Marine sentence example
Railway and marine locomotives are not included.
After this marine period was brought to a close the sea retreated.
Tetraplatia volitans Viguier is a remarkable floating marine form.
The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
Marine fossils are very abundant in the marl.Advertisement
The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
Besides the Conseil superiezr the minister is advised on a very wide range of naval topics (including pay, quarters and recruiting) by the Comite consultatif de la Marine.
Russia, rich in salt-springs, but very poor in fossils, are now held by most Russian geologists to be Triassic. The Permian deposits contain marine shells and also remains of plants similar to those of England and Germany.
The Grand Gulf group, of formations of different ages, consisting of sands, sandstones and clays, and showing a few fossil plants, but no marine fossils, extends southward from the last to within a few miles of the coast, and is 750-800 ft.
There are excellent fishing grounds on the coast, but they have had no appreciable influence in developing a commerical marine.Advertisement
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
Its marine fossils are admirably preserved, and one hundred and eight species have been described.
Basilosaurus (or Zeuglodon) bones are found only in the Jackson marls, and other marine fossils are abundant.
One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
The colony is administered by a governor, who exercises military power through a marine infantry colonel, and civil power with the assistance of a privy '- A similar usage exists in Malay; see paper by Yule in Jour.Advertisement
Several of the marine species are of first-rate economic importance.
But if this is true of the land fauna as a whole, especially on the atolls, where it consists mainly of a few birds, lizards and insects, the opposite is the case with the marine fauna.
On the advent of the Left to power in 1876, Brin was appointed minister of marine by Depretis, a capacity in which he continued the programme of Saint-Bon, while enlarging and completing it in such way as to form the first organic scheme for the development of the Italian fleet.
The marine eels, Muraenidae, are more numerous towards the Malay Archipelago than in the Indian seas.
His appointment as minister of the marine on the 10th of July 1774 met with general approval, and was hailed with enthusiasm by the philosophes.Advertisement
Marine Euthyneura, the more archaic forms of which have a relatively large foot and a small visceral hump, from the base of which projects on the right side a short mantle-skirt.
Marine; generally carnivorous, and brightly coloured, affording many instances of protective resemblance.
In the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in Paludina and Bithynia they are canals as in Pulmonata.
Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine.
Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.Advertisement
Familiarity with the sea is proved by the free use of marine motives in decoration.
The Expeditionary Force was conveyed across the Channel in perfect safety, and its communications safeguarded; and the German mercantile marine was soon cleared from the seas.
This deviation is the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by the European fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) and by the marine spider Desis, which is found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Cape Colony to eastern Australia.
Thus by heating spirits of salt he obtained "marine acid air" (hydrochloric acid gas), and he was able to collect it because he happened to use mercury, instead of water, in his pneumatic trough.
Still, Lake Baikal has a seal (Phoca vitulina, Phoca baikalensis of Dybowski) quite akin to the seals of Spitsbergen, marine sponges, polychaetes, a marine mollusc (ancilodoris), and some marine gammarids.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
The Pliocene deposits are not very widely spread and are generally of fresh-water origin excepting near the coast, but marine Pliocene beds have been found at el Forklus in the Palmyra desert.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
The development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours, but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good.
Marine Soap. - These soaps are so named because they are not insoluble in a strong solution of salt; hence they form a lather and can be used for washing with sea-water.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
Marine Gasteropods are occasionally termed "sea-snails," and the compounds "pond-snails," "river-snails," "water-snails" are in common use.
A chart, in French, is called carte hydrographique, marine or des cotes; in Spanish or Portuguese carta de marear, in Italian carta da navigare, in German Seekarte (to distinguish it from Landkarte), in Dutch Zeekaart or Paskaart.
No reasonable fault can be found with the marine surveyors of this period, but the scientific cartographers allowed themselves too frequently to be influenced by Ptolemaic traditions.
It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many editions, was issued in several languages and became known as Charettier and Waggoner.
Marine algae are usually mounted on tough smooth white cartridge paper in the following manner.
The northern part can best be regarded as a low plateau (once marine sediments) sloping southward, traversed by the large diluvial valleys of the Mississippi, Red and Ouachita rivers, and recut by smaller tributaries into smaller plateaus and rather uniform flat-topped hills.
The portion of Nassau harbour known as the Sea Gardens exhibits an extraordinarily beautiful development of marine organisms.
The grand vizier (sadr-azam), who is nominated by the sultan, presides ex officio over the privy council (mejliss-i-khass), which, besides the Sheikh-ul-Islam, comprises the ministers of home and foreign affairs, war, finance, marine, commerce and public works, justice, public instruction and " pious foundations " (evkaf), with the grand master of ordnance and the president of the council of state.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
Numerous raised beaches and terraces, containing shells of marine mollusca, &c., occur along the whole coast of Greenland, and indicate that the whole of this large island has been raised, or the sea has sunk, in post-glacial times, after the inland ice covered its now icebare outskirts.
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
Marine deposits were laid down over the south of the state after a submergence of the region; an uplift afterwards made of these deposits a coastal plain.
Some thirty species of Balanoglossus are known, distributed among all the principal marine provinces from Greenland to New Zealand.
According to Nordenskjold r it numbers only twenty-nine species of mammals, of which seven are marine and seventeen or eighteen may be safely considered as living beyond the forest limit.
Other facilities for outdoor enjoyment are provided in Hesketh Park (presented to the town by the Rev. Charles Hesketh, formerly rector of North Meols, and one of the lords of the manor), the Botanic Gardens, Kew Gardens, South Marine Park, and the Winter Gardens.
He adapted Sir Home Popham's code of signals to a code for the Mercantile Marine, for which he was made F.R.S.
They are entirely marine, and are not uncommon in the coralline zone of the sea-coast.
