That of martyrs, Vis.
One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in memory of the thirteen Hungarian generals shot here on the 6th of October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Haynau.
Such, for example, appears to have been the case in Carthage (if we may judge from the Acts of the martyrs Perpetua and Felicitas) at the commencement of the persecution of Septimius Severus about the year 202.
These two grandsons of Judas thereafter " lived until the time of Trajan," ruling the churches " because they had (thus) been witnesses (martyrs) and were also relatives of the Lord."
Already the seer beholds the destined number of the martyrs complete, vi.
Mason, The Historic Martyrs of the Primitive Church (London, 1905); H.
To this we may add a fantastic and absurd allegorization, the indiscriminate laudation of saints and martyrs, polemical strife, the hardening of the doctrine into dogma, the development of a narrow ecclesiasticism, and the failure of the missionary spirit in the orthodox section of the Eastern Church (as contrasted with the marvellous evangelistic activity of the Nestorians.
From these treatises we learn that the adherents of the new prophecy were very numerous in Phrygia, Asia and Galatia (Ancyra), that they had tried to defend themselves in writing from the charges brought against them (by Miltiades), that they possessed a fully developed independent organization, that they boasted of many martyrs, and that they were still formidable to the Church in Asia Minor.
The denomination of Era of Martyrs, subsequently given to it in commemoration of the persecution of the Christians, would seem to imply that its commencement ought to be referred to the year 303 of our era, for it was in that year that Diocletian issued his famous edict; but the practice of dating from the accession of Diocletian has prevailed.
Over the true witnesses and martyrs he pronounces the final beatitude of the faithful: "Blessed are those who die in the Lord," xiv.
A very few, as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men, serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.
The elevation of the relics of the three martyrs was performed by Burchard, the first bishop of Wiirzburg, and they are venerated in the cathedral of that town.
The king consents, the saint is acclaimed, the bodies of the thirty-seven martyrs solemnly interred, and the king, after fasting five, and listening to Gregory's homilies for sixty days, is healed.
He is said to have baptized the emperor Philip and his son, to have done some building in the catacombs, to have improved the organization of the church in Rome, to have appointed officials to register the deeds of the martyrs, and to have founded several churches in France.
26), Athenagoras (Libellus pro Christianis) and the Acts of Martyrs, were greatly in excess of those recorded in previous reigns, it must not be forgotten that it was only in this period that the Christians began to keep records.
Haematococcus palustris, Girod (= Chlamydococcus, Braun, Protococcus, Cohn), one of the (Epistola ad Vincentium), who declared that the flagellants were showing a tendency to slight the sacramental confession and penance, were refusing to perform the cullus of the martyrs venerated by the church, and were even alleging their own superiority to the martyrs.
4), the latter taxes the Catholics with having turned the sacrifices of the heathen into agapes, their idols into martyrs, whom they worship with similar rites.
[[[Caecilius]] Cyprianus, called Thascius j (c. 200-258), bishop of Carthage, one of the most illustrious in the early history of the church, and one of the most notable of its early martyrs, was born about the year 200, probably at.
In regard to the attitude of the Roman government towards the Christian religion, there are questions still sub judice; but Gibbon had the merit of reducing the number of martyrs within probable limits.
Whatever question may be possible as to the force or character of Pharisaism in the time of Christ, there can be no doubt that it became both all-pervading and ennobling among the successors of Aqiba (q.v.), himself one of the martyrs to Hadrian's severity.
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
The works of Tyndale were first published along with those of John Frith (q.v.) and Robert Barnes, "three worthy martyrs and principal teachers of the Church of England," by John Day, in 1573 (folio).
Workman, Persecution in the Early Church (London, 1906); Paul Allard, Ten Lectures on the Martyrs (London, 1907); John Foxe, The Book of Martyrs; Mary I.
In the same year building operations in the Via di Sant' Onofrio revealed the presence of catacombs beneath the foundations: examination of the loculi showed that no martyrs or illustrious persons were buried here.
- Trinity Sunday, all festivals of Christ (except those connected with the Passion), festivals of the Blessed Virgin, of the Holy Angels and Confessors, of holy virgins and women (not being martyrs), nativity of St John the Baptist, festivals of the chains of St Peter and of his see (cathedra Petri), Conversion of St Paul, All Saints, consecration of churches and altars, anniversary of election and coronation of popes, and of election and consecration of bishops.
Festival of the instruments of the Passion, of the Precious Blood, of the invention and elevation of the Cross; all festivals of apostles, except those above noted; festivals of martyrs; masses for a papal election; the Feast of the Holy Innocents, when it falls on a Sunday (violet if on a week-day), and its octave (always red).
After the close of the diet the papal nuncio went to the Netherlands, where he kindled the flames of persecution, two monks of Antwerp, the first martyrs of the Reformation, being burnt in Brussels at his instigation.
