Massachusetts sentence example
Biennial appropriations are made for the support of the deaf and dumb, the blind and imbecile children at various institutions in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Heading south, near the Massachusetts line.
Howie was to remain in Massachusetts, at least for a few more days, working with Quinn and Martha.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.Advertisement
We stole one weekend together, remaining in New York, before answering a summons to join the others in Massachusetts.
The first call was from a pay phone in Lynn, Massachusetts.
And the price was about the same as the tiny Cape Cod house the LeBlanc's owned in expensive Massachusetts.
It was from Massachusetts.
I wisely followed with my careful research of recent births in this community until I found mother LeBlanc, lately arrived from a city near Lynn, Massachusetts!Advertisement
In 1637 he emigrated with Davenport to Massachusetts, and in the following year (March 1638) he and Davenport founded New Haven.
Two of the lots were immediately purchased by Captain Ephraim Williams (1715-1755), who was at the time commander of Fort Massachusetts in the vicinity; several other lots were bought by soldiers under him; and in 1 753 the proprietors organized a township government.
Presbyterianism was stronger in Connecticut than in Massachusetts.
What is now Dorchester (disambiguation)|Dorchester county, South Carolina, was settled in 1695 by members of a church established in Dorchester, Massachusetts.
Troy is the market for a fertile agricultural region, and the principal jobbing centre for a large district in north-eastern New York and eastern Massachusetts.Advertisement
Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 19,974 were natives of New York, 9675 were natives of New Hampshire and 9111 were natives of Massachusetts.
New Hampshire claimed that her territory extended as far to the west as those of Massachusetts and Connecticut, whereas New York, under the charter of 1664, claimed eastward to the Connecticut river.
The first settlement here was made about 1659 in a part of Marlboro called Chauncy (because of a grant of Soo acres here to Charles Chauncy, president of Harvard College, made in 1659 and revoked in 1660 by the General Court of Massachusetts).
In 1658 Massachusetts extended its jurisdiction over this part of Maine.
He became lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts in 1916 and was reelected in 1917 and 1918.Advertisement
He was elected governor of Massachusetts in 1919 and in 1920 was reelected under circumstances that attracted nation-wide attention.
As governor he recommended that Massachusetts ratify the woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution.
Some of his speeches were published under the title Have Faith in Massachusetts (1919).
It lost, more and more, its influence and usefulness, and by 1817 was practically dead as a national party, although in Massachusetts it lingered in power until 1823.
Dr Park's sermon, "The Theology of the Intellect and that of the Feelings," delivered in 1850 before the convention of the Congregational ministers of Massachusetts, and published in the Bibliotheca sacra of July 1850, was the cause of a long and bitter controversy, metaphysical rather than doctrinal, with Charles Hodge.Advertisement
This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
Graduating from Harvard in 1841, he was a schoolmaster for two years, studied theology at the Harvard Divinity School, and was pastor in1847-1850of the First Religious Society (Unitarian) of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and of the Free Church at Worcester in 1852-1858.
Webster hesitated, but after consultation with a delegation of Massachusetts Whigs decided to remain.
He died at his home in Marshfield, Massachusetts, on the 24th of October 1852.
Cumberland was originally a part of Rehoboth, and then of Attleborough, Massachusetts, and for many years was called, like other sparse settlements, the Gore or Attleborough Gore.Advertisement
In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland.
It was of about 180 tons burden, and in company with the "Speedwell" sailed from Southampton on the 5th of August 1620, the two having on board 120 Pilgrims. After two trials the "Speedwell" was pronounced unseaworthy, and the "Mayflower" sailed alone from Plymouth, England, on the 6th of September with the zoo (or 102) passengers, some 41 of whom on the lzth of November (o.s.) signed the famous "Mayflower Compact" in Provincetown Harbor, and a small party of whom, including William Bradford, sent to choose a place for settlement, landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 11th of December (21st N.s.), an event which is celebrated, as Forefathers' Day, on the 22nd of December.
Wrentham, Massachusetts, is associated with nearly all of my joys and sorrows.
His father, a farmer, also named John, was of the fourth generation in descent from Henry Adams, who emigrated from Devonshire, England, to Massachusetts about 1636; his mother was Susanna Boylston Adams. Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1755, and for a time taught school at Worcester and studied law in the office of Rufus Putnam.
The earliest of these is his report of the argument of James Otis in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the constitutionality of writs of assistance.Advertisement
He first made his influence widely felt and became conspicuous as a leader of the Massachusetts Whigs during the discussions with regard to the Stamp Act of 1765.
Adams's upright and patriotic conduct in taking the unpopular side in this case met with its just reward in the following year, in the shape of his election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives by a vote of 418 to 118.
His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth.
In 1764 Adams had married Miss Abigail Smith (1744-1818), the daughter of a Congregational minister at Weymouth, Massachusetts.
He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 21st of March 1884.Advertisement
This settlement, with jurisdiction over all the territory now included in Portsmouth, New Castle and Greenland, and most of that in Rye, was known as " Strawberry Banke " until 1653, when it was incorporated (by the government of Massachusetts) under the name of Portsmouth.
There was from the first much trouble between its Anglican settlers sent over by Mason and the Puritans from Massachusetts, and in 1641 Massachusetts extended her jurisdiction over this region.
Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean.
The result was that New York ceded its claim to the United States in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786.
In March 1786 the second Ohio Company (q.v.), composed chiefly of New England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake Erie and the Ohio river.Advertisement
Much of the township is hilly, and Bear Mountain (2355 ft.), near the Massachusetts line, is the highest elevation in the state.
The city lies on Massachusetts bay, on what was once a pear-shaped peninsula attached to the mainland by a narrow, marshy neck, often swept by the spray and water.
The second was the seat of the royal government of Massachusetts during the provincial period, and within its walls from 1760 to 1775 the questions of colonial dependence or independence probably first came into evident conflict.
The dignified buildings of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are near.
It embraces over 10,000 acres, including the Blue Hill reservation (about 5000 acres), the highest land in eastern Massachusetts, a beautiful reservation of forest, crag and pond known as Middlesex Fells, two large beach bath reservations on the harbour at Revere and Hull (Nantasket), and the boating section of the Charles river.Advertisement
Various other Massachusetts townships, as they have grown older, have been similarly compelled to abandon their old form of government.
Howe, and for association with Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller; the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feebleminded children (1839); and the Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary (1824), all receive financial aid from the commonwealth, which has representation in their management.
There were various attempts to settle about its borders in the following years before John Endecott in 1628 landed at Salem as governor of the colony of Massachusetts bay, within which Boston was included.
Throughout the 17th century its history is so largely that of Massachusetts generally that they are inseparable.
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
In October 1774, when General Gage refused recognition to the Massachusetts general court at Salem, the members adjourned to Concord as the first provincial congress.
