Albuera is celebrated on account of the victory gained there on the 16th of May 1811 by the British, Portuguese and Spaniards, under Marshal Beresford, over the French army commanded by Marshal Soult.
In 1591 he obtained a dispensation from the vows of the order of Malta, and married Charlotte, daughter of Henry, Marshal d'Amville, afterwards duke of Montmorency.
From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
He was present with his pupil at the battle of Steinkirk, and "faced fire," says Marshal Luxembourg, "like a grenadier."
He reappeared for a few months after General Pavia's coup d'Nat in January 1874, to join a coalition cabinet formed by Marshal Serrano, with Sagasta and Ulloa.
Shortly afterwards Martos joined the dynastic Left organized by Marshal Serrano, General Lopez Dominguez, and Moret, Becerra, Balaguer, and other quondam revolutionaries.
In 1747, however, the town was taken by the French, under Marshal Lowendahl, who surprised it by means of a subterranean passage.
The most important are those on Madame de Montausier (1672), which gained him the membership of the Academy, the duchesse d'Aiguillon (1675), and, above all, Marshal Turenne (1676).
Manning (1693), and the "Funeral Oration of Marshal Turenne" in H.
Recruiting and Strength.EJniversal compulsory service was adopted after the disasters of 1870-1871, though in principle it had been established by Marshal Niels reforms a few years before that date.
The office of marshal in the high court is represented in this court by a serjeant, who also bears a silver oar.
Between 1815 and 1847 he rose to the rank of field marshal lieutenant.
On the 11th of October 1808 Haynau had married Therese von Weber, the daughter of Field Marshal Lieutenant Weber, who was slain at Aspern.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
The marshal wrote to Mathieu de Lesseps on the 18th of December 1830: "I have had the pleasure of meeting your son, who gives promise of sustaining with great credit the name he bears."
As representing the pope, the suzerain of Henry, he claimed the regency and actually divided the chief power with William Marshal, earl of Pembroke.
During the Peninsular War Badajoz was unsuccessfully attacked by the French in 1808 and 1809; but on the 10th of March 1811, the Spanish commander, Jose Imaz, was bribed into surrendering to the French force under Marshal Soult.
A British army, commanded by Marshal Beresford, endeavoured to retake it, and on the 16th of May defeated a relieving force at Albuera, but the siege was abandoned in June.
On the 18th of July, however, Gaeta surrendered to Massna, and that marshal, now moving rapidly southwards, extricated Rynier, crushed the Bourbon rising in Calabria with great barbarity, and compelled the British force to re-embark for Sicily.
This ambitious marshal, brother-in-law of Napoleon, foiled in his hope of gaining the crown of Spain, received that of Naples in the summer of 1808, Joseph Bonaparte being moved M
Meanwhile Thiers had given place to Marshal Macmahon, who effected a decided improvement in Franco-Italian relations by recalling from Civitavecchia the cruiser Ornoque, which since 1870 had been stationed in that port at the disposal of the pope in case he should desire to quit Rome.
Depretis recalled Nigra from Paris and replaced him by General Cialdini, whose ardent plea for Italian intervention in favor of France in 1870, and whose comradeship with Marshal Macmahon in 1859, would, it was supposed, render him persona gratissima to the French government.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
On the 12th of November 12 t 6 the regent William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, reissued the charter in the name of the young king Henry III.
Its head, the duke of Norfolk, is the first of the dukes and the hereditary earl marshal of England, while the earls of Suffolk, Carlisle and Effingham and the Lord Howard of Glossop represent in the peerage its younger lines.
The head of her elder brother, the boy earl marshal, had been stricken off in the cornfield under the walls of York, but her younger brother's right to his father's dukedom was allowed by parliament in 1425.
A lion's share of the Mowbray estates, swollen by the great alliances of the house, heir of Breouse and Segrave, and, through Segrave, of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I., fell to Howard, who, by a patent of June 28, 1483, was created duke of Norfolk and earl marshal of England with a remainder to the heirs male of his body.
The second duke, twice married, was father of at least eleven sons and six daughters, the sons including Edward the lord high admiral, killed in boarding Pregent's galleys at Brest, Edmund the knight marshal of the army at Flodden, and William the first Lord Howard of Effingham.
Succeeding his father in 1524, Norfolk was created earl marshal in 1533.
A knight of the Garter, he was in 1621 created earl marshal for life, and revived the jurisdiction belonging to the office.
to his grandson Thomas, a lunatic living at Padua, on whose death in 1677 it passed to this Thomas's brother, Henry Frederick, who had been created earl of Norwich and hereditary earl marshal of England in 1672.
A third cousin succeeded him in 1815, Bernard Edward Howard, who, although a Roman Catholic, was enabled, by the act of 1824, to act as earl marshal.
This was the grandfather of the fifteenth duke, earl of Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk, and hereditary earl marshal of England.
In 1509 the marshal Don Fernando Coutinho made an unsuccessful attack on the city; and in the following year it was again assailed by Albuquerque with 3000 troops.
A plot to carry off the young Mortimers was defeated; but Mowbray, the earl marshal, who had been privy to it, raised a rebellion in the north supported by Archbishop Scrope of York.
