distinct gain to the study of the development of Hebrew thought and philosophy of history.
No material advance was made on Ptolemy's instrument until Tycho Brahe, whose elaborate armillary spheres passing into astrolabes are figured in his Astronjmiae Instauratae Mechanica.
The deacons have general oversight of the material affairs of the congregation, and are especially charged with the care of poor widows and their children.
The average man is pessimist or optimist not on theoretical grounds, but owing to the circumstances of his life, his material prosperity, his bodily health, his general temperament.
The Getica of Jordanes shows Gothic sympathies; but these are probably due to an imitation of the tone of Cassiodorus, from whom he draws practically all his material.
His immense learning served him rather as a storehouse of illustrations, or as an armoury out of which he could choose the fittest weapon for discomfiting on opponent, than as a quarry furnishing him with material for building up a completely designed and enduring edifice of systematized truth.
This political and material strength enabled the Order to weather the storm by which the Templars were destroyed at the beginning of the 14th century.
Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
Its nearness to Washington, the material and manufacturing resources concentrated in it, and the moral importance attached to its possession by both sides, caused it to be regarded as the centre of gravity of the military operations in the east to which the greatest leaders and the finest armies were devoted from 1861 to 1865.
He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.
It was about this time that the first experiments were made (in Germany) with basic slag, a material which had hitherto been regarded as a worthless by-product of steel manufacture.
Not unnaturally the training which the younger Mill received has aroused amazement and criticism; and it is reasonable to doubt whether the material knowledge which he retained in the result was as valuable to him as his father imagined.
must have already had a wife and son when he escaped from Rome, and it seems to me highly improbable that such a material factor in the situation would have been left out of account in Polybius's full narrative.
In the earliest times for which we have abundant material the economic life of England had already reached in certain directions a high degree of complexity.
For such a general theory there is ample material in the economic literature of all civilized countries.
1552) distinguished himself at the battle of Pinkie (1547), and furnished material for his later namesake's famous poem, The Lay of the Last Minstrel; and his great-grandson Sir Walter (1565-1611) was created Lord Scott of Buccleuch in 1606.
The bark and young cones afford a tanning material, inferior indeed to oakbark, and hardly equal to that of the larch, but of value in countries where substances more rich in tannin are not abundant.
The wood is strong, light and very elastic, forming an excellent material for small masts and spars, for which purpose the trunks are used in America, and exported largely to England.
A fine oil of turpentine is distilled from the crude material; the residue forms a coarse resin.
The material is drawn from Scripture, but in such a way that the propositions of the regula fidei are respected.
This material is then formed into a system by all the resources of the intellect and of speculation.
The conduct of Barras was known to depend on material considerations.
In the old provinces of France Napoleon's indomitable will overcame all difficulties of a material kind.
Artificers' implements of many kinds were in use, bronze succeeding obsidian and other hard stones as the material.
A system of pictographic writing came into use early in this Palace period, but only a few documents, made of durable material, have survived.
"That which is" is a whole, not an aggregate; an organic complex of parts, not a mechanical mass; a "whole" too not material but spiritual, a "world of thought-relations."
Even apart from the impossibility of conceiving a whole of relations which are relations and nothing else (this objection is perhaps largely verbal), no explanation is given of the fact (obvious in experience) that the spiritual entities of which the Universe is composed appear material.
Manuel subsequently set out in person to seek help from the West, and for this purpose visited Italy, France, Germany and England, but without material success; the victory of Timur in 1402, and the death of Bayezid in the following year were the first events to give him a genuine respite from Ottoman oppression.
5 Though he made a perceptible advance on the classification of Linnaeus, at that time predominant, it is now easy to see in how many ways - want of sufficient material being no doubt one of the chief - Cuvier failed to produce a really natural arrangement.
G..Gmelin, Giildenstalt, Lepechin and others - in the exploration of the recently extended Russian empire supplied not only much material to the Commentarii and Acta of the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found in their narratives - all of it being of the highest interest to students of Palaearctic or Nearctic ornithology.
