Masséna Sentence Examples
Massena's triumph at Zurich (September 25th-26th, 1799) paralysed the Second Coalition; and, though the Austrians continued to make progress along the Italian riviera, the French Republic was in little danger on that side so long as it held Switzerland.
The soldiery had never forgiven Massena his peculations after the capture of Rome.
Next came the marshals, namely, Berthier, Murat, Massena, Augereau, Lannes, Jourdan, Ney, Soult, Brune, Davout, Bessieres, Moncey, Mortier and Bernadotte.
About noon Berthier returned and after hearing his explanation Massena received orders to move from Augsburg towards Ingolstadt.
Napoleon, who had personally taken part in the fighting of the previous day, and followed the pursuit as far as Landshut, whence he had despatched Massena to follow the retreating Austrians along the Isar, seems to have realized about 3 A.M.Advertisement
Then, leaving Davout to observe the archduke's retreat, the emperor himself rode after Massena, who with the major portion of the French army was following the Austrian weaker wing under Hiller.
Marshal Massena with 120,000, including the corps of Ney, Junot, Reynier and some of the Imperial Guard, was to operate from Salamanca against Portugal; but first Soult, appointed major-general of the army in Spain (equivalent to chief of the staff), was, with the corps of Victor, Mortier and Sebastiani (70,000), to reduce Andalusia.
Soult having been instructed to co-operate by taking Badajoz and Elvas, Massena, early in June 18to, moved forward, and Ciudad Rodrigo surrendered to him (June to).
A little north of Coimbra, the road which Massena followed crossed the Sierra de Bussaco (Busaco), a very strong position where Wellington resolved to offer him battle.
The next day Massena turned the Sierra by the Boyalva Pass and Sardao, which latter place, owing to an error, had not been occupied by the Portuguese, and Wellington then retreated by Coimbra and Leiria to the lines, which he entered on the 11th of October, having within them fully ioo,000 able-bodied men.Advertisement
This practically closed Wellington's operations for the year 1810, his policy now being not to lose men in battle, but to reduce Massena by hunger and distress.
Ney, commanding Massena's rearguard, conducted the retreat with great ability.
Nothing could well exceed the horrors of Massena's retreat.
Wellington now sent off Beresford with a force to retake Badajoz; and Massena, sacrificing much of his baggage and ammunition, reached Celorico and Guarda (March 21).
Wellington, on the 9th of April 1811, directed General Spencer to invest Almeida; he then set off himself to join Beresford before Badajoz, but after reconnoitring the fortress with his lieutenant he had at once to return north on the news that Massena was moving to relieve Almeida.Advertisement
On the 3rd of May Loison attacked him at Fuentes d'Onor near Almeida, and Massena coming up himself made a more serious attack on the 5th of May.
Massena failed to dislodge the Allies, and on the 8th of May withdrew to Salamanca, Almeida falling to Wellington on the r ith of May 181 r.
He returned to Naples as captain on Massena's staff to fight the Bourbons and the Austrians in 1806, and subsequently went to Spain, where he followed Jerome Bonaparte in his retreat from Madrid.
Massena's corps at once crossed to the left bank and dislodged the Austrian outposts.
The battle began at Aspern; Hiller carried the village at the first rush, but Massena recaptured it, and held his ground with the same tenacity as he had shown at Genoa in 1800.Advertisement
The three Austrian columns fighting their hardest through the day were unable to capture more than half the village; the rest was still held by Massena when night fell.
Massena swiftly cleared Aspern of the enemy, but at the same time Rosenberg stormed Essling at last.
In Aspern Massena had been less fortunate, the counter-attack of Hiller and Bellegarde being as completely successful as that of Lannes and St Hilaire.
General Stuart's victory at Maida (July 3) shook Joseph's throne to its base; but the surrender of Gaeta soon enabled Massena to march southwards and subdue Calabria.
Thrown into prison on a frivolous charge of friendliness to the royalists and England, he was released after the fall of Robespierre in the summer of 1794, and rose in the service until, in 1799, he became chief commissary to the French army serving under Massena in the north of Switzerland.Advertisement
Massena moved against Portugal with an army of 70,000 men.
