Material Sentence Examples

material
  • All scientific material from the past is making its way online.

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  • She collected a handful of the material in modest protest.

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  • She had nothing material to report.

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  • I'm not about to waste my best material on a machine!

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  • Katie found some material to match and made quilts for the cribs.

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  • This material is used for stuffing mattresses or pillows, and also in upholstery.

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  • A hood made of rough material was thrown over her head and her hands bound before she could scream.

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  • It was light, a curved grey sword made of the same material as the beds and spaceships.

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  • We are all sculptors and painters, and our material is our own flesh and blood and bones.

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  • Her first impression was confirmed—the men in the room were UFC material, all well over six feet and solid.

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  • The material was pure, and his art was pure; how could the result be other than wonderful?

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  • It was muted black, made out of material smoother than silk that draped over her arm like a second skin.

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  • Oh, and they change color if they detect structural weakness in the material to which they are affixed.

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  • When all the factories run themselves, when energy is free, when scarcity is ended, when material needs are all met, it will be a different world.

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  • I am forbidden from creating deals with material outcomes.

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  • She didn't think he was celebrity material before seeing him in action.

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  • This speaks to the fabulous wealth of this country and how our expectation of material possessions has risen so fast that we have redefined poverty to include what once were deemed luxury items.

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  • Deidre clutched at the material of his shirt.

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  • The princess style made her waist look small, and the material fell softly from her hips.

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  • Aristotle's distinction of form and matter, and his conception of becoming as a transition from actuality to potentiality, provides a new ontological way of conceiving the process of material and organic evolution.'

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  • The architect was Mnesicles; the material Pentelic marble, with Eleusinian blackstone for dados and other details.

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  • Many of the Hydrophilidae construct, for the protection of their eggs, a cocoon formed of a silky material derived from glands opening at the tip of the abdomen.

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  • Occasionally the massive material is cut and polished for decorative purposes, though the application in this direction is far less extensive than that of malachite.

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  • Fortune again favoured the Russian arms, but as Austria was less successful and signed a separate peace at Sistova in 1791, Catherine did not obtain much material advantage from the campaign.

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  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

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  • Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.

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  • In soft material the excavation may be performed by mechanical excavators or " steam navvies," while in hard it may be necessary to resort to blasting.

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  • Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.

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  • The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.

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  • Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.

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  • The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.

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  • On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.

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  • This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.

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  • The houses in many instances are built of stone (a circumstance which indicates the former wealth of the city, as the material had to be brought from a very considerable distance); and remains of a brick wall, 3 m.

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  • Later followed the appearance of lights; quasi-human voices; musical sounds, produced, it is said, without instruments; the "materialization" or presence in material form of what seemed to be human hands and faces, and ultimately of complete figures, alleged to be not those of any person present, and sometimes claimed by witnesses as deceased relatives; "psychography," or "direct writing and drawing," asserted to be done without human intervention; "spirit-photography," or the appearance on photographic plates of human and other forms when no counterpart was visible before the camera to any but specially endowed seers; 3 unfastening of cords and bonds; elongation of the medium's body; handling of red-hot coals; and the apparent passage of solids through solids without disintegration.

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  • It is possible to classify sacrifices according to (a) the occasion of the rite, (b) the end to be achieved, (c) the material object to be affected or (d) the form of the rite.

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  • In the latter either some material object, not necessarily animate, is deprived of a portion of its sanctity and made fit for human use, or the sacrificer himself loses a portion of his sanctity or impurity.

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  • For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.

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  • The corpse may be burnt, in part or as a whole; portions may be assigned to the priest, the sacrificer and the gods; the skull, bones, &c., may receive special treatment; the fat or blood may be set aside, and they or the ashes may be singled out as the share of the god, to be offered upon the altar; the skin of the victim may be employed as a covering for the idol or material representative of the god, either permanently or till the next annual sacrifice.

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  • It is only possible here to refer in briefest enumeration to the material and external objects and forms of popular Hebrew religion.

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  • On the other side the right wing was commanded by the duke of Ferrara, who had like Navarro organized a mobile field artillery (the artillery material of this prince was thought to be the best conditioned in Europe).

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  • He made two unsuccessful ventures in journalism, and in 1857 went to Central America, where he acquired material for another series of lectures.

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  • Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.

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  • Thus one may note the reshaping of older material to agree with later thought, the building up of past periods from the records of other periods, and a frequent loss of perspective.

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  • Surrounded by ancient civilizations where writing had long been known, and enjoying, as excavation has proved, a considerable amount of material culture, Palestine could look back upon a lengthy and stirring history which, however, has rarely left its mark upon our records.

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  • But the surviving material is extremely uneven; vital events in these centuries are treated with a slightness in striking contrast to the relatively detailed evidence for the preceding period - evidence, however, which is far from being contemporary.

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  • Where the material is fuller, serious discrepancies are found; and where external evidence is fortunately available, the independent character of the biblical history is vividly illustrated.

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  • The scantiness of political information and the distinctive arrangement of material preclude the attempt to trace the relative position of the two rivals.

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  • The discovery of the inscription of a later king of Moab (q.v.) has proved that the east-Jordanic tribes were no uncivilized or barbaric folk; material wealth, a considerable religious and political organization, and the cultivation of letters (as exemplified in the style of the inscription) portray conditions which allow us to form some conception of life in Israel itself.

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  • Recent criticism goes to show that there is a very considerable body of biblical material, more important for its attitude to the history than for its historical accuracy, the true meaning of which cannot as yet be clearly perceived.