This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of almost all later or recent researches in the comparative anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, though it is certainly not free from inperfections, many of them, it must be said, arise from want of material, notwithstanding that its author had command of a much more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch.
Forbes, two brilliant and short lived young men who occupied successively the post of prosector to the Zoological Society of London, and who made a rich use of the material provided by the collection of that society.
the classification of birds, although the material they furnished and the lines they indicated have proved valuable in later hands.
In the neighbourhood of Nottingham, and other places in the Midlands, barytes forms a cementing material in the Triassic sandstones; amber-coloured crystals of the same mineral are found in the fuller's earth at Nutfield in Surrey; and the septarian nodules in London Clay contain crystals of barytes as well as of calcite.
The finely powdered and washed mineral is too crystalline and consequently of insufficient opacity to be used alone as a paint, and is therefore mixed with "white lead," of which material it is also used as an adulterant.
The church of St Mark's, originally the private chapel of the doge, is unique among the buildings of the world in respect of its unparalleled richness of material and decoration.
A law of the republic required every merchant trading to the East to bring back some material for the adornment of the fane.
The original part of the magnificent mosaic pavement probably dates from the middle of the 12th century, if we may judge from the pavement at Murano, exactly similar in style, material and workmanship, which bears the date 1140.
The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic 1 This palace was originally the property of the Pesaro family, and afterwards of the duke of Este, and finally of the republic, which used it as a dwelling-place for royal guests before letting it to Turkish merchants.
Flatness and lack of deep shadows, owing to the impossibility of obtaining heavy cornices in that material, mark the style.
The development of tracery was hindered both by the material and by the relative insignificance of the windows.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.
Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.).
There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891).
It should, however, be remembered that primitive peoples do not distinguish clearly between material and immaterial beings.
His close relation with the Scotch Church secured important material assistance for the college of which he now became president, and he toured New England to collect contributions.
It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.
Among the marks of the second half of the 17th century was growing material prosperity, and there were those who thought their fellows unduly willing to relax church tests of fellowship when good trade was in question.
But it is not upon material prosperity that Boston rests its claims for consideration.
Being neither rich in material resources nor well placed for commercial enterprise, Phocis was mainly pastoral.
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
Three years later he removed to Warrington as classical tutor in a new academy, and there he attended lectures on chemistry by Dr Matthew Turner of Liverpool and pursued those studies in electricity which gained him the fellowship of the Royal Society in 1766 and supplied him with material for his History of Electricity.
He and his family escaped, but his material possessions were destroyed and the labour of years annihilated.
The period of greatest material prosperity of New Haven in the colonial period began about 1750, when a thriving commerce with other American ports and the West Indies developed.
Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.
When this is done, from 80 to 90% of the fertilizing material of the meal is recovered in the manure, only 10 to 20% being converted by the animal into meat and milk.
At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.
useful and acceptable quality, India for a long series of years did but little towards supplying the manufactures of other countries with the raw material which they required.
The evolution of the distinct business of cotton broking is readily comprehensible when we remind ourselves that the requirements, as regards raw material, of all spinners are much alike generally, and that no spinner could afford to pay an expert to devote himself entirely to purchasing cotton for his mill.
Before the railway was opened some spinners had been in the habit of making their purchases of raw material in Liverpool, but the great inconveniences of the journey, combined 1 Commercial crop.
One way out of the difficulty is that the spinner should exercise his judgment and buy his raw material at what seems to him the most suitable times.
This question can readily be answered as regards the past forty years or so, for which material g p y y ?
(3) Desirable variations in the raw material might conceivably eventuate from the introduction of cotton to spots in the globe where its growth was previously unknown or little regarded.
