Martineau Sentence Examples
What James Martineau calls A Study of Religion is really in the main a re-statement of old theistic arguments.'
Its leading argument is the cosmological, concluding to " God as cause " (Martineau).
Martineau's Study of Religion is also essentially intuitionalist..
Martineau's two main proofs yield two sets of attributes; those known as.
In "God as perfection" Martineau handles the basis of ethics without reference to his own modification of the intuitionalist position (Types of Ethical Theory), according to which "good."Advertisement
Martineau's Study also includes a section upon Immortality.
He also dealt with the condemnation of Pope Honorius, carried on a controversial correspondence with John Stuart Mill, and took a leading part in the discussions of the Metaphysical Society, founded by Mr James Knowles, of which Tennyson, Huxley and Martineau were also prominent members.
He was the youngest son of Michel Etienne Turgot, "provost of the merchants" of Paris, and Madeleine Frangoise Martineau, and came of an old Norman family.
Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence of Dr Arnold (of Rugby), who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life; and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845.
His son and grandson - respectively the great-grandfather and grandfather of James Martineau - were surgeons in the same city, while his father was a manufacturer and merchant.Advertisement
Of his teachers, one, the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, was, Martineau said, " a master of the true Lardner type, candid and catholic, simple and thorough, humanly fond indeed of the counsels of peace, but piously serving every bidding of sacred truth."
In 1866 the chair of the philosophy of mind and logic in University College, London, fell vacant, and Martineau became a candidate.
But potent opposition was offered to the appointment of a minister of religion, and the chair went to George Croom Robertson - then an untried man - between whom and Martineau a cordial friendship came to exist.
Martineau, who was in his youth denied the benefit of a university education, yet in his age found famous universities eager to confer upon him their highest distinctions.
The life of Martineau was so essentially the life of the thinker, and was so typical of the century in which he lived and the society within which he moved, that he can be better understood through his spoken mind than through his outward history.Advertisement
Martineau's mental qualities fitted him to fulfil these high interpretative functions.
The 19th century had no more reverent thinker than Martineau; the awe of the Eternal was the very atmosphere that he breathed, and he looked at man with the compassion of one whose thoughts were full of God.
But besides the vocation he had freely selected and assiduously laboured to fulfil, two more external influences helped to shape Martineau's mind and define his problem and his work; the awakening of English thought to the problems which underlie both philosophy and religion, and the new and higher opportunities offered for their discussion in the periodical press.
In one respect Martineau was singularly happy; he just escaped the active and, on the whole, belittling period of the old Unitarian controversy.
As his share in the controversy, Martineau published five discourses, in which he discussed " the Bible as the great autobiography of human nature from its infancy to its perfection," " the Deity of Christ," " Vicarious Redemption," " Evil," and " Christianity without Priest and without Ritual."' He remained to the end a keen and vigilant apologist of the school in which he had been nursed.Advertisement
Channing (q.v.), whom Martineau had called " the inspirer of his youth," Theodore Parker had succeeded, introducing more radical ideas as to religion and a more drastic criticism of sacred history.
Blanco White, " the rationalist A'Kempis," who had dared to appear as " a religious sceptic in God's presence," had found a biographer and interpreter in Martineau's friend and colleague, John Hamilton Thom.
Newman, whose mind Martineau said was " critical, not prophetic, since without immediateness of religious vision," and whose faith is " an escape from an alternative scepticism, which receives the veto not of his reason but of his will," 6 as men for whose teachings and methods he had a potent and stimulating antipathy.
Under the impulses which came from these various sides Martineau's mind lived and moved, and as they successively rose he promptly, by appreciation or criticism, responded to the dialectical issues which they raised.
This was the problem which Martineau attempted to deal with in The Seat of Authority in Religion.Advertisement
Martineau's theory of the religious society or church was that of an idealist rather than of a statesman or practical politician.
Its first vice-principal was Miss Caroline Martineau, a friend and co-worker of Miss Cons, and the institution now has over a thousand members.
English moral philosophy cannot long tolerate a metaphysics which by merging all minds in one would destroy personality, personal causation and moral responsibility, as James Martineau well said.
James Martineau (q.v.) in A Study of Religion (1888), like Shadworth Hodgson, started from Kant, and tried to found on Martineau.
Yet Martineau adopted, as his view of the limits of human intelligence, that Kant was right in making space and time a priori forms of sense, but wrong in limiting them to sensations.
But in order to make space a form of external things, Martineau had to take the external in space, by which Kant meant one sensation out of another, in the very different meaning of the self here and the not-self there.