Many Acari are parasitic on marine and freshwater molluscs, and others are found on the feathers of birds and the hair of mammals.
The former appears to be almost unfossiliferous, the latter has yielded a rich marine fauna, which belongs to the top of the Carboniferous or to the Permo-carboniferous.
The only Mesozoic system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the basin of the Amazon.
As a matter of fact, the marine budgets of the two years are almost identical.
One of the purposes of this restrictive provision was that of creating a national merchant marine, but the disinclination of Brazilians for maritime pursuits has been a serious obstacle to its realization.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
A marine station here was established by Sir John Murray, but has been discontinued.
Of more marine habit are P. philippensis and P. fuscus, the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of the warmer parts of both North and South America.
Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.
Black ironwood is likewise used in building wagons, while sneezewood is largely utilized for supports for piers and other marine structures, being impervious to the attacks of the Teredo navalis.
Suess, during which the Hungarian plain was covered by the sea, and the deposits were purely marine.
The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits.
With but a short stretch of sea-coast, and possessing only one important seaport, Fiume, the mercantile marine of Hungary is not very developed.
The locality is largely residential, but there are breweries, and the marine engineering works of Messrs Thornycroft on the river.
Marine rainbow is the name given to the chromatic displays formed by the sun's rays falling on the spray drawn up by the wind playing on the surface of an agitated sea.
About 120 species of Gadids are distinguished, mostly marine, many being adapted to life at great depths; all are carnivorous.
The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
Besides the Royal Exchange, in the building of which are numerous offices, including " Lloyd's," the centre of the shipping business and marine insurance, there are many exchanges for special articles.
The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites.
The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.
His friends tried in vain to obtain his appointment as minister of the marine; and he failed to obtain even a post as officer.
The oldest strata, consisting of gypsiferous marls, are referred to the Muschelkalk and show an alternation of lagoon with marine conditions.
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
The larvae usually live in Molluscs, the mature worm in vertebrates, and the immature but metamorphosed Trematode in either host and also in pelagic and littoral marine and fresh-water invertebrates.
Petroleum refineries, iron-foundries, chemicals, soap-boiling, silk-spinning and the production of ships' fittings, as marine steam boilers, anchors, chains, cables, are the other principal branches of industry.
The staple exports are beans, pulse and peas, marine products, sulphur, furs and timber; the staple imports, comestibles (especially salted fish), kerosene and oil-cake.
With these exceptions, the existing Polyzoa are marine forms, occurring from between tide-marks to abyssal depths in the ocean.
References to important works on the species of marine Polyzoa by Busk, Hincks, Jullien, Levinsen, MacGillivray, Nordgaard, Norman, Waters and others are given in the Memoir (22) by Nickles and Bassler.
The marine fauna is of economic importance.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are also in part marine and in part terrestrial.
During the whole of the Mesozoic era Japan appears to have lain on or near the margin of the Asiatic continent, and the marine deposits are confined for the most part to the eastern side of the islands.
Of reptiles Japan has only 30 species, and among them is included the marine turtle (urni-ganie) which can scarcely be said to frequent her waters, since it is seen only at rare intervals on the southern coast.
The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal economique (1751-1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1764-1782); the political economists established the Ephemerides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'education was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des theatres (1770); in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopedia militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778.
There are two gymnasia, schools of marine engineering, navigation, wood-carving and agriculture.
Cerberus rhynchops; Hypsirhina plumbea, Homalopsis; Hipistes hydrinus of Siam has a compressed body, and much resembles the Hydrophinae in general appearance and its partly marine life.
The majority have a compressed well-proportioned body, which in the marine species is of a more elongate form, leading to the allied group of flute-mouths (Fistulariidae), which are, in fact, gigantic marine sticklebacks.
Among the marine flora may be mentioned.
A marine force was raised to stop smuggling; and the subtraction of coal during coaling operations was stopped by drastic legislation.
This idea originated in the discovery of a jelly-fish, gasteropods, and other organisms of a more or less marine type, and presenting some affinity with forms of Jurassic age.
Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.
At the second Restoration he was for a brief period minister of marine, but held no further office.
It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (1895), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools.
This family of Hemiptera (the Hydrometridae) and the Saldidae contain several insects that are marine, haunting the tidal margin.
He held the posts of Minister of Marine, and, later, of Foreign Affairs.
By 1904 more than 6800 of these meteorological logs with 7,000,000 observations had been accumulated by the Meteorological Office in London; 20,000 with io,600,000 observations by the German Marine Observatory at Hamburg; 4700 with 3,300,000 observations by the Central Institute of the Netherlands at de Bilt near Utrecht.
In the archives of the French Marine in Paris there were 3300 complete logs with 830,000 entries and II, 000 abstract logs from men-of-war.
Greater depths These preliminary trips of scientific marine investigation were than those usually sounded by a hand-line may possibly not have followed by the greatest purely scientific expedition ever underbeen beyond the reach of the earlier navigators, for Strabo taken, the voyage of H.M.S.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
Surveying Ships, Indian Marine Survey and British Submarine Telegraph.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
The commencement of the Carboniferous period is marked by a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or Sequences Mountain Limestone,which contains a large assemblage of carbon- of marine fossils, and has a maximum thickness in iferous S.W.
The latter member is marked by a thin limestone band near the top, containing Spirorbis carbonarius, a small marine univalve.
In this way the effective horse-power and also the mechanical efficiency of a number of large marine engines, each of several thousand horse-power, have been determined.
There is a fine pier with pavilion, and a marine parade nearly 3 m.
They are marine and probably Miocene; and range up to the height of 800 ft.
It is the most popular watering-place on the west coast of Wales, and possesses a pier, and a fine sea-front which stretches from Constitution Hill at the north end of the Marine Terrace to the mouth of the harbour.