" Life may be something not only ultra-terrestrial, but even immaterial, something outside our present categories of matter and energy; as real as they are, but different, and utilizing them for its own purpose " (Life and Matter, p. 198), The theory of psychophysical parallelism recognizes that while there is a correspondence between mental and material phenomena, changes in the mind and changes in the brain, the former cannot be explained by the latter, as the transition from the one to the other is unthinkable.
He found time, in addition, to write a short book on Die Serbische Revolution (1829), from material supplied to him by Wuk Stephanowich, a Servian who had himself been witness of the scenes he related.
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.
So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.
Spiritually, therefore, the Third Crusade is inferior to the First, however imposing it may be in its material aspects.
While a new spirit which compares and tolerates thus sprang from the Crusades, the large sphere of new knowledge and experience which they gave brought new material at once for scientific thought and poetic imagination.
Whatever were his qualities as a fighter, the Cid was but indifferent material out of which to make a saint, - a man who battled against Christian and against Moslem with equal zeal, who burnt churches and mosques with equal zest, who ravaged, plundered and slew as much for a livelihood as for any patriotic or religious purpose, and was in truth almost as much of a Mussulman as a Christian in his habits and his character.
The manufacture of turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900, the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half.
In the manufacture of fertilizers, the raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.
The material enactments of the restraining statutes were as follows: - An act of 1389 (13 Ric. II.
Nor is it worth while to attempt a logical or symmetrical arrangement of the material.
The trousers are short and of a peculiar cut and material, being coloured many hues in parallel horizontal lines.
The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
The fragments indicate the great 'variety of subjects discussed: the origin of the appeal to the people (provocatio); the use of elephants in the circus games; the wearing of gold rings; the introduction of the olive tree; the material for making the toga; the cultivation of the soil; certain details as to the lives of Cicero and Terence.
Epigraphik, contains full account of the epigraphical material.
For the architectural embellishment of the city the finest building material was procurable without difficulty and in abundance; Pentelicus forms a mass of white, transparent, blue-veined marble; another variety, somewhat similar in appearance, but generally of a bluer hue, was obtained from Hymettus.
For the ceramic art admirable material was at hand in the district north-west of the Acropolis.
For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
The testimony afforded Sources by inscriptions is often of decisive importance, especially that of commemorative or votive tablets or of boundary = stones found in situ; the value of this evidence is, on the other hand, sometimes neutralized owing to the former removal of building material already used and its in corporation in later structures.
By his economic legislation Solon placed Athenian agriculture once more upon a sound footing, and supplemented this source of wealth by encouraging commercial enterprise, thus laying the foundation of his country's material prosperity.
Yet the material prosperity of Athens under Pericles was less notable than her brilliant attainments in every field of culture.
At this period Athens was altogether overshadowed in material strength by the great Hellenistic monarchies and even by the new republican leagues of Greece; but she could still on occasion display great energy and patriotism.
After capturing the Acropolis the Venetians employed material from its ancient edifices in repairing its walls.
Several ancient monuments were sacrificed to provide material for a new wall with which the Turks surrounded the city in 1778.
The sesqui-centennial of Pittsburgh, elaborately observed in 1908, marked the beginning of a new period of corporate, educational, social and material development.
A bombardment of the Atlanta fortifications was then begun, but it had no material result.
Important material regarding the princess exists in the MSS.
The revolt at Bordeaux, supported as it was by material aid from Spain, gave him the opportunity of at once serving his country and gratifying his long-cherished hatred of the Spaniards.
This quinta essentia had been speculated upon by the Greeks, some regarding it as immaterial or aethereal, andothers as material; and a school of philosophers termed alchemists arose who attempted the isolation of this essence.
Apart from the gain in tragic force resulting from Wagner's masterly development of the character of Brangaene, the raw material of the story was already suggestive of that astounding combination of the contrasted themes of love and death, the musical execution of which involves a harmonic range almost as far beyond that of its own day as the ordinary harmonic range of the 19th century is beyond that of the 16th.
