Masonry sentence example

masonry
  • Without sharing Montalembert's antipathy to the bastioned trace, and his predilection for high masonry caponiers, he followed out the principle of retarding the development of the attack, and provided for the most active defence.
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  • Fragments of masonry exist about the mound.
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  • The houses of the city are built of stone, their walls commonly showing the massive masonry of the Incas at the bottom, crowned with a light modern superstructure roofed with red tiles.
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  • Here some remains of Cyclopean masonry exist; but the area enclosed, about zoo yds.
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  • The city was famous for the temple of Venus Erycina, to the foundations of which a wall of 12 courses of masonry in the castle probably belongs.
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  • The sea front is protected by a masonry wall, and there are over 13,000 ft.
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  • In Berlin, on the Stadtbahn - which for a part of its length traverses private property - masonry arches, or earthen embankments between retaining walls, were substituted for the metallic structure wherever possible.
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  • The church of St James, belonging to a small community of Jacobite Christians, and a few pillars and blocks of masonry are the only remains of the former greatness of the town.
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  • Besides several interesting churches and palaces, it contains a fine arch, erected in 1595 in honour of Philip II., and partly constructed of inscribed Roman masonry.
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  • He also amused himself making locks, and a little at masonry.
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  • Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.
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  • The porticos have fallen, and their broken monolithic columns, with fragments of cornices and other masonry, lie piled within the enclosure, which is still partly paved.
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  • In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
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  • Masonry and concrete are more durable than metal, and metal than timber.
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  • Masonry bridges are preferable in appearance to any others, and metal arch bridges are less objectionable than most forms of girder.
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  • For masonry, brick or concrete the arch subjected throughout to compression is the most natural form.
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  • In some recent masonry arched bridges of spans up to ' so f t.
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  • By the method adopted the total masonry has been reduced one-third.
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  • Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
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  • Such hinges have been used not only for metal arches, but in a modified form for masonry and concrete arches.
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  • An important series of experiments on the strength of masonry, brick and concrete structures will be found in the Zeitschr.
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  • The difficulty of casting heavy arch ribs led to the construction of cast iron arches of cast voussoirs, somewhat like the voussoirs of masonry chambers and air locks, a feat unprecedented in the annals of engineering.
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  • These portions usually consist of masonry in some form, including under that general head stone masonry, brickwork and concrete.
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  • In some soils foundations may be obtained by the device of building a masonry casing like that of a well and excavating the soil inside; the casing gradually sinks and the masonry is continued at the surface.
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  • Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or cast or wrought iron.
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  • On the piles the masonry piers were built.
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  • The anicut or dam at Bezwada, begun in 1852, consists of a mass of rubble, fronted with masonry, 1240 yds.
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  • They are preserved to a considerable height on all sides, except where the ravine is precipitous and they have been carried away by a landslip; they are for the most part built of irregular blocks of great size in the so-called " Cyclopian " style; but certain portions, notably that near the chief gate, are built in almost regular courses of squared stones; there are also some later repairs in polygonal masonry.
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  • They would agitate by means of the so-called National Masonry, or National Patriotic Society as it was afterwards called, for the restoration of the full kingdom of Poland.
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  • But it did nothing for the southern lakes, so that a further system of dikes was recommended in preference, in 1614, by the Dutch engineer Adrian Boot; it was inadequate for its work and, not being lined with masonry, it was liable to be choked by falls.
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  • The dagobas are bell-shaped masses of masonry, varying from a few feet to over Iloo in circumference.
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  • Some of them contain enough masonry to build a town for twenty-five thousand inhabitants.
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  • The simplest form of weir is a solid, watertight dam of firm earthwork or rubble stone, faced with stone pitching, with cribs filled with rubble, with fascine mattresses weighted with stone, or with masonry, and protected from undermining by sheet piling or one or more rows of well foundations.
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  • The discharge of a river at a weir can be regulated as required and considerably increased in flood-time by introducing a series of openings in the centre of a solid weir, with sluice-gates or panels which slide in grooves at the sides of upright frames or masonry piers erected at convenient intervals apart, FIG.
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  • As an architectural term "bevel" is a sloped or canted edge given to a sill or horizontal course of stone, but is more frequently applied to the canted edges worked round the projecting bands of masonry which for decorative purposes are employed on the quoins of walls or windows and in some cases, with vertical joints, cover the whole wall.
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  • When the outer face of the stone band is left rough so that it forms what is known as rusticated masonry, the description would be bevelled and rusticated.
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  • The town is still surrounded by the masonry walls of black basalt which give it the name of Kara or Black Amid; they are well built and imposing on the west facing the open country, but almost in ruins where they overlook the river.
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  • One of the few drawbacks of concrete is that, unlike brickwork or masonry, it has nearly always to be deposited within moulds or framing which give it the required shape, and which are removed after it is set.