Boston had long since taken her place in the very front of anti-slavery ranks, and with the rest of Massachusetts was playing somewhat the same part as in the years before the War of Independence.
The first settlement in New Haven (called Quinnipiac, its Indian name, until 1640) was made in the autumn of 1637 by a party of explorers in search of a site for colonization for a band of Puritans, led by Theophilus Eaton and the Rev. John Davenport, who had arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, from England in July 1637.
Standing in the public green, in the centre of the city, is the original statue (by Launt Thompson) of the "Massachusetts Color Bearer," which has been reproduced on the battlefield of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
He studied at Phillips Andover Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, and entered Yale, but left in his junior year (1857) to accept a position as a teacher of shorthand in the St Louis, Missouri, public schools.
See Mellen Chamberlain (and others), History of Chelsea (2 vols., Boston, 1908), published by the Massachusetts Historical Society.
The township of Rutland was granted by New Hampshire in 1761 to John Murray of Rutland, Massachusetts, and about the same time it was granted (as Fairfield) by New York.
Hoosick Falls was settled about 1688 by Dutch settlers - settlers from Connecticut and Massachusetts came after 1763 - and it was first incorporated in 1827.
Returning to Massachusetts in 1849, he became a clerk and subsequently a junior partner in a prominent Boston commercial house.
There is a ladies' branch of the Kennel Club, and the corresponding clubs in America are the Ladies' Kennel Association of America and the Ladies' Kennel Association of Massachusetts.
In 1656, 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the introduction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was enacted that on the first conviction one ear should be cut off, on the second the remaining ear, and that on the third conviction the tongue should be bored with a hot iron.
Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the -obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately returning within it.
He served as a Free Soiler in the Massachusetts house of representatives from 1849 to 1853, and was speaker in 1851 and 1852; he was president of the state Constitutional Convention of 1853, and in the same year was elected to the national House of Representatives as a coalition candidate of Democrats and Free Soilers.
Having rejoined the Republican party in 1876, he was United States marshal for Massachusetts from 187 9 until 1888, when for the ninth time he was elected to Congress.
He then studied law for a short time at Wrentham, Massachusetts; was tutor in Latin and Greek (1820-1822) and librarian (1821-1823) at Brown University; studied during 1821-1823 in the famous law school conducted by Judge James Gould at Litchfield, Connecticut; and in 1823 was admitted to the Norfolk (Mass.) bar.
For fourteen years, first at Dedham, Massachusetts, and after 1833 at Boston, he devoted himself, with great success, to his profession.
Meanwhile he served, with conspicuous ailbity, in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833 and in the Massachusetts Senate from 1833 to 1837, for the last two years as president.
It was not until he became secretary (1837) of the newly created board of education of Massachusetts, that be began the work which was soon to place him in the foremost rank of American educationists.
He held this position till 1848, and worked with a remarkable intensity - holding teachers' conventions, delivering numerous lectures and addresses, carrying on an extensive correspondence, introducing numerous reforms, planning and inaugurating the Massachusetts normal school system, founding and editing The Common School Journal (1838), and preparing a series of Annual Reports, which had a wide circulation and are still considered as being "among the best expositions, if, indeed, they are not the very best ones, of the practical benefits of a common school education both to the individual and to the state" (Hinsdale).
The practical result of his work was the virtual revolutionizing of the common school system of Massachusetts, and indirectly of the common school systems of other states.
In 1852 he was the candidate of the Free-soilers for the governorship of Massachusetts, but was defeated.
Pennsylvania in 1842 (16 Peters 539), that state authorities could not be forced to act in fugitive slave cases, but that national authorities must carry out the national law, was followed by legislation in Massachusetts (1843), Vermont (1843), Pennsylvania (1847) and Rhode Island (1848), forbidding state officials to help enforce the law and refusing the use of state gaols for fugitive slaves.
Massachusetts, U.S.A., having an area of 23 sq.
Fort Massachusetts, at one time within its bounds, was destroyed in 1746 by the French.
After preaching four years in New York and New Hampshire, he became, in April 1773, pastor of the Second church at Franklin (until 1778 a part of Wrentham, Massachusetts), of which he remained in charge until May 1827, when failing health compelled his relinquishment of active ministerial cares.
He was a founder and the first president of the Massachusetts Missionary Society, and was influential in the establishment of Andover Theological Seminary.
Dissensions, however, continued, and in 1641, by the will of the majority, Dover passed under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts and so remained for nearly half a century.
He was the son of Richard Dana (1699-1772), a leader of the Massachusetts provincial bar, and a vigorous advocate of colonial rights in the pre-revolutionary period.
Francis Dana graduated at Harvard in 1762, was admitted to the bar in 1767, and, being an opponent of the British colonial policy, became a leader of the Sons of Liberty, and in 1774 was a member of the first provincial congress of Massachusetts.
He was a member of the Massachusetts executive council from 1776 to 1780, and a delegate to the continental congress from 1776 to 1778.
In February 1784 he was again chosen a delegate to Congress, and in January 1785 he became a justice of the Massachusetts supreme court.
He was an earnest advocate of the adoption of the Federal constitution, was a member of the Massachusetts convention which ratified that instrument, and was one of the most influential advisers of the leaders of the Federalist party.
He died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 25th of April 1811.
HiS SOD, Richard Henry Dana (1787-1879), was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 15th of November 1787.
Richard Henry Dana (1815-1882), son of the last-mentioned, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 1st of August 1815.
He returned to America from a trip round the world in time to participate in the presidential campaign of 1860, and after Lincoln's inauguration he was appointed United States district attorney for Massachusetts.
The township became the shire-township in 1685, passed under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts in 1692, and in 1747 was annexed to Rhode Island.
In the United States straw-plait work is principally centred in the state of Massachusetts.
It is served by the Boston & Maine railroad and by electric railways to Andover, Boston, Lowell, Haverhill and Salem, Massachusetts, and to Nashua and Salem, New Hampshire.
The Van Rensselaer manor-house, built in 1765, was pulled down in 1893 and was reconstructed on the campus of Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, where it is used as a fraternity club-house.
In 1689 Was held here the first inter-colonial convention in America, when delegates from Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New York met to treat with representatives of the Five Nations and to plan a system of colonial defence.
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
Upon the removal in 1824 of the conference's academy at New Market, New Hampshire, to Wilbraham, Massachusetts, Fisk became one of its agents and trustees, and in 1826 its principal.
In 1737 he began his public career as a member of the Boston Board of Selectmen, and a few weeks later he was elected to the General Court of Massachusetts Bay, of which he was a member until 1740 and again from 1742 to 1 749, serving as speaker in 1 747, 1 74 8 and 1749.
Hutchinson went to England in 1740 as the representative of Massachusetts in a boundary dispute with New Hampshire.