Again, while the Eucharistic features in Parsifal attract some listeners, the material effect of their presentation on the stage has been known to repel others who are beyond suspicion of prejudice.
In 1798 he presented to the Royal Society his "Enquiry concerning the Source of Heat which is excited by Friction," in which he combated the current view that heat was a material substance, and regarded it as a mode of motion.
Each consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty muscular coat.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
Why and how he came to be a popular hero in Babylonia cannot with our present material be determined, but the epic indicates that he came as a conqueror and established himself at Erech.
Here the papyri and ostraca have put a large material .
These, in the case of the king, would be of richer material, colour and adornment.
The Antigonid and Seleucid courts had much valuable material at hand for their armies in the barbarian races under their sway.
The expedition, if it produced no material results, laid bare the weakness of the Italian political system and the country's incapacity for resistance.
Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII., in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre.
Chastellain was no mere annalist, but proposed to fuse and shape his vast material to his own conclusions, in accordance with his political experience.
Maps were thus named after the material upon which they were drawn or painted, and it should be noted that even at present maps intended for use in the open air, by cyclists, military men and others, are frequently printed on cloth.
After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.
The permanent standing committee of the Society is known as the " Meeting for Sufferings " (established in 1675), which took its rise in the days when the persecution of many Friends demanded the Christian care and material help of those who were able to give it.
Much useful material will also be found in J.
Among the manufactures are agricultural implements, watches and watch material - the Illinois Watch Company has a large factory here - lumber, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, automobiles, shoes and boilers.
The standard edition of Wesley's Journal (1909) has furnished much new material for this period of Wesley's life, the Rev. N.
The new material in the Journal describes the simple matter of his life.
64) was the first to fix the site upon the low hill, surrounded by tufa cliffs, on which were still scanty remains of walling in rectangular blocks of the same material, which is now occupied by the farm-house of Conca.
PAPYRUS, the paper reed, the Cyperus Papyrus of Linnaeus, in ancient times widely cultivated in the Delta of Egypt, where it was used for various purposes, and especially as a writing material.
92), and incidentally mentions that it provided the material of which the priests' sandals were made (ii.
He likewise refers to the use of byblus as tow for caulking the seams of ships; and the statement of Theophrastus that King Antigonus made the rigging of his fleet of the same material is illustrated by the ship's cable, ern-Nov (315(Ncvov, wherewith the doors were fastened when Ulysses slew the suitors in his hall (Odyss.
That the plant was itself used also as the principal material in the construction of light skiffs suitable for the navigation of the pools and shallows of the Nile, and even of the river itself, is shown by sculptures of the fourth dynasty, in which men are represented building a boat with stems cut from a neighbouring plantation of papyrus (Lepsius, Denkm.
The Cyperus dives is still become that it is reported that in the reign of Tiberius, owing to the scarcity and dearness of the material caused by a failure of the papyrus crop, there was a danger of the ordinary business of life being deranged (Pliny, N.H.
11 -13) has transmitted to us of the manufacture of the writing material from the papyrus plant should be taken strictly to refer to the process followed in his own time; but, with some differences in details, the same general method of treatment had doubtlessly been practised from time immemorial.
In one important particular, however, affecting the primary construction of the material, there can no longer be any doubt.
The stem was in fact !'cut into longitudinal strips for the purpose of being converted into the writing material, those from the centre of the plant being the broadest and most valuable.
But the material was also subject to other defects, such as moisture lurking between the layers, which might be detected by strokes of the mallet; spots or stains; and spongy strips (taeniae), in which the ink would run and spoil the sheet.
This arrangement was adopted, not for the purpose of fraudulently selling bad material under cover of the better exterior, but in order that the outside of the roll should be composed of that which would best stand wear and tear.
The different kinds of papyrus writing material and their dimensions are also enumerated by Pliny.
The widespread use throughout the ancient world of the writing material manufactured from the papyrus plant is attested by early writers, and by documents and sculptures.