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  • It was not a new religion that took root; older tendencies were diverted into new paths, the existing material was shaped to new ends.

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  • They could be, and indeed had been made more edifying; but the very noteworthy conservatism of even the last compiler or editor, in contrast to the re-shaping and re-writing of the material in the book of Jubilees, indicates that the Priestly spirit was not that of the whole community.

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  • Research is seriously complicated by the growing stores of material, which unfortunately are often utilized without attention to the principles of the various departments of knowledge or aspects of study.

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  • It may be doubted, however, whether the material is sufficient for such restoration or reconstruction.'

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  • Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.

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  • Moreover, a spiritual revival mitigated the crushing effects of material ruin.

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  • In Germany at the same period the feudal system debarred the Jews from holding land, and though there was as yet no material persecution they suffered moral injury by being driven exclusively into finance and trade.

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  • The script also recurs on walls in the shape of graffiti, and on vases, sometimes ink-written; and from the number of seals originally attached to perishable documents it is probable that parchment or some similar material was also used.

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  • South of the central court were found parts of a relief in the same material, showing a personage with a fleur-de-lis crown and collar.

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  • Daru, in his history of Venice, mentions fourteen between the years 1207 and 1365, the most important being that of 1361-1364, - a revolt not of the natives against the rule of their Venetian masters, but of the Venetian colonists against the republic. But with all its defects their administration did much to promote the material prosperity of the country, and to encourage commerce and industry; and it is probable that the island was more prosperous than at any subsequent time.

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  • The loss of the English did not exceed 700 killed and too() wounded; while the Irish, in their disastrous flight, lost about 7000 men, besides the whole material of the army.

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  • Circlet and arches are richly chased and jewelled; they are filled out by a cap of stiff material, often red velvet, ornamented with pictures in embroidery or appliqué metal.

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  • The soul thus faces two ways - towards the vas, from which it springs, and towards the material life, which is its own product.

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  • A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.

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  • In Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia there is little to record of progress in material development beyond the promises held out by the Euphrates Valley railway concession to a A s i a German company.

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  • It amounts to this, that Asiatics stand on a higher level than the natives of Africa or America, but do not possess the special material civilization of western Europe.

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  • No material advance was made on Ptolemy's instrument until Tycho Brahe, whose elaborate armillary spheres passing into astrolabes are figured in his Astronjmiae Instauratae Mechanica.

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  • The deacons have general oversight of the material affairs of the congregation, and are especially charged with the care of poor widows and their children.

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  • The average man is pessimist or optimist not on theoretical grounds, but owing to the circumstances of his life, his material prosperity, his bodily health, his general temperament.

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  • The Getica of Jordanes shows Gothic sympathies; but these are probably due to an imitation of the tone of Cassiodorus, from whom he draws practically all his material.

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  • His immense learning served him rather as a storehouse of illustrations, or as an armoury out of which he could choose the fittest weapon for discomfiting on opponent, than as a quarry furnishing him with material for building up a completely designed and enduring edifice of systematized truth.

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  • This political and material strength enabled the Order to weather the storm by which the Templars were destroyed at the beginning of the 14th century.

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  • Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.

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  • Its nearness to Washington, the material and manufacturing resources concentrated in it, and the moral importance attached to its possession by both sides, caused it to be regarded as the centre of gravity of the military operations in the east to which the greatest leaders and the finest armies were devoted from 1861 to 1865.

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  • He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.

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  • It was about this time that the first experiments were made (in Germany) with basic slag, a material which had hitherto been regarded as a worthless by-product of steel manufacture.

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  • Not unnaturally the training which the younger Mill received has aroused amazement and criticism; and it is reasonable to doubt whether the material knowledge which he retained in the result was as valuable to him as his father imagined.

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  • In the earliest times for which we have abundant material the economic life of England had already reached in certain directions a high degree of complexity.

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  • For such a general theory there is ample material in the economic literature of all civilized countries.

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  • The bark and young cones afford a tanning material, inferior indeed to oakbark, and hardly equal to that of the larch, but of value in countries where substances more rich in tannin are not abundant.

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  • The wood is strong, light and very elastic, forming an excellent material for small masts and spars, for which purpose the trunks are used in America, and exported largely to England.

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  • A fine oil of turpentine is distilled from the crude material; the residue forms a coarse resin.

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  • The material is drawn from Scripture, but in such a way that the propositions of the regula fidei are respected.

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  • This material is then formed into a system by all the resources of the intellect and of speculation.

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  • The conduct of Barras was known to depend on material considerations.

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  • In the old provinces of France Napoleon's indomitable will overcame all difficulties of a material kind.

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  • Artificers' implements of many kinds were in use, bronze succeeding obsidian and other hard stones as the material.

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  • A system of pictographic writing came into use early in this Palace period, but only a few documents, made of durable material, have survived.

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  • Even apart from the impossibility of conceiving a whole of relations which are relations and nothing else (this objection is perhaps largely verbal), no explanation is given of the fact (obvious in experience) that the spiritual entities of which the Universe is composed appear material.

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  • Manuel subsequently set out in person to seek help from the West, and for this purpose visited Italy, France, Germany and England, but without material success; the victory of Timur in 1402, and the death of Bayezid in the following year were the first events to give him a genuine respite from Ottoman oppression.