He was a member of the Massachusetts Council from 1749 to 1756, was appointed judge of probate in 1752 and was chief justice of the superior court of the province from 1761 to 1769, was lieutenant-governor from 1758 to 1771, acting as governor in the latter two years, and from 1771 to 1774 was governor.
Throughout the preRevolutionary disturbances in Massachusetts he was the representative of the British ministry, and though he disapproved of some of the ministerial measures he felt impelled to enforce them and necessarily incurred the hostility of the Whig or Patriot element.
His elder brother, John Quincy Adams (1833-1894), a graduate of Harvard (1853), practised law, and was a Democratic member for several terms of the Massachusetts general court.
Another brother, Brooks Adams (1848-), born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on the 24th of June 1848, graduated at Harvard in 1870, and until 1881 practised law.
At Merry Mount, in that part of Braintree which is now Quincy, a settlement was established by Thomas Morton in 1625, but the gay life of the settlers and their selling rum and firearms to the Indians greatly offended the Pilgrims of Plymouth, who in 1627 arrested Morton; soon afterward Governor John Endecott of Massachusetts Bay visited Merry Mount, rebuked the inhabitants and cut down their Maypole.
Watertown was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay settlements, having been begun early in 1630 by a group of settlers led by Sir Richard Saltonstall and the Rev. George Phillips.
In the First Parish Church, the site of which is marked by a monument, the Provincial Congress, after adjournment from Concord, met from April to July 1775; the Massachusetts General Court held its sessions here from 1775 to 1778, and the Boston town meetings were held here during the siege of Boston, when many of the well-known Boston families made their homes in the neighbourhood.
Another species of cypress (Cupressus thyoides, also known as Chamaecyparis thyoides or sphaeroidea), found in swamps in the south of Ohio and Massachusetts, is known as the American white cedar.
Pepperrell served in the Massachusetts general court (1726-1727), and in the governor's council (1727-1759), of which for eighteen years he was president.
Tallow candles as a substitute for whale-oil had been introduced, and the British market was closed by a duty of £r8 a ton on oil; a bounty offered by the Massachusetts legislature (£5 on white and £ 3 on yellow or brown spermaceti, and £2 on whale-oil per ton) was of slight assistance.
Both factions appealed to the governor of New York, that province having claimed jurisdiction over the islands under the grant to the duke of York in 1664, and, becoming increasingly dissatisfied with that government, sought a union with Massachusetts until the islands were annexed to that province by its new charter of 1691.
When counties were first organized in New York, in 1683, Nantucket and the neighbouring islands were erected into Dukes county, but in 1695, after annexation to Massachusetts, Nantucket Island, having been set apart from Dukes county, constituted Nantucket county, and in 1713 Tuckernuck Island was annexed to it.
With ardent anti-slavery principles, he entered political life as a "Young Whig" opposed to the Mexican War; he became an active Free-Soiler in 1848, and in 1854 took part in the organization in Massachusetts of the new Republican party.
In 1860 he was chairman of the Massachusetts delegation to the Republican national convention at Chicago, which nominated Lincoln for the presidency; and from 1861 to January 1866, throughout the trying period of the Civil War, he was governor of Massachusetts, becoming known as one of the ablest, most patriotic and most energetic of the remarkable group of "war governors" in the North.
On the next day the Sixth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry started south for the defence of Washington, and was the first fully armed and equipped volunteer regiment to reach the capital.
Within six days after the call, nearly four thousand Massachusetts volunteers had departed for Washington.
In 1865 he rejected the more radical views of his party as to the treatment to be accorded to the late Confederate states, opposed the immediate and unconditional enfranchisement of freedmen, and, though not accepting President Johnson's views in their entirety, he urged the people of Massachusetts to give the new president their support.
He was a descendant of Matthew Grant, a Scotchman, who settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1630.
In 1752 he was taken prisoner by the Indians but was ransomed by Massachusetts.
Rhode Island was founded by refugees from Massachusetts, who went there in search of religious and political freedom.
In 1640 the Generar Court of Massachusetts declared that the representatives of Aquidneck were " not to be capitulated withal either for themselves or the people of the isle where they inhabit," and in 1644 and again in 1648 the application of the Narragansett settlers for admission to the New England Confederacy was refused except on condition that they should pass under the jurisdiction of either Massachusetts or Plymouth.
Nelson Dale, The Chief Commercial Granites of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island (Ibid., 1908), being Bulletin 354 of the U.S. Geological Survey.
He was also active for many years as Indian commissioner and surveyor-general and helped to settle the New York boundary disputes with Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.
These two were followed by the Democratic Review (1838-1852), the American Review (1845-1849), afterwards the American Whig Review (1850-1852), the Massachusetts Quarterly Review (1847-1850), and a few more.
He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1834, and subsequently held pastorates at Newark, New Jersey (1851-1857), and Georgetown, Massachusetts; and from 1870 to 1877 lived in Florida, where he was state superintendent of public instruction in 1871-1873.
He died at Georgetown, Massachusetts, on the 21st of April 190o.
He was descended from Edmond Sherman, who emigrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1634.
She was the daughter of Nathaniel Hall of Medford, member of a family which was represented in the convention that framed the constitution of Massachusetts in 1780.
Samuel Adams first came into wider prominence at the beginning of the Stamp Act episode, in 1764, when as author of Boston's instructions to its representatives in the general court of Massachusetts he urged strenuous opposition to taxation by act of parliament.
Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves" and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole.
He it was, also, who managed the proceedings of the "Boston Tea Party," and later he was moderator of the convention of Massachusetts towns called to protest against the Boston Port Bill.
In 1779 he was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of Massachusetts that was adopted in 1780, and is still, with some amendments, the organic law of the commonwealth and one of the oldest fundamental laws in existence.
In 1788, Samuel Adams was a member of the Massachusetts convention to ratify the Constitution of the United States.
Without his aid it is probable that the constitution would not have been ratified by Massachusetts.
First settled about 1753, Brattleboro took its name from one of the original patentees, William Brattle (1702-1776), a Massachusetts loyalist.
He died in Hadley, Massachusetts, on the 11th of July 1904.
In 1847 and again in 1848 the Democrats nominated him for governor of Massachusetts, but on each occasion he was defeated at the polls.
He was again a representative in the state legislature in 1851, became an associate justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts in 1852, and during the administration (1853-1857) of President Pierce, was attorneygeneral of the United States.
He had married young and had migrated from Banbury to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1685.
Franklin's superior management of the paper, his new type, " some spirited remarks " on the controversy between the Massachusetts assembly and Governor Burnet, brought his paper into immediate notice, and his success both as a printer and as a journalist was assured and complete.
He was agent now, not only of Pennsylvania, but also of New Jersey, of Georgia and of Massachusetts.
Hillsborough, who became secretary of state for the colonies in 1768, refused to recognize Franklin as agent of Massachusetts, because the governor of Massachusetts had not approved the appointment, which was by resolution of the assembly.