58) to its introduction among the Ionian Greeks, who gave it the name of 8 4%pac, " skins," the material to which they had already been accustomed.
Papyrus was cultivated and manufactured for writing material by the Arabs in Egypt down to the time when the growing industry of paper in the 8th and 9th centuries rendered it no longer a necessity.
But it seems probable that this industry was confined to the re-making of material imported into Italy, as in the case of the charta Claudia.
The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri found at Herculaneum has been instanced as the evil result of this re-making of the material.
It is with this Syracusan plant that some attempts have been made in modern times to manufacture a writing material similar to ancient papyrus.
The employment of this material in Italy for legal purposes is sufficiently illustrated by the large number of documents in Latin which were preserved at Ravenna, and date from the 5th to the Loth century.
1 The pozzolana is the material required for building purposes, for admixture with mortar; and the sandpits are naturally excavated in the stratum which supplies it.
The material is magnesian limestone.
It should be remembered that such comparatively simple activities, though there is little about them to arrest popular attention, are just the raw material out of which the normal active life of such organisms is elaborated, and that for scientific treatment they are therefore not less important than those more conspicuous performances which seem at first sight to call for special treatment, or even to demand a supplementary explanation.
As the three triads respectively represent intellectual, moral and physical qualities, the first is called the Intellectual, the second the Moral or Sensuous, and the third the Material World.
So Beauty is by itself described as the Sensuous World, and in this capacity is called the Sacred King or simply the King, whilst Kingdom, the tenth Sephirah, which unites all the nine Sephiroth, is used to denote the Material World, and as such is denominated the Queen or the Matron.
Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.
(I) The Spirit (neshamah), which is the highest degree of being, corresponds to and is operated upon by the Crown, which is the highest triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Intellectual World; (2) the Soul (rah), which is the seat of the moral qualities, corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, which is the second triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Moral World; and (3) the Cruder Soul (nephesh), which is immediately connected with the body, and is the cause of its lower instincts and the animal life, corresponds to and is operated upon by Foundation, the third triad in the Sephiroth, called the Material World.
Their material is of pale yellow clay with shining black glaze, and they are decorated with skilfully drawn red figures.
Numerous ruins, an amphitheatre, still recognizable, a theatre, a temple of Augustus, &c., existed in the 16th century, and have been since used for building material.
Speaking at Johannesburg on the eve of his departure, he recommended to all concerned the promotion of the material prosperity of the country and the treatment of Dutch and British on an absolute equality.
Of such a union the dominions of the sovereign as they exist to-day are only the raw material."
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
That they did not found a universal religion was due, in part at least, to the fact that the time was not ripe for such a faith; but they left material that was taken up into later systems.
The state and the national government co-operate in the construction and maintenance of this system, but the Federal government did not give material aid (the only exception being the grant of swamp lands in 1850) until the exceptionally disastrous flood in 1882.
After 1877 the state prospered markedly in all material respects.
There is an endless amount of stone, very little of which is hard enough to be good for building material, the greatest part being a soft coralline limestone.
He died believing 1728) was given greatly improved facilities, especially of material equipment, by the American military government, and seems to have begun an ambitious progress.
Trade was comparatively free, and worked a revolution in culture and material conditions.
The material used is a soft, porous magnesian limestone, which is well adapted to the purpose in view.
The material is largely calcareous, and has probably been derived from the disintegration of the reefs, and from the shells of animals living in the shallows.
Critics have also urged that Kallay; fostered the desire for material welfare at the cost of every other national ideal; that, despite his own popularity, he never secured the goodwill of the people for Austria-Hungary; that he left the agrarian difficulty unsolved, and the hostile religious factions unreconciled.
Valonia, a material largely used by tanners, is the pericarp of an acorn obtained in the neighbouring oakwoods, and derives its name from Valona.
The disillusionment as regards material means for improving the life of mankind had given rise in many minds to a quest for religion, and this mystic current had attracted men like Struve, Bulgakov, Berdiayev and others.
