John Penry, the Puritan martyr, was born at Cefn-brith in this parish.
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
north-west, is claimed as the birthplace of the Scottish martyr, Patrick Hamilton (1504-1528).
Stephen became a martyr in August 257.
ST SEBASTIAN, a Christian martyr whose festival is celebrated on the 10th of January.
Creed of Lucian the Martyr (Antioch).
The Didache and Justin Martyr are no less unsatisfactory from the Roman point of view.
MORDECAI BEN HILLEL, a German rabbi, who died as a martyr at Nuremberg in 1298.
JUSTIN MARTYR, one of the earliest and ablest Christian apologists, was born about loo at Flavia Neapolis (anc. Sichem), now Nablus, in Palestinian Syria (Samaria).
He was represented as a warrior performing superhuman feats, as a ruler dispensing perfect justice, and even as a martyr suffering for the faith.
In the year 202 a persecution arose, in which the father of Origen became a martyr, and the family lost their livelihood.
The fraternity of White Penitents buried the body with great ceremony, and performed a solemn service for the deceased as a martyr; the Franciscans followed their example; and these formalities led to the popular belief in the guilt of the unhappy family.
As long as the Christian Church was itself persecuted by the pagan empire, it advocated freedom of conscience, and insisted that religion could be promoted only by instruction and persuasion (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Lactantius); but almost immediately after Christianity was adopted as the religion of the Roman empire the persecution of men for religious opinions began.
The last notice of them is in Justin Martyr (Dial.
From these possible and highly probable references we pass on to the clear testimony of Justin Martyr, who is the first to declare that Revelation is by "John, one of the Apostles of Christ" (Dial.
Not only is the whole atmosphere Christian in colouring, but we actually find the Greek gods in the guise of Enoch, Elijah, &c., while Philip is a Christian martyr, and Alexander himself a great apostle, even a saint; quotations from the Bible are frequent.
Ochino was at once cited, but was deterred from presenting himself at Rome by the warnings of Peter Martyr and of Cardinal Contarini, whom he found at Bologna, dying of poison administered by the reactionary party.
Descartes was not disposed to be a martyr; he had a sincere respect for the church, and had no wish to begin an open conflict with established doctrines.
Kattenbusch does not shrink from suggesting that he shows acquaintance with the Roman Creed, and that Justin Martyr also knew it, in which case all the so-called Eastern characteristics have been imprinted on the original Roman form, and are not derived from an Eastern archetype.
The Terrorists paid a veritable worship to his memory, as to a martyr of Liberty.
The date of the conquest by Carthage may perhaps be fixed at about 500-480 B.e., following the chronology of Justin Martyr (xviii.
Captivite de la famille royale au Temple (2 vols., 1852, and many subsequent editions), containing copies Of original documents, and essential to the study of the question, although its sentimental pictures of the boy martyr can no longer be accepted.
in 1330 granted instead two fairs on the vigil and day of St Thomas the Martyr and the vigil and day of SS.
It is taken for granted that the readers will know who the martyr is, and the exegesis of the Church applies the passage to our Lord.
Among the rectors of Hadleigh several notable names appear, such as Rowland Taylor, the martyr, who was burned at the stake outside the town in 1 555, and Hugh James Rose, during whose tenancy of the rectory an initiatory meeting of the leaders of the Oxford Movement took place here in 1833.
Framlingham (Frendlingham, Framalingaham) in early Saxon times was probably the site of a fortified earthwork to which St Edmund the Martyr is said to have fled from the Danes in 870.
5 Another early martyr was Milles, bishop of Susa, who had distinguished himself in the opposition to Papa.6 1 Burkitt.
Most of these were primarily writers, but Justin Martyr has left a reputation for speaking, especially in debate, as well.
Hafiz was surrendered, a voluntary martyr; other ministers were deposed; Mustafa Pasha, aga of the janissaries, was saved by his own troops.
ST LAWRENCE (LAURENTIUS, LORENZO), Christian martyr, whose name appears in the canon of the mass, and whose festival is on the 10th of August.
His other works are: - The Castell of Laboure (Wynkyn de Worde, 1506), from the French of Pierre Gringoire; the Introductory to write and to pronounce Frenche (Robert Copland, 1521); The Myrrour of Good Maners (Richard Pynson, not dated), a translation of the De quatuor virtutibus of Dominicus Mancinus; Cronycle compyled in Latyn by the renowned Sallust (Richard Pynson, no date), a translation of the Bellum Jugurthinum; The Lyfe of the glorious Martyr Saynt George (R.
without rede or counsel), son of King Edgar by his second wife lElfthryth, was born in 968 or 969 and succeeded to the throne on the murder of his step-brother Edward (the Martyr) in 979.
