There grew up a mass of controversial matter which it is amusing to read now.
The materials mixed with the iron borings cause them to rust into a solid mass, and in doing so a slight expansion takes place.
What does architecture amount to in the experience of the mass of men?
Mass spectrometry was applied to patient samples.
This cement mass is heightened at many places so as to make platforms and supports for huts.
The critical mass is traveling between various climates.
When discussing the atom bomb, mass destruction springs to mind.
They saw a mass of tough green vines all matted together and writhing and twisting around like a nest of great snakes.
There were mass graves in the old moat.
He was climbing now, hand over hand, over a mass of boulders, his flashlight re-hooked to his waist.
At the beginning I was only a little mass of possibilities.
He wanted to study mass media in society.
It is mass murder against us.
His eyes were soft in the candlelight as he surveyed her jumbled mass of curls.
Then, in the glow of yet another rocket, he saw it—a nearly unrecognizable mass of twisted red metal.
The mass food industry of today cannot make this claim.
The equipment needed was a mass spectrometer.
Mass communication means we no longer read a number like "a million dead"—we actually see them, see pictures of them.
The whole bank, which is from twenty to forty feet high, is sometimes overlaid with a mass of this kind of foliage, or sandy rupture, for a quarter of a mile on one or both sides, the produce of one spring day.
She avoided turning around to see what must have been a hulking grey mass of metal spaceship.
The woman.s face was hidden behind a mass of blonde hair, but he recognized the hot pink fingernails instantly.
Dean gritted his teeth and dropped once more, just as a block of frozen mass as large as his head struck a glancing blow to his already aching shoulder.
The fingers and toes flow to their extent from the thawing mass of the body.
She heard the beastly snarl and caught the blurred mass of darkness, punctuated only by two flashes of silver, as Rhyn flew by her.
Gazing at the obvious mass in her brain, she knew the results were bad, but were they worse?
The commander-in-chief never takes direct part in the action itself, but only gives general orders concerning the movement of the mass of the troops.
The powers of a deity with the sociopathic tendencies of a mass murderer?
We are accustomed to say, that the mass of men are unprepared; but improvement is slow, because the few are not materially wiser or better than the many.
reaches Benevento, near which it receives several tributaries; then curves round the mountain mass to the N.
While Pumpkin Green was not at this week's mass, or probably any other service within miles of Ouray, Billy Langstrom's partner in love Melissa attended.
The spirit of an army is the factor which multiplied by the mass gives the resulting force.
Mass extinction, deforestation, dead zones in oceans, and on and on and on.
The Central Plateau has probably been a land mass ever since this period, but the rest of the country was flooded by the Palaeozoic sea.
For the French retreating along the old Smolensk road, the final goal-- their native land--was too remote, and their immediate goal was Smolensk, toward which all their desires and hopes, enormously intensified in the mass, urged them on.
Rissa drew her sword but guided her horse forward, eyes searching the mass of struggling bodies for the warlord.
The French, retreating in 1812--though according to tactics they should have separated into detachments to defend themselves--congregated into a mass because the spirit of the army had so fallen that only the mass held the army together.
The iodide, Co12, is produced by heating cobalt and iodine together, and forms a greyish-green mass which dissolves readily in water forming a red solution.
In military affairs the strength of an army is the product of its mass and some unknown x.
How could one capture a commander-in-chief from among such a mass of troops!
Leo treated the Uniate Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of the 18th of May 1521 forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy.
The troops were running in such a dense mass that once surrounded by them it was difficult to get out again.
He was well aware that the mass of the Russian nation was on his side.
It is worn by bishops, priests, deacons and subdeacons under the other eucharistic vestments, either at Mass or at functions connected with it.
After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.
In the past, when most media was mass media, it was essential to create products with mass appeal.
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Nesvitski looked round and saw, some fifteen paces away but separated by the living mass of moving infantry, Vaska Denisov, red and shaggy, with his cap on the back of his black head and a cloak hanging jauntily over his shoulder.
Prince Andrew, being always near the commander in chief, closely following the mass movements and general orders, and constantly studying historical accounts of battles, involuntarily pictured to himself the course of events in the forthcoming action in broad outline.
July 9, 1897. ...Teacher and I are going to spend the summer at Wrentham, Mass. with our friends, the Chamberlins.
Rhyn was a mass murderer, a creature who had tried to wipe out the human race.
Alexander returns to Babylon, is crowned with much pomp and mass is celebrated.
The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation.
The whole moving mass began pressing closer together and a report spread that they were ordered to halt: evidently those in front had halted.
What is man but a mass of thawing clay?
In England at the Reformation the alb went out of use with the other "Mass vestments," and remained out of use in the Church of England until the ritual revival of the 19th century.
That Sunday, the Rostovs went to Mass at the Razumovskis' private chapel as usual.
Momentum (quantity of motion) is the product of mass and velocity.
As they passed near a church in the Khamovniki (one of the few unburned quarters of Moscow) the whole mass of prisoners suddenly started to one side and exclamations of horror and disgust were heard.
The other day when he came out from Mass in full uniform, Michael Sidorych...
She, on the other hand, was living a Stephen King novel in the clutches of a mass murderer.
those of any other burrowing mammal, the retina being reduced to a mass of simple cells, and the cornea and sclerotic ("white") to a pearshaped fibrous capsule enclosing a ball of pigment.
I feel as if I were nearer to the vitals of the globe, for this sandy overflow is something such a foliaceous mass as the vitals of the animal body.
He had not ridden many hundred yards after that before he saw to his left, across the whole width of the field, an enormous mass of cavalry in brilliant white uniforms, mounted on black horses, trotting straight toward him and across his path.
With his hand on his saddlebow, he was ready to dismount and stab the wolf, when she suddenly thrust her head up from among that mass of dogs, and then her forepaws were on the edge of the gully.
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
At Franeker his house was a small château, " separated by a moat from the rest of the town, where the mass could be said in safety."' And one motive in favour of accepting an invitation to England lay in the alleged leanings of Charles I.
It is wonderful how rapidly yet perfectly the sand organizes itself as it flows, using the best material its mass affords to form the sharp edges of its channel.
The mass of men are still and always young in this respect.
The ice, that had held under those on foot, collapsed in a great mass, and some forty men who were on it dashed, some forward and some back, drowning one another.
Mass meetings were held, and a committee was appointed for the purpose of considering what action should be taken to defeat the ambitious designs of the provincials.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
All this naked white human flesh, laughing and shrieking, floundered about in that dirty pool like carp stuffed into a watering can, and the suggestion of merriment in that floundering mass rendered it specially pathetic.
Almost immediately after the adoption of the ordinance a mass meeting at Clarksburg recommended that each county in north-western Virginia send delegates to a convention to meet in Wheeling on the 13th of May 1861.
Beyond Vyazma the French army instead of moving in three columns huddled together into one mass, and so went on to the end.
The sole importance of the crossing of the Berezina lies in the fact that it plainly and indubitably proved the fallacy of all the plans for cutting off the enemy's retreat and the soundness of the only possible line of action--the one Kutuzov and the general mass of the army demanded--namely, simply to follow the enemy up.
By evening, the adjutants had spread it to all ends and parts of the army, and in the night from the nineteenth to the twentieth, the whole eighty thousand allied troops rose from their bivouacs to the hum of voices, and the army swayed and started in one enormous mass six miles long.