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  • Concrete may be compared with other building materials like masonry or timber from various points of view, such as strength, durability, convenience of building, fire resistance, appearance and cost.
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  • They occur no less in structures of masonry and brickwork, but in these cases they generally follow the joints, and are almost imperceptible.
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  • Considerable portions of the southern wall of the ancient citadel, built in very massive Cyclopean masonry of blocks of limestone, are still to be seen; and the two walls, also polygonal, which formerly united the citadel with the town, can still be traced.
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  • These were, however, ill adapted for the growth of plants, as they consisted of little else than a huge chamber of masonry, having large windows in front, with the roof invariably opaque.
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  • All the above types require a setting of masonry.
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  • This mixture may be rammed in place, or baked blocks of it may be laid up like a masonry wall.
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  • Masonry of well-dressed stones has also been here discovered in course of excavation.
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  • There is, however, a trace of early masonry which may have belonged to the Saxon house where, in 978, King Edward the Martyr was murdered.
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  • Grey tufa period; ashlar masonry of tufa, coated with fine white stucco; rubble work of lava.
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  • The "quasi-reticulate" period - walling faced with masonry not yet quite so regular as opus reticulatum, and with brick quoins, coinciding with the second period of decoration (the architectural, partly imitating marble like the first style, but without relief, and by colour only, and partly making use of architectural designs).
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  • In the Mediterranean provinces of Spain there are some very remarkable irrigation dams. The great masonry dam of Alicante on the river Monegre, which dates from 1579, is situated in a narrow gorge, so that while 140 ft.
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  • Of course it is necessary to build the mouths of such main drains of very solid masonry, and to construct efficient sluices for the retention of the water in the drains.
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  • In 1861 it was at length said to be finished; but it was not until 1863 that the gates of the Rosetta branch were closed, and they were reopened again immediately, as a settlement of the masonry took place.
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  • Moreover, in the meantime the eastern, or Tewfikia, canal was dug and supplied with the necessary masonry works for a distance of 23 m., to where it fed the network of old canals.
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  • The barrage is the greatest, but by no means the only important masonry work in Lower Egypt.
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  • In the years following 1888 about loo new masonry works of this kind were built in Upper Egypt, nearly 400 m.
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  • Its upper waters are now stemmed by a masonry dam 178 ft.
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  • The short streak of light thus obtained moves with Mirror, .l 4,Stindd Boom Balance Weight, j/?/?j?jj/ Masonry Column Lamp Br.mide Paper_ On- Need,Le o 0 the movement of the boom over a second slit perpendicular to the first and made in the lid of a box containing clockwork driving a band of bromide paper.
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  • The design of these entrance gateways is extremely simple and massive, depending for their effect on the fine ashlar masonry in which they are built, the decoration being more or less confined to ornamental disks.
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  • The simple plain ashlar masonry still predominates, but the wall surface is broken up with sunk panels, sometimes with geometrical patterns in them.
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  • In the close of the Ilird Dynasty a great impetus was given to stone-work, and the grandest period of refined masonry is at the beginning of the IVth Dynasty under Cheops.
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  • The most splendid masonry is that of the Great Pyramid of Cheops.
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  • The main structure of this age is the step-pyramid of Sakkara, which is a mastaba tomb with eleven successive coats of masonry, enlarging it to about 350 by 390 ft.
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  • Though some of the masonry in the ruins is certainly pre-Roman, Suidas's identification of it with Cyinda, famous as a treasure city in the wars of Eumenes of Cardia, cannot be accepted in the face of Strabo's express location of Cyinda in western 'Cilicia.
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  • No doubt in times of remote antiquity it was found that the jointing of masonry which was to be immersed required the use of a cement indifferent to the action of water.
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  • Some portions of the ancient town walls - of two enceintes, an inner and an outer, the former attributed to the original Umbrian inhabitants, the latter to the Romans - are preserved, and also remains of baths, amphitheatre, theatre, and a substruction wall of massive masonry, with four niches.
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  • Above it is an embanking wall of irregular masonry, and below it some remains of Roman baths, including five parallel vaults of concrete.
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  • Within its precincts are a Roman pharos or lighthouse, still exhibiting the Roman masonry; the ancient fortress church (St Mary in Castro); some remains of the Saxon fort; and the massive keep and subsidiary defences (such as the Constable's, Avranche's, and other towers) of the Norman building.
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  • And when in the year 423 B.C., through the negligence of the priestess Chryseis, the old temple was burnt down, the Argives erected a splendid new temple, built by Eupolemos, in which was placed the great gold and ivory statue of Hera, by the sculptor Polyclitus, the Cyclopean wall and below it were found traces of small houses of the rudest, earliest masonry which are pre-Mycenaean, if not pre-Cyclopean.