(5) It was offered in the assembly by the hands of the president; this is stated by Justin Martyr (Apol.
The palm branch, which is also of frequent occurrence, is not an indisputable mark of the last resting-place of a martyr, being found in connexion with epitaphs of persons dying natural deaths, or those prepared by persons in their lifetime, as well as in those of little children, and even of pagans.
This to a certain extent is doubtless true, as in the case of the chapel of Santa Priscilla, where the altar or stone coffin of a martyr remains, with a small platform behind it for the priest or bishop to stand upon.
If a family vault was required, or a burial chapel for a martyr or person of distinction, a small square room was excavated by the side of the gallery and communicating with it.
This deed, however, was viewed with far different feelings in Paris and by the partisans of the League, the murderer being regarded as a martyr and extolled by Pope Sixtus V., while even his canonization was discussed.
To the Shiites he is a martyr, being believed to have been poisoned by Mamun.
Such treatment aroused the sympathy of the Southern people, who regarded him as a martyr to their cause, and in a great measure restored him to that place in their esteem which by the close of the war he had lost.
250), pope and martyr, was chosen pope, or bishop of Rome, in January 236 in succession to Anteros.
(I) It was regarded as a true offering or sacrifice; for in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, in Justin Martyr and in Irenaeus it is designated by each of the terms which are used to designate sacrifices in the Old Testament.
(From Dennis.) part of a pillar, which once supported a baldachino over the altar, still preserves the name Acilleus, and beneath it a bas-relief of the martyr, with his hands bound, receiving his death-blow from the executioner.
In spite of such a foolish ending, his funeral was that of a martyr, and by many of his adherents he has been regarded since with feelings almost of religious devotion.
But Savonarola indignantly spurned the offer, replying to it from the pulpit with the prophetic words: "No hat will I have but that of a martyr, reddened with my own blood."
He owed his Christian names to a vow which his father, actuated by the death of several children in infancy, had made to dedicate any that survived to the Dominican saint, Peter Martyr, who lived in the 13th century.
That facing the entrance was the place of greatest honour, where in many instances the remains of a martyr were deposited, whose tomb, according to primitive usage, served as an altar for the celebration of the eucharist.
PIETRO MARTIRE VERMIGLI, generally known as Peter Martyr (1500-1562), born at Florence on the 8th of May 1500, was son of Stefano Vermigli, a follower of Savonarola, by his first wife, Maria Fumantina.
cited above, and Justin Martyr (c. A.D.
With the middle of the century we reach a considerable writer in Justin Martyr.
354, shows that interment in them was even then rare if it had not been altogether discontinued; and the poet Prudentius's description of the tomb of the Christian martyr Hippolytus, and the cemetery in which it stood, leads us to the same conclusion.
But we know, from the undoubtedly genuine Acta SS Justini et sociorum, that Justin suffered the death of a martyr under the prefect Rusticus between 163 and 167.
She started to refuse, but he insisted, Don't be a martyr.
of Spain, in memory of the battle of St Quentin, which was won in 1557 on the day of the martyr's festival.
He was beheaded on the 14th of September 258, the first African bishop to obtain the martyr's crown.
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
Ardent spirits craved the martyr's crown, and to confess Christ in persecution was to attain a glory inferior only to that won by those who actually died.
The zeal of Ignatius (c. 115), who begs the Roman Church to do nothing to avert from him the martyr's death, was natural enough in a spiritual knight-errant, but with others in later days, especially in Phrygia and North Africa, the passion became artificial.
Another motive for multiplying the number of graves operated when the cubiculum contained the remains of any noted saint or martyr.
3) in connexion with a meeting to celebrate the anniversary of the martyr's death.
They consisted in a gathering at the martyr's tomb on the anniversary of his death.
The headsman's axe proved more fatal, and the martyr's body was borne by angels to Mount Sinai, where Justinian I.
The year 1498, in which Savonarola was to die a martyr's death, opened amid seemingly favourable auspices.
Spent with weakness and fatigue he asked leave to rest his head on his companion's lap, and quickly fell into a quiet sleep. As Niccolini tells us, the martyr's face became serene and smiling as a child's.
It has monuments to Patrick Hamilton, the martyr, and Thomas Hog (1628-1692), the Scottish divine, for some time a prisoner on the Bass.
JOHN HUSS (or HUS), (c. 1373-1415), Bohemian reformer and martyr, was born at Hussinecz,' a market village at the foot of the Bohmerwald, and not far from the Bavarian frontier, between 1 373 and 1375, the exact date being uncertain.
Martyr inflicted another heavy defeat on the mutineers at Mruli.
Colonel Martyr at the close of the year (1899) undertook an expedition up the Nile, and extended the limits of the protectorate in that direction.
first martyr of Luther's gospel had been Patrick Hamilton, who had suffered in 1528; but in spite of a number of executions the new ideas spread, even among the nobility.