Upon them the undivided, tensely passionate attention of that whole mass of men was concentrated.
In about ten days, when the mass is milkwarm, the bed will be ready for spawning, which consists of inserting small pieces of spawn bricks into the sloping sides of the bed, about 6 in.
But we need only penetrate to the essence of any historic event--which lies in the activity of the general mass of men who take part in it--to be convinced that the will of the historic hero does not control the actions of the mass but is itself continually controlled.
Equally indecisive is the further exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists that the endemic species of the different islands have resulted from subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species became differentiated during their isolation.
With my luck, they'll be mass murderers wanted in 20 states and I'll get my butt kicked for not checking them out.
The afternoon sun penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch, and fell on my upturned face.
After a while the moving mass became agitated, someone rode past on a white horse followed by his suite, and said something in passing: What did he say?
Rostov was horrified to hear later that of all that mass of huge and handsome men, of all those brilliant, rich youths, officers and cadets, who had galloped past him on their thousand-ruble horses, only eighteen were left after the charge.
On Sunday morning Marya Dmitrievna invited her visitors to Mass at her parish church--the Church of the Assumption built over the graves of victims of the plague.
And yet, we know of no cases of mass "left behind-ness," of people unable to learn how to function in this environment.
A tall, beautiful woman with a mass of plaited hair and much exposed plump white shoulders and neck, round which she wore a double string of large pearls, entered the adjoining box rustling her heavy silk dress and took a long time settling into her place.
So one might have thought that regarding this period of the campaign the historians, who attributed the actions of the mass to the will of one man, would have found it impossible to make the story of the retreat fit their theory.
That a mass murdering demon was the only man she'd ever felt so comfortable with made no sense.
Tisserand in 1895.1 It involved the action of no third mass, but depended solely upon the progression of the line of apsides in a moderately elliptical orbit due to the spheroidal shape of the globes traversing it.
This is a very ancient mountain mass of crystalline rocks resembling more the Laurentian mountains of Canada than the Appalachians.
Parts of the crystalline area are worn down to a condition of low relief, but in the main mountain mass, although greatly worn, there are still elevations of truly mountainous proportions.
It requires a precise knowledge of the moon's mass.
Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
By his discovery that the attracting force in any direction of a mass upon a particle could be obtained by the direct process of differentiating a single function, Laplace laid the foundations of the mathematical sciences of heat, electricity and magnetism.
The town itself consists of a mass of one-storeyed stone houses, each surmounted by a little dome, clustering round the market-place with its mosque and minaret.
This memorial is built principally of Milford (Mass.) granite, with a bronze statue of the president, and with sarcophagi containing the bodies of the president and Mrs McKinley, and has a total height, from the first step of the approaches to its top, of 163 ft.
To the mass of the people the restoration of the old governments undoubtedly brought a sense of relief, for the terrible drain in men and money caused by Napoleon's wars had caused much discontent, whereas now there was a prospect of peace and rest.
The immediate occasion of his imprisonment was a strongly worded declaration he had written a few days previously against the mass, the celebration of which, he heard, had been re-established at Canterbury.
Descartes was an expert; Bacon was the prophet of a great, if half comprehended, future; and the science they loved was struggling for its infant life against a mass of traditional prejudices, which sought to foreclose every question by confident assertions about the purposes of God and Nature.
60), where the interspaces between the coenosarcal tubes are filled up with calcareous matter, or coenosteum, replacing the chitinous perisarc. The result is a stony, solid mass, which contributes to the building up of coral reefs.
mass of cells, which (C) s.c, Sub-umbral cavity.
When the blastula is oval and freeswimming the inner mass is formed by unipolar immigration from the hinder pole.
The trophosome consists of a mass of coenosarcal tubes anastomosing in all planes.
In the Algae such a cell consists essentially of: (1) a mass of protoplasm provided with (2) a nucleus and (3) an assimilating apparatus consisting of a colored protoplasmic body, called a chromatophore, the pigment of which in the pure green forms is chlorophyll, and which may then be called a cliloroplast.
a solid mass of cells, formed by cell division in all directions of space.
If we pass a little higher up the scale ot life we meet with forms consisting of two or more cells, each of which contains a similar minute mass of living substance, A study of them shows that each is practically independent of the others; in fact, the connection between them is so slight that they can separate and each becofne free without the slightest disadvantage to another.
The long-sought cause of the "great inequality" of Jupiter and Saturn was found in the near approach to commensurability of their mean motions; it was demonstrated in two elegant theorems, independently of any except the most general considerations as to mass, that the mutual action of the planets could never largely affect the eccentricities and inclinations of their orbits; and the singular peculiarities detected by him in the Jovian system were expressed in the so-called "laws of Laplace."
The mass becomes unduly sanguine or weakly surrenders to panic. Hence the law of error does not apply, and speculation by the public may unsteady prices.
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
Outside the scientific world an immense mass of observation and experiment had grown up in relation to this subject.
If we suppose that the force impressed upon the element of mass D dx dy dz is DZ dx dy dz, being everywhere parallel to the axis of Z, the only change required in our equations (I), (2) is the addition of the term Z to the second member of the third equation (2).
Maria della Salute was founded in 1577 to commemorate the plague, he composed a solemn mass for the occasion.
No one of these works is now known to be in existence; the only example we possess of Zarlino's compositions on a grand scale is a MS. mass for four voices, in the library of the Philharmonic Lyceum at Bologna.
Uranyl chloride, UO 2 C1 2, is a yellow crystalline mass formed when chlorine is passed over uranium dioxide at a red heat.
And they make up the mass of books II.
The mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical questions.
The immediate followers of Pretorius now became extremely incensed at the action of the Lydenburg party, and a mass meeting was held at Potchefstroom (October 1860), where it was resolved that: (a) the volksraad no longer enjoyed its confidence; (b) that Pretorius should remain president of the South African Republic, and have a year's leave of absence to bring about union with the Free State; (c) that Schoeman should act as president during the absence of Pretorius; (d) that before the return of Pretorius to resume his duties a new volksraad should be elected.
But the flank attack became entangled in mass in a loop of the river and suffered heavily, and two batteries that formed part of the frontal attack came into action within a few hundred yards of unsuspected Boer trenches, with the result that ten guns were lost, as well as in all some r roo men.
In either case, the addition of molecules to those which already existed takes place, not at the surface of the living mass, but by interposition between the existing molecules of the latter.
A mass of living protoplasm is simply a molecular machine of great complexity, the total results of the working of which, or its vital phenomena, depend - on the one hand, Life con- of this water is absolutely incompatible with either moister by a ctual or potential life.
If the tin is pure it splits into a mass of granular strings.
A hydrated tin trioxide, Sn03, was obtained by Spring by adding barium dioxide to a solution of stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid; the solution is dialysed, and the colloidal solution is evaporated to form a white mass of 2Sn03 H20.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
Stannous sulphide, SnS, is obtained as a lead-grey mass by heating tin with sulphur, and as a brown precipitate by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannous solution; this is soluble in ammonium polysulphide, and dries to a black powder.
Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.
The Thonraki, according to Gregory Magistros, held that "Jesus in the evening meal, spoke not of an offering of the mass, but of every table."