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  • G..Gmelin, Giildenstalt, Lepechin and others - in the exploration of the recently extended Russian empire supplied not only much material to the Commentarii and Acta of the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found in their narratives - all of it being of the highest interest to students of Palaearctic or Nearctic ornithology.

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  • This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of almost all later or recent researches in the comparative anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, though it is certainly not free from inperfections, many of them, it must be said, arise from want of material, notwithstanding that its author had command of a much more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch.

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  • Forbes, two brilliant and short lived young men who occupied successively the post of prosector to the Zoological Society of London, and who made a rich use of the material provided by the collection of that society.

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  • In the neighbourhood of Nottingham, and other places in the Midlands, barytes forms a cementing material in the Triassic sandstones; amber-coloured crystals of the same mineral are found in the fuller's earth at Nutfield in Surrey; and the septarian nodules in London Clay contain crystals of barytes as well as of calcite.

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  • The finely powdered and washed mineral is too crystalline and consequently of insufficient opacity to be used alone as a paint, and is therefore mixed with "white lead," of which material it is also used as an adulterant.

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  • The church of St Mark's, originally the private chapel of the doge, is unique among the buildings of the world in respect of its unparalleled richness of material and decoration.

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  • A law of the republic required every merchant trading to the East to bring back some material for the adornment of the fane.

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  • The original part of the magnificent mosaic pavement probably dates from the middle of the 12th century, if we may judge from the pavement at Murano, exactly similar in style, material and workmanship, which bears the date 1140.

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  • The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic 1 This palace was originally the property of the Pesaro family, and afterwards of the duke of Este, and finally of the republic, which used it as a dwelling-place for royal guests before letting it to Turkish merchants.

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  • Flatness and lack of deep shadows, owing to the impossibility of obtaining heavy cornices in that material, mark the style.

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  • The development of tracery was hindered both by the material and by the relative insignificance of the windows.

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  • It should, however, be remembered that primitive peoples do not distinguish clearly between material and immaterial beings.

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  • His close relation with the Scotch Church secured important material assistance for the college of which he now became president, and he toured New England to collect contributions.

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  • It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.

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  • Among the marks of the second half of the 17th century was growing material prosperity, and there were those who thought their fellows unduly willing to relax church tests of fellowship when good trade was in question.

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  • But it is not upon material prosperity that Boston rests its claims for consideration.

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  • Being neither rich in material resources nor well placed for commercial enterprise, Phocis was mainly pastoral.

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  • While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.

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  • Three years later he removed to Warrington as classical tutor in a new academy, and there he attended lectures on chemistry by Dr Matthew Turner of Liverpool and pursued those studies in electricity which gained him the fellowship of the Royal Society in 1766 and supplied him with material for his History of Electricity.

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  • He and his family escaped, but his material possessions were destroyed and the labour of years annihilated.

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  • The period of greatest material prosperity of New Haven in the colonial period began about 1750, when a thriving commerce with other American ports and the West Indies developed.

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  • Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.

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  • When this is done, from 80 to 90% of the fertilizing material of the meal is recovered in the manure, only 10 to 20% being converted by the animal into meat and milk.

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  • At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.

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  • The evolution of the distinct business of cotton broking is readily comprehensible when we remind ourselves that the requirements, as regards raw material, of all spinners are much alike generally, and that no spinner could afford to pay an expert to devote himself entirely to purchasing cotton for his mill.

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  • Before the railway was opened some spinners had been in the habit of making their purchases of raw material in Liverpool, but the great inconveniences of the journey, combined 1 Commercial crop.

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  • One way out of the difficulty is that the spinner should exercise his judgment and buy his raw material at what seems to him the most suitable times.

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  • This question can readily be answered as regards the past forty years or so, for which material g p y y ?

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  • He found time, in addition, to write a short book on Die Serbische Revolution (1829), from material supplied to him by Wuk Stephanowich, a Servian who had himself been witness of the scenes he related.

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  • At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.

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  • Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.

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  • Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.

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  • So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.

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  • Spiritually, therefore, the Third Crusade is inferior to the First, however imposing it may be in its material aspects.

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  • While a new spirit which compares and tolerates thus sprang from the Crusades, the large sphere of new knowledge and experience which they gave brought new material at once for scientific thought and poetic imagination.

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  • Whatever were his qualities as a fighter, the Cid was but indifferent material out of which to make a saint, - a man who battled against Christian and against Moslem with equal zeal, who burnt churches and mosques with equal zest, who ravaged, plundered and slew as much for a livelihood as for any patriotic or religious purpose, and was in truth almost as much of a Mussulman as a Christian in his habits and his character.

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  • The manufacture of turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900, the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half.

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  • In the manufacture of fertilizers, the raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.

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  • Nor is it worth while to attempt a logical or symmetrical arrangement of the material.

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  • The trousers are short and of a peculiar cut and material, being coloured many hues in parallel horizontal lines.

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  • The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.

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  • Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.

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  • Epigraphik, contains full account of the epigraphical material.

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  • For the architectural embellishment of the city the finest building material was procurable without difficulty and in abundance; Pentelicus forms a mass of white, transparent, blue-veined marble; another variety, somewhat similar in appearance, but generally of a bluer hue, was obtained from Hymettus.

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  • For the ceramic art admirable material was at hand in the district north-west of the Acropolis.

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  • For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.

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  • By his economic legislation Solon placed Athenian agriculture once more upon a sound footing, and supplemented this source of wealth by encouraging commercial enterprise, thus laying the foundation of his country's material prosperity.