Just after his first election to Congress, he was placed on the important marine committee, and he was made a member of the board of admiralty when it was established in 1779.
At Spring Point is Fort Preble, established in 1808 and now a coast artillery station; and at Portland Head is Fort Williams. The city has steel-rolling mills, car shops of the Boston & Maine railway, and ship-building interests, and manufactures marine hardware and varnish.
From 1869 to 1879 he took part in local politics, and was premier from 1876-1879; in 1882 he entered the Canadian parliament as a Liberal, and from 1896 to 1901 was minister of marine and fisheries.
Beyond the Bab-el-Bahar (sea-gate), now called Porte de France, on the level ground by the Bahira, is the marine town, or Quartier Franc, built since the French occupation in 1881.
From the landing stage a short street leads into the broad Avenue Jules Ferry or de la Marine running east to west and ending in the Place de la Residence, on the north side of which is the Roman Catholic cathedral and on the south side the palace of the French resident-general, with a large garden.
Several of the marine and many species of freshwater algae are peculiar to the island.
Sand-dunes cover large tracts on the shores of the Baltic. No traces of marine deposits are found higher than loo or 150 ft.
Unlike Australia, its geological structure is unusually varied, and owing to its instability, it includes, for its size, an unusually complete series of marine sedimentary rocks.
Suess therefore suggested that the northern continuation of the Alps had foundered, and its summits been buried beneath the Pliocene marine rocks of the Wanganui basin and the volcanic rocks of the Taupo area.
The Wairoa series includes marine limestones characterized by Monotis salinaria, and the Otapira series is characterized by Spiriferina spatulata.
Their fossils include belemnites, ammonites, scaphites and marine saurians, such as Cimoliosaurus.
Marine beds of the Pliocene are best developed in the Wanganui basin.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
He had to accept the services of many ex-officers whose hearts were with the old regime, and he also found it difficult and, in some cases impossible, to dissolve reactionary Free Corps like those which returned from the Baltic provinces or like Ehrhardt's Marine Brigade.
His attributes are a pitcher, cornucopiae (", horn of plenty"), rushes, marine animals and a sceptre.
Apart from its scriptural usage, the word is applied to any gigantic marine animal such as the whale, and hence, figuratively, of very large ships, and also of persons of outstanding strength, power, wealth or influence.
The rocks are heavily scored by ice, but this was probably marine ice, not that of glaciers.
The port has assumed first-class importance, mail steamers calling vL23 d regularly as well as men-of-war and the mercantile marine of all nations; and it is now one of the finest artificial harbours in the world.
Meantime seven Japanese cruisers under Vice-Admiral Kaimamura went in search of the Russian Vladivostok squadron; this, however, evaded them for some months, and inflicted some damage on the Japanese mercantile marine and transports.
In the region east of the Crazy Mountains, in Sweetgrass county, are marine beds of upper Cretaceous.
At present, besides the president, who has usually a seat in the cabinet,' and whose salary is 5000 a year, there is a parliamentary secretary with a salary of 1200, a permanent secretary (salary X1500, rising to £1800), and four assistant secretaries (each with a salary of i 200) for the harbour, marine, commercial, labour and statistical, and railway departments.
The Marine Department was created a separate branch of the board of trade in 1850, about which time many new and important marine questions came under the board of trade, such, for example, as the survey of passenger steamers, the compulsory examination of masters and mates, the establishment of shipping offices for the engagement and discharge of seamen.
Further work fell to the marine department by the act of 1853, which gave it the control of lighthouse funds, and to a certain extent of pilotage.
The Harbour Department was, as stated above, a branch of the marine department until 1866, so far as it is connected with the physical adjuncts of navigation, but various other matters have since been added, e.g.
The Finance Department was, like the harbour department, separated in 1866 from the marine department.
It also deals with the accounts of harbours, lighthouses and mercantile marine offices, and of the merchant seamen's fund, and with the consuls' accounts for disabled seamen abroad.
His results, according to Kelvin, led directly and speedily to the present practical method of surface-condensation, one of the most important improvements of the steam engine, especially for marine use, since the days of James Watt.
In 1839 George Smith and Alexander Mitchell established the Fire and Marine Insurance Company Bank.
A Marine Drive encircles the Great Orme.
The valley, which extends from the borders of Sussex to Hythe, is occupied chiefly by the Weald clays, which contain a considerable number of marine and freshwater fossils.
The size which they finally attain and their general condition depend chiefly on the abundance of food (which consists of crustaceans and other small marine animals), on the temperature of the water, on the season at which they have been hatched, &c. Their usual size is about 12 in., but in some particularly suitable localities they grow to a length of 15 in., and instances of specimens measuring 17 in.
In the Baltic, where the water is gradually losing its saline constituents, thus becoming less adapted for the development of marine species, the herring continues to exist in large numbers, but as a dwarfed form, not growing either to the size or to the condition of the North-Sea herring.
Reminiscences of the Greek signs of Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Capricornus and Pisces are obvious severally in the Hindu Two Faces, Lion's Tail, Beam of a Balance, Arrow, Gazelle's Head (figured as a marine nondescript) and Fish.
About six ironclads and twenty smaller vessels of the royal navy are stationed in colonial waters; the vessels of the colonial marine number about twenty-four, and undertake police supervision, prevention of slave trading, &c.
Above these, marine Rhaetic beds appear at intervals, notably near Lame, where they are succeeded by Lower Lias shales and limestones.
Recently elevated marine clays, of post-glacial date, fringe the south-eastern coast, while gravels with marine shells, side by side with flint implements chipped by early man, have been lifted some 20 ft.
Brozik is known for his historical canvases, among them " John Hus before the Council of Constance," while others worth mention are the marine painter Knuepfer, the landscape painters Slavicek and Hudecek, and Preisler and Svabinsky as painters of portraits and allegorical subjects.