According to Gregory Magistros the Thonraki would say: "We are no worshippers of matter, but of God; we reckon the cross and the church and the priestly robes and the sacrifice of mass all for nothing, and only lay stress on the inner sense."
From this great mass of details, soon represented in Paris by the collection of some ioo,000 cards, it was possible, proceeding by exhaustion, to sift and sort down the cards till a small bundle of half a dozen produced the combined facts of the measurements of the individual last sought.
Hence he publicly celebrated Mass, prohibited preaching against Catholicism, and showed exceptional favour to renegades from the Establishment.
- Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.
This mass also forms the bed of the Orinoco from its junction with the Apure nearly to its mouth, and it probably extends northwards for some distance beneath the more recent deposits of the plain.
wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the Mittelgebirge, churning its way through a deep, narrow rocky gorge.
in length by a quarter of a mile in breadth there exists an exposed mass of rock-salt with several large hillocks of salt on either side.
The caseous necrosis of the implicated mass of lung tissue, and indeed of tubercles generally, is held to be, in great measure, the result of the necrotic influence of the secretions from the bacillus.
If absorption be not complete the mass undergoes caseation and becomes surrounded by a capsule of fibrous tissue - being sharply cut off from the healthy tissue.
It is a significant fact that neoplasms contain very few nerve-fibres, even although growing luxuriantly, and there is a doubt whether the few twigs contained in them may not merely have been dragged into their midst as the tumour mass expanded (Young).
The tissues of the part become disorganized or destroyed, and their place is taken by the mass of warring cellular elements now recognized as pus.
Along with the exuded serum this fills up the breach in the tissues and the whole is rapidly formed into a fibrinous mass due to the disintegration of the polymorphonuclear leucocytes setting free their ferment.
Lying between the fibrin mass and the healthy tissues is a zone of injured and degenerated tissue elements, the result of the trauma.
Numerous fibroblasts, together with polyblasts, are visible in the fibrin mass, and the vessels at the periphery of the damaged zone are now seen to be sending out offshoots which assist in the process of absorption.
Where a chronic inflammatory process has taken possession of an organ, or, let us say, has been located in periosteum or other fibrous part, there is a great tendency to the production of cicatricial fibrous tissue in mass.
A small cellular area formed by emigrated polymorpho nuclear leucocytes surrounding a central mass of bacteria.
Generally it is either dried, after being separated from the wash water, by means of common salt, upon a layer of which the moist nitroglycerin is gently run and allowed to drain or filter through, or it is filtered through a mass of dry sponge or similar dry and porous material.
The mass of the population of Gela and Camarina in the disastrous year 405 had, at the prompting of Dionysius, taken refuge at Syracuse.
The most valuable intellectual possession was a large mass of recorded observations in individual cases and epidemics of disease.
An enormous accumulation of lunatics of all sorts and degrees seems to have paralysed public authorities, who, at vast expense in buildings, mass them more or less indiscriminately in barracks, and expect that their sundry and difficult disorders can be properly studied and treated by a medical superintendent charged with the whole domestic establishment, with a few young assistants under him.
But much the greater mass of the illustrations of his philosophy indicate that, while engaged on his poem he must have passed much of his time in the open air, exercising at once the keen observation of a naturalist and the contemplative vision of a poet.
But the result of these conditions and of his own inadequate conception of the proper limits of his art is that his best poetry is clogged with a great mass of alien matter, which no treatment in the world could have made poetically endurable.
In this great mass Voltaire's personality is of course best shown, and perhaps his literary qualities not worst.
ii., "The Mass in the East," v.
The Missal of the Roman Church now enjoins incensation before the introit, at the gospel and again at the offertory, and at the elevation, in every high mass; the use of incense also occurs at the exposition of the sacrament, at consecrations of churches and the like, in processions, in the office for the burial of the dead and at the exhibition of relics.
pp. 141-142) thus describes the method and extent of the employment of incense at the mass prior to the Reformation: "According to the use of Sarum (and Bangor) the priest, after being himself censed by the deacon, censed the altar before the Introit began.
The ritual of the mass remained unchanged until the death of Henry VIII.
But it was expressly st'.ced in a rubric that the old service of the mass was to proceed without variation of any rite or ceremony until after the priest had received the sacrament, that is, until long after the last of the three occasions for the use of incense explained above.
In the case of very thick beds and mass deposits the main shaft or tunnel will preferably be located in the foot-wall.
On completion of any room the timbers are withdrawn and the overlying mass of timber and rock is allowed to fall and a new room is started immediately alongside of the one just completed.
the workings in the upper floor being kept in advance of those below, so as to allow the broken mass above to become consolidated before it is again disturbed by the working places of the next floor.
The mass of water falling down the shaft is converted into spray, which is carried by the force of the fall long distances into the workings.
But the greater part of this country is a mass of rugged hills cut deep with narrow gorges, within which even the biggest rivers are confined.
A mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller like dough; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and impression of a mould; and can be almost indefinitely extended as solid rod or as hollow tube.
Directly the crust was pierced the whole mass was shattered into minute fragments.
- The optical desideratum is uniformity of refractive index and dispersive power throughout the mass of the glass.
The white line of enamel, which is seen in some thermometers behind the bore, is introduced before the mass of glass is pulled out.
A flattened cake of viscous glass-enamel is welded on to one side of the mass of glass after it has been hollowed by blowing.
The mass, with the enamel attached, is dipped into the crucible and covered with a layer of transparent glass; the whole mass is then pulled out into tube.
If the section of the finished tube is to be a triangle, with the enamel and bore at the base, the molten mass is pressed into a V-shaped mould before it is pulled out.
When this is the case the gathering is carried to a block or half-open mould in which it is rolled and blown until it acquires, roughly, the shape of a hemisphere, the flat side being towards the pipe and the convexity away from it; the diameter of this hemisphere is so regulated as to be approximately that of the cylinder which is next to be formed of the viscous mass.
From the hemispherical shape the mass of glass is now gradually blown into the form of a short cylinder, and then the pipe with the adherent mass of glass is handed.
The blower repeatedly heats the lower part of the mass of glass and keeps it distended by blowing while he swings it over a deep trench which is provided next to his working platform.
In an American process the glass is drawn direct from the molten mass in the tank in a cylindrical form by means of an iron ring previously immersed in the glass, and is kept in shape by means of special devices for cooling it rapidly as it leaves the molten bath.
The funnel is removed, and the plunger, neck-mould and the mass of molten glass attached to the neck are inverted.
A bottle mould rises and envelops the mass of molten glass.
The flattened mass of glass is held by a rim, connected to the edge of the plate.
The mass of glass, yielding, to its own weight and the pressure of air or steam, sinks downwards and adapts itself to any mould or receptacle beneath it.
The viscous mass having been thrown on the casting-table, a large and heavy roller passes over it and spreads it out into a sheet.
The various varieties of rolled plate-glass are now produced for some purposes with a reinforcement of wire netting which is embedded in the mass of the glass.
Imitations of natural stones were made by stirring together in a crucible glasses of different colours, or by incorporating fragments of differently coloured glasses into a mass of molten glass by rolling.
The famous cameo glass was formed by covering a mass of molten glass with one or more coatings of a differently coloured glass.