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  • Yet the material prosperity of Athens under Pericles was less notable than her brilliant attainments in every field of culture.

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  • At this period Athens was altogether overshadowed in material strength by the great Hellenistic monarchies and even by the new republican leagues of Greece; but she could still on occasion display great energy and patriotism.

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  • After capturing the Acropolis the Venetians employed material from its ancient edifices in repairing its walls.

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  • Several ancient monuments were sacrificed to provide material for a new wall with which the Turks surrounded the city in 1778.

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  • The sesqui-centennial of Pittsburgh, elaborately observed in 1908, marked the beginning of a new period of corporate, educational, social and material development.

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  • A bombardment of the Atlanta fortifications was then begun, but it had no material result.

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  • Important material regarding the princess exists in the MSS.

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  • The revolt at Bordeaux, supported as it was by material aid from Spain, gave him the opportunity of at once serving his country and gratifying his long-cherished hatred of the Spaniards.

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  • This quinta essentia had been speculated upon by the Greeks, some regarding it as immaterial or aethereal, andothers as material; and a school of philosophers termed alchemists arose who attempted the isolation of this essence.

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  • Apart from the gain in tragic force resulting from Wagner's masterly development of the character of Brangaene, the raw material of the story was already suggestive of that astounding combination of the contrasted themes of love and death, the musical execution of which involves a harmonic range almost as far beyond that of its own day as the ordinary harmonic range of the 19th century is beyond that of the 16th.

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  • Again, while the Eucharistic features in Parsifal attract some listeners, the material effect of their presentation on the stage has been known to repel others who are beyond suspicion of prejudice.

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  • In 1798 he presented to the Royal Society his "Enquiry concerning the Source of Heat which is excited by Friction," in which he combated the current view that heat was a material substance, and regarded it as a mode of motion.

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  • Each consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty muscular coat.

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  • In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.

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  • Why and how he came to be a popular hero in Babylonia cannot with our present material be determined, but the epic indicates that he came as a conqueror and established himself at Erech.

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  • Here the papyri and ostraca have put a large material .

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  • These, in the case of the king, would be of richer material, colour and adornment.

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  • The Antigonid and Seleucid courts had much valuable material at hand for their armies in the barbarian races under their sway.

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  • The expedition, if it produced no material results, laid bare the weakness of the Italian political system and the country's incapacity for resistance.

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  • Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII., in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre.

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  • Chastellain was no mere annalist, but proposed to fuse and shape his vast material to his own conclusions, in accordance with his political experience.

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  • Maps were thus named after the material upon which they were drawn or painted, and it should be noted that even at present maps intended for use in the open air, by cyclists, military men and others, are frequently printed on cloth.

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  • After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.

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  • The permanent standing committee of the Society is known as the " Meeting for Sufferings " (established in 1675), which took its rise in the days when the persecution of many Friends demanded the Christian care and material help of those who were able to give it.

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  • Among the manufactures are agricultural implements, watches and watch material - the Illinois Watch Company has a large factory here - lumber, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, automobiles, shoes and boilers.

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  • The new material in the Journal describes the simple matter of his life.

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  • In one important particular, however, affecting the primary construction of the material, there can no longer be any doubt.

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  • The stem was in fact !'cut into longitudinal strips for the purpose of being converted into the writing material, those from the centre of the plant being the broadest and most valuable.

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  • But the material was also subject to other defects, such as moisture lurking between the layers, which might be detected by strokes of the mallet; spots or stains; and spongy strips (taeniae), in which the ink would run and spoil the sheet.

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  • This arrangement was adopted, not for the purpose of fraudulently selling bad material under cover of the better exterior, but in order that the outside of the roll should be composed of that which would best stand wear and tear.

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  • The different kinds of papyrus writing material and their dimensions are also enumerated by Pliny.

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  • The widespread use throughout the ancient world of the writing material manufactured from the papyrus plant is attested by early writers, and by documents and sculptures.

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  • Papyrus was cultivated and manufactured for writing material by the Arabs in Egypt down to the time when the growing industry of paper in the 8th and 9th centuries rendered it no longer a necessity.

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  • But it seems probable that this industry was confined to the re-making of material imported into Italy, as in the case of the charta Claudia.

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  • The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri found at Herculaneum has been instanced as the evil result of this re-making of the material.

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  • It is with this Syracusan plant that some attempts have been made in modern times to manufacture a writing material similar to ancient papyrus.

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  • The employment of this material in Italy for legal purposes is sufficiently illustrated by the large number of documents in Latin which were preserved at Ravenna, and date from the 5th to the Loth century.

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  • The material is magnesian limestone.

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  • It should be remembered that such comparatively simple activities, though there is little about them to arrest popular attention, are just the raw material out of which the normal active life of such organisms is elaborated, and that for scientific treatment they are therefore not less important than those more conspicuous performances which seem at first sight to call for special treatment, or even to demand a supplementary explanation.

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  • As the three triads respectively represent intellectual, moral and physical qualities, the first is called the Intellectual, the second the Moral or Sensuous, and the third the Material World.

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  • So Beauty is by itself described as the Sensuous World, and in this capacity is called the Sacred King or simply the King, whilst Kingdom, the tenth Sephirah, which unites all the nine Sephiroth, is used to denote the Material World, and as such is denominated the Queen or the Matron.

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  • Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.

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  • Their material is of pale yellow clay with shining black glaze, and they are decorated with skilfully drawn red figures.