During the campaign Peter had entered into alliance with the hospodars of Moldavia and Walachia, respectively Demetrius Cantemir and Constantine Brancovano, from whom he had received material assistance.
On the 22nd of June the Russian army, under Prince Gorchakov, crossed the Pruth, not - as was explained in a circular to the powers - for the purpose of attacking Turkey, but solely to obtain the material guarantees for the enjoyment of the privileges conferred upon her by the existing treaties.
After the wants of the cavalry and artillery had been provided for, there remained but little material for transport work.
Thanks to the Austrian precautions it took four days to collect the necessary material to span the main branch of the river, here some 2000 yds.
The material loss inflicted on the French was not very great, but its effect in raising the moral of the raw Prussian cavalry and increasing their confidence in their old commander was enormous.
Though he had control of what remained of the navies of Holland and Spain, as well as of the French, he was outnumbered at every point, while the efficiency of the British fleet gave it a mobility which doubled its material superiority.
The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.
In 1846 he achieved high reputation by his Life of David Hume, based upon extensive and unused MS. material.
It was his great good fortune to find abundant unused material for his Life of Hume, and to be the first to introduce the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland.
Underneath the surface are beds of sand, gravel and clays, the last affording material for the manufacture of brick, tiles and pottery.
The Collections of the Minnesota State Historical Society contain much valuable material on the history of the state, notably E.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
The Callao fortifications were bombarded by a Spanish fleet under Admiral Mendez Nunez on the 2nd of May 1866, when there were heavy losses both in lives and material.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
It follows, too, that when there is a number of substances, all essential for the elaboration of living material, and when one of these is present in minimal proportion, that one substance rules the production, just as the effective strength of a chain depends on the weakest link.
Since there is less of the indispensable food material in the warmer seas there is, therefore, less phyto-plankton.
Such material, it is suspected, may form the massive bases on which barrier or fringing or atoll reefs are built up.
In 1812 tools and material of war for his sieges were often insufficient.
For later traditional material, see Buxtorf, De Arca Focderis (Basel, 1659).
From such slender material it is not easy to form a clear conception of the saint's personality.
Bury has shown that both Tirechan and Muirchu drew from written material which existed in part at any rate in Irish.
In an age when, with the evolution of the feudal organization cf society, even everyday costume was becoming a uniform, symbolizing in material and colour the exact status of the wearer, it was natural that in the parallel organization of the Church the official vestments should undergo a similar process of differentiation and definition.
Up to the 9th century these had been very plain, without ornament save such traditional decorations as the clavi of the dalmatic; what splendour they had was due to their material and the ample folds of their draperies.
From the latter's time onward a host of liturgists took up the theme, arguing from the form, the material, the colour and the fashion of wearing the various garments to symbolical interpretations almost as numerous as the interpreters themselves.
probably contain material derived from Simon, e.g.
The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
There can be little doubt that with a fall in price further uses for rubber would arise, leading to an increased demand, and among them may be mentioned its utilization as a road material.
The proteids should be as far as possible removed during the preparation of the rubber, as these substances are chiefly responsible for the objectionable smell and colour of " native " rubbers, and their presence leads to subsequent change in the commercial material.
All crude rubber contains more or less proteid, and in the opinion of some technical experts its presence even affords strength to the material, but this cannot be accepted as proved.
Sulphur when warmed with caoutchouc combines with it, and on this fact the vulcanization of rubber depends, and also the production, with an excess of sulphur, of the hard black material known as vulcanite or ebonite.
Double texture goods are made by uniting the rubber surfaces of two pieces of the coated material.
The articles are first fashioned by joining the soft material; they are then varnished, and afterwards cured in ovens heated to about 135° C. The fine vulcanized " spread sheets " are made by spreading layers of indiarubber solution, already charged with the requisite proportion of sulphur, on a textile base previously prepared with a mixture of paste, glue and treacle.