Avanturine glass, that in which numerous small particles of copper are diffused through a transparent yellowish or brownish mass, was not invented until about 1600.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, aluminium, cadmium, iron (pure), nickel and cobalt are practically amorphous, the crystals (where they exist) being so closely packed as to produce a virtually homogeneous mass.
As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
Wodrow left a great mass of correspondence, three volumes of which, edited by T.
Archimedes maintained that each particle of a fluid mass, when in equilibrium, is equally pressed in every direction; and he inquired into the conditions according to which a solid body floating in a fluid should assume and preserve a position of equilibrium.
He supposed that the surface of the fluid, contained in a vessel which is emptying itself by an orifice, remains always horizontal; and, if the fluid mass is conceived to be divided into an infinite number of horizontal strata of the same bulk, that these strata remain contiguous to each other, and that all their points descend vertically, with velocities inversely proportional to their breadth, or to the horizontal sections of the reservoir.
These equations were found by d'Alembert from two principles - that a rectangular canal, taken in a mass of fluid in equilibrium, is itself in equilibrium, and that a portion of the fluid, in passing from one place to another, preserves the same volume when the fluid is incompressible, or dilates itself according to a given law when the fluid is elastic. His ingenious method, published in 1752, in his Essai sur la resistance des fluides, was brought to perfection in his Opuscules mathematiques, and was adopted by Leonhard Euler.
I n a straight uniform current of fluid of density p, flowing with velocity q, the flow in units of mass per second across a plane area A, placed in the current with the normal of the plane making an angle 0 with the velocity, is oAq cos 0, the product of the density p, the area A, and q cos 0 the component velocity normal to the plane.
Generally if S denotes any closed surface, fixed in the fluid, M the mass of the fluid inside it at any time t, and 0 the angle which the outward-drawn normal makes with the velocity q at that point, dM/dt = rate of increase of fluid inside the surface, (I) =flux across the surface into the interior _ - f f pq cos OdS, the integral equation of continuity.
(2) y The rate of generation of momentum in the interior of S by the component of force, X per unit mass, is fffpXdxdydz, f pXdxdydz, (3) and by the pressure at the surface S is -f.
As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.
Denoting the cross-section a of a filament by dS and its mass by dm, the quantity wdS/dm is called the vorticity; this is the same at all points of a filament, and it does not change during the motion; and the vorticity is given by w cos edS/dm, if dS is the oblique section of which the normal makes an angle e with the filament, while the aggregate vorticity of a mass M inside a surface S is M - l fw cos edS.
None the less, since it is used at choir services and is ordered to be worn over the everyday dress at Mass (Missa rom.
This continues until the grape is reduced to a black hard mass, with the folds of skin pressed closely against the seed.
It melts at 160°, and on cooling solidifies to a glassy mass, which on standing gradually becomes opaque and crystalline.
When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
In endeavouring to make a pan of less power do as much and as good work as one of greater power, they have imagined many ingenious mechanical contrivances, such as currents produced mechanically to promote evaporation and crystallization, feeding the pan from many points in order to spread the feed equally throughout the mass of sugar being cooked, and so on.
in length; with such coils, and a sufficient annular space in the pan free from obstruction, in order to allow a natural down-current of the cooking mass, while an up-current all round is also naturally produced by the action of the heated worms or coils, rapid evaporation and crystallization can be obtained, without any mechanical adjuncts to require attention or afford excuse for negligence.
The moisture from the clay, percolating through the mass of sugar, washes away the adhering molasses and leaves the crystals comparatively free and clear.
When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.
The char is then " settled " by water being slowly run on to it, in order to prevent the syrup making channels for itself and not permeating the whole mass evenly.
These are then discharged into large receivers, which are generally fitted with stirrers, and from the receivers the cooked mass passes to the centrifugal machines.
The only place in the district at the present day deserving to be called a town is Isbarta, the residence of a pasha; it stands at the northern foot of the main mass of Mt Taurus, looking over a wide and fertile plain which extends up to the northern chain of Taurus.
cannot be reckoned among the great sultans, neither had he any of the calculating statecraft which characterized Abd-ul-Hamid II.; but his qualities of mind and heart, none the less, raised him far above the mass of his predecessors and successors.
The mass of the body consists of richly branched stellate cells - the mesenchyma - and imbedded in this plasmic tissue are the nervous, excretory, muscular and generative organs.
It is known as the Mass Tower and contains a niche in which is a small effigy believed to represent the founder, who also endowed the grammar school which is still in existence.
Moreover the rain penetrates into the small interstices between its particles and dissolves out some of the materials which bind the whole into a solid stone, the surface then becoming a loose powdery mass which falls to the ground below or is carried away by the wind.
The conglomerate consists of rock fragments, sodium chloride and various sulphates, cemented together by gypsum to form a hard compact mass 6 to 10 ft.
fermentation is quickly set up, and the temperature of the mass rises steadily till it reaches about 130° F.
central mass of fillers enveloped in an inner and an outer C cover, the former the binder and the latter the wrapper.
The mass is dried, ground, and allowed to ferment again, the process being repeated if necessary.
From such a mass of authorities it would be vain here to make selections, but mention may be made of Fairholt's capital gossiping work, Tobacco, its History and Associations (2nd ed., 1876).
The site has been partially excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund, and an enormous mass of material for the history of Palestine recovered from it, including remains of a pre-Semitic aboriginal race, a remarkably perfect High Place, the castle built by Simon, and other remains of the first importance.
Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's are among the bestwritten books of travel in the language.
Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.
The deep depression of Wadi Feran separates the Tih from the higher mass of Sinai (q.v.), in which J.
These tracts are known as harra; the most remarkable is the Harrat El Awerid, west of the Haj route from Tebuk to El Ala, a mountain mass 100 m.
Sabur, a conspicuous mass in the extreme south, is 9900 ft., with a fall to the Taiz valley of 5000 ft.; farther north several points in the mountains above Ibb and Yarim attain a height of 10,500 ft., and J.
Consequently even the more sober histories contain a mass of fables about early days.
The tribes were a seething mass of restlessness, their old feuds ready to break out again.
728 A.D.) had a great mass of such notes, and he was accused of sometimes passing off as oral tradition things he had really drawn from books; for oral tradition was still the one recognized authority, and it is related of more than one old scholar, and even of Hasan of Basra himself, that he directed his books to be burned at his death.
Trans., 1808, p. I), produced the alkali metals by passing an intense current of electricity from a platinum wire to a platinum dish, through a mass of fused caustic alkali.
On passing a current through the carbon the small rod is heated to incandescence, and imparts heat to the surrounding mass.
The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
The whole mass dissolves on heating, and the anthracene crystallizes out on cooling.
Of these the Etudes sur la condition de la classe agricole et l'Nat de l'agriculture en Normandie au moyen dge (1851), condensing an enormous mass of facts drawn from the local archives, was reprinted in 1905 without change, and remains authoritative.
The larger islands (Wokan, Kobrur, Maikor and Trangan), and certain of the lesser ones, are regarded by the Malays as one land mass which they call Lana besar (" great land").
TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
Titanium tetrabromide, TiBr 4, is an amber-coloured crystalline mass.
The tetraiodide, TiI 4, is a reddish brown mass having a metallic lustre.