Benedict, Die Gudrunsage in der neueren Literatur (1902.) '[[Guebriant, Jean Baptiste Budes,' Comte De]] (1602-1643), marshal of France, was born at Plessis-Budes, near St Brieuc, of an old Breton family.
His victories of Wolfenbiittel on the 29th of June 1641 and of Kempen in 1642 won for him the marshal's baton.
Already as chairman of the food section of the Council of National Defense he had begun to marshal all the agencies for economizing, especially on those foods which the Allies needed.
about 1040, containing among other relics of the cathedral an old altar supposed to be that of the idol Krodo which formerly stood on the Burgberg near Neustadt-Harzburg; the church of the former Benedictine monastery of St Mary, or Neuwerk, of the 12th century, in the Romanesque style, with wall-paintings of considerable merit; and the house of the bakers' gild now an hotel, the birthplace of Marshal Saxe.
He was made field marshal in 1793,and died at Henley-on-Thames on the 9th of July 1795.
After he became field marshal, in 1784, he introduced many reforms into the army, and built a fleet in' the Black Sea, which, though constructed of very bad materials, did excellent service in Catherine's second Turkish War (1787-92).
At Marienburg the grand master maintained a magnificent court; round him were the five great dignitaries of the Order, the Grand Commander, the Marshal, the Hospitaller, the Treasurer (Tressler) and the Keeper of the Wardrobe (Trapier) to see to the clothing of the Order.
The Order was at variance within itself; some of the houses of the brethren refused to obey the marshal, and the grand master quarrelled with the German master.
The circular vaulted keep erected by Earl William Marshal (c. 1200), remains almost intact.
Facing the castle, on the western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains of Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Earl William Marshal as a cell to the abbey of Seez or Sayes in Normandy, but under Henry VI.
Next came dignities of a slightly lower rank, such as those of grand almoner (Fesch), grand marshal of the palace (Duroc), grand chamberlain (Talleyrand), grand master of the horse (Caulaincourt), grand huntsman (Berthier), grand master of ceremonies (Segur).
The defection of Marshal Marmont and his soldiery on the 4th of April rendered further thoughts of resistance futile.
This is a Grecian building (1785), with a richly ornamented ceiling and inlaid altarpavement; it also contains much fine sculpture in the memorials to former dukes, and is the burial-place of Field Marshal Lord Raglan, who was the youngest son of the 5th duke of Beaufort.
Difficulties quickly arose when Frederick, in 1231, sent Marshal Richard to Syria as his legate.
Sir Thomas Beaufort, afterwards earl of Dorset and duke of Exeter (appointed admiral of the fleet 1407, and admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine 1412, which latter office he held till his death in 1426), certainly had a court, with a marshal and other officers, and forms of legal process - mandates, warrants, citations, compulsories, proxies, &c. Complaints of encroachment of jurisdiction by the Admiralty Courts led to the restraining acts, 13 Ric. II.
The principal officers of the court in subordination to the judge were the registrar (an office which always points to a connexion with canon or civil law), and the marshal, who acted as the maritime sheriff, having for his baton of office a silver oar.
The High Court of Admiralty of Ireland, being formed on the same pattern as the High Court in England, sat in the Four Courts, Dublin, having a judge, a registrar, a marshal and a king's or queen's advocate.
The name Soubise appears again in the military history of France in the person of Charles De Rohan, Prince De Soubise (1715-1787), peer and marshal of France, the grandson of the princesse de Soubise, who is known to history as one of the mistresses of Louis XIV.
Finney carried ' A runaway slave, Littlejohn, was taken at Oberlin in September 1858 by a United States marshal, but was rescued at Wellington.
It was by the ford opposite Fuenterrabia that the duke of Wellington, on the 8th of October 1813, successfully forced a passage into France in the face of an opposing army commanded by Marshal Soult.
but as it no longer met modern requirements as to accuracy the director of the military geographical establishment at Vienna, Field Marshal Chr.
In 1234 he sided with the crown against Richard, earl marshal, who fell in battle against him.
Having rejoined the Republican party in 1876, he was United States marshal for Massachusetts from 187 9 until 1888, when for the ninth time he was elected to Congress.
The army is divided into seven army-corps (ordus), each under the command of a field marshal, and the two independent commands of Tripoli (Africa) and the Hejaz.
The Russians had not waited for the formal declaration of war; and on the very day that this was notified by the hanging out of the horse-tails before the Seraglio at Constantinople a Russian army under Marshal Munnich stormed the ancient wall that guarded the isthmus of the Crimea.
Bernadotte's corps in Hanover was almost in the position of a beleaguered garrison, and the marshal could only obtain his transport by giving out that he was ordered to withdraw to France.
The Russian government, however, failed to see the matter in its true light, and Marshal Kutusov was sent to the front to assume the chief command.
The crown prince of Sweden (Bernadotte), with his Swedes and various Prussian levies, 135,000 in all, lay in and around Berlin and Stettin; and knowing his former marshal well, Napoleon considered Oudinot a match for him.
Field Marshal von Woinovich (ed.), Das Kriegsjahr 1809; Buat, De Ratisbonne it Znaim (Paris, 1910).