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  • Immediately adjoining end facing the temple, is built upon elaborate supporting walls of good masonry.
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  • These uprights are supported on huge piers of masonry and concrete, the foundations for which were carried down, by the aid of iron caissons and compressed air, to a depth of about 15 metres on the side next the Seine, and about 9 metres on the other side.
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  • The harbour established by Agathocles proved of great service as a naval station to Caesar and Octavian in their wars with Pompeius Magnus and Sextus Pompeius, and remains of its massive masonry still exist at the village of Bivona on the coast, while the fort occupies the site of a temple.
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  • The traveller's history, not least in China, singularly illustrates the free masonry of Islam, and its power of carrying a Moslem doctor over the known world of Asia and Africa.
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  • A structure is composed, of pieces,such as the stones of a building in masonry, the beams of a timber frame-work, the bars, plates and bolts of an iron bridge.
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  • In the station of Shillong every masonry building was levelled to the ground.
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  • In 1907 the school had 813 students, of whom 313 were girls; it has an academic department, a business school and courses in domestic science, in farming, dairying and gardening, and in masonry, carpentry, painting, blacksmithing, waggonmaking, shoemaking, steam-fitting, printing and other trades.
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  • Drusus, brother of the emperor Tiberius, threw a bridge across the Rhine here, and his name is preserved in the Drusustor, the lower half of which is of Roman masonry.
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  • Near it there is a very ancient charnelhouse, partly rock-cut, partly of masonry, said to be the work of Crusaders.
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  • The external walls, which have a circuit of about 2 m., are constructed of polygonal masonry; the blocks are carefully jointed, and the faces smoothed.
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  • An inner arm ran nearly east from the island and terminated in a masonry head and fort, and an outer detached arm bent to the north and terminated in a circular fort, a narrow entrance for shipping being left between the two.
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  • To occupy the one defensible position in the station, the magazine by the river with its vast military stores and its substantial masonry walls, would have involved steps which Wheeler regarded as certain to precipitate an outbreak.
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  • It rushes out from the hillside and is received in a covered masonry canal, whence it flows in large iron pipes till it reaches five enormous reservoirs constructed just opposite to the entrance gates of the royal palace at Capodimonte.
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  • The practical limit of height was reached when the sectional area of the masonry of the piers of the exterior walls in the lower storey had to be made so great, in order to support safely the weight of the dead load of the walls and floors and the accidental load imposed upon the latter in use, as to affect seriously the value of the lower storeys on account of the loss of light and floor space.
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  • In 1881 the walls of a very large courtyard were constructed by building a braced cage of iron and filling the panels with masonry, a system of construction which had been used in the early part of the century for a tall shot-tower erected in the city of New York.
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  • The walls thus supported no load but their own weight, and were tied to the inner cage formed by the wall columns, interior columns, girders, and floors by anchors arranged to provide for the shrinkage of masonry in drying out which always occurs to a greater or less extent.
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  • Iron or steel as a substitute for wood for constructive purposes was long thought to be fire-proof or fire-resisting because it is incombustible, and for this reason it has not only replaced wood in many features of building construction but is also used as a substitute for masonry.
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  • The advantages that led to the very rapid introduction of this system were not only the power of greatly reducing the size of the piers, but the enormous facility afforded for quick construction, the small amount of materials relatively used and the proportionately small load upon the foundations, and the fact that as the walls are supported at each storey directly from the cage, the masonry can be begun at any storey independently of the masonry below it.
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  • The bases are either grouted with cement, or bolted to the foundations, but where cast column bases rest on masonry piers or footings any considerable grouting is not advisable.
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  • The only grouting that should be permitted in tall buildings would be in levelling up the tops of the concrete footings to receive the masonry courses, or in a very thin layer between the column pedestal and the masonry bed.
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  • Some architects depend solely upon partitions, and a building with a well-constructed iron frame should be safe if provided with brick partitions or if the exterior of the iron framework is covered with well-built masonry of sufficient thickness.
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  • In all structures exposed to wind, if the resisting moments of the ordinary materials of construction, such as masonry, partitions, floors and connexions, are not sufficient to resist the moment of distortion due to wind pressure, taken in any direction on any part of the structure, additional bracing shall be introduced sufficient to make up the difference in the moments.
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  • In flat forms of masonry floor construction the level of its bottom is placed somewhat below the bottom of the " I " beams and girders, so that when it is plastered a continuous surface of at least an inch of mortar will form a fire-proof protection for the lower flanges of the beams and girders.
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  • Where the width of the flange is considerable it is first covered with metal lath secured to the under side of the floor masonry.
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  • All furrings and partitions must be started on the solid masonry of the floors to prevent the possible passage of fire from the room in which it may occur.