Massena followed, but was checked completely in front of the lines.
Massena retreated, devastating the country to check the pursuit, but on several occasions his rearguard was deeply engaged, and such were the sufferings of his army, both in the invasion and in the retreat, that the French, when they re-entered Spain, had lost 30,000 men.
In the meantime Soult, who was besieging Cadiz, had moved to support Massena.
But after capturing Badajoz, Soult learnt that Massena was in retreat, and also that his own forces at Cadiz had been beaten.
Wellington, freed from pressure on this side, and believing Massena to be thoroughly disabled, considered that the time had come for an advance into Spain.
Almeida was besieged, and Wellington was preparing to attack Badajoz when Massena again took the field, and marched to the relief of Almeida.
Marmont, who had succeeded Massena, fell back to the Douro,.
By 1888 Hall was at work on a commercial scale at Pittsburg, reducing German alumina; in 1891 the plant was removed to New Kensington for economy in fuel, and was gradually enlarged to 150o h.p.; in 1894 a factory driven by water was erected at Niagara Falls, and subsequently works were established at Shawenegan in Canada and at Massena in the United States.
Massena, of the short-lived Roman republic; and he thence joined the expedition to Egypt, taking part with his friend Berthollet as well in various operations of the war as in the scientific labours of the Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts; they accompanied Bonaparte to Syria, and returned with him in 1798 to France.
At Massena, in New York State, 75, 000 H.P. is to be developed from fifteen sets of these turbines working under a head of 40 ft.
The short-lived Ligurian republic was soon swallowed up in the French empire, not, however, until Genoa had been made to experience, by the terrible privations of the siege when Massena held the city against the Austrians (1800), all that was meant by a participation in the vicissitudes of the French Revolution.
On the 18th of July 1806 it was captured, after an heroic defence, by the French under Massena; and on the 18th of July 1815 it capitulated, after a three months' siege, to the Austrians.
It was destroyed by the French under Massena in 1806.
Farther east they rule, subject to the control of the French, Segu and Massena, countries on both banks of the upper Niger, to the south-west of Timbuktu.
After serving with Hoche and Massena in Germany and Switzerland (1797-99), Pajol took a cavalry command under Moreau for the campaign on the upper Rhine.
A famous street in Paris (Rue de Rivoli) commemorates the victory, and under the empire Marshal Massena received the title of duke of Rivoli.
After the battle of Wagram (July 6, 1809) the French armies in the Peninsula received large reinforcements, and by Marshal Massena, with 120,000 men, was ordered to operate against Portugal.
Wellesley, who had now become Viscount Wellington, opposed his march south wards, and won a victory at Bussaco on the 27th of September; but Massena subsequently turned the position of the allied army on the Serra de Bussaco, and caused Wellington to fall back upon the fortified lines which he had already constructed at Torres Vedras.
The Portuguese troops cut Massena's communications; the peasants, under instructions from Wellington, had already laid waste their own farms, destroyed the roads and bridges by which Massena might retreat, and burned their boats on the Tagus.
On the 5th of March 1811, after a winter of terrible sufferings, Massena's retreat began; he was harassed by the allied troops all the way to Sabugal, where the last rearguard action in Portugal took place on the 3rd of April.
It was at this time that he laid the foundations of his military fame, and he particularly distinguished himself in Massena's great Swiss campaign, and especially at the battle of Zurich.
He accompanied Massena to Genoa, and acted as his principal lieutenant throughout the protracted siege of that city, during which he operated with a detached force without the walls, and after many successful actions he was wounded and taken prisoner at Monte Cretto on the 13th of April 1800.
In 1806 they were again in flight before the armies of Massena, and it was during the second residence of her father's court at Palermo that she met the exiled Louis Philippe, then duke of Orleans, whom she married in November 1809.
The invasion of Switzerland was baffled by want of concert between Austrians and Russians and by Massena's victory at Zurich on the 25th and 26th of September.
This conduct was not wholly approved by Napoleon, but he named him count and in 1810 attached him to Massena's army in Portugal.
On the day of the above battle Massena, having destroyed what guns he could not horse, and skilfully gained time by a feint against Abrantes, began his retreat from before the lines, through Coimbra and Espinhal.