The custom of delivering expositions or comments more or less extemporaneous on the lessons of the day at all events passed over soon and readily into the Christian Church, as may be gathered from the first Apology (c. 67) of Justin Martyr, where we read that, in connexion with the practice of reading portions from the collected writings of the prophets and from the memoirs of the apostles, it had by that time become usual for the presiding minister to deliver a discourse in which "he admonishes the people, stirring them up to an imitation of the good works which have been brought before their notice."
1555), bishop of St David's and martyr, born about the end of the 15th century of a Yorkshire family, is said to have been educated at Cambridge, whence he proceeded to Oxford and became a canon regular of St Augustine.
The most important feature of the town is the great shrine of Hosain, containing the tomb of the martyr, with its golden dome and triple minarets, two of which are gilded.
While incumbent of Curdridge Chapel near Bishops Waltham in Hampshire, he published (1835) The Story of Justin Martyr and Other Poems, which was favourably received, and was followed in 1838 by Sabbation, Honor Neale, and other Poems, and in 1842 by Poems from Eastern Sources.
The principal villages, towns and places near or through which the way passed are as follow: Winchester, Alresvord, Ropley, Alton, Farnham (here the way follows the present main road), Seale, Puttenham, by the ruined chapel of St Catherine, outside Guildford, near where the road crosses the Wey above Shalford,' and by the chapel of St Martha, properly of " the martyr," now restored and used as a church, Albury, Shere, Gomshall, Dorking (near here the Mole is crossed), along the southern slope of Boxhill to Reigate, then through Gatton Park, Merstham, Otford, Wrotham, after which the Medway was crossed, Burham, past the megalithic monument Kit's Coty House, and the site of Boxley Abbey, the oldest after Waverley Abbey of Cistercian houses in England, and famous for its miraculous image of the infant saint Rumbold, and the still more famous winking rood or crucifix.
This temple owes its preservation to its use as a church of St Barbara, a local martyr, also claimed by the Egyptian Heliopolis.
There are indications, too, of an acquaintance with Justin Martyr and the Sibylline literature (vii.
Justin Martyr (163-167) certainly uses the Gospel; but his conception of Jesus' life is so strictly Synoptic that he can hardly have accepted it as from an apostolic eyewitness.
It may be noted also that the same view of the origin of the Gospel of Mark appears to have been held by a contemporary of Papias, Justin Martyr.
So we must suppose that before his death the schismatic was received again into the bosom of the Church, and this is confirmed by the fact that his memory was henceforth celebrated in the Church as that of a holy martyr.
dedicated to him one of his famous epigrams, and Prudentius(Peristephanon, i i) drew a highly coloured picture of his gruesome death, the details of which are certainly purely legendary: the myth of Hippolytus the son of Theseus was transferred to the Christian martyr.
SAINT AGNES, a virgin martyr of the Catholic Church.
Origen, Tertullian and by Justin Martyr.
Although several of these leaders were Voltairians, they held up Louis XVI., who had been executed in January 1793, as a martyr to Catholicism, and the Vendeans, who had hitherto styled themselves the Christian Army, now adopted the name of the Catholic and Royal Army.
Pereira, Vida do Abba Samuel (Lisbon, 1894); Idem, Vida do Abba Daniel (Lisbon, 1897); Idem, Historia dos Martyr es de Nagran (Lisbon, 1899); Idem, Chronica de Susenyos (Lisbon, text 1892, tr.
She did much for letters in Spain by founding the palace school and by her protection of Peter Martyr d'Anghiera.
A note by Cyril Lucar states that it was written by Thecla, a noble lady of Egypt, but this is probably merely his interpretation of an Arabic note of the 14th century which states that the MS. was written by Thecla, the martyr, an obviously absurd legend; another Arabic note by Athanasius (probably Athanasius III., patriarch c. 1308) states that it was given to the patriarchate of Alexandria, and a Latin note of a later period dates the presenta tion in 1098.
It was originally a harmony of the four gospels made by Tatian, the pupil of Justin Martyr, towards the end of the 2nd century.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
ROBERT BARNES (1495-1540), English reformer and martyr, born about 1495, was educated at Cambridge, where he was a member, and afterwards prior of the convent of Austin Friars, and graduated D.D.
Other leading works are - in Munich, the "Virgin" sinking on her knees in adoration of the Divine Infant, who is lying in a garden within a rose trellis; in the Borghese gallery, Rome, a Peter Martyr; in Bologna, the frescoes in the church of St Cecilia, illustrating the life of the saint, all of them from the design of Raibolini, but not all executed by himself.