It gives the normal sulphate as a yellow, deliquescent, amorphous mass when treated with nitric acid.
Of special interest is the fact that Walafrid, in his exposition of the Mass, shows no trace of any belief in the doctrine of transubstantiation as taught by his famous contemporary Radbertus (q.v.); according to him, Christ gave to his disciples the sacraments of his Body and Blood in the substance of bread and wine, and taught them to celebrate them as a memorial of his Passion.
gravis, heavy), in physical science, that mutual action between masses of matter by virtue of which every such mass tends toward every other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of their distances apart.
He also showed that the total gravitation of the earth, assumed as spherical, on external bodies, would be the same as if the earth's mass were concentrated in the centre.
If it did, then a portion of the earth's mass or of that of any other planet turned away from the sun would not be subjected to the same action of the sun as if directly exposed to that action.
Great masses, as those of the great planets, would not be attracted with a force proportional to the mass because of the hindrance of the interposed portions.
The general conclusion from everything we see is that a mass of matter in Australia attracts a mass in London precisely as it would if the earth were not interposed between the two masses.
From an investigation of all the observations upon Mercury and the other three interior planets, Simon Newcomb found it almost out of the question that any such mass of matter could exist without changing either the figure of the sun itself or the motion of the planes of the orbits of either Mercury or Venus.
But the fact that careful and repeated search for a mass of matter sufficient to produce the desired effect has been in vain, affords additional evidence of its non-existence.
A great mass of pale-green foliage is usually composed of the algarrobo trees, while the course of the river is marked by lines or groups of palms, by fine old willows (Salix humboldtiana), fruit-gardens, and fields of cotton, Indian corn, sugar-cane and alfalfa (lucerne).
The island of San Lorenzo, in 12° 4' S., is a lofty mass, 41 m.
Only four volumes had been published at the time of his death, but he left a mass of papers and manuscripts which the government has put in the hands of the Geographical Society of Lima for publication.
the language of I Clem., esp. the liturgical parts, and even the Roman Mass).
For efficiency the operation must be conducted with small quantities; caking may be prevented by mixing the substance with sand or powdered pumice, or, better, with iron filings, which also renders the decomposition more regular by increasing the conductivity of the mass.
Two forms of steam distillation may be distinguished: - in one the still is simply heated by a steam coil wound inside or outside the still - this is termed heating by dry steam; in the other steam is injected into the mass within the still - this is the distillation with live steam of laboratory practice.
Before the object can pierce the dense lower strata of air its material is usually exhausted, but on rare occasions it withstands the fiery ordeal, and fragments of the original mass fall upon the earth.
On the other wing is the mass of hills from which the spurs and streams descend: here the Olmiitz-Briinn road passes.
Each shell contains a single ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.
The egg consists of a fertilized ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.
The central mass soon becomes differentiated into an outer epidermal and a dermal layer of flat-cells.
He refrained from public preaching, but held conferences in St Mark's with large gatherings of his disciples, and defied the interdict on Christmas Day by publicly celebrating mass and heading a procession through the cloisters.
The zooids of which the colonies of Ectoprocta are composed consist of two parts: the body-wall and the visceral mass (figs.
The visceral mass was accordingly termed the "polypide" and the body-wall which contains it the "zooecium."
y, The yolk-like mesodermic mass.
Comte's instances) it implies, in the mass of mankind, any very decided natural bent, either in a good or in a bad direction; if it supposes that the reason, in average human beings, predominates over the desires, or the disinterested desires over the personal, - we may know that history has been misinterpreted, and that the theory is false.
Nominally he was in Opposition; but his party formed the majority of the House of Commons, and could beat the government whenever they chose to mass their forces.
Solidity of mass and simplicity of detail are among the characteristics of this period.
The centre is occupied by a mass of peaks, on the W.
It appears to form the central mass which crops up in hundreds of places towards the coast and in the interior.
By carefully selecting certain portions and welding them together in a perfectly flawless mass, a pure amber-colored object is obtained at heavy cost.
From time immemorial the great mass of the people have lived in absolute ignorance of luxury in any fo:m and in the perpetual presence of a necessity to economize.
If the disciples of this school could shake off the Sesshu tradition of strong outlines and adopt the Kano Motonobu revelation of modelling by mass only, their work would stand on a high place.
The Lowell Offering (1841) was written by factory girls of Lowell (q.v.), Mass.
and reported on Nevil Maskelyne's determination of the mean density and mass of the earth from measurements taken in 1774-1776 at Mount Schiehallion in Perthshire.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
The division attributed to Theseus is always spoken of by ancient authorities as a division of the entire population; but Busolt has recently maintained the view that the three classes represent three elements in the Attic nobility, namely, the city nobility, the landed nobility and the commercial nobility, and exclude altogether the mass of the population.
In his last work he used, with doubtful success, the variations of the penes and the lungs as additional characters, chiefly for the grouping of the great mass of the Colubroid snakes.
The second and third series containing only about 400 species, the Aglypha still present the appalling number of moo species, and even the grouping of this mass into three sub-families does not lighten the task of arranging the chaos, since one of these sub-families contains only one, and the other but a very few species.
Its eggs, which are of the size and shape of a dove's egg, are from fifteen to thirty in number, are deposited in mould or under damp leaves, and are glued together into one mass.
alligare, to combine), a term generally applied to the intimate mixtures obtained by melting together two or more metals, and allowing the mass to solidify.
This uniform distribution of a solid substance throughout the mass of another, so as to form a homogeneous material, is called " solid solution," and we may say that solid silver can dissolve copper.
The presence in an alloy of a eutectic which solidifies at a much lower temperature than the main mass, implies a great reduction in tenacity, especially if it is to be used above the ordinary temperature as in the case of pipes conveying super-heated steam.
Recent progress is reported in the scientific periodicals, especially in The Iron and Steel Metallurgist, formerly The Metallographist (Boston, Mass.), and Metallurgic (Halle).
master of style unrivalled even by Cicero, the literary interest of most of Cicero's speeches is stronger than that of the great mass of Greek oratory.
Salvius Julianus was entrusted by Hadrian with the task of reducing into shape the immense mass of law which had grown up in the edicts of successive praetors - thus taking the first step towards a code.
LEBANON (from Semitic laban, " to be white," or "whitish," probably referring not to snow, but to the bare white walls of chalk or limestone which form the characteristic feature of the whole range), in its widest sense is the central mountain mass of Syria, extending for about loo m.
A valley narrowing towards its southern end, and now called the Buka`a, divides the mountainous mass into two great parts.
That lying to the west is still called Jebel Libnan; the greater part of the eastern mass now bears the name of the Eastern Mountain (Jebel el-Sharki).
The great mass of the vegetation, however, is of the low-growing type (maquis or garrigue of the western Mediterranean), with small and stiff leaves, and frequently thorny and aromatic, as for example the ilex (Quercus coccifera), Smilax, Cistus, Lentiscus, Calycotome, &c. (2) Next comes, from 1600 to 6500 ft., the mountain region, which may also be called the forest region, still exhibiting sparse woods and isolated trees wherever shelter, moisture and the inhabitants have permitted their growth.
It includes a mass of islands in the Banda Sea (2° 30'- 8° 20' S.
It boils at 78.3° C. (760 mm.); at - 90° C. it is a thick liquid, and at - 130° it solidifies to a white mass.