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  • Numerous ruins, an amphitheatre, still recognizable, a theatre, a temple of Augustus, &c., existed in the 16th century, and have been since used for building material.

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  • Speaking at Johannesburg on the eve of his departure, he recommended to all concerned the promotion of the material prosperity of the country and the treatment of Dutch and British on an absolute equality.

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  • Of such a union the dominions of the sovereign as they exist to-day are only the raw material."

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  • That they did not found a universal religion was due, in part at least, to the fact that the time was not ripe for such a faith; but they left material that was taken up into later systems.

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  • The state and the national government co-operate in the construction and maintenance of this system, but the Federal government did not give material aid (the only exception being the grant of swamp lands in 1850) until the exceptionally disastrous flood in 1882.

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  • After 1877 the state prospered markedly in all material respects.

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  • There is an endless amount of stone, very little of which is hard enough to be good for building material, the greatest part being a soft coralline limestone.

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  • Trade was comparatively free, and worked a revolution in culture and material conditions.

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  • The material used is a soft, porous magnesian limestone, which is well adapted to the purpose in view.

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  • The material is largely calcareous, and has probably been derived from the disintegration of the reefs, and from the shells of animals living in the shallows.

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  • Critics have also urged that Kallay; fostered the desire for material welfare at the cost of every other national ideal; that, despite his own popularity, he never secured the goodwill of the people for Austria-Hungary; that he left the agrarian difficulty unsolved, and the hostile religious factions unreconciled.

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  • Valonia, a material largely used by tanners, is the pericarp of an acorn obtained in the neighbouring oakwoods, and derives its name from Valona.

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  • The disillusionment as regards material means for improving the life of mankind had given rise in many minds to a quest for religion, and this mystic current had attracted men like Struve, Bulgakov, Berdiayev and others.

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  • During the campaign Peter had entered into alliance with the hospodars of Moldavia and Walachia, respectively Demetrius Cantemir and Constantine Brancovano, from whom he had received material assistance.

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  • On the 22nd of June the Russian army, under Prince Gorchakov, crossed the Pruth, not - as was explained in a circular to the powers - for the purpose of attacking Turkey, but solely to obtain the material guarantees for the enjoyment of the privileges conferred upon her by the existing treaties.

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  • After the wants of the cavalry and artillery had been provided for, there remained but little material for transport work.

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  • Thanks to the Austrian precautions it took four days to collect the necessary material to span the main branch of the river, here some 2000 yds.

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  • The material loss inflicted on the French was not very great, but its effect in raising the moral of the raw Prussian cavalry and increasing their confidence in their old commander was enormous.

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  • Though he had control of what remained of the navies of Holland and Spain, as well as of the French, he was outnumbered at every point, while the efficiency of the British fleet gave it a mobility which doubled its material superiority.

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  • The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.

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  • In 1846 he achieved high reputation by his Life of David Hume, based upon extensive and unused MS. material.

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  • It was his great good fortune to find abundant unused material for his Life of Hume, and to be the first to introduce the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland.

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  • Underneath the surface are beds of sand, gravel and clays, the last affording material for the manufacture of brick, tiles and pottery.

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  • Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.

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  • The Callao fortifications were bombarded by a Spanish fleet under Admiral Mendez Nunez on the 2nd of May 1866, when there were heavy losses both in lives and material.

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  • The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).

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  • It follows, too, that when there is a number of substances, all essential for the elaboration of living material, and when one of these is present in minimal proportion, that one substance rules the production, just as the effective strength of a chain depends on the weakest link.

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  • Since there is less of the indispensable food material in the warmer seas there is, therefore, less phyto-plankton.

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  • Such material, it is suspected, may form the massive bases on which barrier or fringing or atoll reefs are built up.

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  • In 1812 tools and material of war for his sieges were often insufficient.

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  • For later traditional material, see Buxtorf, De Arca Focderis (Basel, 1659).

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  • From such slender material it is not easy to form a clear conception of the saint's personality.

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  • Bury has shown that both Tirechan and Muirchu drew from written material which existed in part at any rate in Irish.

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  • In an age when, with the evolution of the feudal organization cf society, even everyday costume was becoming a uniform, symbolizing in material and colour the exact status of the wearer, it was natural that in the parallel organization of the Church the official vestments should undergo a similar process of differentiation and definition.

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  • Up to the 9th century these had been very plain, without ornament save such traditional decorations as the clavi of the dalmatic; what splendour they had was due to their material and the ample folds of their draperies.

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  • From the latter's time onward a host of liturgists took up the theme, arguing from the form, the material, the colour and the fashion of wearing the various garments to symbolical interpretations almost as numerous as the interpreters themselves.

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  • The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.

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  • There can be little doubt that with a fall in price further uses for rubber would arise, leading to an increased demand, and among them may be mentioned its utilization as a road material.

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  • The proteids should be as far as possible removed during the preparation of the rubber, as these substances are chiefly responsible for the objectionable smell and colour of " native " rubbers, and their presence leads to subsequent change in the commercial material.

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  • All crude rubber contains more or less proteid, and in the opinion of some technical experts its presence even affords strength to the material, but this cannot be accepted as proved.

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  • Sulphur when warmed with caoutchouc combines with it, and on this fact the vulcanization of rubber depends, and also the production, with an excess of sulphur, of the hard black material known as vulcanite or ebonite.

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  • Double texture goods are made by uniting the rubber surfaces of two pieces of the coated material.