Perhaps Gertz deserved his fate for "unnecessarily making himself the tool of an unheard-of despotism," but his death was certainly a judicial murder, and some historians even regard him as a political martyr.
He has been identified, without any foundation, with Alexander, a martyr of the Via Nomentana, whose day is the 3rd of May.
BRUNO (BRUN, BRUNS) OF QUERFURT, Saint (c. 9751009), German missionary bishop and martyr, belonged to the family of the lords of Querfurt in Saxony.
In the Epistle to Diognetus, formerly assigned to Justin Martyr, we read (v.
- Justin Martyr perhaps contemplated the use of water instead of wine, and Tatian his pupil used it.
Pionius, the Catholic martyr of Smyrna, c. 250, also used water.
The Eucharist being the seal of Christian fellowship, it was a natural custom to send portions of the consecrated elements by the hands of the deacons to those who were not present (Justin Martyr, Apol.
(8) There appears to be more evidence than is commonly supposed to show that a practice analogous to that of Justin Martyr's day has been adopted from time to time in England, viz.
JOHN BRADFORD (1510?- 1 555), English Protestant martyr, was born at Manchester in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII., and educated at the local grammar school.
Their method and aim were entirely congenial to the rising Catholic Church, and one is not surprised to find from writers in the East (Theophilus of Antioch, Justin Martyr) and West (Irenaeus, Tertullian and the author of 2 Clement) that they were widely read and valued.
The victory was won on the 10th of January, the feast-day of St Sebastian the Martyr, who became the patron saint of the new settlement and gave it his name - Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro.
It possesses a town hall, a grammar school (1576), and a Martyr's Memorial HallThe most noteworthy building, however, is the parish church, restored in 1863, which contains a curious old fresco and several interesting brasses, and has a Norman tower.
The chantry of St Edmund the Martyr which stood on the opposite side of the town was a part of Edward III.'s endowment to the priory, and became so famous as a place of pilgrimage, especially for those on their way to Canterbury, that the part of Watling Street which crossed there towards London was sometimes called " St Edmund's Way.
His special interest in Christian Greek was partly the cause of his editing in 1877 The Apologies of Justin Martyr, " which" (to use his own words) "I used unblushingly as a repository for my syntactical formulae."
The most important of the writings now in question are two by Justin Martyr (circa A.
He made some mark as a teacher at Oxford, and became after 1547 one of the chief disciples of Peter Martyr.
He was, nevertheless, suspected, fled to London, and thence to Frankfort, which he reached in March 1555 There he sided with Coxe against Knox, but soon joined Martyr at Strassburg, accompanied him to Zurich, and then paid a visit to Padua.
He that dies in defence of it is a holy martyr.
The church collected and buried the remains of the martyr, who had been burnt, in order duly to celebrate the anniversary of the martyrdom at the place of burial.
In a vault where more than one martyr was buried an altar might be erected for each.
Alexander's diplomatic skill and moral authority, reinforced by the Capetian alliance and the revulsion of feeling caused by the murder of Becket, enabled him to force the despotic Henry to yield, and even to do penance at the tomb of the martyr.
The mother church of Armenia was established by Gregory at Ashtishat in the province of Taron, on the site of the great temple of Wahagn, whose festival on the seventh of the month Sahmi was reconsecrated to John the Baptist and Athenogenes, an Armenian martyr and Greek hymn writer.
Whatever the difficulties raised by his Acta, the cult of St Januarius, bishop and martyr, is attested historically at Naples as early as the 5th century (Biblioth.
Two phials preserved in the cathedral are believed to contain the blood of the martyr.
The best-known are the Roman martyr (festival, the 10th of July), whose epitaph was written by Pope Damasus (De Rossi, Bullettino, p. 17, 1863), and the martyr of Cordova, who forms along with Faustus and Martialis the group designated by Prudentius (Peristephanon, iv.
646), the evangelizer of north-eastern Switzerland and Alemannia; Kilian, the apostle of Thuringia; and Trudpert, the martyr of the Black Forest.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
The successor of Xavier, Antonio Criminalis, was regarded by the Jesuits as the first martyr of their society (1562).
Mary received the announcement with majestic tranquillity, expressing in dignified terms her readiness to die, her consciousness that she was a martyr for her religion, and her total ignorance of any conspiracy against the life of Elizabeth.
The earliest traditions appear to imply that he died a natural death (Eusebius, Jerome, and even Isidore of Seville); but the Martyrologies claim him as a martyr, though they do not agree as to the manner of his martyrdom.
Most of the martyrologies and calendars assign April 25 as the day on which he should be commemorated; but the Martyr.
His name is remembered in Belgian annals as a patriot martyr to the cause of liberty.
In Justin Martyr, Apol.
Justin Martyr, describing divine worship in the middle of the 2nd century says: "On the day called Sunday all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the Apostles, or the writings of the Prophets are read as long as time permits" (A poi.