They are for the most part marine in habitat, but a familiar fresh-water form is the common Hydra of ponds and ditches, which gives origin to the name of the class.
Among the institutions are the City infirmary (at Hartwell, a suburb), which, besides supporting pauper inmates, affords relief to outdoor poor; the Cincinnati hospital, which is supported by taxation and treats without charge all who are unable to pay; twenty other hospitals, some of which are charitable institutions; a United States marine hospital; the Longview hospital for the insane, at Carthage, Io m.
The mercantile marine of the United States was almost driven off the high seas by the terror of these destructive cruisers.
In 1882 he became Conservative member for King's County, N.B., in the Dominion parliament, and in 1885 entered the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as minister of marine and fisheries; in 1888 he became minister of finance, which position he held till the defeat of his party in 1896.
The Oligocene period consists of a marine phase confined to the littoral zone of Kabylia, and of a continental phase occupying vast areas composed of lacustrine, alluvial, gypsiferous marls, sandstones and conglomerates.
Hitherto marine conditions were confined to the littoral; in Middle Miocene times (Helvetian) the sea broke in and spread in a south-east direction in the form of long ramified fjords but did not extend as far as the Sahara.
To the Pliocene period the marine deposits of the Sahel of Algiers and of the Sahel Jijelli must be attributed; also the lacustrine marls and limestone of the basin of Constantine, and the ancient alluviums of the basins and depressions which bear no relation to the existing valleys.
All the species are marine.
Penilia (Dana, 1849) is perhaps the only exclusively marine genus.
Of this family the members are almost exclusively marine, but Limnicythere is found in fresh water, and Xestoleberis bromeliarum (Fritz Muller) lives in the water that collects among the leaves of Bromelias, plants allied to the pine-apples.
Among them is the cosmopolitan Calanus finmarchicus, the earliest described (by Bishop Gunner in 1770) of all the marine free-swimming Copepoda.
In considering the marine fauna the remarkable palolo or balolo should be mentioned.
In 1873 Admiral Saint-Bon, minister of marine, appointed him undersecretary of state.
He died on the 24th of May 1898, while minister of marine in the Rudini cabinet.
They are assisted by a cabinet of four ministers, representing the departments of the interior, police and public works; foreign affairs, justice, religion and education; finance and commerce; war and marine.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
As early as the middle of the 15th century Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) recognized in seashells as well as in the teeth of marine fishes proofs of ancient sea-levels on what are now the summits of the Apennines.
Since fossils afford an immediate and generally a decisive clue to the mode of deposition of rocks, whether marine, lacustrine, fluviatile, flood plain or aeolian, they lead us naturally into palaeophysiography.
Instances of marine and lacustrine analysis have been cited above.
The external similarity in the fore paddle and back fin of these three marine animals is absolute, although they are totally unrelated to each other, and have a totally different internal or skeletal structure.
He has applied the theory with especial ingenuity to the interpretation of the circular bony plates in the carapace of the aberrant leather-back sea-turtles (Sphargidae) by prefacing an initial land phase, in which the typical armature of land tortoises was acquired, a first marine or pelagic phase, in which this armature was lost, a third littoral or seashore phase, in which a new polygonal armature was acquired, and a fourth resumed or secondary marine phase, in which this polygonal armature began to degenerate.
Among marine Mesozoic reptiles, each of the groups broadly known as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and crocodiles were polyphyletic in a marked degree.
Medusae are exclusively aquatic animals and for the most part marine, but at least two fresh-water species are known.'
The Jurassic beds are marls, sandstones and limestones, which contain marine fossils.
They occur, however, along the coasts, where they are marine, and also on the central plateau, where they are of lacustrine origin.
In 1905 the mercantile marine of Mexico comprised only 32 steamers, of 13,199 tons, and 29 sailing vessels, of 8451 tons.
The egg is holoblastic, but the segmentation is very unequal, recalling that of marine annelids and of molluscs.
There is very little doubt that they lived at the bottom of the sea, feeding upon worms or other soft marine organisms, crawling slowly about the sandy or muddy bottom and burying themselves beneath its surface when danger threatened.
The French side will be found in the Histoire de la marine francaise pendant la Guerre de l'Independence americaine (Paris, 1877), by Captain Chevalier.
The Hibernian Marine Society for the maintenance of seamen's sons was established in the city in 1766, but now has buildings at Clontarf.
In January 1860 Fanti became minister of war and marine under Cavour, and incorporated the League's army in that of Piedmont.
Among other public buildings are the naval hospital, the British seaman's hospital (established in 1867), the civic hospital, admiralty (founded 1785), arsenal, dockyards and foundries, school of marine engineering, the cathedral of St Andrew, and the English church.
As in all such cases, the plain consists of marine (with some estuarine and flu viatile) stratified deposits, more or less indurated, which were laid down when the land stood lower and the sea had its shore line farther inland than to-day.
The erosion of the region must have been far advanced, perhaps practically completed, in very ancient times, for the even surface of the peneplain is overlapped by fossiliferous marine strata of early geological date (Cambrian); and this shows that a depression of the region beneath an ancient sea took place after a long existence as dry land.
It contains land shells, and hence cannot be attributed to marine or lacustrine submergence.
An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
The lower, middle and upper parts of the system all contain marine fossils.
It seems probable, therefore, that marine animals found migratory conditions between these regions, probably by way of northern islands.
In part, at least, it is equivalent in time of origin to the Chemung formation; but the latter is of marine origin, while the Catskill formation appears to be of terrestrial origin.
The Hamilton fauna which followed represents the admixture of the resident Onondaga fauna with new types which are thought to have come from South America, showing that faunal connections for marine life had been made between the interior of the United States and the lands south of the Caribbean Sea, a connection of which, before this time, there was no evidence.