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  • In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.

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  • The travertine which forms round the springs of the Sarno was used even at Pompeii as building material.

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  • In sedimentary rocks it occurs as detrital material.

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  • For various purposes a manufactured material known as "micanite" or "micanite cloth" is much used; this consists of small sheets of mica cemented with shellac or other insulating cement on cloth or paper.

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  • In working downwards in open quarries and in tortuous shafts and passages much of the mica is damaged, and a large amount of labour is expended in hauling waste material to the surface.

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  • For this monumental work he had been gathering material for several years before the war.

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  • At Bethersden, between Ashford and Tenterden, marble quarries were formerly worked extensively, supplying material to the cathedrals of Canterbury and Rochester, and to many local churches.

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  • Massicot is the raw material for the manufacture of "red lead" or "minium."

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  • His chief work is a Chronicon ad annum 1054, which furnishes important and original material for the history of the emperor Henry III.

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  • His linguistic work indeed was always hampered by the lack of manuscript material, which is felt in his philological writings, e.g.

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  • The permeability of most material substances differs very slightly from unity, being a little greater than I in paramagnetic and a little less in diamagnetic substances.

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  • The coercive force, or coercivity, of a material is that reversed magnetic force which, while it is acting, just suffices to reduce the residual induction to nothing after the material has been temporarily submitted to any great magnetizing force.

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  • It can be shown 3 that in a uniform field an elongated piece of any non-crystalline material is in stable equilibrium only when its length is parallel to the lines of force; for diamagnetic substances, however, the directing couple is exceedingly small, and it would hardly be possible to obtain a uniform field of sufficient strength to show the effect experimentally.

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  • A primary coil of length 1, having n turns, is wound upon a cylinder made of non-conducting and non-magnetic material, and upon the middle of the primary a secondary or induction coil is closely fitted.

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  • These are to be regarded merely as typical specimens, for the details of a curve depend largely upon the physical condition and purity of the material; but they show at a glance how far the several metals differ from and resemble one another as regards their magnetic properties.

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  • This material can therefore exist in either of two perfectly stable conditions, in one of which it is magnetizable, while in the other it is not.

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  • The question whether a corpuscle actually has a material gravitating nucleus is undecided, but there are strong reasons for believing that its mass is entirely due to the electric charge.

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  • No material advance upon the knowledge recorded in Gilbert's book was made until the establishment by Coulomb in 1785 of the law of magnetic action.

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  • Homoplasy can only be assumed when the coincidence is of a simple nature, and is such as may be reasonably supposed to have arisen by the action of like selective conditions upon like material in two separate lines of descent.'

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  • Their anatomy has not been studied, as yet, by means of freshly-killed material, and is imperfectly known, though the presence of the coxal FIG.

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  • By his mode of regarding a liquid as a material system characterized by the unshackled mobility of its minutest parts, the separation between the mechanics of matter in different forms of aggregation finally disappeared, and the fundamental equation of forces was for the first time extended to hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.'

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  • Instead of following the motion of each individual part of a material system, he showed that, if we determine its configuration by a sufficient number of variables, whose number is that of the degrees of freedom to move (there being as many equations as the system has degrees of freedom), the kinetic and potential energies of the system can be expressed in terms of these, and the differential equations of motion thence deduced by simple differentiation.

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  • Besides this most important contribution to the general fabric of dynamical science, we owe to Lagrange several minor theorems of great elegance, - among which may be mentioned his theorem that the kinetic energy imparted by given impulses to a material system under given constraints is a maximum.

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  • The whole island is strewn with natural basaltic prisms, some of great size; and of this material, brought by boats or rafts from a distance of 30 m.

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  • The flora includes mangroves, Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae and other forms requiring more than pure coralline material for their growth.

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  • In the preparation of alum from clays or from bauxite, the material is gently calcined, then mixed with sulphuric acid and heated gradually to boiling; it is allowed to stand for some time, the clear solution drawn off and mixed with acid potassium sulphate and allowed to crystallize.

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  • Fine white freestone abounds in the immediate vicinity (as at Craigleith, from the vast quarry of which, now passing into disuse, the stone for much of the New Town was obtained) and furnishes excellent building material; while the hard trap rock, with which the stratified sandstones of the Coal formation have been extensively broken up and overlaid, supplies good materials for paving and road-making.

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  • The above constitutes the whole material which the earlier middle age had at its disposal.

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  • In God, who is pure form without matter, the archetypes of material things exist as eternal immaterial forms. In this way Gilbert was at once Aristotelian and Platonist.

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  • The first effects of this immense acquisition of new material were markedly unsettling on the doctrinal orthodoxy of the time.

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  • Originality was at no time the strong point of the middle ages, but in the later period it was almost of necessity buried under the mass of material suddenly thrust upon the age, to be assimilated.

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  • On the other hand, the influence of this new material is everywhere evident in the wider range of questions which are discussed by the doctors of the period.

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  • The plaiters work up the material in a damp state, either into whole straw or split straw plaits.

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  • The success of this enterprise was decisive and rapid, and the "Cobden prints" soon became known through the country as of rare value both for excellence of material and beauty of design.

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  • The landless younger sons of the gentry and the Servian and Vlach immigrants provided him with excellent and practically inexhaustible military material.

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  • Besides, his hands were tied by the unappeasable enmity of the emperor and the emperor's allies, and he could never count upon any material help from the West against the East.