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  • In all the large towns the masonry buildings were severely damaged or totally wrecked.
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  • Outside the town is an ancient masonry enclosure for the capture of elephants, which is still periodically used.
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  • The castle where Wallace surprised the English garrison and threw their corpses into the dungeon, grimly styled "Wallace's Larder," was finally destroyed by Cromwell, who is said to have used part of its masonry for the construction of the fort at Ayr; but its ruins still exist.
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  • It was constructed in the still usual rude style of Arabic masonry, with string courses of timber between the stones (like Solomon's Temple).
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  • Elsewhere, a simple concrete or masonry wall or core has been used above as well as below ground, being carried up between embankments either of earth or rubble stone.
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  • In Great Britain masonry or concrete core walls have been generally confined to positions below ground.
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  • Masonry dams are, for the most part, merely retaining walls of exceptional size, in which the overturning pressure is water.
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  • It can be shown, for example, that for masonry having a density of 3, water being 1, the figure of minimum section is a right-angled triangle, with the water against its vertical face; while for a greater density the water face must lean towards the water, and for a less density away from the water, so that the water may lie upon it.
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  • As the density of the heaviest rocks is only 3, that of a masonry dam must be below 3, and in practice such works if well constructed vary from 2.2 to 2.6.
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  • In the next place, it is necessary to confine the pressure, at every point of the masonry, to an intensity which will give a sufficient factor of safety against crushing.
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  • Having thus determined the outer profile under the conditions hitherto assumed, it must be similarly ascertained that the water face is everywhere cap able of resisting the vertical pressure of the masonry when the reservoir is empty, and the base of each compartment must be widened if necessary in that direction also.
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  • Next, Rankine pointed out that, in a structure exposed to the overturning action of forces which fluctuate in amount and direction, there should be no appreciable tension at any point of the masonry.
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  • We have hitherto considered only the horizontal overturning pressure of the water; but if from originally defective construction, or from the absence of vertical pressure due to weight of masonry towards the water edge of any horizontal bed, as at ab in fig.
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  • As a matter of fact, the foundations of most dams are carried down in vertical trenches, the lower part only being in sound materials so that actual separation almost corresponding with the hypothetical On Some Disregarded Points in the Stability of Masonry Dams, Drapers' Company Research Memoir (London, 1904).
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  • But like every pure theory the principles of conjugate pressures in earth may lead to danger if not applied with due consideration for the angle of repose of the material, the modifications brought about by the limited width of artificial embankments, the possible contraction away from the masonry, of clayey materials during dry weather for some feet in depth and the tendency of surface waters to produce scour between the wall and the embankment.
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  • In the construction of the Vyrnwy masonry dam Portland cement concrete was used in the joints.
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  • The only objection that can in any case be urged against most of the natural products is that a longer time is required for induration; but in the case of masonry dams sufficient time necessarily passes before any load, beyond that of the very gradually increasing masonry, is brought upon the structure.
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  • Any stone of which it is desirable to build a masonry dam would certainly pcssess.
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  • It is clear that the material upon which any high masonry dam is founded must also have a large factor of safety against crushing under the greatest load that the dam can impose upon it, and this consideration unfits any site for the construction of a masonry dam where sound rock, or at least a material equal in strength to the strongest shale, cannot be had; even in the case of such a material as shale the foundation must be well below the ground.
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  • The actual construction of successful masonry dams has varied from the roughest rubble masonry to ashlar work.
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  • The faces of the work may be of squared masonry, thoroughly tied into the hearting; but, in view of the expansion and contraction mentioned below, it is better that the face masonry should not be coursed.
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  • This action is obviously much reduced where the rock sides of the valley rise slowly; but in cases where the rock is very steep, the safest course is to face the facts, and not to depend for water-tightness upon the cementing of the masonry to the rock, but rather to provide a vertical key, or dowel joint, of some material like asphalt, which will always remain water-tight.
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  • So far as the writer has been able to observe or ascertain, there are very few masonry dams in Europe or America which have not been cracked transversely in their higher parts.
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  • The first masonry dam of importance constructed in Great Britain was that upon the river Vyrnwy, a tributary of the Severn, in connexion with the Liverpool water-supply (Plate I.).
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  • Its construction drew much attention to the subject of masonry dams in England - where the earthwork dam, with a wall of puddled clay, had hitherto been almost universal - and since its completion nine more masonry dams of smaller size have been completed.
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  • In connexion with the Elan and Claerwen works, in Mid-Wales, for the supply of Birmingham, six masonry dams were projected, three of which are completed, including the Caban Goch dam, 590 ft.
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  • In the Derwent Valley scheme, in connexion with the water supplies of Derby, Leicester, Nottingham and Sheffield, six more masonry dams have received parliamentary sanction.