Among the more important features of the marine life of the period were (1) the great development of the molluscs, especially of cephalopods; (2) theabundanceoflargebrachiopods; (3) theaberrant tendencies of the trilobites; (4) the profusion of corals; and (5) the abundance, size and peculiar forms of the fishes.
Certainly there is no younger marine formation of comparable extent in the continent.
Marine fishes had made great progress before the close of the period.
The larger part of the system in this part of the country is not of marine origin; yet the sea had access to parts of the interior more than once, as shown by the marine fossils in some of the beds.
The dominantly terrestrial formations of the eastern half of the country are in contrast with the marine formations of the west.
Some of the Permian beds of this region are marine, while others are of terrestrial origin.
The Triassic system is well developed on the Pacific coast, where its strata are of marine origin, and they extend inland to the Great Basin region.
On the Pacific coast marine Jurassic beds reach in from the Pacific to about the same distance as the Triassic system.
In this great bay formations of marine origin were laid down.
At the same time marine sedimentation was continued on the Pacific coast, but the faunas of the west coast and the interior bay are notably unlike, the latter being more like that of the coast north of the United States.
In the first two of these positions, the formations show by their fossils that they are of terrestrial origin in some places, and partly of terrestrial and partly of marine origin in others.
In the United States, marine Shastan beds are restricted to the area west of the Sierras, but they here have great thickness.
Unlike the Cornanchean, the larger part of the Cretaceous system is of marine origin.
The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
This widespread submergence, followed by the deposition of marine sediments on the eroded surface of Comanchean and older rocks, is the physical reason for the separation of the system from the Comanchean.
The Montana series, most of which is marine, was deposited in water deeper than that of the Colorado epoch, though the series is less widespread than the preceding.
They consist, in most parts of the country, of unconsolidated sediments, consisting of gravel, sand, clay, &c., together with large quantities of tuff, volcanic agglomerate, &c. Some of the sedimentary formations are of marine, some of brackish water, and some of terrestrial origin.
The marine Tertiary formations are confined to the borders of the continent, appearing along the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts.
Thus the lower Eocene has some lignite in the eastern Gulf region, while in Teias lignite and saliferous and gypsiferous sediments are found, though most of the system is marine and of shallow water origin.
On the Pacific coast the marine Eocene lies west of the Sierras, and between it and the Cretaceous there is a general, and often a great, unconformity.
In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.
The marine Pliocene of the continent has its greatest development in California (the Merced series, peninsula of San Francisco), where it is assigned a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 ft., and possibly as much as 13,000 ft.
Marine Pliocene beds are reported to have an altitude of as much as 5000 ft.
Under these conditions sediments from the high lands were washed out and distributed widely over the plains, giving rise to a thin but widespread formation of ill-assorted sediment, without marine fossils, and, for the most part, without fossils of any kind, and resting unconformably on Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene formations.
To the seaward the non-marine phase of the formation doubtless grades into a marine phase along the shore of that time, but the position of this shore has not been defined.
On the Pacific coast marine Quaternary formations occur up to elevations of a few scores of feet, at least, above the sea.
The Civil War caused enormous losses to the merchant marine, and the worldwide substitution about this time of iron steamers for wooden steamers and sailing vessels contributed to prevent a recovery; because, although ship-building was one of the earliest arts developed in the colonies, and one that was prosecuted with the highest success so long as wooden ships were the dominant type, the United States has never achieved marked success with the iron steamer, and the law has precluded the registry as American of vessels built abroad.
The merchant marine of the United States in 1900 totalled 5,164,839 net tons, which was less than that of 1860 (5,353,808), in which year American shipping attained an amount which only in recent years Exports of Domestic Merchandise.
The department of commerce and labor controls the bureaus which deal with the mercantile marine, the lighthouse and lifesaving service, commercial statistics, immigration, and the coast and geodetic survey, and the census is also under its charge.
Among the public buildings and institutions are the Marine Museum, the Public Library (founded in 1854 by Josiah Little and containing about 45,000 volumes), the old Tracy mansion (built in 1771 or 1772), which forms part of the Public Library building, the Anna Jacques and Homoeopathic hospitals, homes for aged women and men, a Home for Destitute Children, Old South Church, in which is the tomb of George Whitefield, and the Young Men's Christian Association building, which is a memorial to George Henry Corliss (1817-1888), the inventor, erected by his widow, a native of Newburyport.
It has a United States marine hospital and a state hospital for epileptics.
The decay of the wooden shipbuilding industry has lessened the comparative importance of the mercantile marine, but there has been a great increase in the tonnage employed in the coasting trade and upon inland waters.
The naval forces, consisting of a fisheries protection service, are under the minister of marine and fisheries, the land forces under the minister of militia and defence.
Many indications of ice action are found in these islands; striated surfaces are to be seen on the cliffs in Eday and Westray, in Kirkwall Bay and on Stennie Hill in Eday; boulder clay, with marine shells, and with many boulders of rocks foreign to the islands (chalk, oolitic limestone, flint, &c.), which must have been brought up from the region of Moray Firth, rests upon the old strata in many places.
The two following families, together known as Rudistae, are closely allied to the preceding; they are extinct marine forms from Secondary deposits.
All marine, live at considerable depths, and are carnivorous.
The marine hydrometers, as supplied by the British government to the royal navy and the merchant marine, are glass instruments with slender stems, and generally serve to indicate specific gravities from 1.000 to 1.040.
The salinometer is a hydrometer originally intended to indicate the strength of the brine in marine boilers in which sea-water is employed.
The ministry of war has its offices in the immense military quartet (barracks) on the north side of the Praga da Republica, and the ministry of marine in the naval arsenal at the foot of Sao Bento Hill.