These were written by Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of Massachusetts, Andrew Oliver (1706-1774), his lieutenantgovernor, and others to William Whately, a member of Parliament, and private secretary to George Grenville, suggesting an increase of the power of the governor at the expense of the assembly, " an abridgement of what are called English liberties," and other measures more extreme than those undertaken by the government.
Upon his promise not to publish the letters Franklin received permission to send them to Massachusetts, where they were much passed about and were printed, and they were soon republished in English newspapers.
The Massachusetts assembly on receiving the letters resolved to petition the crown for the removal of both Hutchinson and Oliver.
At Alexandria in 1 755 General Edward Braddock organized his fatal expedition against Fort Duquesne, and here, in April of the same year, the governors of Virginia, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met (in a house still standing) to determine upon concerted action against the French in America.
With the exception of this corner, Massachusetts is a part of the slanting upland that includes all of southern New England.
Owing to topography, and also to the manner in which Massachusetts ' At least seventy hills in the state, mainly in this quarter, have an elevation of 1500 ft.
Boston Harbor (originally known as Massachusetts Bay, a name which now has a much broader signification) is the finest roadstead on the coast.
Salem Harbor is the most considerable other haven on Massachusetts Bay; on Buzzard's.
The shrinkage of cereal crops has been mainly responsible for the idea that Massachusetts is agriculturally decadent.
In 1906 Massachusetts led all states in the value of its granite output, but in 1907 and 1908 it was second to Vermont.
Granite boulders were used for construction in Massachusetts as early as 1650.
In 1907 Massachusetts ranked sixth among the states in the value of its trap rock product ($432,604), and eighth in sandstone ($243,328).
Though only four states of the Union are smaller, only three exceeded Massachusetts in 1905 in the value of manufactured products (six exceeding it in population); and this despite very scant native resources of raw materials and a very limited home market.
Historical priority of development, exceptionally extensive and well utilized water-power, and good transportation facilities are largely responsible for the exceptional rank of Massachusetts as a manufacturing state.
Vast water-power is developed on the Merrimac at Lawrence and Lowell, and on the Connecticut at South Hadley, and to a less extent at scores of other cities on many streams and artificial ponds; many of the machines that have revolutionized industrial conditions since the beginning of the factory system have been invented by Massachusetts men; and the state contains various technical schools of great importance.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
The output of worsted goods in 1905 ($51,973944) was more than three-tenths that of the entire country, Rhode Island being second with $44,477,596; in Massachusetts the increase in the value of this product was 28.2% between 1900 and 1905.
In this industry, as in the manufacture of cotton goods, Massachusetts has long been without serious rivalry; Brockton, Lynn, The Green Schists and Associated Granites and Porphyries of Rhode Island, Bulletin, U.S. Geological Survey, No.
Vulcanized rubber is a Massachusetts invention.
For many years Massachusetts controlled a vast lumber trade, drawing upon the forests of Maine, but the growth of the west changed the old channels of trade, and Boston carpenters came to make use of western timber.
It was between 1840 and 1850 that the cotton manufactures of Massachusetts began to assume large proportions; and about the same time the manufacture of boots and shoes centred there.
Nantucket and New Bedford were the centres of the whaling trade, which, for the ' In 1905 Massachusetts produced 60'7% of the writing paper manufactured in the country.
The English Navigation Acts were generally evaded, and were economically of little effect; politically they were of great importance in Massachusetts as a force that worked for independence.
In commercial relations the chief port of Massachusetts attained its greatest importance about 1840, when it was selected as the American terminus of the first steamship line (Cunard) connecting Great Britain with the United States; but Boston lost the commercial prestige then won by the failure of the state to promote railway communication with the west, so as to equal the development effected by other cities.
Only a small part of the exports and imports of Massachusetts is now carried in American bottoms.'
The first grain elevator built in Boston, and one of the first in the world, was erected in 1843, when Massachusetts sent Indian corn to Ireland.
When the Civil War and steam navigation put an end to the supremacy of Massachusetts wooden sailing ships, much of the capital which had been employed in navigation was turned into developing railway facilities and coasting steamship lines.
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
According to the census of 1900 there were 33 incorporated cities in Massachusetts, of which 8 had between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants; 5 between 20,000 and 25,000 (Everett, North Adams, Quincy, Waltham, Pittsfield); 2 io between 25,000 and 50,000 (Holyoke, Brockton, Haverhill, Salem, Chelsea, Malden, Newton, Fitchburg, Taunton, Gloucester); 7 between 50,000 and ioo,000 (Lowell, Cambridge, Lynn, Lawrence, New Bedford, Springfield, Somerville); and 3 more than roo,000 inhabitants, viz.
Natives heavily predominated in agriculture and the professions, slightly in trade, and held barely more than half of all governmental positions; but in transportation, personal service, manufactures, labour and domestic service, the predominance of the foreign element warranted the assertion of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labour that " the strong industrial condition of Massachusetts has been secured and is held not by the labour of what is called the 'native stock,' but by that of the immigrants."
Reference has been made to " abandoned farms " in Massachusetts.
The desertion of farms was an inevitable result of the opening of the great cereal regions of the west, but it is by no means characteristic of Massachusetts alone.
It has been amended with considerable freedom (37 amendments up to 1907), but with more conservatism than has often prevailed in the constitutional reform of other states; so that the constitution of Massachusetts is not so completely in harmony with modern democratic sentiment as are the public opinion and statute law of the state.
Massachusetts is also one of the few states in which the legislature meets in annual session.4 Townships were represented as such in this body (called the General Court) until 1856.
Massachusetts is one of the only two states in the Union in which elections for state officers are held annually.
The Massachusetts railroad commission, though preceded in point of time by that of New Hampshire of 1844, was the real beginning of modern state commissions.
In Massachusetts, as in New England generally, the word " town " is used, officially and colloquially, to designate a township, and during the colonial era the New England town-meeting was a notable school for education in self-government.
Although the tendency in Massachusetts is towards chartering as cities " towns " which have a population of 12,000 or more, the democratic institution of the town-meeting persists in many large municipalities which are still technically towns.'
The services of Horace Mann as secretary of the state board (1837-1848) were productive of almost revolutionary benefits not only to Massachusetts but to the entire country.
In 1900 the average period of schooling per inhabitant for the United States was 4.3 years, for Massachusetts 7 years.
More patents are issued, relatively, to citizens of Massachusetts than to those of any other state except Connecticut.
In technological science special instruction is given - in addition to the scientific departments of the schools already mentioned - in the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (1865), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (opened in 1865).
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
Massachusetts led, about 1850, in the founding of town and city libraries supported by public taxes, and by 1880 had established more of such institutions than existed in all other states combined.
Other institutions receiving state aid, each governed by trustees appointed by the governor, are the Massachusetts general hospital at Boston, the Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary at Boston, the Massachusetts homoeopathic hospital at Boston, the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts school for the blind at South Boston and the soldiers' home in Massachusetts at Boston.
Massachusetts is a very rich state, and Boston a very wealthy city.
It is possible that the coasts of Massachusetts were visited by the Northmen, and by the earliest navigators who followed Cabot, but this is only conjecture.
Pring and Champlain at a later date coasted along what is now Massachusetts, but the map of Champlain is hardly recognizable.
But all attempts to procure a royal charter for Plymouth Colony were unsuccessful, and in 1691 it was annexed to the Colony of Massachusetts Bay under what is termed the Provincial Charter.
King James having by patent in 1620 created a Council for New England to whom he made a large grant of territory, the council in 1628 made a sub-grant, confirmed by a royal charter that passed the seals on the 4th of March 1629, to the "Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in Newe England."
In 1630 the government of the company, with questionable right (for the charter seems evidently to have contemplated the residence of the company in England), transferred itself to their territory, and under the leadership of John Winthrop laid the foundations anew of the Massachusetts colony, when they first settled Boston in the autumn of that year.
Others, discontented with Massachusetts autocracy and wishing, too, " to secure more room," went to Connecticut (q.v.) where they established a bulwark against the Dutch of New York.
Massachusetts Bay had a large learned element; it is supposed that about 1640 there was an Oxford or Cambridge graduate to every 250 persons in the colony.
The early history was rendered unquiet at times by wars with the Indians, the chief of which were the Pequot War in 1637, and King Philip's War in 16 75-7 6; and for better combining against these enemies, Massachusetts, with Connecticut, New Haven and New Plymouth, formed a confederacy in 1643, considered the prototype of the larger union of the colonies which conducted the War of American Independence (1 7758 3).
Massachusetts had excluded the English Book of Common Prayer, she had restricted the franchise, laid the death penalty, on religious opinions, and passed various other laws repugnant to the Crown, notably to Charles II.
Plymouth Colony, acting through its agent in London, endeavoured to secure a separate existence by royal charter, but accepted finally union with Massachusetts when association with New York became the probable alternative.
During the earl of Bellomont's administration, New York was again united with Massachusetts under the same executive (1697-1701).
The scenes of the recurrent wars were mostly distant from Massachusetts proper, either in Maine or on Canadian or Acadian territory, although some savage inroads of the Indians were now and then made on the exposed frontier towns, as, for instance, upon Deerfield in 1704 and upon Haverhill in 1708.
Phips, who had succeeded in an attack on Port Royal, had ignominiously failed when he led the Massachusetts fleet against Quebec in 1690; and the later expedition of 1711 was no less a failure.
Shirley with Massachusetts troops also took part in the Oswego expedition of 1755; and Massachusetts proposed, and lent the chief assistance in the expedition of Nova Scotia in 1755 which ended in the removal of the Acadians.
The first decided protests against the exercise of sovereign power by the crown, the first general moral and political revolt that marked the approach of the American War of Independence, took place in Massachusetts; so that the most striking events in the general history of the colonies as a whole from 1760 to 1775 are an intimate part of her annals.
The beginning of the active opposition to the crown may be placed in the resistance, led by James Otis, to the issuing of writs (after 1 75 2, Otis's famous argument against them being made in 1760-1761) to compel citizens to assist the revenue officers; followed later by the outburst of feeling at the imposition of the Stamp Act (1765), when Massachusetts took the lead in confronting the royal power.
The country towns now poured their militia into Cambridge, opposite Boston; troops came from neighbouring colonies, and Artemas Ward, a Massachusetts general, was placed in command of the irregular force, which with superior numbers at once shut the royal army up in Boston.
Out of an assessment at one time upon the states of $5,000,000 for the expenses of the war, Massachusetts was charged with $820,000, the next highest being $800,000 for Virginia.
Of the 231,791 troops sent by all the colonies into the field, reckoning by annual terms, Massachusetts sent 67,9.07, the next highest being 31,939 from Connecticut, Virginia furnishing only 26,678; and her proportion of sailors was very much greater still.
The Federal Constitution was ratified by Massachusetts by only a small majority on the 6th of February 1788, after its rejection had been at one time imminent; but Massachusetts became a strong Federalist state.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
The Federalist preference for England over France was strong in Massachusetts, and her sentiment was against the war with England of 1812-15.
New England's discontent culminated in the Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814), in which Massachusetts men predominated.
During the interval till the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Massachusetts held a distinguished place in national life and politics.
She opposed the policy that led to the Mexican War in 1846, although a regiment was raised in Massachusetts by the personal exertions of Caleb Cushing.
The feelings which grew up, and the movements that were fostered till they rendered the Civil War inevitable, received something of the same impulse from Massachusetts which she had given a century before to the feelings and movements forerunning the War of American Independence.
Since the close of the war Massachusetts has remained gener ally steadfast in adherence to the principles of the Republican party, and has continued to develop its resources.
In the Spanish-American War of 1898 Massachusetts furnished 11,780 soldiers and sailors, though her quota was but 7388; supplementing from her own treasury the pay accorded them by the national government.
No statement of the influence which Massachusetts has exerted upon the American people, through intellectual activity, and even through vagary, is complete without an enumeration of the names which, to Americans at least, are the signs of this influence and activity.
The " transcendental movement," which sprang out of German affiliations and produced as one of its results the well-known community of Brook Farm (1841-1847), under the leadership of Dr George Ripley, was a Massachusetts growth, and in passing away it left, instead of traces of an organization, a sentiment and an aspiration for higher thinking which gave Emerson his following.
When Massachusetts was called upon to select for Statuary Hall in the capitol at Washington two figures from the long line of her worthies, she chose as her fittest representatives John Winthrop, the type of Puritanism and state-builder, and Samuel Adams (though here the choice was difficult between Samuel Adams and John Adams) as her greatest leader in the heroic period of the War of Independence.
Governors of Massachusetts (Under the First Charter - chosen annually).
Free-Soil Democrat1851-1853Whig1853-1854-1854-1855 Know-Nothing1855-1858Republican1858-18611 Endecott, by commission dated the 30th of April 1629, was made " governor of London's plantation in the Massachusetts Bay."
Mallary, Lenox and the Berkshire Highlands (New York-London, 1902); also Inland Massachusetts, Illustrated...
Spencer, Constitutional Conflict in Provincial Massachusetts (Columbus, 0., 1905); and the annual Public Documents of Massachusetts, embracing the reports of all state officers and institutions.
For the period 1662-1666, when Massachusetts was investigated by royal commissioners, see Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, series 2, vol.
Ellis, l ater expanded, and in the process somewhat weakened, into his P liritan Age and Rule in the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, 1629-168 5 (Boston, 1888; 3rd ed., 1891).
In 1774 he was appointed governor of Massachusetts, and in that capacity was entrusted with carrying into effect the Boston Port Act.
The materials for studying the American man biologically are abundant in the United States National Museum in Washington; the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, Massachusetts; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the Academy of Sciences and the Free Museum of Arts and Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Field Museum in Chicago; the National Museum, city of Mexico, and the Museum of La Plata.
Cleveland, a clergyman of the Presbyterian Church, was of good colonial stock, a descendant of Moses Cleveland, who emigrated from Ipswich, England, to Massachusetts in 1635.
His father, Joseph Chatfield Alcox, was a farmer and mechanic whose ancestors, then bearing the name of Alcocke, had settled in eastern Massachusetts in colonial days.
In 1840 Alcott removed to Concord, Massachusetts.
After a visit to England, in 1842, he started with two English associates, Charles Lane and Henry C. Wright, at "Fruitlands," in the town of Harvard, Massachusetts, a communistic experiment at farm-living and nature-meditation as tending to develop the best powers of body and soul.
Andros in Massachusetts was received, they took possession on the 31st of May 1689 of Fort James (at the southern end of Manhattan Island), renamed it Fort William and announced their determination to hold it until the arrival of a governor commissioned by the new sovereigns.
Efforts to invalidate the census returns by comparison with the registration records of Massachusetts cannot be deemed conclusive, since in the United States, as in Great Britain, the census must be deemed more accurate and less subject to error than registration records.
He returned to America in 1840, was a tutor for a few months (1840-1841) at Bowdoin, and in 1842, shut out from any better place by distrust of his German training and by his frank opposition to Unitarianism, he became pastor of the Congregational Church of West Amesbury (now Merrimac), Massachusetts.
But they realized that " the Lord had more truth and light yet to break forth of his Holy Word "; and this gave them an open-minded and tolerant spirit, which continued to mark the church in Plymouth Colony, as distinct from the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay.
It may be said to begin with the arrival in 1620 of a small company including William Brewster, elder of the refugee church in Leiden, which founded Plymouth in the modern Massachusetts in the winter of that year.
About 1628 the religious troubles in England led to the emigration of a large number of Puritans; the colony of Massachusetts Bay was founded in 1628-1630 by settlers led by John Endicott and John Winthrop, and a church on congregational lines was founded at Salem in 1629, and another soon afterwards at Boston, which became the centre of the colony.
In 1631 the general court of the Massachusetts colony resolved, " that no man shall be admitted to the freedom of this body politic, but such as are members of some of the churches within the limits of the same."
A compromise was arrived at by two assemblies, the first a convention of ministers held at Boston in 1657, the second a general synod of the churches of Massachusetts in 1662.
An equally important school, though numerically smaller, came into existence in eastern Massachusetts under the leadership of Charles Chauncy (1592-1672) and Jonathan Mayhew (1720-1766).
The remarkable junction or fusion of the Independents or " Separatists " who emigrated from Leiden to Plymouth, Massachusetts, with the Puritan Nonconformists of Massachusetts Bay, modified Independency by the introduction of positive fraternal relations among the churches.
After graduating at Harvard College in 1852 and at the law school of Harvard University in 1854, he was admitted first to the Massachusetts (1855) and then (1856) to the New York bar, and entered the law office of Scudder & Carter in New York City.
At his call, delegates from Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut and Maryland met in New York City with delegates from New York on the 1st of May 1690 to consider concerted action against the enemy, and although the expedition which they sent out was a failure it numbered 855 men, New York furnishing about one-half the men, Massachusetts one of the two commanders and Connecticut the other.
Therefore, in response to their repeated complaints of the weakness of the English arising from disunion, Governor Fletcher, in 1694, called another intercolonial conference consisting of delegates from New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Jersey, and urged the necessity of more united feelings.
It authorized its committee, which had been appointed to correspond with the New York agent in London, to correspond also with the committees in the other colonies and this committee represented New York in the Stamp Act Congress, a body which was called at the suggestion of Massachusetts, met in New York City in October 1765, was composed of twenty-seven members representing nine colonies, and drew up a declaration of rights, an address to the king, and a petition to each house of parliament.
He is recognized as the founder of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and in 1792 became an overseer of Harvard.
In American history the name " Pilgrims " is applied to the earliest settlers of the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and more specifically to the first company of emigrants, who sailed in the " Mayflower " in 1620.
They sailed from Delftshaven late in July 1620, from Southampton on the 5th of August, from Plymouth on the 6th of September, and late in December 1620 founded the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts.
See Massachusetts; Plymouth, and Mayflower.
In 1765 he became a selectman of Boston, and from 1766 to 1772 was a member of the Massachusetts general court.
In 1774 and 1775 he was president of the first and second Provincial Congresses respectively, and he shared with Samuel Adams the leadership of the Massachusetts Whigs in all the irregular measures preceding the War of American Independence.
The famous expedition sent by General Thomas Gage of Massachusetts to Lexington and Concord on the 18th-19th of April 1775 had for its object, besides the destruction of materials of war at Concord, the capture of Hancock and Adams, who were temporarily staying at Lexington, and these two leaders were expressly excepted in the proclamation of pardon issued on the 12th of June by Gage, their offences, it was said, being "of too flagitious a nature to admit of any other consideration than that of condign punishment."
In 1778 he commanded, as major-general of militia, the Massachusetts troops who participated in the Rhode Island expedition.
He was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779-1780, became the first governor of the state, and served from 1780 to 1785 and again from 1787 until his death.
Although at first unfriendly to the Federal Constitution as drafted by the convention at Philadelphia, he was finally won over to its support, and in 1788 he presided over the Massachusetts convention which ratified the instrument.
He was president of the state in1786-1787and in 1789, and in 1786 suppressed an insurrection at Exeter immediately preceding the Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts.
In 1686 he became governor, with Boston as his capital, of the "Dominion of New England," into which Massachusetts (including Maine), Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 his jurisdiction was extended over New York and the Jerseys.
A Decorated chapel in it, formerly desecrated, was restored to sacred use by citizens of Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in 1857, in memory of the connexion of that city with the English town.
But the pressure from the representatives of some of the states, notably Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, compelled him to incorporate in the Tariff Act certain specific duties borrowed from the Tariff Acts then in force in these states, which had a distinctly protective aim.
See Thomas Weston, History of the Town of Middleboro, Massachusetts (Boston, 1906).
He graduated at Harvard College in 1871 and at the Harvard Law School in 1875; was admitted to the Suffolk (Massachusetts) bar in 1876; and in 1876-1879 was instructor in American history at Harvard.
Dawes as United States Senator from Massachusetts in 1893; and in 1899 and in 1905 was re-elected to the Senate, where he became one of the most prominent of the Republican leaders, and an influential supporter of President Roosevelt.
The emigration to Massachusetts in 1629, which continued in a stream till 1640, was not composed of separatists but of episcopalians.
In the summer of 1827, through the persistent efforts of persons most interested in the woollen manufactures of Massachusetts and other New England states to secure legislative aid for that industry, a convention of about loo delegates - manufacturers, newspaper men and politicians - was held in Harrisburg, and the programme adopted by the convention did much to bring about the passage of the famous high tariff act of 1828.
In Main Street is the present edifice of the First Church of Christ, known as the Centre Congregational Church, which was organized in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1632, and removed to Hartford, under the leadership of Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, in 1636.
The first English settlement was made in 1635 by sixty immigrants, mostly from New Town (now Cambridge), Massachusetts; but the main immigration was in 1636, when practically all the New Town congregation led by Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone joined those who had preceded them.
The War of 1812, with the Embargo Acts (1807-1813), which were so destructive of New England's commerce, thoroughly aroused the Federalist leaders in this part of the country against the National government as administered by the Democrats, and in 1814, when the British were not only threatening a general invasion of their territory but had actually occupied a part of the Maine coast, and the National government promised no protection, the legislature of Massachusetts invited the other New England states to join with her in sending delegates to a convention which should meet at Hartford to consider their grievances, means of preserving their resources, measures of protection against the British, and the advisability of taking measures to bring about a convention of delegates from all the United States for the purpose of revising the Federal constitution.
The legislatures of Connecticut and Rhode Island, and town meetings in Cheshire and Grafton counties (New Hampshire) and in Windham county (Vermont) accepted the invitation, and the convention, composed of 12 delegates from Massachusetts, 7 from Connecticut, 4 from Rhode Island, 2 from New Hampshire and 1 from Vermont, all Federalists, met on the 15th of December 1814, chose George Cabot of Massachusetts president and Theodore Dwight of Connecticut secretary, and remained in secret session until the 5th of January 1815, when it adjourned sine die.
The legislatures of Massachusetts and Connecticut approved of these proposed amendments and sent commissioners to Washington to urge their adoption, but before their arrival the war had closed, and not only did the amendments fail to receive the approval of any other state, but the legislatures of nine states expressed their disapproval of the Hartford Convention itself, some charging it with sowing "seeds of dissension and disunion."
In 1897 the value of the fishery product of Maryland was exceeded only by that of Massachusetts, but by 1901, although it had increased somewhat during the four years, it was exceeded by the product of New Jersey, of Virginia and of New York.
In national affairs Maryland early took a stand of perhaps farreaching consequences in refusing to sign the Articles of Confederation (which required the assent of all the states before coming into effect), after all the other states had done so (in 1779), until those states claiming territory between the Alleghany Mountains and the Mississippi and north of the Ohio - Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut - should have surrendered such claims. As those states finally yielded, the Union was strengthened by reason of a greater equality and consequently less jealousy among the original states, and the United States came into possession of the first territory in which all the states had a common interest and out of which new states were to be created.
He was educated at the Punahou school at Punahou, at Oahu College, into which the Punahou school developed in 1853, and at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, where he graduated in 1862.
He graduated at Harvard in 1745, and was a member of the lower house of the general court of Massachusetts in 1753-1756, and from 1757 to 1774 of the Massachusetts council, in which, according to Governor Thomas Hutchinson, he "was without a rival," and, on the approach of the War of Independence, was "the principal supporter of the opposition to the government."
In1779-1780he was president of the constitutional convention of Massachusetts, also serving as chairman of the committee by which the draft of the constitution was prepared.
From 1785 to 1787 he was governor of Massachusetts, suppressing with much vigour Shays' Rebellion, and failing to be re-elected largely because it was believed that he would punish the insurrectionists with more severity than would his competitor, John Hancock.
Bowdoin was a member of the state convention which in February 1788 ratified for Massachusetts the Federal Constitution, his son being also a member.
He died on Naushon Island, Dukes county, Massachusetts, on the r ith of October 1811.
Copies of the resolutions were sent to the governors of the various states, to be laid before the different state legislatures, and replies were received from Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginia, but all except that from Virginia were unfavourable.
His sermons attracted wide attention in that community, and he gained a considerable reputation as a theologian and a controversialist by his publication in 1814 of a volume entitled Defence of Christianity, written in answer to a work, The Grounds of Christianity Examined (1813), by George Bethune English (1787-1828), an adventurer, who, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was in turn a student of law and of theology, an editor of a newspaper, and a soldier of fortune in Egypt.
In 1835 he was elected governor of Massachusetts.
On the death, in October 1852, of his friend Daniel Webster, to whom he had always been closely attached, and of whom he was always a confidential adviser, he succeeded him as secretary of state, which post he held for the remaining months of Fillmore's administration, leaving it to go into the Senate in 1853, as one of the representatives of Massachusetts.
The Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England (founded in 1649) bore the expense of printing both the New Testament and the Bible as a whole (Cambridge, Mass., 1663 - the earliest Bible printed in.America), which John Eliot, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, translated into "the language of the Massachusetts Indians," whom he evangelized.
He removed to Nantucket, Massachusetts, in 1881, and died there on the 12th of May 1884.
Subsequently he became professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of astronomy and director of the Harvard College observatory.
The word "awakening" in this sense was frequently (and possibly first) used by Jonathan Edwards at the time of the Northampton revival of 1734-1735, which spread through the Connecticut Valley and prepared the way for the work in Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut (1740-1741) of GeorgeWhitefield, who had previously been preaching in the South, especially at Savannah, Georgia.
At its May session in 1742 the General Court of Massachusetts forbade itinerant preaching save with full consent from the resident pastor; in May 1743 the annual ministerial convention, by a small plurality, declared against "several errors in doctrine and disorders in practice which have of late obtained in various parts of the land," against lay preachers and disorderly revival meetings; in the same year Charles Chauncy, who disapproved of the revival, published Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England; and in 1744-1745 Whitefield, upon his second tour in New England, found that the faculties of Harvard and Yale had officially "testified" and "declared" against him and that most pulpits were closed to him.
In 1768 he was a delegate to the provincial convention which was called to meet in Boston, and conducted the prosecution of Captain Thomas Preston and his men for their share in the famous " Boston Massacre of the 5th of March 1770., He served in the Massachusetts General Court in 1773-1774, in the Provincial Congress in 177 4-1775, and in the Continental Congress in 1 7741778, and was speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1777, a member of the executive council in 1779, a member of the committee which drafted the constitution of 1780, attorney-general of the state from 1777 to 1790, and a judge of the state supreme court from 1790 to 1804.
New Hampshire formed a part of Massachusetts when, in 1647, the General Court of that province passed the famous act requiring every town in which there were fifty householders to maintain a school for teaching reading and writing, and every town in which there were one hundred householders to maintain a grammar school with an instructor capable of preparing young men for college.
In the same year Massachusetts encouraged friendly Puritans to settle Hampton on the same purchase, and about a year later this colony organized Hampton as a town with the right to send a deputy to the General Court.
Puritan Massachusetts was naturally hostile to the Antinomians at Exeter as well as to the Anglicans at Strawberry Banke.
Although Exeter, in 1639, Dover, in 1640, and Strawberry Banke, not later than 1640, adopted a plantation covenant, these settlements were especially weak from lack of a superior tribunal, and appeals had been made to Massachusetts as early as 1633.
Moreover, the grants of Massachusetts and Mariana were clearly in conflict.
Under these conditions Massachusetts discovered a new claim for its northern boundary.
The commission appointed by the king in 1664 to hear and determine complaints in New England decided that Mason's lands were not within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and made an attempt to set up a government under which his claims could be tried, but this was a failure.
Mason then petitioned again, and this time Massachusetts was requested to send agents to England to answer his complaints.
Upon the failure of this attempt, a temporary nominal union with Massachusetts was formed, but in 1692 Samuel Allen, the assign of Mason, caused a royal government to be established with his son-in-law, John Usher, as lieutenant-governor, and during the remainder of the colonial era New Hampshire was separate from Massachusetts except that from 1699 to 1741 the two had the same governor.
Massachusetts proposed to confine New Hampshire to less than one-fourth its present area; that is, on the west to a line drawn 3 m.
Both provinces granted townships within the disputed territory; Massachusetts arrested men there who refused to pay taxes to its officers, and sought to defer the settlement of the dispute.
It was also a convenient point for a prompt display of authority, as the town of Boston was the headquarters of General Gage, recently appointed royal governor of Massachusetts and commander of the king's troops in North America.
A noteworthy incident of the Concord affair, and characteristic of the attitude which the provincials had maintained and continued to maintain for another year, was the official representation to the king by the Massachusetts people that the regulars were the first to fire upon them, and that they returned the fire and fought through the day in strict defence of their rights and homes as Englishmen.
The latter's most serious loss was that of General Joseph Warren, one of the prominent leaders of the revolutionary movement in Massachusetts.
In 1641 Stirling's agent, Forrett, sold to Thomas Mayhew (1592-1682), 1 of Watertown, Massachusetts, for $200, the island of Nantucket, with several smaller neighbouring islands, and also Martha's Vineyard.
In 1644 the Commissioners of the United Colonies, apparently at the request of the inhabitants of Martha's Vineyard, annexed the island to Massachusetts, but ten years later the islanders declared their independence of that colony, and apparently for the next decade managed their own affairs.
In 1671 Governor Francis Lovelace, of New York, appointed Mayhew governor for life of Martha's Vineyard; in 1683, the island, with Nantucket, the Elizabeth Islands, No Man's Land, and Chappaquiddick Island were erected into Dukes county, and in 1695 the county was re-incorporated by Massachusetts with Nantucket excluded.
Under the new charter of Massachusetts Bay (1691), after some dispute between Massachusetts and New York, Martha's Vineyard became a part of Massachusetts.
As the village expanded 1 Mayhew was born at Tisbury, Wiltshire, was a merchant in Southampton, emigrated to Massachusetts about 1633, settled at Watertown, Mass., in 3635; was a member of the Massachusetts General Court in 1636-1644, and after 1644 or 1645 lived on Martha's Vineyard.
He was the pastor at Scituate, Massachusetts, from 1641 until 1654, and from 1654 until his death was president of Harvard College, as the successor of the first president Henry Duns ter (c. 1612-1659).
By his sermons and his writings he exerted a great influence in colonial Massachusetts, and according to Mather was "a most incomparable scholar."
President Chauncy's great-grandson, Charles Chauncy (1705-1787), a prominent American theologian, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 1st of January 1705, and graduated at Harvard in 1721.
The Democrats carried every state except Massachusetts, Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee.
At Natick, Massachusetts, whither he travelled on foot, he learned the trade of shoemaker, and during his leisure hours studied much and read with avidity.
Thus Long Island (fronting Connecticut, but belonging to New York state), Block Island (part of the small state of Rhode Island), Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket (parts of Massachusetts) may be best explained.
For the exact determination of the last element the census affords no precise data, but affords material for various approximations, based either upon the elimination of the probable progeny of immigrants since 1790; on the known increase of the whites of the South, where the foreign element has always been relatively insignificant; on the percentage of natives having native grandfathers in Massachusetts in 1905; or upon the assumed continuance through the 19th century of the rate of native growth (one-third decennially) known to have prevailed down at least to 1820.
In Rhode Island, in 1900, eight out of every ten persons lived in cities of 8000 or more inhabitants; in Massachusetts, seven in ten.
New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire in the eastern part of the country, Louisiana in the south, and New Mexico, Arizona, California and Montana in the western part are distinctively Roman Catholic states, with not less than 63% of these in the total church body.
Four statesNew York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Massachusetts each manufactured in 1900 products valued at over $1,000,000,000; New York exceeding and Pennsylvania attaining almost twice that sum.
From the middle of the 17th century the smelting of this metal began to be of importance in Massachusetts Bay and vicinity, and by the close of the century there had been a large number of ironworks established in that colony, which, for a century after its settlement, was the chief seat of the iron manufacture in America, bog ores, taken from the bottom of the ponds, being chiefly used.
A few years later attempts were made to work mines of lead and cobalt in Connecticut and Massachusetts.
Only Maine and Massachusetts and a few of the newer states live under original constitutions, and only Massachusetts is under a constitution older than the i9th century.
Whereas formerly legislatures met annually, regular sessions are now biennial except in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Georgia and South Carolinaall original states.
True executive councils have now disappeared except in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire.
New York, Massachusetts and a few other states have systems of civil service examinations, similar to those in the Federal administration, which serve to keep certain branches out of politics.
Although local affairs do nut now enlist, even in New England, so large a measure of interest and public spirit as the town system used to evoke in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut in the thirties, still, broadly speaking, the rural local government of America may be deemed satisfactory.
In 1860 he became a member of the executive council of Massachusetts, and from 1863 to 1873 was a republican member of the national House of Representatives.
Many have since attributed this resolution to partisanship, and the influence of popular clamour, and in 1883 the legislature of Massachusetts passed a resolution vindicating Ames.
His son, Oliver Ames (1831-1895), was lieutenantgovernor of Massachusetts from 1883 until 1887, and governor from 1887 to 1890.
Six hundred acres, the "Ten Hills Farm," were granted here in 1631 to John Winthrop, who built and launched here in that year the "Blessing of the Bay," the first ship built in Massachusetts.
The centre of revolutionary ideas was St John's Parish, settled by New Englanders (chiefly from Dorchester, Massachusetts).
When she was a small child her parents moved to Massachusetts, a