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  • In 1892 the excavation was begun for the foundations of a masonry dam across the Croton river, in connexion with the supply of New York.
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  • The hearting is of rubble masonry, and the faces are coursed ashlar.
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  • In narrow rock gorges extremely interesting and complex problems relating to the combined action of horizontal and vertical stresses arise, and in some such cases it is evident that much may be done by means of horizontal curvature to reduce the quantity of masonry without reduction of strength.
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  • The masonry is described by Mr Schuyler as " a rough uncut granite ashlar, with a hearting of rough rubble all laid in cement mortar and gravel."
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  • This dam has been in satisfactory use since 1885, and the slight filtration through the masonry which occurred at first is said to have almost entirely ceased.
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  • Something has been said of the failures of earthen dams. Many masonry dams have also failed, but, speaking generally, we know less of the causes which have led to such failures.
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  • It is probably the only instance in which a masonry dam has slipped upon its foundations, and also the only case in which a masonry dam has actually overturned, while curiously enough there is every probability that the two circumstances had no connexion with each other.
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  • Some of the blocks of rubble masonry carried down the stream weighed several hundred tons.
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  • The line of pressures as generally given for this dam with the reservoir full, on the hypothesis that the density of the masonry was a little over 2, is shown by long and short dots in fig.
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  • The trench in which the masonry was founded covered an area 120 ft.
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  • The corporation have statutory power to raise the lake 50 ft., at which level it will have an available capacity of about 8000 million gallons; to secure this a masonry dam has been constructed, though the lake is at present worked at a lower level.
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  • Where the dam is of masonry it may be used as a weir; but where earthwork is employed, the overflow, commonly known in such a case as the " bye-wash," should be an entirely independent work, consisting of a low weir of sufficient length to prevent an unsafe rise of the water level, and of a narrow channel capable of easily carrying away any water that passes over the weir.
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  • The overflow sill or weir should be a masonry structure of rounded vertical section raised a foot or more above the waste-water course, in which case for a depth of t a ft.
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  • From the overflow sill the bye-wash channel may be gradually narrowed as the crest of the embankment is passed, the water being prevented from attaining undue velocity by steps of heavy masonry, or, where the gradient is not very steep, by irregularly set masonry.
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  • The university is well-equipped with laboratories, the psychological laboratory, the laboratories of Sibley college and the hydraulic laboratory of the college of civil engineering being especially noteworthy; the last is on Fall Creek, where a curved concrete masonry dam has been built, forming Beebe Lake.
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  • A semicircular dwarf wall of good masonry runs round this peak, and a trench excavated in the rock may perhaps indicate the site of an altar.
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  • C. Bischof at Magdesprung (both in Germany), consisted of simple perpendicular shafts of masonry contracted at the top and the bottom, with or without a grate for the coal.
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  • The character of the ancient citadel wall at Athens, already mentioned, has given the name "Pelasgic masonry" to all constructions of large unhewn blocks fitted roughly together without mortar, from Asia Minor to Spain.
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  • Three monuments remain to mark the line of the Spina, around which the chariots whirled; an Egyptian obelisk of Thothmes III., on a pedestal covered with bas-reliefs representing Theodosius I., the empress Galla, and his sons Arcadius and Honorius, presiding at scenes in the Hippodrome; the triple serpent column, which stood originally at Delphi, to commemorate the victory of Plataea 479 B.C.; a lofty pile of masonry, built in the form of an obelisk, and once covered with plates of gilded bronze.
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  • There are no archaeological remains in Viterbo itself, except a few courses of masonry under the bridge which connects the cathedral with the city, near the cathedral, possibly the pier of an older bridge.
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  • At Turnu Severin below the end of this famous gorge are the remains of a solid masonry bridge constructed by the same emperor at the period of his Dacian conquests.
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  • There are considerable remains of perhaps pre-Roman polygonal walls - in one place a piece of this walling has masonry of rectangular blocks superposed, with an inscription of two of the Roman municipal magistrates (quattuorviri).
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  • Latterly the erection of masonry buildings, instead of plank houses, has been insisted on in the central portion of the city, with the result that fires have decreased in number.
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  • The eastern hill' still has considerable remains of a strongly fortified medieval castle, in which some writers are inclined(though wrongly) to recognize portions of Greek masonry.
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  • The spaces between the vaults are filled with solid masonry, and above all is the roof covering, also of masonry, which is sometimes surmounted with an ornamental roof-comb.
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  • The pipes are carried on a 100 year old multi-span bridge, consisting of an elaborate steel superstructure on masonry abutments and piers.
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  • Timber chocking next ensured a close and continuous support for the remaining masonry arch rings.
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  • An application of ' masonry biocide ' would then retard growth of algae and lichen.