The possessor or controller of this wealthy mosque is the nakib, locally pronounced najeeb, or marshal of the nobles, whose office is to determine who are Se`ids, i.e.
Marshal Moncey with a corps occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered Catalonia; and a little later Bessieres with another corps had been brought up. There were now about ioo,000 French soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as "lieutenant for the emperor," entered Madrid.
Before it landed, the French under Dupont, Moncey and Marshal Bessieres (75,000) had occupied parts of Biscay, Navarre, Aragon and the Castiles, holding Madrid and Toledo, while General Duhesme (14,000) was in Catalonia.
On the 26th of October 1808, when Moore's troops had left Lisbon to join Baird, the French still held a defensive position behind the Ebro; Bessieres being in the basin of Vitoria, Marshal Ney north-west of Logrono, and Moncey covering Pampeluna, and near Sanguessa.
By this time, French armies, to a great extent controlled by Napoleon from a distance, had advanced - Soult from Galicia to capture Oporto and Lisbon (with General Lapisse from Salamanca moving on his left towards Abrantes) and Marshal Victor, still farther.
Much progress had been made in the organization and training of the Portuguese levies; Major-General William Carr Beresford, with the rank of marshal, was placed at their head.
Marshal Massena with 120,000, including the corps of Ney, Junot, Reynier and some of the Imperial Guard, was to operate from Salamanca against Portugal; but first Soult, appointed major-general of the army in Spain (equivalent to chief of the staff), was, with the corps of Victor, Mortier and Sebastiani (70,000), to reduce Andalusia.
After this Wellington from Almeida rejoined Beresford and the siege of Badajoz was continued: but now Marshal Marmont, having succeeded Massena, was marching southwards to join Soult, and, two allied assaults of Badajoz having failed, Wellington withdrew.
For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory 1 by the Portuguese government in Brazil.
Clinton, The War in the Peninsula, &c. (London, 1889); Marshal Suchet's Memoires (Paris, 1826; London, 1829); Captain L.
A short engagement in Spain, as tutor to the son of Marshal de Saint Luc, was terminated by another quarrel; and Dempster now returned to Scotland with the intention of asserting a claim to his father's estates.
The baron Cerro Azul was shot down without trial; Marshal de Gama Eza, an old imperial soldier of eighty years of age, was murdered in cold blood, and numerous executions of men of lesser note took place, among these being two Frenchmen for whose death the Brazilian government was subsequently called upon to pay heavy compensation.
On the 2nd of August of the same year, at Marciano in Val di Chiana, he won a complete victory over the Sienese and French troops under Piero Strozzi, the Florentine exile and marshal of France.
By the heiress of the Tonis he left at his death in 1315 a son Earl Thomas, who distinguished himself at Crecy and Poitiers, was marshal of the English host, and, with his brother John, one of the founders of the order of the Garter.
His governor, Marshal D'Ornano, was arrested by Richelieu's orders, and then his confidant, Henri de Talleyrand, marquis de Chalais and Vendome, the natural sons of Henry IV.
Chalais was executed and the marshal died in prison.
At midnight of the 19th of November 1740 he was seized in his bedroom by his ancient rival, Field Marshal Mi nnich.
He lost heart, and actually suggested to White the surrender of Ladysmith, believing this to be inevitable and desiring to cover White's responsibility in that event with his own authority; but White replied that he did not propose to surrender, and the cabinet at home, aware of Buller's despondency, appointed Field Marshal Lord Roberts to the supreme command, with MajorGeneral Lord Kitchener as his chief of staff.
On the 8th of June Sir Redvers Buller, who had made a long halt after the relief of Ladysmith and reorganized his army and its line of communication, forced his way over Alleman's Nek, and on the following day occupied Laing's Nek, the Natal gate to the Transvaal, while the field marshal fought a widespread battle against Botha, De la Rey and Kemp at Diamond Hill, 20 m.
FITZROY JAMES HENRY SOMERSET RAGLAN, 1ST Baron (1788-1853), British field marshal, was the eighth and youngest son of Henry, 5th duke of Beaufort, by Elizabeth, daughter of Admiral the Hon.
He was made a field marshal after Inkermann.
The Imperialists were!driven from Cremona after a sharp struggle, but captured Marshal Villeroi, the French commander.
He was informally exiled, and spent much time with Marshal Villars, again increasing his store of "reminiscences."
He again spent much of his time with Villars, listening to the marshal's stories and making harmless love to the duchess.
Osborn was succeeded as resident commissioner by Sir Marshal Clarke,' who gained the confidence and good will of the Zulu.
Sir Marshal James Clarke, R.A.
Wright, was published in 1838 under the title of Memoirs of the Marshal Count de R.
Army was formed (March 24) to guard the Straits, and Marshal Liman von Sanders, head of the German military mission in Turkey, was appointed its commander-in-chief.
The marshal's Turks had fought gallantly in the strenuous encounters which had taken place, and large reinforcements (2nd, 4th, r3th, r5th, r6th Divisions) were on the move or preparing to move to his aid.
The cabinet, in which Baron Louis was minister of finance, and Marshal Gouvion Saint Cyr remained minister' of war, was entirely Liberal; and its first act was to suppress the ministry of police, as Decazes held that it was incompatible with the regime of liberty.