In 1549 he matriculated at Queens' College, Cambridge, and in May 1550 he migrated to Pembroke Hall, where he had the martyr John Bradford for a tutor.
There is, however, a trace of early masonry which may have belonged to the Saxon house where, in 978, King Edward the Martyr was murdered.
The church in the town, almost wholly rebuilt, is dedicated to St Edward the Martyr.
The little book was perhaps used by Justin Martyr in his own Dialogue with Trypho, and probably also by Tertullian and Cyprian, but it has not been preserved.
About the same time he also founded and endowed a college at Pavia, which he dedicated to Justina, virgin and martyr.
Favras was generally regarded as a martyr to his refusal to implicate the count of Provence, and Madame de Favras was pensioned by Louis XVI.
Now began what Harriet Martineau called "the martyr age in America."
JOHN STORY (c. 1510-1571), English martyr, was educated at Oxford, where he became lecturer on civil law in 1535, being made later principal of Broadgates Hall, afterwards Pembroke College.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
The martyr of an impossible loyalty, Wallace shares the illustrious immortality of the great Montrose, and is by far the most popular hero of his country's history.
The details of the final and successful plot were uncertain - the martyr Wishart cannot be identified with Wishart the would-be murderer - but with Beaton practically expired the chances of the French and Catholic party in Scotland.
On the 24th of April, Mary wedded the Dauphin, and about the same date Walter Milne, an aged expriest, was burned as a heretic, the last Protestant martyr in Scotland.
He cannot be a martyr who is not in the Church."
The poet Prudentius describes how, on the day of the martyr's death, an innumerable multitude of pilgrims flocked round the site.
Rivalling this anonymous martyr, who is often supposed to have been St George, is an earlier martyr briefly mentioned in the Chronicon Pascale: " In the year 225 of the Ascension of our Lord a persecution of the Christians took place, and many suffered martyrdom, among whom also the Holy George was martyred."
The caution of Gelasius was not long preserved; Gregory of Tours, for example, asserts that the saint's relics actually existed in the French village of Le Maine, where many miracles were wrought by means of them; and Bede, while still explaining that the Gesta Georgii are reckoned apocryphal, commits himself to the statement that the martyr was beheaded under Dacian, king of Persia, whose wife Alexandra, however, adhered to the Christian faith.
for an annual fair to last three days from the eve of St Thomas the Martyr (18th July).
Marco (now converted into a national museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized figures - the red background, which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some restorer; an "Annunciation," the figures of about three-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the "Virgin enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the "Coronation of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an "Adoration of the Magi"; the "Marys at the Sepulchre."
Marco; also an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas, Dominic and Peter Martyr, now much destroyed.
Sigebert, king of the East Angles, founded a monastery here about 633, which in 903 became the burial place of King Edmund, who was slain by the Danes about 870, and owed most of its early celebrity to the reputed miracles performed at the shrine of the martyr king.
When he did emigrate in 1792 he found himself regarded as a martyr to the church and the king, and was at once named archbishop in partibus, and extra nuncio to the diet at Frankfort, and in 1794 cardinal.
He is commemorated as a martyr by the Greek Church on the 16th of November, and by the Roman on the 21st of September, the scene of his martyrdom being placed in Ethiopia.
1555), English Protestant martyr, was born at Rothbury, Northumberland; he took minor orders at Norwich in 1528 and graduated LL.B.
ASKEW, or [[Ascue, Anne]] (1521?-1546), English Protestant martyr, born at Stallingborough about 1521, was the second daughter.
In 1275 Amicia, countess of Devon, claimed to hold fairs at Tiverton at the feasts of St Andrew and St Giles, and at the translation of St Thomas the Martyr.
When the news came to the cardinal he said to his secretary Beccatelli that he had received good tidings: "Hitherto I have thought myself indebted to the divine goodness for having received my birth from one of the most noble and virtuous women in England; but henceforth my obligation will be much greater, as I understand I am now the son of a martyr.
Theodore Beza from Geneva and Peter Martyr Vermigli from Zurich appeared at the colloquy; the German theologians to whom invitations had been despatched only arrived in Paris after the discussion was broken off.
10-13 are to be heard in Justin Martyr's Dial.
Royalist authors have made of Cottereau a hero and martyr, titles to which his claim is not established.
- Numerous fragments of the Greek Version have come down to us in Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Antioch, Isidore of Alexandria, Epiphanius, John of Malala, Syncellus and others.