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  • For advice on the construction of bunds please read our Masonry Bunds for oil storage tanks and Concrete Bunds for oil storage tanks guidelines.
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  • Lining your chimney will cure problems of smoke leaking out through cracks in a masonry chimney.
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  • Lintels can be made from in-situ reinforced concrete, timber and reinforced masonry.
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  • Upon the roof of the aisles is the engrailed cross of the founders, St. Clairs, once hereditary Grand Masters of Scotch Masonry.
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  • Holes for the main beam fixings should be drilled by an expert, using a suitable masonry drill and safety guards.
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  • The lower masonry courses of the surviving fragment of the Chapter House are in bond with the east wall of the Sacristy.
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  • The three masonry approach spans at each end are built of locally quarried granite.
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  • For softer bricks and stone, solid wall construction and conservation masonry, Limetec feebly hydraulic lime mortar is also available.
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  • Beeck's Silicate Masonry Paint is an exterior purely inorganic paint, free of artificial resins, solvents and biocides.
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  • Built on the foundations of an Inca city, you can still see intricate Inca masonry and buildings as you walk through the town.
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  • This will have also leached down through the tumbled masonry to form at the base of the deposits.
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  • Research is also underway to investigate the behavior of masonry panels subjected to lateral loading, for example, wind loading.
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  • But you can still peer through the gates of the builders ' yard and see the engine manufactory and the great masonry furnaces.
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  • Unreinforced stone masonry is still used for residential housing in many earthquake prone areas.
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  • Vertical RC confining elements should be provided following the instruction for confined clay brick masonry.
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  • This can be achieved through construction of reinforced masonry or reinforced concrete window frames.
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  • Some time ago corrugated steel sheeting had to be erected round much of the church to prevent injury from falling masonry.
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  • The re-used masonry may have come from a 12 th century chapel, perhaps situated within the castle.
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  • Outside was a considerable yard full of monumental masonry.
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  • There is in fact re-used medieval masonry at the back.
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  • Eurocode 6 specifies the rules and provisions for structural masonry.
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  • These techniques are applicable for most types of brick/block masonry walls.
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  • A change to ashlar masonry at the extreme east end of the nave.
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  • Note that it is entirely built of rubble masonry, also a typical feature.
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  • The contribution of the tying of floors to walls detail was found to be greater for the brick masonry house.
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  • The unique design of the durable masonry roof overhang is suitable for flat, hipped or any degree of pitched roof.
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  • Give an outside wall a coat of vibrant masonry paint or splash some bold stains onto garden furniture.
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  • In Victorian times replacing the stone parapets with cast iron, themselves replaced with masonry in the 1920's.
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  • Dramatically located some 270 meters above sea level, crossing Hewenden Beck on 16 masonry piers.
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  • The masonry could clearly be seen in places behind the brown crumbling plaster on the walls.
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  • No longer are the essential skills, which include stone masonry, fibrous plastering and lead sheet working passed down from generation to generation.
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  • This can be achieved through construction of reinforced masonry or reinforced masonry or reinforced concrete window frames.
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  • Lintels can be made from in-situ reinforced concrete, timber and reinforced concrete, timber and reinforced masonry.
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  • The vertical reinforcement of the masonry shear wall should be anchored into the floor to ensure loads transfer.
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  • Among the many attributes of lime masonry mortar, it appears to be highly resistive to the heat of fire.
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  • Will tend to darken most masonry surfaces and sometimes leave a slight sheen.
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  • The join in the masonry is visible above the south vestry.
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  • The steel ties should be embedded in the masonry wall through purposely drilled holes.
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  • The scanty traces which remain have not been systematically excavated except in the neighbourhood of the Dipylon; the discovery of sepulchral tablets built into the masonry illustrates the statement of Thucydides with regard to the employment of such material in the hasty construction of the walls.
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  • The edifices in general are low, and are massively built with thick walls and domed ceilings to resist earthquakes, and lessen the danger from falling masonry.
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  • Dr Begemann considers that possibly during the decade from 1720 to 1730 a kind of Rosicrucian or Hermetic influence took place in the lodges of London, some additions to the ritual of that period not having been derived from operative masonry; but in the previous century no such influence is traceable.
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  • Waste weirs resemble ordinary solid weirs in providing for the surplus discharge from a reservoir of an impounded river or mountain stream over their crest; but in reality they form part of a masonry reservoir dam for storing up water for water-supply or irrigation, kept purposely lower than the rest of the dam to allow the excess of water to escape down the valley (see Water-Supply).
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  • So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe, that we find the Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing the chambered tumulus with its gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures of heathen gold which it contained.