Nevertheless he was deprived of the chancellorship and banished to his estate at Goretovo (April 1759), where he remained till the accession of Catharine II., who recalled him to court and created him a field marshal.
Attempting to return to France in 1780 he was arrested for a caustic attack on the duc de Duras (1715-1789), an academician and marshal of France, and imprisoned nearly two years in the Bastille.
At the end of the year, when Marshal Serrano left Madrid to take command of the northern army, General Martinez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, carried off some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king's name.
in 1708, subsequently participating in the battle of Holowczyn, the reduction of Mazepa, and the crowning victory of Poltava (June 26, 1709), where he won his marshal's baton.
With 12,500 men of all arms the Marshal held in front of him over 40,000 of the enemy.
After the "Chevalier Guards" had been routed by Marshal Bessieres and the Guard cavalry, the allies had no more hope of victory; orders had already been sent to Buxhbwden, who commanded the three columns engaged against Davout, to retreat on Austerlitz.
The abbey was converted in 1543 into a collegiate church for secular priests, and was dissolved by Edward VI., who granted it to Sir Nicholas Bagenal, marshal of Ireland.
Louis invested him with the duchy of Valois, and gave him as tutor Marshal de Gie, and, after Gie's disgrace in 1503, the sieur de Boisy, Artus Gouffier.
The royal favour then elevated Anne de Montmorency and Philippe de Chabot, and in the last years of the reign Marshal d'Annebaud and Cardinal de Tournon.
During the war with Denmark he had his first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him.
Nothing is positively known of his ancestry, for the supposition (originating with Du Cange) that a certain William, marshal of Champagne between 1163 and 1179, was his father appears to be erroneous.
It is quite clear, however, that the marshal of Champagne, who was one of the leaders and inner counsellors of the expedition throughout, sympathized with the majority, and it is fair to point out that the temptation of chivalrous adventure was probably as great as that of gain.
He was also appointed marshal of "Romanie" - a term very vaguely used, but apparently signifying the mainland of the Balkan Peninsula, while his nephew and namesake, afterwards prince of Achaia, took a great part in the Latin conquest of Peloponnesus.
A letter addressed from the East to Blanche of Champagne is cited, and a papal record of 1212 styles him still "marshal of Romania."
In 1693 the French under Marshal Luxemburg defeated here the Anglo-Dutch army under William III.
In the southwest corner of the town is the esplanade, with an equestrian statue of the emperor William I., and monuments to Prince Frederick Charles and Marshal Ney, commanding a fine view of the "pays messin," a fertile plain lying to the south.
- The French army under Marshal Bazaine was in and about Metz.
Marshal Bazaine had meanwhile arrived on the scene, and ordering forward fresh troops to relieve (not to reinforce) those already engaged, he rode forward with a horse artillery battery to watch the operations.
In the dust and confusion of the charge a group of the hussars approached Bazaine and his horse artillery battery, and almost carried off the marshal.
The army merely swung backwards, pivoting on its left wing, the corps preserving their relative order as it had been on the 16th, with the exception that the Imperial Guard was withdrawn to the spur on which Fort Plappeville stands, and the 6th Corps (Marshal Canrobert) crossed the line of march of the 3rd and 4th Corps in order to gain St Privat la Montagne.
But at the last moment the marshal wavered.
The French army under the duke of Burgundy and Marshal Vendome, after an abortive attempt to invest Oudenarde, took up a defensive position north of the town when Marlborough and Eugene, after a forced march, arrived with the main Allied army.
The decisive blow was delivered by the Dutch marshal, Overkirk, who was sent by Marlborough with a large force (the last reserve of the Allies) to make a wide turning movement round the extreme right of the French, and at the proper time attacked them in rear.
With the unwelcome help of a French army under Marshal Catinat, he invaded the Waldensian valleys, and after a difficult campaign, characterized by great cruelty, he subjugated them.
Despite the risks of failure and the probable consequences of such a failure, from the political and moral as well as the military point of view, it was considered essential both by Marshal Foch and Lord Haig that the attack on it should be carried out and that as soon as possible.
At the same time a corps under Marshal Luxemburg, composed of Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster) moved from Westphalia towards Over-Yssel and Groningen.
The resources of the French government were almost intact for the coming campaign; the corps of observation in Roussillon was continued, and its commander, Marshal Schomberg, made a successful campaign against the Spaniards, and the war was carried even into Sicily.
The 1 Marshal Luxemburg, who was left in command of the army in Holland during the winter of 1672-73, had indeed made a bold attempt to capture Leiden and the Hague by marching a corps, from Utrecht across the frozen inundations.
At the same time the duke of Lorraine defeated Marshal Crequi (August 11th) at Conzer Briicke on the Moselle, and recaptured Trier (September 6th), which, as a set-off against Bonn, Turenne had taken in the autumn of 1673.
In 1676 the naval successes of France in the Mediterranean enabled the corps under Marshal Vivonne in Sicily to make considerable progress, and he won an important victory at Messina on the 25th of March.
An attempt made by the latter in the summer to besiege Maastricht was frustrated by Marshal Schomberg with a detachment of the king's army (August).
The prince of Orange failed in an attempt to take Charleroi, and Marshal D'Humieres captured St Ghislain.