There are also to be mentioned the Hull and East Riding College, Hymer's College, comprising classical, modern and junior departments, the Trinity House marine school (1716), the Humber industrial school ship "Southampton," and technical and art schools.
Among the hospitals are a state hospital for the insane, the Erie county, the Buffalo general, the Children's, the United States marine (maintained by the Federal government), the German, the Homeopathic, the Women's, the German Deaconess and the Riverside hospitals, and the Buffalo hospital of the Sisters of Charity.
In 1855 the Liverpool Compass Committee began its work of investigating the magnetism of ships of the mercantile marine, resulting in three reports to the Board of Trade, all of great value, the last being presented in 1861.
There is no genuine record of a Chinese marine compass before A.D.
In the southern part of the city is a United States navy yard and station, officially the Norfolk Yard (the second largest in the country), of about 450 acres, with three immense dry docks, machine shops, warehouses, travelling and water cranes, a training station, torpedoboat headquarters, a powder plant (20 acres), a naval magazine, a naval hospital and the distribution headquarters of the United State Marine Corps.
Shortly before the War of Independence the British established a marine yard where the navy yard now is, but during the war it was confiscated by Virginia and in 1801 was sold to the United States.
It seems, however, that as time went on some of them acquired a more extended character; thus Ba'al and Astarte assumed celestial attributes in addition to their earthly ones, and the Tyrian Melqarth combined a celestial with a marine aspect.'
While there he sent several papers, in which some questions of navigation were treated geometrically, to Gaspard Monge, at that time minister of marine, through whose influence he obtained an appointment in Paris.
Consuls represented Barcelona at the principal commercial centres on or near the Mediterranean; and the city was among the first communities to adopt the practice of marine insurance.
In the Waldeck-Rousseau cabinet of 1899 to 1902 he was minister of marine, and in 1901 he secured the passage of a naval programme intended to raise the French navy during the next six years to a level befitting the place of France among the great powers.
The Trias of the Eastern Alps, on the other hand, consists chiefly of great masses of limestone with an abundant fauna, and is clearly of marine origin.
The Trias has almost disappeared, and what remains is not of the marine type characteristic of the Eastern Alps but belongs rather to the continental facies which occurs in Germany and France.
Among its prominent buildings are the United States Government Building, the United States marine hospital, the city and county hospital, the county court house, the city hall (which houses the public library) and the masonic temple.
In 1792, on the creation by the Legislative Assembly of an, executive council, Monge accepted the office of minister of the marine, but retained it only until April 1793.
Neomenia and its allies are marine animals living at depths of 15 to Boo fathoms on soft muddy ground; they are found crawling on corals and hydrozoa, on which they feed.
The stratified rocks of this system include marine limestones, shales and sandstones; estuarine, lagoonal and fresh-water shales, sandstones and marls with beds of coal, oil-bearing rocks, gypsum and salt.
The fossil plants connect this group with the coal-measures; the marine fossils have, to some extent, a Carboniferous limestone aspect.
While the continental type of deposit, with its coal beds, was the earliest to be formed in certain areas, and the marine series came on later, in other regions this order was reversed.
It should be observed, however, that the repeated intercalation of marine deposits within the continental series and the frequent occurrence of thin coaly layers in the marine series makes any hard and fast distinction of this kind impossible.
We have seen that in the Carboniferous rocks there are two phases of sedimentation, the one marine, the other continental; corresponding with these there are two distinct faunal facies.
For the first time in the earth's history we find Foraminifera taking a prominent part in the marine faunas; the genus Fusulina was abundant in what is now Russia, China, Japan, North America; Valvulina had a wide range, as also had Endothyra and Archaediscus; Saccammina is a form well known in Britain and Belgium, and many others have been described; some Carboniferous genera are still extant.
The animals preserved in the continental type of Carboniferous deposit naturally differ markedly from the fossil remains of the purely marine portions of the system.
Frequently a temporary return of marine conditions permitted the entombment of such salt water genera as Lingula, Orbiculoides, Productus in the thin beds known as " marine bands."
The main point to observe in this connexion is that large tracts of land in many parts of the world were at a critical level as regards the sea, a condition highly favourable to frequent extensive incursions of marine waters over the low-lying areas in a period of extreme crustal instability.
The heads of the departments to whom the especial executive functions are entrusted are eight in number - ministers respectively of the interior, of " water-staat," trade and industry (that is, of public works, including railways, post-office, &c.), of justice, of finance, of war, of marine, of the colonies and of foreign affairs.
The alignment of marine shafting, changing with every passing wave, is an extreme example.
The number of great shafts for marine engines, reaching a diameter of 22k in.
In the first instance he seems to have been a marine creation.
In 1871 he became principal instructor at the Marine College, Tokyo, under the Japanese Government, and henceforth devoted himself to things Japanese.
His researches in hydrodynamics were highly useful for marine engineering, while the reflecting and repeating circles, as improved by him, were of great service in nautical astronomy.
But in the " Drift " maps many other types of deposit are indicated, such, for instance, as the ordinary modern alluvium of rivers, and the older river terraces (River-drift of various ages), including gravels, brickearth and loam; old raised sea beaches and blown-sand (Aeolian-drift); the " Head " of Cornwall and Devon, an angular detritus consisting of stones with clay or loam; clay-with-flints, rainwash (landwash), scree and talus; the " Warp," a marine and estuarine silt and clay of the Humber; and also beds of peat and diatomite.
Nearly one hundred and fifty years ago Pallas had his attention arrested by the existence of the salt lakes and dry saline deposits on the steppes to the east of the Caspian, and at great distances from its shores, and by the presence in the same localities of shells of the same marine fauna as that which now inhabits that sea, and he suggested the obvious explanation that those regions must formerly have been covered by the waters of the sea.