The reader should, however, notice that what is generally called electric force is the analogue in electricity of the so-called acceleration of gravity in mechanics, whilst electrification or quantity_of electricity is analogous to mass.
Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.
This mass is equal to 47rabcp,u; therefore Q = A47rabcp s and b =pp, where p is the length of the perpendicular let fall from the centre of the ellipsoid on the tangent plane.
This gave the new king much popularity with the mass of the people; while the educated classes were pleased by his removal of Frederick's ban on the German language by the admission of German writers to the Prussian Academy, and by the active encouragement given to schools and universities.
It is tacitly assumed that the motion is relatively so slow that the pressure and temperature of the substance are practically uniform throughout its mass at any stage of the process.
Starting with unit mass of the substance in the first state (e.g.
- If we take unit mass of the substance at B, fig.
If we consider any short length of the stream bounded by two imaginary cross-sections A and B on either side of the plug, unit mass of the fluid in passing A has work, p'v', done on it by the fluid behind and carries its energy, E'+ U', with it into the space AB, where U' is the kinetic energy of flow.
be pc/2 for co-aggregation, c, per unit mass.
If two diatomic molecules, having each 5 degrees of freedom, combine to form a molecule with 6 degrees of freedom, we should have n = 2, or the energy lost would be 2pc per unit mass.
The total entropy of the system is found by multiplying the entropy per unit mass of the substance in each state by the mass existing in that state, and adding the products so obtained.
If J', J" represent the values of the function for unit mass of the substance of specific volumes v' and v" in the two states at temperature 0 and pressure and if a mass m is in the state v', and 1-m in the.
state v", the value of J for unit mass of the mixture is mJ' + (1m) This must be a minimum in the state of equilibrium at constant temperature.
If 0', E', v'; and 4)", E", v", refer to unit mass of the substance in the first and second states respectively in equilibrium at a temperature 0 and pressure p, the heat absorbed, L, per unit mass in a change from the first to the second state is, by definition of the entropy, equal to 0(4)"-4)'), and this by the first law is equal to the change of intrinsic energy, E" - E', plus the external work done, p(v" - v'), i.e.
c, co, Co-aggregation volume per unit mass.
E, Intrinsic energy per unit mass.
m, Mass of substance or molecule.
V =RD/p, Ideal volume of gas per unit mass.
In 1700 he became acquainted with Dr John Woodward (1665-1728) physician to the duke and author of a work entitled The Natural History of the Earth, to whom he entrusted a large number of fossils of his own collecting, along with a mass of manuscript notes, for arrangement and publication.
- Small quantities of iridium do not destroy the ductility of gold, but this is probably because the metal is only disseminated through the mass, and not alloyed, as it falls to the bottom of the crucible in which the gold is fused.
Gold dichloride, probably Au 2 C1 4, =Au.AuC1 4, aurous chloraurate, is said to be obtained as a dark-red mass by heating finely divided gold to 140°- 170° in chlorine.
The material of the bank being loosened by blasting and the cutting action of the water, crumbles into holes, and the superincumbent mass, often with large trees and stones, falls into the lower ground.
The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.
The Carpathians proper consist of an outer wall, which forms the frontier between Hungary and the adjacent provinces of Austria, and of an inner wall which fills the whole of Upper Hungary, and forms the central group. The outer wall is a complex, roughly circular mass of about 600 m.
This work obliged him to trace out, collect, arrange, and digest a great mass of incongruous material scattered on both sides of the Atlantic, a large portion of which was in manuscript, and required much tedious exploration and the employment of trained copyists.
The disciplinary question of clerical marriage is not of the same primary importance as the doctrinal questions involved in the restoration of the cup to the laity, or discussed in the subsequent article on the mass.
articles, usually called the Creed of Pius IV., which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed, and dealt with the preservation of the apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions, the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures " according to the sense which our Holy Mother Church has held," the seven sacraments, the offering of the mass, transubstantiation, purgatory, the veneration of saints, relics, images, the efficacy of indulgences, the supremacy of the Roman Church and of the bishop of Rome as vicar of Christ.
Their hair is generally shaved, excepting a topknot; and when not shaved it gets into a matted, tangled mass, gathered into a knot behind or on the crown.
The Blue Clay forms, at the higher levels, a stratum impervious to water, and holds up the rainfall, which soaks through the spongy mass of the superimposed coralline formations.
The British authorities steadily maintained that, at least until the mass of the people became educated, representative institutions would merely screen irresponsible oligarchies.
The fifteenth article, treating of the Lord's Supper, defines the ground common to both parties even in this debateable region, recognizing the necessity of participation in both kinds, and rejecting the sacrifice of the Mass.
And of our own Christianity, Robertson Smith remarks as follows: "The host in the Mass is artistically as much inferior to the Venus of Milo as a Semitic Masseba was, but no one will say that medieval Christianity is a lower form of religion than Aphrodite worship."
It had to wheel half-right in mass to bring it in the required direction, and then to advance till its rear was clear of the obstruction formed by the gardens of St Marie.
Almost as the commands were given, the French suddenly opened an overwhelming long-range fire and their bullets swept like hail through the crowded mass of the German troops.
St Hubert was carried by a confused mass of some 49 companies, and von Steinmetz, believing the main French position to have been pierced, ordered the 4th cavalry division to cross the ravine by the chaussee and pursue.
Three batteries succeeded in struggling through the mass, and, in coming into action, their left resting on St Hubert.
This was stopped almost entirely by the Prussian artillery fire; but the news of its coming spread through the stragglers in the ravine south of the great road, and a wave of panic again swept through the mass, many thousands bolting right upon the front of their own batteries, thus masking their fire at the most critical moment, and something like a crisis in the battle arose.
to their front) could be initiated, therefore the whole mass passed the night where they stood until daylight disclosed that the French had retreated.
This brought the strength of his command up to eight corps, numbering some 220,000 men; an enormous mass to feed in a district swept bare of supplies by the operations of the preceding week, and with only one railway line, terminating at Courcelles, to depend upon.
Though most of the land is under garden cultivation, the mass of the people is dependent more or less directly on mercantile pursuits; for, while the exclusive policy both of Chinese and Portuguese which prevented Macao becoming a free port till1845-1846allowed what was once the great emporium of European commerce in eastern Asia to be outstripped by its younger and more liberal rivals, the local, though not the foreign, trade of the place is still of very considerable extent.
The lowest layer of the molten mass is principally metallic bismuth, the succeeding layers are a bismuth copper matte, which is subsequently worked up, and a slag.
Treated with sodammonium it yields a bluish-black mass, BiNa 3, which takes fire in the air and decomposes water.
It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.
The municipality owns and operates the gas and electric-lighting plants and the water works (the watersupply being derived from natural ponds, some of which are outside the city limits), and owns and leases (to the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad) a railway extending (10.3 m.) to Westfield, Mass.
To the north of the walls the site of old Herat was indicated by a vast mass of debris - mounds of bricks and pottery intersected by a network of shallow trenches, where the only semblance of a protective wall was the irregular line of the Tal-i-Bangi.
It is this great mass which makes it the central one of the system.
densus, thick), in physics, the mass or quantity of matter contained in unit volume of any substance: this is the absolute density; the term relative density or specific gravity denotes the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of a substance to the mass of the same volume of some standard substance.