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  • For the sections of masonry dams actually used in practice, if designed on the condition that the centre of all vertical pressures when the reservoir is full shall be, as hereafter provided, at two-thirds the width of the base from the inner toe, the least sectional area for a density of 2 also has a vertical water face.
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  • If now we assume the water to have a depth d above the base, the total water pressure represented by the triangle kbh will have its centre at d/3 from the base, and by the parallelogram of forces, assuming the density of the masonry to be 2.5, we find that the centre of pressure upon the base bc is shifted from the centre of the base to a point i nearer to the outer toe c, and adopting our assumption of uniformly varying intensity of stress, the rectangular diagram of pressures will thus be distorted from the figure bfgc to the figure of equal area bjlc, having its centre o vertically under the point at which the resultant of all the forces cuts the base bc. For any lower level the same treatment may, step by step, be adopted, until the maximum intensity of pressure cl exceeds the assumed permissible maximum, or the centre of pressure reaches an assigned distance from the outer toe c, when the base must be widened until the maximum intensity of pressure or the centre of pressure, as the case may be, is brought within the prescribed limit.
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  • There are many structures at present in existence bearing considerably greater loads than this, and the granite ashlar masonry of at least one, the Bear Valley dam in California, is subject to compressive stresses, reaching, when the reservoir is full, at least 40 to 50 tons per sq.
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  • When I came to build my chimney I studied masonry.
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  • This gift will be a pledge of your purity of heart to her whom you select to be your worthy helpmeet in Masonry.
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  • It eats holes into masonry allowing ingress of water and subsequent frost spalling problems.
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  • The existing masonry arch and spandrel walls were retained for esthetic requirements and new parapets were provided in a style similar to the existing.
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  • Modern slab floor with a tile surround; exposed masonry with deeply splayed apertures.
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  • It was also surprising to learn that large parts of the Roman masonry had survived above ground level right up to the seventeenth century.
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  • Both transept gables have rougher masonry surrounding their windows, perhaps the result of repair.
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  • These are very thick, dark masonry walls, sometimes over one foot in depth, that are located on the south side of a home.
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  • A trombe wall is an outside masonry wall that's between eight to sixteen inches thick wall that collects heat and redistributes at night.
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  • If you want something more permanent, you can build your supporting walls from bricks or blocks instead of wood, in which case you will need the necessary masonry equipment, but when you are just getting started it's best to keep it simple.
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  • Wood fireplace inserts convert the traditionally inefficient masonry fireplace into a high efficiency heat source.
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  • Traditional masonry fireplace are, for the most part, inefficient.
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  • It's designed to look like it's supposed to be that way though, so it doesn't look unnatural, or you can have an insert custom made and retrofitted to your existing masonry fireplace.
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  • This allows for warm air to escape to the front of the fireplace and into the room you're heating as opposed to being absorbed in the masonry of the chimney and conducted out of the house.
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  • This makes fireplace inserts significantly more energy efficient than a traditional masonry fireplace that tends to heat only the room in which the fireplace exists.
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  • These inserts are able to be used in any home where a masonry fireplace exists, even if it not necessarily the most usable.
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  • A gas insert is a steel encased firebox that is positioned inside of an already designed and usable masonry fireplace.
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  • They can be made in many different styles, including those with metal fronts or others with a masonry look.
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  • Select the model appropriate for the venting available within your home's masonry fireplace.
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  • Metal railing is often preferred in masonry homes.
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  • Historical masonry homes may already have cast iron railings on a porch or the roof that can be matched by a craftsman to maintain a seamless appearance.
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  • However, they can also be found in woodpiles, in the walls of frame buildings, or in masonry cracks.
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  • He also had a stone and masonry vault constructed in the rose garden for use as a burial place for 1800 casualties of Bull Run.
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  • The film will feature the same characters as in the first two books but with a few additional twists and plot lines on the search for masonry secrets.
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  • Three miles to the south of Herat the Kandahar road crosses the river by a masonry bridge of 26 arches now in ruins.
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  • Three or four piers or sometimes bridges of masonry are run out into the bed of the river, frequently from both sides at once, raising the level of the stream and thus giving a water power sufficient to turn the gigantic wheel or wheels, sometimes almost 40 ft.
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  • For conveying small streams through embankments, channels or culverts are constructed in brickwork or masonry.
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  • His brother Domhnall (Donnell) was king of Ailech, a district in Donegal and Derry; the royal palace, the ruined masonry of which is still to be seen, being on the summit of a hill Boo ft.
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  • The chief portion of this rig is the derrick, Oil which consists of four strong uprights or legs held in Derrick position by ties and braces, and resting on strong wooden sills, which are preferred, as a foundation, to masonry.
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  • For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
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  • A portion of the outer wall has been recognized in a piece of primitive masonry discovered near the Odeum of Herodes Atticus; other traces will probably come to light when the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis have been completely explored.
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  • These difficulties are met by the assumption that the semicircular masonry formed the base of a retaining-wall which rose to a considerable height, supporting a theatre-like structure capable of seating many thousand persons.
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  • The masonry may be attributed to the 5th century; the chiselling of the immense blocks is not " Cyclopean."
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  • In front of the reservoir is a small open space towards which several roads converge; close by is a triangular enclosure of polygonal masonry, in which were found various relics relating to the worship of Dionysus, a very ancient wine-press (Anvos) and the remains of a small temple.
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  • The staircase leading down to the sanctuary of Aglaurus was enclosed in masonry.
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  • The arrangements of the stage and orchestra as we now see them belong to Roman times; the cavea or auditorium dates from the administration of the orator Lycurgus (337-323 B.C.), and nothing is left of the theatre in which the plays of Sophocles were acted save a few small remnants of polygonal masonry.
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  • The event created great excitement, and led many to believe that Masonry and good citizenship were incompatible.
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  • Opposition to Masonry was taken up by the churches as a sort of religious crusade, and it also became a local political issue in western New York, where early in 1827 the citizens in many mass meetings resolved to support no Mason for public office.
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  • Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
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  • They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.
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  • In each case the arched tomb was formed by an oblong chest, either hollowed out of the rock, or built of masonry, and closed with a horizontal slab.
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  • The other industries are leather work, sugar-refining, goldsmith's work, ivory carving, iron, brass, copper, stone masonry, tanning, weaving, dyeing and carpentry.
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  • On the 13th of September 1584 the last stone of the masonry was laid, and the works were brought to a termination in 1593.
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  • The main room of the ordinary temple was rectangular, with an elevated apsidal arrangement, like a choir, containing the sacred relief on its wall, at the end opposite the entrance, and with continuous benches (podia) of masonry, about 5 ft.
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  • After crossing the low hills east of the Pyramus it passed through a masonry (Cilician) gate, Demir Kapu, and entered the plain of Issus.
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  • From that plain one road ran southward through a masonry (Syrian) gate to Alexandretta, and thence crossed Mt.
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  • Amanus by the Syrian Gate, Beilan Pass, to Antioch and Syria; and another ran northwards through a masonry (Amanian) gate, south of Toprak Kaleh, and crossed Mt.
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  • They are structures of solid masonry, containing vaulted rooms for the garrison, and providing a platform at the top for two or three guns, which fire over a low masonry parapet.
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  • The chief defect of the tower was its weakness against vertical fire; its masonry was further liable to be cut through by breaching batteries.
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  • While the Martello tower owes its reputation and its widespread adoption in Great Britain to a single incident of modern warfare, the round masonry structure entered by a door raised high above the base is to be found in many lands, and is one of the earliest types of masonry fortification.
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  • All over the country wells are to be found, and the masonry of some of them is undoubtedly ancient.
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  • The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.
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  • Native kings protected it from the rivers by a masonry embankment several miles long, built of enormous blocks of hewn stone, and in some places 25 ft.
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  • Within the town are two subterranean vaulted buildings in good masonry, of uncertain nature, some other remains under modern buildings, and a concrete ruin known as the "Bagni di Bacco."
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  • So far, however, as the real foundation ceremonies of Craft Masonry are concerned, whether before or after the premier Grand Lodge was formed, it is most unlikely that such a society as the Freemasons would adopt anything of a really distinctive character from any other organization.
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  • The ground is secured by timbering, or more usually by arching in masonry or brick-work.
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  • The junction of the levels with the pit is known as the " pit eye "; it is usually of an enlarged section, and lined with masonry or brick-work, so as to afford room for handling the wagons or trams of coal brought from the working faces.
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  • It revolves with the smallest possible clearance in a chamber of masonry, one of the side walls being perforated by a large round hole, through which the air from the mine is admitted to the centre of the fan.
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  • At Uxmal the mass of masonry is to chamber space about as forty to one.
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  • Modern writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives.
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  • For moderate spans brick, masonry or concrete can be used without excessive cost, but for longer spans steel is more economical, and for very long spans its use is imperative.
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  • In Germany and America twoand three-hinged arches of masonry and concrete have been built, up to 150 ft.
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  • He did not think of doubting Freemasonry itself, but suspected that Russian Masonry had taken a wrong path and deviated from its original principles.
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  • A square tower rises from a central part of the platform to a height of about 40 ft., divided into a solid masonry base and three storeys connected by interior stairways.
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  • Just outside the south wall is a Roman necropolis, with massive tombs in masonry, and a Christian catacomb, and a little farther south a tomb in two stories, a mixture of Doric and Ionic architecture, belonging probably to the 2nd century B.C., though groundlessly called Dimensions in English feet.
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