Amongst them may be mentioned a history of the dispute with Palamas; biographies of his uncle and early instructor John, metropolitan of Heraclea, and of the martyr Codratus of Antioch; funeral orations for Theodore Metochita, and the two emperors Andronicus; commentaries on the wanderings of Odysseus and on Synesius's treatise on dreams; tracts on orthography and on words of doubtful meaning; a philosophical dialogue called Florentius or Concerning Wisdom; astronomical treatises on the date of Easter and the preparation of the astrolabe; and an extensive correspondence.
1555), bishop of Gloucester and Worcester and martyr, was born in Somerset about the end of the r5th century and graduated B.A.
While he expressed dissatisfaction with some of Calvin's earlier writings, he approved of the Consensus Tigurinus negotiated in 1549 between the Zwinglians and Calvinists of Switzerland; and it was this form of religion that he laboured to spread in England against the wishes of Cranmer, Ridley, Bucer, Peter Martyr and other more conservative theologians.
The Apostolic Fathers say nothing about Simon Magus, but with Justin Martyr we get startling developments.
This discovery has led many to suspect that Justin Martyr has somehow been hoaxed.
But Justin Martyr was decidedly weak in history, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that he may have confused the Simon of Acts with a heretical leader of the same name who lived much nearer to his own time, especially as this other Simon also had a great reputation for magic. A full century must have elapsed between the conversion of Simon Magus to Christianity and the earliest date possible (which is the one that we have adopted) for the composition of Justin Martyr's First Apology.
Justin Martyr could not have been mistaken as to the fact that the bulk of his countrymen were followers of a religious leader named Simon, whose disciple Menander he seems to speak of as an elder contemporary of his own.
264-340) follows Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, but he adds the statement, which is not derived from them, that Peter opposed Simon at Rome under the reign of Claudius.
Like Agathias, he wrote epigrams, one of which, on a Persian magus, who became a convert to Christianity and died the death of a martyr, is preserved in the Greek anthology (Anth.
The circumstances of Lull's death caused him to be regarded as a martyr, local patriotism helped to magnify his merits, and his fantastic doctrines found many enthusiastic partisans.
At Oxford he first adhered to the conservative side, and defended the doctrines of the church against Hooper; but his confidence was somewhat shaken by another public disputation which he had with Peter Martyr.
Stanton in 1887, where he is styled " a martyr whose cause is deferred for future investigation."
He has been claimed as a martyr, and as such his name is given in the Roman calendar and elsewhere, but his title to this honour is by no means proved, and he has been probably confused with another bishop of the same name.
His merit lies in the fact that he was the first to deal systematically with the question of Church and State, and the position thus taken up by him, and the manner in which that position was assumed, gave rise to a lifelong conflict between Giannone and the Church; and in spite of his retractation in prison at Turin, he deserves the palm--as he certainly endured the sufferings - of a confessor and martyr in the cause of what he deemed historical truth.
Justin Martyr, the first of the sub-apostolic fathers, taught that God produced of His own nature a rational power (Suvapcv Tiva Xoyuciv), His agent in creation, who now became man in Jesus (Dial.
The church of St Peter the Martyr (1509) contains a fine picture by Gentile Bellini and other works, and S.
Two years later biographical studies of Theodore Beza and Peter Martyr Vermili (Leben des Theodor de Beza and des Peter Martyr Vermili, Heidelberg, 1809) revealed more genuine scholarship. In 1812 appeared his History of the Iconoclastic Emperors of the East (Geschichte der bilderstiirmenden Kaiser des ostromischen Reichs), in which he controverted some points in Gibbon and sought to avoid painting the past in present-day colours.
There is, however, a certain coolness about the hero's affection for his wife which somewhat detracts from the merit of his sacrifice; while the Christian part of the matter is scarcely so well treated as in the Saint Genest of Rotrou or the Virgin Martyr of Massinger.
A virgin martyr who is threatened with loss of honour as a bitterer punishment than loss of life offers points as powerful as they are perilous.
As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.
Our earliest detailed accounts of baptism are in the Teaching of the Apostles (c.90-120) and in Justin Martyr.
In exceptional cases it sufficed for a martyr to be sprinkled with his own blood.
But a martyr's death in itself was enough.
And yet Justin Martyr, Tertullian and other apologists of the 2nd century had found nothing to conceal from the eye and ear of pagan emperors and their ministers.
3, 6, 7 and 8; moreover, Justin Martyr, who cites v.
Patrick Hamilton, the Scottish martyr, was one of his pupils; and it was at Lambert's instigation that Hamilton composed his Loci communes, or Patrick's Pleas as they were popularly called in Scotland.
The factions which had prevailed during the reign of Edward the Martyr seem to have continued to rage during his brothers minority, yet iEthelreds earliest years were his least disastrous.
It may be noted that he showed a special reverence for the old English royal saint, and christened his eldest son after him; wbile his second bore the name of Edmund, the East An.glian martyr.
Such severity was most impolitic, and Lancaster was ere long hailed as a saint and a martyr.