Since the weights used in conjunction with a balance are really standard masses, the word "weight" may be substituted for the word "mass" in the preceding definitions; and we may symbolically express the relations thus: - If M be the weight of substance occupying a volume V, then the absolute density O = M/V; and if m, m 1 be the weights of the substance and of the standard substance which occupy the same volume, the relative density or specific gravity S = m/m l; or more generally if m i be the weight of a volume v of the substance, and m l the weight of a volume v l of the standard, then S = mv l /m l v.
In the numerical expression of absolute densities it is necessary to specify the units of mass and volume employed; while in the case of relative densities, it is only necessary to specify the standard substance, since the result is a mere number.
The reason for this is readily seen; if a mass M of any gas occupies a volume V at a temperature T (on the absolute scale) and a pressure P, then its absolute density under these conditions is O = M/V; if now the temperature and pressure be changed to l and P,, the volume V l under these conditions is VPT/PIT1, and the absolute density is MP,T/VPT I.
It may be noted that if comparison be made with water at 4°, the relative density is the same as the absolute density, since the unit of mass in the C.G.S.
The separate determination of the volume and mass of such substances as gunpowder, cotton-wool, soluble substances, &c., supplies the only means of determining their densities.
The stereometer of Say, which was greatly improved by Regnault and further modified by Kopp, permits an accurate determination of the volume of a given mass of any such substance.
Order Of The Roman Liturgy Ordinary of the Mass.
13, 14 and 15 were sometimes arranged not as the concluding part of the Ordinary, but as the opening part of the Canon of the mass.
Canon of the Mass.
The Canon of the Mass strictly ends with No.
REQUIEM, the name of a solemn mass for the dead (Missa pro defunctis) in the Roman Church, appointed 'to be sung on All Souls' Day, in memory of all "faithful departed," at funeral services, and at the anniversaries of the death of particular persons.
The term is specially applied to the musical setting of the mass.
It may be obtained by heating tellurium bismuth with sodium carbonate, lixiviating the fused mass with water, filtering, and exposing the filtrate to air, when the tellurium is gradually precipitated as a grey powder (J.
The free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution, when a crystalline mass of composition H 2 Te04.2H 2 O separates.
She had become secretly inclined to Roman Catholicism, and attended mass with the king's connivance.
She communicated on one occasion subsequently and attended Anglican service occasionally; but she received consecrated objects from Pope Clement VIII., continued to hear mass, and, according to Galluzzi, supported the schemes for the conversion of the prince of Wales and of England, and for the prince's marriage with a Roman Catholic princess, which collapsed on his death in 1612.
From a series of measures of the angle between Jupiter's satellites and the planet, made in June and July 1794 and in August and September 1795, Schur finds the mass of Jupiter =I / Io 4 8.55 1.45, a result which accords well within the limits of its probable error with the received value of the mass derived from modern researches.
Tantalum tetroxide, Ta 2 0 4, is a porous dark grey mass harder than glass, and is obtained by reducing the pentoxide with magnesium.
Tantalic acid, HTa03,, is a gelatinous mass obtained by mixing the chloride with water.
They owe their origin to depressions of the earth's crust of no very wide extent and not running very far into the continental mass, and geologically they are of recent age and still subject to change.
Isolated gritty fragments of minerals may be felt in the generally fine-grained homogeneous mass.
In other words, water which has a specific gravity of 1 0280 at the surface would at the same temperature have a specific gravity of 1 0450 at 2000 and I 0540 at 3000 fathoms. If the whole mass of water in the ocean were relieved from pressure its volume would expand from 319 million cub.
Conduction has practically no effect, for the coefficient of thermal conductivity in sea-water is so small that if a mass of sea-water were cooled to 0° C. and the surface kept at a temperature of 30° C., 6 months would elapse before a temperature of 15° C. was reached at the depth of 1 3 metres, 1 year at 1 85 metres, and io years at 5.8 metres.
The observations of Aime in 1845 and of Semmola in the Gulf of Naples in 1881 show that the surface water in winter cools until the whole mass of water from the surface to the bottom, in 1600 fathoms or more, assumes the same temperature.
In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
This deflecting force is directly proportional to the velocity and the mass of the particle and also to the sine of the latitude; hence it is zero at the equator and comes to a maximum at the poles.
When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
Ekman shows further that in a pure drift current the mean direction of the whole mass of the current is perpendicular to the direction of the wind which sets it in motion.
Underneath is the true floor of the cave, a mass of homogeneous yellow clay, one metre in thickness.
He was offered a chair of philosophy, provided he would receive the Mass.
There is generally a tendency in coals towards cleaving into cubical or prismatic blocks, but sometimes the cohesion between the particles is so feeble that the mass breaks up into dust when struck.
These peculiarities of structure may vary very considerably within small areas; and the position of the divisional planes or cleats with reference to the mass, and the proportion of small coal or slack to the larger fragments when the coal is broken up by cutting-tools, are points of great importance in the working of coal on a large scale.
A coal of this kind is generally to be Lignite distinguished by its brown colour, either in mass or in the blacker varieties in the streak.
The ultimate term of bacterial activity seems to be the production of ulmic acid, containing carbon 65.31 and hydrogen 3.85%, which is a powerful antiseptic. By the progressive elimination of oxygen and hydrogen, partly as water and partly as carbon dioxide and marsh gas, the ratios of carbon to oxygen and hydrogen in the rendered product increase in the following manner: The resulting product is a brown pasty or gelatinous substance which binds the more resisting parts of the plants into a compact mass.
We might therefore expect to find coal wherever strata of estuarine origin are developed in great mass.
The commencement of the Carboniferous period is marked by a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or Sequences Mountain Limestone,which contains a large assemblage of carbon- of marine fossils, and has a maximum thickness in iferous S.W.
These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.
The next member of the series is a mass of coarse sandstones, with some slates and a few thin coals, known as the Millstone Grit, which is about equally developed in England and in Scotland.
thick in one connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 ft.
To secure the perpendicularity of the shaft, it is necessary to leave a large mass or pillar of the seam untouched around the pit bottom.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
When the coal has been under-cut for a sufficient length, the struts are withdrawn, and the overhanging mass is allowed to fall during the time that the workmen are out of the pit, or it may be brought down by driving wedges, or if it be of a compact character a blast in a borehole near the roof may be required.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.
They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them.
Continuing these experiments, they found that in acetylene gas under ordinary pressures the decomposition brought about in one portion of the gas, either by heat or the firing in it of a small detonator, did not spread far beyond the point at which the decomposition started, while if the acetylene was compressed to a pressure of more than 30 lb on the square inch, the decomposition travelled throughout the mass and became in reality detonation.
When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
The crucible is of metal and considerably larger than the ingot, the latter being surrounded by a mass of unreduced material which protects the crucible from the intense heat.
The principles involved in it were lost sight of under the mass of spurious maxims on social order which had slowly grown up and stiffened into system.
He published History and Present State of the Town of Newburyport, Mass.
molecula, the diminutive of moles, a mass), in chemistry and physics, the minutest particle of matter capable of separate existence.
According to Boscovich matter is made up of atoms. Each atom is an indivisible point, having position in space, capable of motion in a continuous path, and possessing a certain mass, whereby a certain amount of force is required to produce a given change of motion.