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  • Moreover, the next century and a half was a period of domestic tranquillity, during which Hungary was able to repair the ruin of the long Turkish wars, nurse her material resources, and take the first steps in the direction of social and political reform.

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  • For the medieval history of Hungary the Mdtydskori diplomatikai emlekek (Diplomatic Memorials of the Time of Matthias Corvinus), issued by the academy under the joint editorship of Ivan Nagy and Baron Albert Nyary, affords interesting material.

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  • Though he was much indebted to Aristotle he used the material to advantage, adding much from his own experience and historical knowledge.

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  • In general he deserves the praise of steadily keeping in view the higher aims and interests of society in connexion with the regulation and development of its material life.

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  • The Romans, who succeeded the Greeks as the chief civilized power in Europe, failed to set store on their literary and scientific treasures; mathematics was all but neglected; and beyond a few improvements in arithmetical computations, there are no material advances to be recorded.

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  • The ancient city walls have been almost entirely destroyed in recent times to provide building material,' and the place is famous for the discoveries made in its tombs.

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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.

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  • The failure of the material carrying a positive character to divide so as to distribute itself among all the reproductive cells of a hybrid individual, and the limitation of its distribution to half only of those cells, must prevent the swamping " of a newly appearing character in the course of the inter-breeding of those individuals possessed of the character with those which do not possess it.

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  • It is no discovery that this latter kind of variation is not hereditable, and it is not the fact that the small variations, to which Darwin attached great but not exclusive importance as the material upon which natural selection operates, are of this latter kind.

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  • But his long reign is unstained by a single ignoble deed, and he devoted himself heart and soul to the promotion of the material and spiritual welfare of Denmark.

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  • Under these conditions there is no doubt that the star would appear to be fairly resolved, since the brightness of its external ring system is too small to produce any material confusion, unless indeed the components are of very unequal magnitude.

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  • A comparison with the method of a material pointer, attached to the parts whose rotation is under observation, and viewed through a microscope, is of interest.

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  • In an engraved glass grating there is no opaque material present by which light could be absorbed, and the effect depends upon a difference of retardation in passing the alternate parts.

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  • Under these circumstances, if the material of the grating be completely transparent, the whole of the light must appear in the direct image, and the ruling is not perceptible.

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  • To save the diamond point it might be possible to use something softer than ordinary glass as the material of the plate.

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  • The only practically available raw material for 'the extraction of uranium is pitchblende (q.v.).

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  • Ammonium uranate heated to redness yields pure U308, which serves as a raw material for uranium compounds.

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  • The efforts made by the administration to restore the Boers to the land, to develop the material resources of the country, and to remove all barriers to the intellectual and moral development of the people, were soon, however, hampered by severe Economic commercial depression.

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  • The broad distinctions which, as a matter of fact, exist between every known form of living substance and every other component of the material world, justify the separation of the biological sciences from all others.

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  • To tin cast-iron articles they must be decarburetted superficially by ignition within a bath of ferric oxide (powdered haematite or similar material), then cleaned with acid, and tinned by immersion, as explained above.

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  • It is frequently found upon deities, kings and magnates, and appears to have been composed of some thick furrowed or fluted material, sometimes of bright and variegated design.

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  • A small charge of dry guncotton will, however, detonate the wet material, and this peculiarity is made use of in the employment of guncotton for blasting purposes.

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  • A charge of compressed wet guncotton may be exploded, even under water, by the detonation of a small primer of the dry and waterproofed material, which in turn can be started by a small fulminate detonator.

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  • The explosive wave from the dry guncotton primer is in fact better responded to by the wet compressed material than the dry, and its detonation is somewhat sharper than that of the dry.

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  • Gaullieur in the same review in 1857, and all the available material is utilized in a monograph on her and her work by P. Godet, Madame de Charriere et ses amis (2 vols., Geneva, 1906).

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  • The fruit is edible and its juice is made into beer; the sap of the tree is made into wine, and its pith into bread; the leaves furnish an excellent thatch, and the fibre extracted from their midribs is used f or fish lines, cordage, hammocks, nets, &c.; and the wood is hard and makes good building' material.

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  • The cell body, or cytoplasm, is apparently composed of a fine reticulum or network, containing within the meshes a soft viscid, transparent substance, the cell-sap, or hyaloplasm, which is probably a nutrient material to the living cell.

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  • Their principal function is to bring about the removal of foreign, dead or degenerating material.

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  • Where the material is too large to be taken up by an individual cell, the dissolution is brought about by the cells surrounding the material, to which they closely apply themselves, and by the secreting of the ferment, a gradual process of erosion is brought about with ultimate absorption.

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  • There is neither any absolute difference nor a constancy in their chemical reactions, and there can be brought about a transition of the " colloid " material into the " mucoid," or conversely.

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  • In certain pathological conditions an excessive formation and discharge of such material is usually associated with catarrhal changes in the epithelium.

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  • In the normal thyroid there is formed and stored up in the spaces this colloid material.

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  • These vesicles are filled with the colloid material (x 90 diam.) J FIG.

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  • There is no evidence that this material is brought by the circulating blood and infiltrates the tissues.

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  • Generally it is either dried, after being separated from the wash water, by means of common salt, upon a layer of which the moist nitroglycerin is gently run and allowed to drain or filter through, or it is filtered through a mass of dry sponge or similar dry and porous material.

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  • The material (limestone) was quarried on the spot.

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  • Great importance was also attached to chemically prepared remedies as containing the essence or spiritual quality of the material from which they were derived.