A large reinforcement sent by the duke of Lorraine to the assistance of Saxe-Eisenach was completely defeated by Crequi in the battle of Kochersberg near Strassburg (October 7th) and the marshal followed up his successes by the capture of Freiburg on the 14th of November.
In Spain the French army under Marshal de Navailles had also made steady progress, and thus the last campaign was wholly in favour of the French.
Vauban retired from active service as a marshal twenty-five years after the peace of Nijmwegen.
Sebastiani, Horace Francois Bastien, Count' (1772-1851) French marshal and diplomatist.
On his retirement from this post he was made Marshal of France.
von Baer (1886) and Marshal Barclay de Tolly (1849), and the town is the headquarters of the XVIII.
His brother Honore (1581-1649), first duke of Chaulnes, was governor of Picardy and marshal of France (1619), and defended his province successfully in 1625 and 1635.
Louis Auguste d'Albert d'Ailly (1676-1744), duke of Chaulnes, also became marshal of France (1741).
Here was the only good ground for mounted troops, and Marlborough followed Tallard's example when forming up to attack, but it resulted from the dispositions of the French marshal that this weak point of junction of his two armies was exactly that at which decisive action was to be expected.
At the close of the war the queen regent and her ministers attempted to elbow out Espartero and his followers, but a pronunciamiento ensued in Madrid and other large towns which culminated in the marshal's accepting the post of prime minister.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
On the 16th of November 1870 he was proclaimed king of Spain by the Cortes; but, before he could arrive at Madrid, Marshal Prim, chief promoter of his candidature, was assassinated.
Undeterred by rumours of a plot against his own life, Amedeo entered Madrid alone, riding at some distance from his suite to the church where Marshal Prim's body lay in state.
Gilles de Laval, sire de Retz (1404-1440), the comrade-in-arms of Joan of Arc and marshal of France, gave himself over to the most revolting debauchery, and was strangled and burned at Nantes.
In 1581 it was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duche-pairie) for Albert de Gondi, marshal of France and general of the galleys.
In the first, which was fought on the 5th and 6th of September 1634, the hitherto invincible Swedish army, commanded by Duke Bernhard of Saxe Weimar and Marshal Horn, was defeated with great loss by a somewhat superior army of Imperialists and Spaniards under General Gallas, Horn and 3000 men being made prisoners and 6000 killed or mortally wounded.
Unlike Weert the marshal kept his troops in hand, and swung round upon the Bavarian infantry behind Allerheim, who were at the same time cannonaded by their lost guns.
Marshal Mortier with the Imperial Guard at Paris.
He had left Marshal Davout behind in Paris, and Murat in disgrace; Suchet was far off on the eastern frontier, and Clausel was in the south of France.
Marshal Soult was appointed chief of the staff, a post for which he possessed very few qualifications; and, when the campaign began, command of the left and right wings had perforce to be given to the only two marshals available, Ney and Grouchy, who did not possess the ability or strategic skill necessary for such positions.
Marshal Ney joined the army, was given the command of the left wing, and ordered to drive the Prussians out of Gosselies, and clear the road northward of that place.
When he had left for the front, the emperor proceeded with Grouchy to reconnoitre the Prussian position at Gilly; and handing over the command of the right wing to the marshal, whom he ordered to capture Gilly, Napoleon returned to Charleroi, to hasten the passage of the French army across the Sambre and mass it in the gap between the allies.
As soon as the Prussian marshal got the first real warning of imminent danger, he ordered (in accordance with the prearranged plan) an immediate concentration of his army on his inner flank at Sombreffe.
Corps was carrying out, strove to induce Ney to reconsider D'Erlon's recall; but the marshal refused and ended the discussion by plunging into the fight.
It had already reached the edge of the Ligny battlefield when the counter-order arrived, and conceiving that he was still under Marshal Ney (for the officer who bore the pencil-note directing Ney to detach Quatre Bras.
It was a somewhat complicated manoeuvre; for he was attempting to outflank his enemy with a corps that he had subordinated to Marshal Ney.
At 3.15 P.M., when the battle was in full swing, Napoleon wrote in duplicate to Ney, saying, "The fate of France is in your hands," and ordering the marshal to master Quatre Bras and move eastwards to assist at Ligny.
But the,gallant old marshal still had some fresh squadrons in hand, and he promptly launched them to stem the French advance.
Probably Wellington's failure to co-operate at Ligny had heightened the Prussian chief-of-staff's unworthy suspicions of the good faith and soldierly qualifications of the British marshal; and it was well for the allies that Blucher was able to resume command before Napoleon had time to profit from the dissensions that would probably have arisen had Gneisenau remained in control.
If confronted by a rear-guard he would drive it off and occupy Quatre Bras; and if Wellington was still there the marshal would promptly engage and hold fast the Anglo-Dutch army, and report to the emperor.
Prussian corps at Gembloux, the emperor directed Marshal Grouchy, to whom he handed over the command of this force, to "proceed to Gembloux."
This order the marshal only too literally obeyed.
Although the emperor wrote to Ney again at noon, from Ligny, that troops had now been placed in position at Marbais to second the marshal's attack on Quatre Bras, yet Ney remained quiescent, and Wellington effected so rapid and skilful a retreat that, on Napoleon's arrival at the head of his supporting corps, 1 There appears to be no reason to believe that Grouchy pushed any reconnaissances to the northward and westward of Gentinnes on June 17; had he done so, touch with Blucher's retiring columns must have been established, and the direction of the Prussian retreat made clear.
In spite of his hurts the old marshal was in the saddle.
It was therefore put off first of all until 9 A.M., and later until 11.30, to permit the sodden ground to dry sufficiently for the mounted arms to manoeuvre freely and give time to the French army to close up. During the night the emperor had received a report from Marshal Grouchy, dated Gembloux, 10 P.M., 17th, which stated that the Prussians were retiring in two columns towards Wavre and Perwez.
when the emperor answered this letter, and he directed the marshal to march for Wavre, thus approaching the French army and entering the zone of the main operations.
Napoleon now ordered Ney to carry La Haye Sainte at whatever cost, and this the marshal accomplished with the wrecks of D'Erlon's corps soon after 6 P.M.
A few words may now be bestowed on Marshal Grouchy, commanding the right wing.
The marshal wrongly determined Groachy' on the 18th to continue his march to Wavre in a single column, and he determined, still more wrongly, to move by the right bank of the Dyle.
Instead of concentrating his force upon one bridge over the swampy and unfordable Dyle, Grouchy scattered it in attacks upon several; and when the emperor's despatch arrived, saying Billow was in sight, the marshal was powerless to move westward.
Whilst pondering on the course he should follow, the marshal received the news of the awful disaster that had overtaken the emperor at Waterloo.
After the revolution of 1830 he came to Paris, formed connexions with numerous political personages, even with King Louis Philippe, and became a brilliant defender of Liberal ideas in the law courts and in the press, - witness his :loge funebre of the bishop Gregoire (1830), his Memoire for the political rehabilitation of Marshal Ney (1833), and his plea for the accused of April (1835).
Jamison (Charleston, 1863), which was translated into French (1866) by order of Marshal Count Randon, minister of war; also S.
A city of the third class must elect a mayor, seven councilmen, a treasurer, a health officer, a clerk and an attorney, and its mayor must apoint a marshal, a police justice and as many policemen as the council provides for.
An incorporated town must elect a mayor, five councilmen and a treasurer, and its mayor must appoint a marshal and a clerk.
The Japanese, too, had effected their object, and as they converged on their objective, the inner flanks of the three armies had connected and the supreme commander Marshal Oyama had taken command of the whole.
Marshal Oyama sent his principal staff officers to stimulate Nogi to fresh efforts, and some exhausted units of the besieging army were replaced by fresh troops from Japan.
With 100,000 men and this urgent need of immediate victory, Nogi and the marshal's staff officers felt bound to make a third general assault.
The Japanese marshal now sent up his army reserve, which had been kept far to the rear at Yentai, to help Nogi.
only a mayor and aldermen are elected, and the mayor with the: consent of the council appoints a clerk who is ex officio assessor, a treasurer who is ex officio collector, and a marshal who may be ex officio street commissioner.
before he became king, and after his accession was made master of the wardrobe, lieutenant-general in Auvergne (1576) and Guienne (1610), and marshal of France in 1614.
Gaston's son, Antoine Gaston Jean Baptiste de Roquelaure (1656-1738), carried on the family reputation for wit, and, in spite of his military incapacity, received the marshal's baton in 1724.
was not indisposed to protect the persecuted when it cost him nothing and might bring him fame, and in Marshal Keith, the governor of Neuchatel,.
The next years were full of civil war and political intrigue, during which the queen relied upon the Marshal d'Ancre.
In 1617 he was much attached to Charles d'Albert, sieur de Luynes; and with his help he arrested Marshal d'Ancre, and on his resistance had him assassinated.
The king is said to have allowed him to speak hostilely of Richelieu and even to recall the assassination of Marshal d'Ancre.
The end of his nominal rule came in the next year, when Wellington utterly overthrew the chief French army, commanded by King Joseph and Marshal Jourdan, at Vittoria (June 21, 1813).
He became governor of Paris, marshal of France (1804), grand duke of Berg and of Cleves (1806), lieutenant of the emperor in Spain (1808), and early in the summer of that year king of Naples.
In the early part of that campaign Jerome was entrusted with an important movement which might have brought the southern Russian army into grave danger; on his failure (which was probably due to his lack of energy) the emperor promptly subjected him to the control of Marshal Davout, and Jerome returned to Cassel.
He returned to France in 1847, and after the rise of Louis Napoleon to power, became successively governor of the Invalides, marshal of France and president of the senate.
In the diet itself the Protestants were absolutely supreme, and invariably elected a Calvinist to be their marshal.
1579), brother of the famous marshal, and bishop of Valence, to procure the election of the French candidate, Henry, duke of Anjou.
Before the opposition could remonstrate, the marshal of the diet produced the latest foreign despatches, which unanimously predicted another partition, whereupon, at the solemn adjuration of Ignaty Potocki, King Stanislaus exhorted the deputies to accept the new constitution as the last means of saving their country, and himself set the example by swearing to defend it.