It has a definite mass which cannot be increased or diminished.
THE Molecular Structure Of Matter An enormous mass of experimental evidence now shows quite conclusively that matter cannot be regarded as having a continuous structure, but that it is ultimately composed of discrete parts.
As a preliminary to examining further into the nature of molecular motion and the differences of character of this motion, let us try to picture the state of things which would exist in a mass of solid matter in which all the molecules are imagined to be at rest relatively to one another.
Such a mass of imaginary matter as we are now considering may be compared to a collection of heavy particles held in position relatively to one another by a system of light spiral springs, one spring being supposed to connect each pair of adjacent particles.
Let two such masses of matter be suspended by strings from the same point, and then let one mass be drawn aside, pendulum-wise,.
At first the heat-motion will be confined to molecules near the rubbing surfaces of the two bodies, but, as already explained, these will in time set the interior molecules into motion, so that ultimately the heat-motion will become spread throughout the whole mass.
The body is continually losing mass by the loss of individual molecules in this way, and this explains the process of evaporation.
T =273, we obtain R =1.35 X Io -16 and this enables us to determine the mean velocities produced by heat motion in molecules of any given mass.
35 X I 016 it is readily calculated that a molecule, or aggregation of molecules, of mass Io - 12 grammes, ought to have a mean velocity of about 2 millimetres a second at O.
C. Such a velocity ought accordingly to be set up in a part i cle of -12 grammes mass immersed in air or liquid at 0° C., by the continual jostling of the surrounding molecules or particles.
A particle of this mass is easily visible microscopically, and a velocity of 2 mm.
- If v is the volume of a homogeneous mass of gas, and N the total number of its molecules, N =v(v+v'+ ...), so that pv =RNT.
If a solid body is regarded as an aggregation of similar atoms each of mass m, its specific heat C is given, as in formula (19) by C = i (n+3) R/Jm.
The term "spontaneous combustion" is used when a substance smoulders or inflames apparently without the intervention of any external heat or light; in such cases, as, for example, in heaps of cotton-waste soaked in oil, the oxidation has proceeded slowly, but steadily, for some time, until the heat evolved has raised the mass to the temperature of ignition.
Tallard therefore had a few horse on his right between the Danube and Blenheim, a mass of infantry in his centre atBlenheim itself, and a long line of cavalry supported by a few battalions forming his left wing in the plain, and connecting with the right of Marsin's army.
His dress, the simplicity of his external appearance, the friendly meekness of the old man, and the apparent humility of the Quaker, procured for Freedom a mass of votaries among the court circles who used to be alarmed at its coarseness and unsophisticated truths.
The mass of Elgon can be seen from the northeast coast of Victoria Nyanza, from near the main Nile stream, from the heights overlooking Lake Rudolf and from the Kikuyu escarpment.
This was his last public celebration of mass.
Modern research has proved that such reactions are not occasioned by water acting as H 2 0, but really by its ions (hydrions and hydroxidions), for the velocity is proportional (in accordance with the law of chemical mass action) to the concentration of these ions.
Lastly, the work of Celestin Port, Dictionnaire historique, geographique et biographique de Maine-etLoire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, 1874-1878), and its small volume of Preliminaires (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, in addition to the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass of information concerning everything connected with Angevin history.
These agreed in repudiating certain of the doctrines, rites and practices of the medieval Church, especially the sacrifice of the Mass and the headship of the bishop of Rome, and, whatever their official designations, came generally to be known as " Protestant."
" It was into this mass of seething discontent that the spark of religious protest fell - the one thing needed to fire the train and kindle the social conflagration.
" What my forefathers established at the council of Constance and other councils it is my privilege to maintain," he exclaims. Although, to Aleander's chagrin, the emperor consented to summon Luther to Worms, where he received a species of ovation, Charles readily approved the edict drafted by the papal nuncio, in which Luther is accused of having " brought together all previous heresies in one stinking mass," rejecting all law, teaching a life wholly brutish, and urging the lay people to bathe their hands in the blood of priests.
The service of the Mass was modified, and the laity were to receive the elements in both kinds.
Then the Word will drop into one heart to-day and to-morrow into another, and so will work that each will forsake the Mass."
Next year the Mass, processions and the images of saints were abolished.
No one was to preach against the Mass, and no one was to be prevented from attending it freely.
Those who signed this appeal were called Protestants, a name which came to be generally applied to those who rejected the supremacy of the pope, the Roman Catholic conceptions of the clergy and of the Mass, and discarded sundry practices of the older Church, without, however, repudiating the Catholic creeds.
In the second part, those practices of the Church are enumerated which the evangelical party rejected; the celibacy of the clergy, the Mass,.
2 The episcopal system and succession were maintained, and the Mass vestments " (i.e.
This reaffirmed the seven sacraments, transubstantiation and the invocation of saints, and declared the pope head of the Church, but adopted Luther's doctrine of justification by faith in a conditional way, as well as the marriage of priests, and considerably modified the theory and practice of the Mass.
no strong evangelical movement, and that Henry's pretty consistent adherence to the fundamental doctrines of the medieval Church was agreeable to the great mass of his subjects.
This made it clear that the communion was no longer to be regarded as a propitiatory sacrifice, the names " Holy Communion " and " Lord's Supper " being definitively substituted for " Mass " (q.v.), while the word " altar " was replaced by " table."
As supreme governor of the Church of England the sovereign strictly controlled all ecclesiastical legislation and appointed royal delegates to hear appeals from the ecclesiastical courts, to be a " papist " or to " hear Mass " (which was construed as the same thing) was to risk incurring the terrible penalties of high treason.
After a public disputation in which the Catholics were weakly represented, and a popular demonstration in favour of the new doctrines, the council of Geneva rather reluctantly sanctioned the abolition of the Mass.
In the nature and position of the upland rocks - mainly crystalline schists and gneisses, excessively complicated and disordered in mass, and also internally deformed - there is found abundant proof that the peneplain is a degraded mountain region.
On Agriculture: U.S. Census and reports of Mass.
Anteriorly these chords embrace the oesophagus and unite with the cerebral mass which innervates the pair of eyes when present.
At Uxmal the mass of masonry is to chamber space about as forty to one.
The scientific inquirer will find a mass of material in the papers and reports contributed to the numerous.
After fusion, the mass is finely powdered and treated with cold dilute hydrochloric acid; and when action has finished, nitric and sulphuric acids are added, the precipitated barium sulphate removed, the liquid distilled and the osmium precipitated as sulphide.
It is obtained as a yellowish coloured mass and can be sublimed in the form of needles which melt at 40° C. It possesses an unpleasant smell and its vapour is extremely poisonous.
Near the centre of the province the mountains of Sahand rise in an accumulated mass to the height of 1 2,000 ft.
When the mass is quietly fusing, the crucible is heated for two hours in a wind-furnace.
The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
At the age of twenty-two Zwingli was ordained by the bishop of Constance (1506), preached his first sermon at Rapperswyl, and said his first mass among his own people at Wildhaus.
They proved the occasion of a conflict with Luther which was never settled, but in the meantime more attention was attracted by Zwingli's denunciation of the worship of images and of the Roman doctrine of the mass.