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  • In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.

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  • All phenomena, moral as well as material, are contemplated by him in their relation to one great organic whole, which he acknowledges under the name of "Natura daedala rerum," and the most beneficent manifestations of which he seems to symbolize and almost to deify in the "Alma Venus," whom, in apparent contradiction to his denial of a divine interference with human affairs, he invokes with prayer in the opening lines of the poem.

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  • Much of the material was obtained from the destroyed houses of the unfortunate Jews, but the stone for the bulwarks was obtained from Caen, and the small bricks or tiles from Flanders.

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  • In reply to Rudolf Hospinian's Concordia discors (1607), he wrote a work, rich in historical material but one-sided in its apologetics, Concordia concors (1614), defending the formula of Concord, which he regarded as inspired.

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  • When the rocks are concealed by detrital material he looks for outcroppings on steep hillsides, on the crests of hills or ridges, in the beds of streams, in landslides, in the roots of overturned trees, and in wells, quarries, roadcuttings and other excavations.

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  • Rock-filling will be used whenever a large proportion of barren material must be mined with the ore.

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  • With soft material, pillars must be large, even at moderate depths below the surface, and it involves less labour to leave long rectangular pillars than to form numerous Pillar- square ones.

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  • In steep pitching beds sufficient excavated material is allowed to remain in the stope for the support of the machines and men, the excess being drawn out from time to time and loaded into cars.

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  • The ore as mined is hand-picked and the barren material allowed to remain in the stope where it falls.

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  • When rock filling is available, as when the ore contains much barren material to be left behind in mining, the ore body is divided into blocks of convenient height as above, and these blocks are divided into floors, the bottom floor of each block however being attacked.

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  • The cost of filling has been greatly reduced by the system of flushing culm, sand, gravel and similar material, through pipes leading from the surface into mine workings.

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  • Where practicable steam shovels are employed, even when it is necessary to break up the material beforehand by blasting.

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  • At Anzac, where conditions favoured the retreating troops less, it had been necessary to destroy some valuable war material at the last moment, and a few worn-out guns had purposely been abandoned.

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  • The work of removing stores, war material, animals and personnel was to be carried out on successive nights, the fighting force ashore was to be gradually reduced, the front line of trenches was to be held up till the very last - the final night being fixed provisionally for the 8th-9th - and the detachments vacating it were to hurry straight off to the beaches.

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  • It ought also to be mentioned that there was a greater accumulation of impedimenta at Helles than there had been at either Anzac or Suvla, so that even if the weather were to remain favourable, it was certain that material of great value would have to be destroyed to prevent its falling into the enemy's hands.

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  • He began a "History of his Native District of Northern Wiltshire," but, feeling that he was too old to finish it as he would wish, he made over his material, about 1695, to Thomas Tanner, afterwards bishop of St Asaph.

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  • In this way is produced the crystalline, devitrified material, known as Reaumur's porcelain.

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  • Owing to the physical changes produced in the material exposed prolonged observations of temperature are impossible.

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  • The material and technique suggest a close relationship to porcelain.

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  • In a sheet-glass tank there is therefore a gradient of temperature and a continuous passage of material from the hotter end of the furnace where the raw materials are introduced to the cooler end where the glass, free from bubbles and raw material, is withdrawn by the gatherers.

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  • The demand constantly increases, and, owing to constant improvements in material in the moulds and in the methods of working, the supply fully keeps pace with the demand.

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  • This smooth surface is then brilliantly polished by the aid of friction with a rubbing tool covered with a soft substance like leather or felt and fed with a polishing material, such as rouge.

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  • The material has been considered by some to be magnetic iron ore and by others oxide of manganese.

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  • A more important outcome, however, of Italian influence was the production, in emulation of Venetian glass, of a glass made of refined potash, lime and sand, which was more colourless than the material it was intended to imitate.

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  • Glass-cutting was a craft imported from Germany, but the English material so greatly surpassed Bohemian glass in brilliance that the Bohemian cut-glass was eclipsed.

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  • The case has been the converse of that of the Romans; the latter had no fine pottery, and therefore employed glass as the material for vessels of an ornamental kind, for table services and the like.

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  • The advance in its material prosperity has been especially rapid since the incorporation of Saxony in the German Zollverein.

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  • Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.

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  • In the design of a structure such as a tall reservoir dam it is important that the line of thrust in the material should pass inside the core of a section, so that the material should not be in a state of tension anywhere and so liable to open and admit the water.

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  • Looking somewhat deeper at the sources from which Old English law was derived, we shall have to modify our classification to some extent, as the external forms of publication, although important from the point of view of historical criticism, are not sufficient standards as to the juridical character of the various kinds of material.

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  • Assyria in this, as in other matters, the servile pupil of Babylonia, built its palaces and temples of brick, though stone was the natural building material of the country, even preserving the brick platform, so necessary in the marshy soil of Babylonia, but little needed in the north.

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  • The publication of fresh chronological material in 1906 and 1907 placed a new complexion on the problems at issue, and enabled us to correct several preconceptions, and to reconcile or explain the apparently conflicting data.

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  • Among the chief editions are those of Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas (1868); Gebhardt and Harnack, Patres Apostolici (1877, with full bibliographical material); Funk, Patres Apost.

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  • On this should be laid at least a foot thick of coarse, hard, rubbly material, a layer of rough turf, grass side downwards, being spread over it to prevent the compost from working down.

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