One cannot but feel regret at seeing the Reformed Churches blown about by every wind of doctrine, and catching at straws now from Kant, now from Hegel, and now from Lotze, or at home from Green, Caird, Martineau, Balfour and Ward in succession, without ever having considered the basis of their faith; while the Roman Catholics are making every effort to ground a Universal Church on a sane system of metaphysics.
Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (1888-1889); James Martineau, Essays, Reviews and Addresses (London,1891), iii.
Now began what Harriet Martineau called "the martyr age in America."
Madison's home was peculiarly a centre for literary travellers in his last years; when he was eighty-three he was visited by Harriet Martineau, who reported her conversations with him in her Retrospect of Western Travel (1838).
The Short Treatise is of much interest to the student of Spinoza's philosophical development, for it represents, as Martineau says, "the first landing-place of his mind in its independent advance."
This portrait was photographed for Dr Martineau's Study of Spinoza.
Martineau accepts Dugald Stewart's solution.
Neander, Harnack, Dr Armitage Robinson and James Martineau, whether it represents a real utterance of Christ and not rather the liturgical usage of the region in which the first gospel was compiled.
At home the teaching of James Martineau (1805-1900), resisted at first, was at length powerfully felt, seconded as it was by the influence of John James Tayler (1797-1869) and John Hamilton Thom (1808-1894).
Sometimes they consider moral intuition as determining the comparative excellence of conflicting motives (James Martineau), or the comparative quality of pleasures chosen (Laurie), which seems to be the same view in a hedonistic garb; others hold that what is intuitively perceived is the rightness or wrongness of individual acts - a view which obviously renders ethical reasoning practically superfluous.
Nevertheless it is only necessary to mention such a work as Martineau's Types of Ethical Theory to dispel the notion that the type of moral philosophy most characteristically English, i.e.
Martineau's chief endeavour was, as he himself says, to interpret, to vindicate, and to systematize the moral sentiments, and if the actual exhibition of what is involved, e.g., in moral choice is the vindication of morality Martineau may be said to have been successful.
It is with his interpretation and systematization of the moral sentiments that most of Martineau's critics have found fault.
It is impossible, e.g., to accept his ordered hierarchy of " springs of action " without perceiving that the real principle upon which they can be arranged in order at all must depend upon considerations of circumstances and consequences, of stations and duties, with which a strict intuitionalism such as that of Martineau would have no dealing.'
And Martineau is curiously unsympathetic to the universal and social aspect of morality with which evolutionary and idealist moral philosophers are so largely occupied.
Equal in importance to Martineau's work is Professor Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics, which appeared in 1874.
Martineau is much more in sympathy with idealism than Sidgwick, whose work consists in a restatement from a novel and independent standpoint of the Utilitarian position.
Martineau's Philosophy, p. 92.
Martineau (1902); The Development of European Polity (1903); Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses (1904); Lectures on the Philosophy of Kant (1905).
This included sculptured busts of Lucy Stone, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frances Willard, Harriet Martineau, Mary Livermore and William Lloyd Garrison.
Meanwhile he had also studied for short periods at Heidelberg and Berlin, and in 1847 he entered Manchester New College with the idea of becoming a minister like his father, and studied there under James Martineau.
We find something curiously similar in James Martineau's Study of Religion (" Implicit Attributes of God as Cause," sub fin.).
In " God as perfection " Martineau handles the basis of ethics without reference to his own modification of the intuitionalist position (Types of Ethical Theory), according to which " good."
He was descended from Gaston Martineau, a Huguenot surgeon and refugee, who married in 1693 Marie Pierre, and settled soon afterwards in Norwich.
We may, alternatively, describe Martineau's religion as his applied philosophy or his philosophy as his explicated religion, and both as the expression of his singularly fine ethical and reverent nature.
But though he formulated no system of philosophy, and seemed to show the influence now of Plato, now of Kant, or of German thought as filtered through the brain of Coleridge, he was, like his American master, associate and friend, steadily optimistic, idealistic, individualistic. The teachings of William Ellery Channing a little before, as to the sacred inviolability of the human conscience - anticipating the later conclusions of Martineau - really lay at the basis of the work of most of the Concord transcendentalists and contributors to The Dial, of whom Alcott was one.
After a period of struggle, the influence of Kant gradually extended, and, as we see in the writings of Coleridge and Carlyle, of Hamilton and Mansel, of Green and Caird, of Laurie, Martineau and others, has secured an authority over English thought almost equal to that of Hume (see Idealism).
This book, Dr Martineau's Study of Spinoza (1882) and Dr John Caird's Spinoza (1888), are all admirable pieces of work, and, as regards the philosophical estimate, complement one another.