To the three named should be added the Calton burying-ground, with its Roman tomb of David Hume, and the obelisk raised in 1844 to the memory of Maurice Margarot, Thomas Muir (1765-1798), Thomas Fyshe Palmer (1747-1802), William Skirving and Joseph Gerrald (1765-1796), the political martyrs transported towards the end of the 18th century for advocating parliamentary reform.
It ' The crowning atrocities, which the Magyars have never wholly forgiven, were the shooting and hanging of the " Arad Martyrs " and the execution of Batthyany.
4, p. 181; idem, "Martyrs of the Inquisition in South America," ib.
When we put aside one or two exceptionally fine pieces, like the hymn of the soul in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, the highest degree of excellence in style is perhaps attained in staightforward historical narrative - such as the account of the PersoRoman War at the beginning of the 6th century by the author who passes under the name of Joshua the Stylite, or by romancers like him who wrote the romance of Julian; by biographers like some of those who have written lives of saints, martyrs and eminent divines; and by some early writers of homilies such as Philoxenus (in prose) and Isaac of Antioch (in verse).
Lives of saints and martyrs form a large group among Syriac books.
One result of this and later persecutions of the same kind has been to enrich Syriac literature with a long series of Acts of Persian Martyrs, which, although in their existing form intermixed with much legendary matter, nevertheless throw valuable light on the history and geography of western Persia under Sasanian rule.
4 One of the earlier martyrs was Simeon bar Sabba'e, bishop (?
The Church of Rome does not seem to have inscribed in its calendar its martyrs of an earlier date than the 3rd century.
The essential form of the cult of the martyrs was that of the honours paid to the illustrious dead; and these honours were officially paid by the community.
In the early days each church confined itself to celebrating its own martyrs; but it was not long before it became customary to celebrate the anniversaries of martyrs of other churches.
In the oldest Roman ferial we already find festivals of Carthaginian martyrs, and similarly, in the Carthaginian calendar, Roman festivals, while Wright's Syriac Martyrology contains numerous traces of this exchange of festivals.
The calendars at first included only martyrs, but their scope was gradually widened.
Apparently they were at first arranged in a series of anniversaries separate from that of the martyrs, as seems to be shown by the existence at Rome of the Depositio episcoporum side by side with the Depositio martyrum; the two lists seem to have been combined, as in the calendar of Carthage, which includes the dies nataliciorum martyrum et depositiones episcoporum.
Finally, the ascetics came to share in the honours paid to the martyrs, and we see in the Historia religiose of Theodoret how quickly this Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa), a nat.
In times of persecution the martyrs were buried among the rest of the faithful, but one can understand that their tombs, at which gatherings took place at least on the day of their anniversary, were distinguished from the ordinary tombs by some sign.
St Basil, for example, says: "I accept also the holy apostles, prophets and martyrs, and I call upon them for their intercession to God, that by them, that is by their mediation, the good God may be propitious to me, and that I may be granted redemption for my offences" (Epist.
The Church of Smyrna had early to explain its position in this matter with regard to St Polycarp: "We worship Christ, as the Son of God; as to the martyrs, we love them as the disciples and imitators of the Lord" (Martyrium Polycarpi, xvii.
At that period the urban masses, but recently converted to Christianity, sought in the worship of the martyrs a sort of substitute for polytheism.
Damasus showed great zeal in discovering the tombs of martyrs, adorning them with precious marbles and monumental inscriptions.
This argument is most fully exhibited in a treatise entitled The Testimony of the King of Martyrs (1729).
The Testimony of the King of Martyrs concerning His Kingdom (1729) is a classic repudiation of erastianism and defence of the spiritual autonomy of the church under Jesus Christ.
At dusk the martyrs' remains were collected in a cart and thrown into the Arno.
Satan is bound 1 and cast into the abyss, and the kingdom of Christ and of the martyrs and faithful confessors established for a thousand years.
He has no serious preference for the people of Israel as such, but only for the martyrs and confessors, who shall belong to every tribe and tongue and people and nation (vii.
It might not be easy to formulate precisely the doctrines for which he died, and certainly some of them, as, for example, that regarding the church, were such as many Protestants even would regard as unguarded and difficult to harmonize with the maintenance of external church order; but his is undoubtedly the honour of having been the chief intermediary in handing on from Wycliffe to Luther the torch which kindled the Reformation, and of having been one of the bravest of the martyrs who have died in the cause of honesty and freedom, of progress and of growth towards the light.
Elsewhere, as there, some conformed and some became martyrs for the faith.
In Greyfriars' churchyard the Solemn League and Covenant was signed, and among its many monuments are the Martyrs' monument, recording the merits of the murdered covenanters, and the tomb of " Bluidy " Mackenzie.
It was to the martyrs that the Church first began to pay special honour.
His Sundays were spent in the catacombs in discovering graves of the martyrs and deciphering inscriptions.