Northwards these marine deposits are known to exist 80 m.
Eastwards it penetrated up the Uzboi depression between the Great and Little Balkhan ranges, so that that depression, which is strewn (as mentioned above) with Post-Tertiary marine deposits, was not (as is sometimes supposed) an old bed of the Oxus, but a gulf of the Caspian.
At the present time it represents an intermingling of marine and freshwater forms. To the former belongs the herring (Clupea), and to the latter, species of Cyprinus, Perca and Silurus, also a lobster.
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
After occupying various subordinate posts at the Porte he became successively under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, governorgeneral of Syria and Smyrna, minister of commerce, and governor-general of Tripoli; minister successively of justice and of marine (1869); grand vizier from 1871 to 1872 and from 1875 to 1876.
The Ohgocene is generally marine.
Marine Miocene occurs in N.W.
Germany and the Miocene of the Danube valley is also in part marine, but in central Germany it is of fluviatile or lacustrine origin.
Navigaiion.The seamen of Frisia are among the best in the world, and the shipping of Bremen and Hamburg had won a respected name tong before a German mercantile marine, properly co called, was heard of.
For an increase in the navy there was, indeed, sufficient excuse in the enormous expansion of German over-sea commerce and the consequent growth of the mercantile marine; the value of foreign trade, which in 1894 was 365,000,000, had risen in 1904 to 610,000,000, and in the same period the tonnage of German merchant shipping had increased by 234%.
In the session of 1901 Admiral von Tirpitz, the minister of marine, admitted in answer to a Socialist interpellation that the naval programme of 1900 would have to be enlarged.
Both were afterwards worshipped as marine divinities, Ino as Leucothea, Melicertes as Palaemon (Odyssey 333).
The Peabody Academy of Science, founded by the gift in 1867 of $140,000 from George Peabody and incorporated in 1868, is established in the East India Marine Hall (1824), bought for this purpose from the Salem East India Marine Society.
The Marine Society was organized in 1799, its membership being limited to "persons who have actually navigated the seas beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn, as masters or supercargoes of vessels belonging to Salem"; it assists the widows and children of members.
Crowninshield (1772-1851), a member of the national House of Representatives in1824-1831and Secretary of the Navy in 1814; the Bertram Home for Aged Men (1877) in a house built in 1806-1807; the Plummer Farm School for Boys (incorporated 1855, opened 1870), another charity of Caroline Plummer, on Winter Island; the City Almshouse (1816) and the City Insane Asylum (1884) on Salem Neck; a home for girls (1876); the Fraternity (1869), a club-house for boys; the Marine Society Bethel and the Salem Seamen's Bethel; the Seamen's Orphan and Children's Friend Society (1839); an Associated Charities (1901), and the Salem Hospital (1873).
Entering the Ricasoli cabinet of 1861 as minister of marine, he held the portfolio of public works until 1864 in the succeeding Farini and Minghetti cabinets.
The patriotic spirit and naval prowess of the Genoese, developed in their defensive wars against the Saracens, led to the foundation of a popular constitution, and to the rapid growth of a powerful marine.
They introduced a special style of ornament ("geometric") instead of that of the Bronze Age, characterized by spirals and marine animals and plants.
Discipline on board of steamers is prescribed by the Marine Discipline Act.
Marine Pliocene strata occur to the south of the pyramids of Giza and in the Fayum province, where, in addition, some gravel terraces, at a height of 500 ft.
The situatioh on the 27th tempted attack by an enterprising enemy, and Major-General Grahams force, consisting of a squadron of the r9th Hussars, the York and Lancaster Regiment, the duke of Cornwalls Light Infantry, the Marine Artillery Battalion and two R.H.A.
The state council (Statsraad) includes the presidency of the council and ministries of war, and marine, foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, public institution and ecclesiastical, agriculture and public works.
Holger Drachmann (q.v.; 1846-1908) began life as a marine painter; and a first little volume of poems, which he published in 1872, attracted slight attention.
The result was that the wonderful British seamen, including the mercantile marine, mine-sweepers and fishermen, did not receive adequate recognition of their services to the Allies.
Chlorophyceae include both marine and freshwater plants.
Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.
Euphaeophyceae are almost exclusively marine, growing on rocks and stones on the coast, or epiphytic upon other algae.
Together with Peridiniaceae they constitute the bulk of marine plankton, and thus play an important part in the support of marine animal life.
Rhodophyceae are mostly marine, but not exclusively so.
Most of the larger species of marine Rhodophyceae are attached by means of a disc to rocks, stones or shells.
Again, as is well known, many species of marine algae growing in the region between the limits of high and low water are so constituted that they are exposed to the air twice a day without injury.
The great majority of the aquatic algae, both freshwater and marine, are attached plants.
To the aggregate of such forms, both animal and vegetable, the term plankton has been applied, and the investigation of the vegetable plankton, both freshwater and marine, has been pursued in recent times with energy and success.
The rapidity with which walls, piles and pontoons - stone, wood and iron - become covered with marine plants is well known, while the discovery of some effective means of preventing the fouling of the bottoms of ships by the growth of algae would be hailed as a boon by shipowners.
While rocks and boulders are the favoured situation for the growth of marine algae, those which readily disintegrate, like the coarser sandstones, are naturally less favoured than the hard and resistant.
In the case of marine algae, the hosts are chiefly the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
The Characeae among freshwater algae and the Sargassaceae among marine algae might be cited as examples.
On the coasts of Europe marine algae detached by the autumnal gales are commonly carted on to the land as a convenient manure.
Cements such as marine glue are solutions of shellac, india-rubber or asphaltum in benzene or naphtha.