We only know that they continued to exist, and occasionally produced a martyr.
Peter Martyr in a letter to Lope Hurtado de Mendoza in 1513 is the first to state that it is of native origin.
Thus, according to Justin Martyr (A pot.
But what, in the opinion of most modern Moslems, and especially the Persians, confers the greatest sanctity on the day of Ashoora is the fact of its being that on which El-Hoseyn, the prophet's grandson, was slain a martyr at the battle of the plain of Karbala."
James Guthrie (1612-1661), the martyr, and Ebenezer Erskine (1680-1794), founder of the Scottish Secession Church, were two of the most distinguished ministers.
The lineaments of Greek Christian theology show themselves more clearly in Justin Martyr than in the other Apologists, but still more plainly in Irenaeus, who, with little speculative power, keeps the safe middle path.
Haldane, in the Scottish Church lawsuit of 1904, is found telling the House of Lords that Justin Martyr had a grasp of speculative truth which was impossible to St Augustine.
Justin Martyr has a tradition that they were originally Philistines of Ascalon (Dial.
Hyrcanus returned from his prison: mutilated, he could no longer hold office as high-priest; but his mutilation probably gave him the prestige of a martyr, and his influence - whatever it was worth seems to have been favourable to the new dynasty.
Justin Martyr, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian.
His death caused intense excitement throughout the country, and he was everywhere regarded by abolitionists as a martyr to their cause.
nothing that Jerome might not have written," and go far to justify the description of Priscillian as "the first martyr burned by a Spanish Inquisition."
Missions and Religious History: Freeman and Johns, Narrative of the Persecutions of the Christians in Madagascar (London, 1840); Prout, Madagascar, its Missions and its Martyrs (London, 1863); Ellis, Madagascar Revisited (London, 1867); id., The Martyr Church (London, 1869); " Religion in Madagascar," Ch.
This was the decree of the state, and it had the effect of making him a martyr in the eyes of the populace and of bringing about the downfall of the ministry.
SAINT BARBARA, a virgin martyr and saint of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Eastern Churches, whose festival day is December 4th.
It was at Dokkum in Friesland that he met a martyr's death (754) Charles the Great granted the Frisians important privileges under a code known as the Lex Frisionum, based upon the ancient laws of the country.
Besides the "new market" of Domesday Book the abbots obtained charters in 1215 and 1253 for fairs during the octaves of All Saints and St Thomas the Martyr.
In subsequent poetical works he was more successful, notably the Fall of Jerusalem (1820) and the Martyr of Antioch (1822).
SAINT FLORIAN, a martyr honoured in Upper Austria.
152 (see Justin Martyr), the conversion of Tatian must have been before this date.
1, pp. 196 ff.) once suggested that the missionary work in the East belongs to an earlier period, and that Tatian left Rome and returned to it between his first arrival and the death of Justin Martyr.
There was a second chapel of Semo Sancus on the island in the Tiber with an altar, the inscription on which led Christian writers (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Eusebius) to confuse him with Simon Magus, and to infer that the latter was worshipped at Rome as a god.
Diocletian's persecution secured the martyr's crown for the Edessenes Shamona, Guria (297), and Ilabbib (309), and shortly thereafter Lucian " the martyr," who though born at Samosata received his training at Edessa; but the bishop Qona, who laid the foundations of " the great church " by the sacred pool, somehow escaped.
do-or-die spirit of a martyr.
On the way to the execution, Alban converted the executioner to Christianity and he became a martyr, too.
Since his opponents were Arian heretics, he is claimed as a Catholic martyr.
hermit for twenty-five years, was murdered by robbers and is venerated as a martyr.
martyr venerated from early times in Carthage in North Africa.
martyr burnt at the stake in Lewes.
Glory: Exapostilarion of the venerable martyr: Spec.
A virgin martyr in Rome whose relics are now venerated in Los Angeles, of which she is the main patron-saint.
Robert Moses: master builder, power broker, or holy martyr?
We are not called upon to wear the martyr's crown, but it is ours to share the martyr's crown, but it is ours to share the martyr's faith.
As a martyr, he must explain his actions and give meaning, however paradoxical, to his last moments.
A martyr venerated from early times in Carthage in North Africa.
venerated as a martyr.
veneration as a martyr.
virgin martyr in Rome whose relics are now venerated in Los Angeles, of which she is the main patron-saint.
In these books therefore there are 23 small martyr woodcuts making a total of 45 appearances.
wreaths on the grave of martyr James Hammett.
In 1571 Elizabeth granted to the town a market on Tuesday and two fairs each to last two days, at the feasts of St George the Martyr and the Conception of the Virgin.
c. 286), an early Christian martyr, who, with his companions, is commemorated by the Roman Catholic Church on the 22nd of September.
The punishment of the gridiron and the speech of the martyr are probably a reminiscence of the Phrygian martyrs, as related by Socrates (iii.
Justin Martyr writes a Dialogue with Trypho; Origen deals with many anti-Christian arguments borrowed by Celsus from a certain nameless Jew.
The earlier apologists dispute the natural immortality of the soul; Athanasius himself, in De Incarnatione Dei, §§ 4, 5, tones down the teaching of Wisdom; and the somewhat eccentric writer Arnobius, a layman - from Justin Martyr downwards apologetics has always been largely in the hands of laymen - stands for what has recently been called " conditional immortality " - eternal life for the righteous, the children of God, alone.
(2) It was primarily an offering of the fruits of the earth to the Creator; this is clear from both Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, the latter of whom not only explicitly states that such oblations are continued among Christians, but also meets the current objection to them by arguing that they are offered to God not as though He needed anything but to show the gratitude of the offerer (Iren.
(3) It was offered as a thanksgiving partly for creation and preservation and partly for redemption: the latter is the special purpose mentioned (e.g.) in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; the former is that upon which Irenaeus chiefly dwells; both are mentioned together in Justin Martyr (Trypho, c. 41).
The prison, no longer extant, and the church of St George the Martyr, where many prisoners, including Bishop Bonner (d.
He was followed by William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), Elijah P. Lovejoy (1802-1837)- a martyr, if ever there was one - Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, John Brown (b.
In 1902, in that part of the Via Ardeatina which passes between the cemeteries of Calixtus and Domitilla, was discovered a crypt with frescoes and the sanctuary of a martyr: it is thought that this, rather than a neighbouring crypt brought to light in 1847, may prove to be the sepulchral crypt of SS.
11), is found in Justin Martyr, who, in his Dialogue with Trypho (c. 103), when making a statement found only in our Luke, instead of referring for it simply to the "Apostolic Memoirs," his usual formula, says that it is contained in the memoirs composed by "the Apostles and those that followed them."
After this triumph the noblest houses of Jerusalem hold, each by itself, a great lamentation over a martyr " whom they have pierced " (or " whom men have The historical occasion of the emergence of Haggai and Zechariah was supplied by the series of revolts following the succession of Darius in 522 (cf.
GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA (1452-1498), Italian monk and martyr, was born at Ferrara on the 21st of September 1452, the third child of Michele Savonarola and his wife Elena Bonaccossi of Mantua.
His proceeding was probably due to a horror of the city arising from a subconscious memory of what he must have heard in childhood from his mother ("of the stock of the martyrs") concerning a martyr, a woman, burnt in the reign of Mary at Lichfield, who had been taken thither from Mancetter, a village two miles from his home in which he had worked as a journeyman shoemaker (see The Martyrs Glover and Lewis of Mancetter, by the Rev. B.
It has some interesting medieval works of sculpture, and a fine chapel (Cappella Portinari), with a good dome and a beautiful frieze of angels, built by Michelozzo in 1462-1468, and containing the splendid sculptured tomb (a marble sarcophagus with reliefs, supported by statues) of Peter Martyr, the masterpiece of Giovanni di Balduccio of Pisa 0339); the walls of the chapel are decorated with important frescoes by Vincenzo Foppa of Brescia.
"Revenge for Hosain" became the watchword of all Shiites, and the Meshed Hosain (Tomb of the martyr Hosain) at Kerbela is to them the holiest place in the world (see Kerbela).
Vesp. 8; Eutrop. 8.19), the celebrated Greek writer Lucian the Satirist was born in the 2nd century (see Lucian), and more than a century later another Lucian, known as the Martyr, and Paul called "of Samosata."
There is, however, a certain coolness about the hero's affection for his wife which somewhat detracts from the merit of his sacrifice; while the Christian part of the' matter is scarcely so well treated as in the Saint Genest of Rotrou or the Virgin Martyr of Massinger.
Mocking ballads were composed upon the martyr Oldcastle,, and this dislike to warfare was one of the chief accusations: made against him (comp. Wright's Political Poems, ii.
"Louis XVI was executed because they said he was dishonorable and a criminal," came into Pierre's head, "and from their point of view they were right, as were those too who canonized him and died a martyr's death for his sake.
Ever since he has been venerated as a martyr.
He was murdered, which led to his veneration as a martyr.
A martyr who refused to worship idols and suffered a slow death in Imola in Italy.
John then joined Education Minister Estelle Morris laying wreaths on the grave of martyr James Hammett.
In fact, along with Cancer, the Pisces man can sometimes see himself as something of a martyr, constantly giving of his time, emotions and resources without getting much back in return.
However, Pisceans need to be careful that they don't become a martyr in their quest to help others.
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