In the Thirty Years' War Belfort was twice besieged, 1633 and 1634, and in 1635 there was a battle here between the duke of Lorraine and the allied French and Swedes under Marshal de la Force.
To the beginning of 1842 the contest went in favour of the amir; thereafter he found in Marshal Bugeaud an opponent who proved, in the end, his master.
On the 10th of August 1810 the French under Marshal Soult defeated a large Spanish force close to the town.
A thoroughly French town, it dates from 1835, when General Drouet d'Erlon established there an entrenched camp on a hillock in the midst of a pestilential swamp. Soon afterwards Marshal Clausel began to build a regular city, which was at first called Medina Clausel in his honour.
Two naval demonstrations were made by France during the reign of Louis XIV., one by Abraham Duquesne in 1682, and the other by Marshal Jean d'Estrees in 1688, but these repressive measures were too intermittent to produce a durable effect.
An expedition against Algiers was then decided upon, and Marshal de Bourmont, the minister of war, himself took the command.
General Bertrand Clausel,who succeeded Marshal de Bourmont, was one of the few men who at that period dreamed of conquering and colonizing Algeria.
Drouet d'Erlon was recalled and replaced by Marshal Clausel.
Marshal Sylvain Charles Valee (1773-1846), who replaced him, founded Philippeville to serve as a seaport for the region of Constantine, occupied Jijelli, and at the head of the expeditionary column returned from Constantine to Algiers by the interior, passing through Setif and les Portes de fer.
On the 18th of November 1839 he sent his declaration of war to Marshal Valee, but the impatient Hajutas had already devastated the Metija.
Marshal Valee marched against Abd-el-Kader, and at first gained some successes: the French occupied Cherchel, Medea and Miliana.
The system of Marshal Valee had been the defensive: he multiplied the fortified posts in order to draw the enemy to a spot chosen beforehand.
The most remarkable military events of this period were (1) the siege and destruction of the oasis of Zaatcha, where the inhabitants, displeased by an alteration in the tax on palms, rose at the voice of a fanatic named Bu-Zian; (2) the ineffectual campaign of Marshal Saint Arnaud in Little Kabylia, where the tribes rose at the instigation of Bu-Magla (" the mule man ") in 1851.
Henceforth matters remained quiet in the region of the Sahara, and Marshal Randon turned his efforts towards Kabylia.
But in two months (May to June 1857) Marshal Randon made himself master of it, and built in the heart of this country Fort Napoleon (now Fort National), " the thorn in the side of Kabylia," whose batteries commanded all the Kabyle villages of the region.
In 1858 the creation of a " ministry of Algeria and of the colonies " brought about the resignation of Marshal Randon.
The decree of the 24th of November 1860 transferred the services from Paris back to Algiers, and re-established the functions of governor-general, which were exercised at the end of the second empire first by Marshal Pelissier, duc de Malakoff (December 1860 to September 1864) and then by Marshal MacMahon, duc de Magenta (September 1864 to July 1870).
The Schloss, built in 1 7571 759 by the abbots of Fulda on the site of a Benedictine monastery founded in 1090, was bestowed, in 1807, by Napoleon upon Marshal Kellermann.
This office he retained after the death of John and the election of William, the earl marshal, as regent.
As the saviour of the national cause the justiciar naturally assumed after the death of William Marshal (1219) the leadership of the English loyalists.
On the outbreak of Richard Marshal's rebellion (1233), he was carried off by the rebels to the Marshal stronghold of Striguil, in the hope that his name would add popularity to their cause.
In 1234 he was admitted, along with the other supporters of the fallen Marshal, to the benefit of a full pardon.
The clerk marshal has the supervision of the accounts of the department before they are submitted to the Board of Green Cloth, and is in waiting on the sovereign on state occasions only.
ARMAND EMMANUEL SOPHIE SEPTEMANIE DU PLESSIS, DUC DE RICHELIEU (1766-1822), French statesman, was born in Paris on the 25th of September 1766, the son of Louis Antoine du Plessis, duc de Fronsac and grandson of the marshal de Richelieu (1696-1788).
BRUNE, GUILLAUME MARIE ANNE (1763-1815), marshal of France, the son of an advocate, was born at Brives-la-Gaillarde (Correze), on the 13th of March 1763.
He rendered further good service in Vendee and in Italy, and was made a marshal by Napoleon on the assumption by the latter of the imperial title in 180 4.1111807 Brune held a command in North Germany, but he was not afterwards employed during the First Empire.
In accordance with the general laws each city elects a mayor, a board of aldermen, and a common council in whom is vested the administration of its " fiscal, prudential and municipal affairs "; the mayor presides at the meetings of the board of aldermen, and has a veto on any measure of this body, and no measure can be passed over his veto except by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the aldermen; each ward elects three selectmen, a moderator and a clerk in whom is vested the charge of elections; the city marshal and assistant marshals are appointed by the mayor and aldermen, but the city clerk and city treasurer are elected by the aldermen and common council in joint session.
On the following day Eric murdered Nils in his cell with his own hand, and by his order the other prisoners were despatched by the royal provost marshal forthwith.
The duchy received a constitution of its own, and was governed for the elector by a marshal (Landmarschall, after 1480 Landdrost) who was also stadtholder, and presided over the Westphalian chancellery.
The French were in possession of the place in 1797 and again in 1805; and in 1809 Marshal Macdonald having, in accordance with the terms of the peace of Vienna, entered the citadel which he had vainly besieged, blew it all up with the exception of the belltower and the citizens' or clock tower.
In protest, the Georgia House of Representatives, holding that the United States Supreme Court had no constitutional power to try suits against a sovereign state, resolved that any Federal marshal who should attempt to execute the court's decision would be " guilty of felony, and shall suffer death, without benefit of clergy, by being hanged."
1274), wife of William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, and then of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester.
Michel, Paris, 1840) and the metrical biography of William the Marshal (Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, ed.
Augustus died at Warsaw on the 1st of February 1733, leaving a son Frederick Augustus, who succeeded him in Poland and Saxony, and many illegitimate children, among whom was the famous general, Maurice of Saxony, known as Marshal Saxe.
In the Cathedral Square (Plaza de Armas), embracing two citysquares, and shaded - like all the plazas of the island - with laurels and royal palms, are a statue of Isabel the Catholic, and two marble lions given by Queen Isabel II.; elsewhere there are statues of General Clouet and Marshal Serrano, once captaingeneral.
Marshal Marmont, who commanded the scattered troops in Paris, had received no orders, beyond a jesting command from the duke of Angouleme to place them under arms "as some windows might be broken."
If he unwillingly refused to intervene in favour of Marshal Ney, it was because he believed that so conspicuous an example of treason could not safely be allowed to go unpunished.
By 1550, when he summoned his second diet, a reaction in his favour began, and the lingering petulance of the gentry was sternly rebuked by Kmita, the marshal of the diet, who openly accused them of attempting to diminish unduly the legislative prerogative of the crown.
The end of this period is generally said to coincide with the loss of the French provinces to Philip Augustus, but literary and political history do not correspond quite so precisely, and the end of the first period would be more accurately denoted by the appearance of the history of 'William the Marshal in 1225 (published for the Societe de l'histoire de France, by Paul Meyer, 3 vols., 1891-1901).
Not one of these histories, however, is to be compared in value with The History of William the Marshal, Count of Striguil and Pembroke, regent of England from 1216-1219, which was found and subsequently edited by Paul Meyer (Societe de l'histoire de France, 3 vols., 1891-1901).
This masterpiece of historiography was composed in 1225 or 1226 by a professional poet of talent at the request of William, son of the marshal.
It was compiled from the notes of the marshal's squire, John d'Early (t 1230 or 1231), who shared all the vicissitudes of his master's life and was one of the executors of his will.
After Marshal Campos had failed to pacify Cuba, the Conservative government of Canovas del Castillo sent out Weyler, and this selection met the approval of most Spaniards, who thought him the proper man to crush the rebellion.
In 1779 his bust of Moliere, at the Theatre Frangais, won universal praise, and the celebrated draped statue of Voltaire, in the vestibule of the same theatre, was exhibited at the Salon of 1781, to which Houdon also sent a statue of Marshal de Tourville, commissioned by the king, and the Diana executed for Catharine II.
Under Napoleon, of whom in 1806 he made a nude statue now at Dijon, Houdon received little employment; he was, however, commissioned to execute the colossal reliefs intended for the decoration of the column of the "Grand Army" at Boulogne (which ultimately found a different destination); he also produced a statue of Cicero for the senate, and various busts, amongst which may be cited those of Marshal Ney, of Josephine and of Napoleon himself, by whom Houdon was rewarded with the legion of honour.
On his return to France he joined the Oratorian Fathers, and when Marshal Bassompierre was sent to England in 1627 to regulate the differences between Henrietta Maria and her husband, Harlay de Sancy was attached to the queen's ecclesiastical household, but Charles I.
But the title of regent was given by the loyal barons to William Marshal, the aged earl of Pembroke; and Peter des Roches, the Poitevin bishop of Winchester, received the charge of the king's person.
The primate Edmund Rich held them responsible for the tragic fate of the rebellious Richard Marshal.
and marshal of England, during the revival of the popularity of the order, about A.D.
The Court of Chivalry was a court instituted by Edward III., of which the lord high constable and earl marshal of England were joint judges.
When the earl marshal alone presided, it was a court of honour deciding as to precedence, coats of arms, &c. This court sat for the last time in 1737.
The heraldic side of its duties are now vested in the earl marshal as head of the Heralds' College.
In front of the town-hall is a statue to Field Marshal Keith (born at Inverugie Castle, 2 m.
JAMES FITZJAMES BERWICK, DUKE OF (1670-1734), marshal of France, was the natural son of James, duke of York,.
He then took service in the French army, fought under Marshal Luxembourg in Flanders, and took part in the battles of Steinkirk and Neerwinden, at the latter of which he was taken prisoner.
very short, and after one campaign he was replaced by the Marshal de Tesse.
His successful expedition against Nice in 1706 caused him to be made marshal of France, and in the same year he returned to Spain as commander-in-chief of the Franco-Spanish armies.
One of the marshal's sons, known as the duke of Liria, was settled in Spain, and was counselled by his father not to shrink from doing his duty and fighting for his sovereign.
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