Thenceforward he became a specialist in marine ichthyology, but devoted much time to the investigation, superintendence and exploitation of mines, being superintendent of the Calumet and Hecla copper mines, Lake Superior, from 1866 to 1869, and afterwards, as a stockholder, acquiring a fortune, out of which he gave to Harvard, for the museum of comparative zoology and other purposes, some $500,000.
Of his other writings on marine zoology, most are contained in the bulletins and memoirs of the museum of comparative zoology; but he published in 1865 (with Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, his stepmother) Seaside Studies in Natural History, a work at once exact and stimulating, and in 1871 Marine Animals of Massachusetts Bay.
In his speech to the delegations in 1898 he dwelt on the necessity of expanding Austria's mercantile marine, and of raising the fleet to a strength which, while not vying with the fleets of the great naval powers, would ensure respect for the Austrian flag wherever her interests needed protection.
The principal buildings are the church of St Hilda, with a picturesque old tower; the town hall in the market-place, exchange, customhouse, mercantile marine offices, public library and museum, grammar school, marine school, master-mariners' asylum and seamen's institute.
Commerce.-Ecuador has no merchant marine beyond a few small vessels engaged in the coastwise traffic, some eighteen or twenty river steamers on the Guayas and its tributaries, and a number of steam launches, towboats and various descriptions of barges engaged in the transportation of produce and goods on the rivers.
The wood contains an oil which enables it to resist the attack of sea worms, and this quality makes it suitable for use in marine construction.
Spawning takes place in June and July, and the eggs, like those of the majority of marine fishes, are buoyant and transparent, but they are peculiar in having an elongated, sausage-like shape, instead of being globular.
The occurrence of anchovies in the English Channel has been carefully studied at the laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth.
Marine fishes are not numerous, the reason perhaps being that the steepness of the coast does not allow seaweed to grow in sufficient quantity to support the lower forms of marine animal life.
Carter (U.S. Marine Hospital Service) that although the incubation of the disease was 5 days, 15 to 20 days had to elapse before the "infection" of the house, and from Ross's demonstration of the part played in malaria by the Anopheles.
The end of the Cretaceous period saw the beginning of a series of great earth movements ushered in by volcanic eruptions on a scale such as the earth has never since witnessed, which resulted in the upheaval of the Himalayas by a process of crushing and folding of the sedimentary rocks till marine fossils were forced to an altitude of 20,000 ft.
They consist of marine beds alternating with freshwater and littoral deposits, together with plant beds and coal-seams of considerable thickness.
The Upper Trias has been definitely identified by the occurrence of Halobia and other fossils; while in the higher beds of the series marine forms belonging to the middle and upper Jurassic have been found.
There can be no doubt that the series as a whole is the equivalent of the Gondwana system, and when the country has been more closely examined the association of marine fossils with Gondwana plants will be of the greatest value in determining the precise homotaxis of the Indian deposits.
The lower part of the Miocene is marine in Herat and Afghan Turkestan; but the upper Miocene is usually of freshwater or estuarine origin.
The greater part of the Himalayan region lay beneath the sea from early Palaeozoic times to the Eocene period, and the deposits are accordingly marine; the Peninsula, on the other hand, has been land since the Permian period at least - there is, indeed, no evidence that it was ever beneath the sea - only on its margins are any marine deposits to be found.
Contemporaneously with the formation of the upper part of the Gondwana series marine deposits of Jurassic age were laid down in Cutch.
Cretaceous beds of marine origin are also found in Cutch, Kathiawar and the Nerbudda valley on the northern margin of the Peninsula, and near Pondicherry and Trichinopoly on its southeastern margin.
Fresh-water and marine molluscs are also very numerous.
From the great opercula of certain marine forms bracelets and other ornaments are carved, while the hard serrated edges of other species are sometimes employed in place of knives for harvesting rice.
Marine Eocene beds occur near the Dardanelles, but the Tertiary deposits of this part of Asia Minor are mostly freshwater and belong to the upper part of the system.
The industries which it has been the principal aim to foster and further develop are shipbuilding (naval and marine), steel foundries and rolling mills, sugar refineries, flour and oil mills, and distilleries.
Selby, properly belonging, at least in the Fame Islands, to the species known by the book-name of Sandwich tern, all the others being those called sea-swallows - a name still most commonly given to the whole group throughout Britain from their long wings, forked tail and marine habit.
No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned - all belonging to a pre-Cambrian epoch - are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry land since Palaeozoic times.
The former of these, representing the bottommoraine of the ice-sheet, are covered with Glacial and post-Glacial clays (partly of lacustrine and partly of marine origin) only in the peripheral coast-region - or in separate areas in the interior depressions.
The Pliocene is of marine origin, and rests unconformably upon all the older beds, including the Post-oligocene igneous rocks, thus proving that the final folding and the last volcanic outbursts were approximately of Miocene age.
Mole supported the policy of the duc de Richelieu, who in 1817 entrusted to him the direction of the ministry of marine, which he held until December 1818.
It was some time before he assumed official dignities; but in January 1664 he obtained the post of superintendent of buildings; in 1665' he was made controller-general; in 1669 he became minister of the marine; and he was also appointed minister of commerce, the colonies and the king's palace.
The greatest and most lasting of Colbert's achievements was the establishment of the French marine.
Nor was the mercantile marine forgotten.
He had been created marquis de Seignelay, and for his eldest son he obtained the reversion of the office of minister of marine; his second son became archbishop of Rouen; and a third son, the marquis d'Ormoy, became superintendent of buildings.
The middle belt merges into the coastal belt, covered by geologically recent marine deposits, reaching an extreme height of 700 to 800 ft., and extending inland some 60 to 80 m.
The orographical division of the central lowlands bears comparison in formation with the coastal belt of marine deposits to the north.
Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof.