Railway and marine locomotives are not included.
Tetraplatia volitans Viguier is a remarkable floating marine form.
The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
After this marine period was brought to a close the sea retreated.
The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
There also occurs a peculiar genus of lizards with two species, the one marine, the other terrestrial.
Paupers, insane, and those convicted of treason, felony or bribery in an election are barred, " while the disability continues," and no person in the military, naval or marine service of the United States is deemed.
Plain of marine erosion.
Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.
The Daniell type consists of a teak trough divided into five cells by slate partitions coated with marine glue.
Much has also been done by the discussion of observations made on board vessels belonging to the mercantile marine of various countries.
Whether he was the same as Sozon, a marine deity of southern Asia Minor, is doubtful.
But it seems possible that the tradition of marine nomenclature had never perished; that the 'AyaOov SaLï¿½ovos vijvos was really a misunderstanding of some form like Agdaman, while Ni crot Bapouavac survived as Lanka Balus, the name applied by the Arabs to the Nicobars.
These marine deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia; but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
Another source of weakness is the fact that Italy is a country of transit and the Italian mercantile marine has to enter into competition with the ships of other countries, which call there in passing.
Marine Ordovician rocks were deposited along the same general course.
Protohydra is a marine genus characterized by the absence of tentacles, by a great similarity to Hydra in histological structure, and by reproduction by transverse fission.
It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
The marine parasitic leech Pontobdella is of a bright green, as is also the land-leech Trocheta.
In Roman times a small town called Icosium existed on what is now the marine quarter of the city.
Central Administration.The head of the French navy is the Minister of Marine, who like the other ministers is appointed by decree of the head of the state, and is usually a civilian.
One of the features of the town is the Marine Drive, some 51 m.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The French colonial (formerly marine) infantry, recruited by voluntary enlistment, comprises 18 regiments and 5 independent battalions (of which 12 regiments are at home), 74 batteries of field, fortress and mountain artillery (of which 32 are at home), with a few cavalry and engineers, &c., and other services in proportion.
The principal streets of the city meet in the place du Gouvernement: the rue Bab Azoun (Gate of Grief) which runs parallel to the boulevard de la Republique; the rue Bab-el-Oued (River Gate) which goes north to the site of the old arsenal demolished in 'goo; the rue de la Marine which leads to the ancient harbour, and in which are the two principal mosques.
The principal facade, in the rue de la Marine, consists of a row of white marble columns supporting an arcade.
In fresh-water Hydromedusae the life-cycle is usually secondarily simplified, but in marine forms the life-cycle may be extremely complicated, and a given species often passes in the course of its history through widely different forms adapted to different habitats and modes of life.
The whole question of the regime of rivers and lakes is sometimes treated under the name hydrography, a name used by some writers in the sense of marine surveying, and by others as synonymous with oceanography.
At Paris there is a more advanced school (Ecole superieure de la Marine) for the supplementary training of officers.
Corals and other quick-growing cal- careous marine organisms are the most powerful in this respect by creating new land in the ocean.
The rue de la Marine follows the lines of a Roman street.
The great extension of Italian coast-line is thought by some to be not really a source of strength to the Italian mercantile marine, as few of the ports have a large enough hinterland to provide them with traffic, and in this hinterland (except in the basin of the Po) there are no canals or navigable rivers.
be found dispersed through the coprolites, and sometimes the bones of small ichthyosauri, which were apparently a prey to the larger marine saurians.
HYDROMEDUSAE, a group of marine animals, recognized as belonging to the Hydrozoa by the following characters.
Hydroplzytes and hemi-hydrophytes (aquatic plants).Of marine hydrophytes, there are, in this country, only the grass-wracks (Zostera marina and Z.
The aquarium, the property of the corporation, contains an excellent marine collection, but is also used as a concert hall and winter garden, and a garden is laid out on its roof.
The second and marine type of the Jurassics occurs in Western Australia, on the coastal plain skirting the western foot of the western plateau.
The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.
The increase of the French mercantile marine (which is fifth in importance in the world) over the same period is traced in the following table.
The Hydromedusae form a widespread, dominant and highly differentiated group of animals, typically marine, and found in all seas and in all zones of marine life.
Sheer legs are generally built in very large sizes, and their use is practically confined to marine work.
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
coast of the South Andaman; the remarkable marine volcano, Barren Island (1 so ft.), quiescent for more than a century, 71 m.
Besides the premiership, Depretis assumed the portfolio of finance; Nicot~a, an ex-Garibaldian of somewhat tarnished reputation, but a man of energetic ~~t~ and conservative temperament, was placed at the ministry of the interior; public works were entrusted to Zanardelli, a Radical doctrinaire of considerable juridical attainments; General Mezzacapo and Signor Brin replaced General Ricotti Magnani and Admiral Saint-B on at the war office and ministry of marine; while to Mancini and Coppino, prominent members of the Left, were allotted the portfolios of justice and public instruction.
Many marine Algae appear to be able to regulate their osmotic capacity to the surrounding medium; and T.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
It is very remarkable that this method of characterizing and diagnozing species has never been extended to the marine hydroids.
Besides the Conseil superiezr the minister is advised on a very wide range of naval topics (including pay, quarters and recruiting) by the Comite consultatif de la Marine.
Marine fossils are very abundant in the marl.
The colony is administered by a governor, who exercises military power through a marine infantry colonel, and civil power with the assistance of a privy '- A similar usage exists in Malay; see paper by Yule in Jour.
There are excellent fishing grounds on the coast, but they have had no appreciable influence in developing a commerical marine.
His faith made him believe that his adversaries were in the wrong; but how great must have been this faith, which permitted him to undertake the work at a time when mechanical appliances for the execution of such an undertaking did not exist, and when for the utilization of the proposed canal there was as yet no steam mercantile marine !
place as minister of marine.
The latter accepted the task, and the new administration included Signor Tittoni, late prefect of Naples, as foreign minister, Signor Luigi Luzzatti, the eminent financier, at the treasury, General Pedotti at the war office, and Admiral Mirabello as minister of marine.
Order Sphenisciformes.-Nidicolous, marine.
Among the principal examples are " Roman Triumphs " (not the same compositions as the Hampton Court pictures), " A Bacchanal Festival," " Hercules and Antaeus," " Marine Gods," " Judith with the Head of Holophernes," the " Deposition from the Cross," the " Entombment," the " Resurrection," the " Man of Sorrows," the " Virgin in a Grotto."
A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
Russia, rich in salt-springs, but very poor in fossils, are now held by most Russian geologists to be Triassic. The Permian deposits contain marine shells and also remains of plants similar to those of England and Germany.
The total mercantile marine of Russia does not aggregate 700,000 tons; and it is distributed in the following proportions: 35'4% in the Caspian Sea, 34'7% in the Black Sea and Shipping.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
Its marine fossils are admirably preserved, and one hundred and eight species have been described.
Basilosaurus (or Zeuglodon) bones are found only in the Jackson marls, and other marine fossils are abundant.
The Grand Gulf group, of formations of different ages, consisting of sands, sandstones and clays, and showing a few fossil plants, but no marine fossils, extends southward from the last to within a few miles of the coast, and is 750-800 ft.
He then crossed the Pacific to Macao, and in July 1787 he proceeded to explore the Gulf of Tartary and the shores of Sakhalin, remaining some time at Castries Bay, so named after the French minister of marine.
In the case of land and fresh-water organisms the sea is the chief barrier; in the case of marine organisms, the land.
In the Ameralik Fjord (64° 14' N.) the highest marine terrace is about 340 ft.
Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.
Wellsted of the " Palinurus," employed on the marine survey of the Arabian coast, visited the ruins Ex oPn ra- ?' ?
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
The immediate supervision and despatch of public administrative affairs is in the hands of the cabinet ministers - interior, foreign affairs, war and marine, finance and commerce, justice and public instruction, and public works and promotion (fomento).
There is a pleasant marine park.
Over these thicknesses they are used chiefly for the largest marine boilers.
Fishes, especially marine fishes, are numerous and varied.
The state has also lines from Seoul to the open ports, &c. Korea has regular steam communication with ports in Japan, the Gulf of Pechili, Shanghai, &c. Her own mercantile marine is considerable.
There is a gunnery establishment in the harbour on Whale Island, the area of which has been increased to nearly 90 acres by the accretion of material excavated from the dockyard extension works, and various barracks including those of the royal marine artillery at Eastney, beyond Southsea.
Some 230more or less - marine food fishes are to be found in the market at San Francisco.
Vertebraria and Phyllotheca, plants characteristic of the Indian Gondwana series, have been recorded in Sarawak; and marine forms, similar to those of the lower part of the Australian Carboniferous system, are stated to occur in the limestone of north Borneo.
The principal spending departments are those of war and marine, internal development, and finance.
They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.
Land and marine molluscs are numerous, and include various edible kinds.
Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.
There is evidence that Ungava, like the rest of Labrador, has risen several hundred feet since the Ice Age, marine beaches being found up to 700 ft.
He is assisted by a council of ministers representing the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war and marine, industry, labour and instruction and public works.
231), and Sir Isaac Newton in 1715 reported unfavourably on the "marine surveyor" of Henry de Saumarez, which also depended on a rotator.
William Foxon of Deptford in 1772, James Guerimand of Middlesex in 1776 (by his "marine perambulator"), and R.
The coal is here confined to the lower division of the system; the Upper Carboniferous (corresponding with the English Coal-Measures) is exclusively marine, consisting chiefly of Fusulina limestone.
Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.
In the Urals the marine facies is more fully developed and the fauna shows affinities with that of the Productus limestone of the Central Asian mountain belt.
On the outskirts of the lacustrine region, traces of marine deposits, not higher than 200 or perhaps even 150 ft.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
Reiches, for reptiles generally; Rodoszkowski and the publications of the Entomological Society generally for insects; Czerniaysky for the marine fauna of the Black Sea; Kessler for that of Lakes Onega and Ladoga; Grimm for the Caspian.
Nordenskiold's Vega-expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser (5 vols., Stockholm, 2872-87) may be consulted for the mammals of the tundra region and marine fauna.
At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.
above the present level of the Caspian, gives support to this hypothesis, which is further advanced by the ascertained nature of the Kara-kum sands, which appear to be a purely marine formation exhibiting no traces of fluviatile deposits which might be considered as delta deposits of the Oxus.
It is interesting to observe, as will be shown later, that during the Mesozoic era there was a land-mass in the north of Asia and another in the south, and between them lay the sea in which ordinary marine sediments were deposited.
Between these ancient land masses lies an area in which marine deposits of Mesozoic age are well developed and which was evidently beneath the sea during the greater part of the Mesozoic era.
Excepting in the extreme north, where marine Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils have been found, there is no evidence that this part of Siberia has been beneath the sea since the early part of the Palaeozoic era.
Here again there are no marine beds of Mesozoic or Tertiary age, while plant-bearing deposits belonging to the Angara series are known.
There is again a floor of folded Archean rocks overlaid by nearly horizontal strata of Lower Palaeozoic age; but these are followed by marine beds belonging to the Carboniferous period.
From the Upper Carboniferous onward, however, no marine deposits are known; and, as in Siberia, plant-bearing beds are met with.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Thus it appears that from the Arctic Ocean there stretches a broad area as far as the south of China, in which no marine deposits of later date than Carboniferous have yet been found, except in the extreme north.
The Triassic deposits of the Verkhoyansk Range show that this land did not extend to the Bering Sea; while the marine Mesozoic deposits of Japan on the east, the western Tian-shan on the west and Tibet on the south give us some idea of its limits in other directions.
Between India and China there is a broad belt in which marine deposits of Mesozoic and Tertiary age are well developed.
Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
Assemblages of marine plants form another remarkable feature of Tibet, these being frequently met with growing at elevations of 14,000 to 15,000 ft.
Of the marine orders of Sirenia and Cetacea the Dugong, Halicore, is exclusively found in the Indian Ocean; and a dolphin, Platanista, peculiar to the Ganges, ascends that river to a great distance from the sea.
The marine eels, Muraenidae, are more numerous towards the Malay Archipelago than in the Indian seas.
Marine (rarely fresh-water) in habit.
Freshwater (rarely marine) and terrestrial.
Fresh-water, marine and terrestrial.
See also Beatson's Naval and Military Annals, James's Naval History, and Chevalier's Histoire de la Marine francaise, vols.
His appointment as minister of the marine on the 10th of July 1774 met with general approval, and was hailed with enthusiasm by the philosophes.
Lacuna, foot with two posterior appendages, marine, entirely aquatic. Cremnoconchus, entirely aerial, Indian.
Nassa, marine, British.
Actaeon, Limacina, and the marine Pulmonate, Amphibola.
Marine Euthyneura, the more archaic forms of which have a relatively large foot and a small visceral hump, from the base of which projects on the right side a short mantle-skirt.
Marine; generally carnivorous, and brightly coloured, affording many instances of protective resemblance.
In the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in Paludina and Bithynia they are canals as in Pulmonata.
Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine.
Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.
Familiarity with the sea is proved by the free use of marine motives in decoration.
The Expeditionary Force was conveyed across the Channel in perfect safety, and its communications safeguarded; and the German mercantile marine was soon cleared from the seas.
This deviation is the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by the European fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) and by the marine spider Desis, which is found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Cape Colony to eastern Australia.
Thus by heating spirits of salt he obtained "marine acid air" (hydrochloric acid gas), and he was able to collect it because he happened to use mercury, instead of water, in his pneumatic trough.
Still, Lake Baikal has a seal (Phoca vitulina, Phoca baikalensis of Dybowski) quite akin to the seals of Spitsbergen, marine sponges, polychaetes, a marine mollusc (ancilodoris), and some marine gammarids.
The city has a large government building, a U.S. marine hospital (1884), and the A.
Among those who have considered that it is derived from the decomposition of both animal and vegetable marine organisms may be mentioned J.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
The Pliocene deposits are not very widely spread and are generally of fresh-water origin excepting near the coast, but marine Pliocene beds have been found at el Forklus in the Palmyra desert.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
The development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours, but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good.
Marine Soap. - These soaps are so named because they are not insoluble in a strong solution of salt; hence they form a lather and can be used for washing with sea-water.
PRIAPULOIDEA, a small group of vermiform marine creatures; they have been usually placed in the neighbourhood of the Gephyrea, but their position is uncertain and it is doubtful if they are to be regarded as coelomate animals.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
Marine Gasteropods are occasionally termed "sea-snails," and the compounds "pond-snails," "river-snails," "water-snails" are in common use.
These all possess a fully developed gill-plume and are typical Pectinibranchs of the sub-order Taenioglossa, most of the members of which are marine.
II 1918 one i,ri 13 of the city's pop.-56 - was in the army, navy or marine corps.
The United States maintains here naval and marine hospitals, and the state a soldiers' home.
See Jal, Abraham Duquesne, et la marine de son temps (1873).
Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," the burnt ashes of marine plants.
He travelled a great deal in Europe, Egypt, Palestine, Russia, Algeria and America, and between 1853 and 1863 was largely occupied with researches into the history and methods of marine propulsion.
In 1894 he obtained cabinet rank as minister of marine in the administration of M.
A chart, in French, is called carte hydrographique, marine or des cotes; in Spanish or Portuguese carta de marear, in Italian carta da navigare, in German Seekarte (to distinguish it from Landkarte), in Dutch Zeekaart or Paskaart.
Far superior are those scenographic representations which enable a person consulting the map to identify prominent landmarks, such as the Pic du Midi, which rises like a pillar to the south of Pau, but is not readily discovered upon an ordinary map. This advantage is still fully recognized, for such views of distant hills are still commonly given on the margin of marine charts for the assistance of navigators; military surveyors are encouraged to introduce sketehes of prominent landmarks upon their reconnaissance plans, and the general public is enabled to consult " Picturesque Relief Maps " - such as F.
Tupaya, a Tahitian, who accompanied Captain Cook in the " Endeavour " to Europe, supplied his patron with maps; Raraka drew a map in chalk of the Paumotu archipelago on the deck of Captain Wilkes's vessel; the Marshall islanders, according to Captain Winkler (Marine Rundschau, Oct.
No reasonable fault can be found with the marine surveyors of this period, but the scientific cartographers allowed themselves too frequently to be influenced by Ptolemaic traditions.
He is best known by his marine chart (1569) and his atlas.
It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many editions, was issued in several languages and became known as Charettier and Waggoner.
Marine algae are usually mounted on tough smooth white cartridge paper in the following manner.
The northern part can best be regarded as a low plateau (once marine sediments) sloping southward, traversed by the large diluvial valleys of the Mississippi, Red and Ouachita rivers, and recut by smaller tributaries into smaller plateaus and rather uniform flat-topped hills.
The portion of Nassau harbour known as the Sea Gardens exhibits an extraordinarily beautiful development of marine organisms.
Then the distinction was successively transferred to the neighbouring Watling, Great Turk, and Mariguana; but in 1880 the American marine surveyor, G.
The grand vizier (sadr-azam), who is nominated by the sultan, presides ex officio over the privy council (mejliss-i-khass), which, besides the Sheikh-ul-Islam, comprises the ministers of home and foreign affairs, war, finance, marine, commerce and public works, justice, public instruction and " pious foundations " (evkaf), with the grand master of ordnance and the president of the council of state.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
As a matter of fact, the marine budgets of the two years are almost identical.
Captain Mahan, Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and the Empire (London, 1892); Chevalier, Histoire de la marine francaise sous le consulat et l'empire (Paris, 1886).
Numerous raised beaches and terraces, containing shells of marine mollusca, &c., occur along the whole coast of Greenland, and indicate that the whole of this large island has been raised, or the sea has sunk, in post-glacial times, after the inland ice covered its now icebare outskirts.
In the Julianehaab district, between 60° and 61° N., the highest marine terraces are found at about 160 ft.
8 The highest marine terrace observed in Scoresby Fjord, on the east coast, was 240 ft.
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
Marine deposits were laid down over the south of the state after a submergence of the region; an uplift afterwards made of these deposits a coastal plain.
for Marine Biology.
Some thirty species of Balanoglossus are known, distributed among all the principal marine provinces from Greenland to New Zealand.
According to Nordenskjold r it numbers only twenty-nine species of mammals, of which seven are marine and seventeen or eighteen may be safely considered as living beyond the forest limit.
The dredgings of the " Vega " expedition in the Arctic Ocean disclosed an unexpected wealth of marine fauna, and those of L.
Other facilities for outdoor enjoyment are provided in Hesketh Park (presented to the town by the Rev. Charles Hesketh, formerly rector of North Meols, and one of the lords of the manor), the Botanic Gardens, Kew Gardens, South Marine Park, and the Winter Gardens.
He adapted Sir Home Popham's code of signals to a code for the Mercantile Marine, for which he was made F.R.S.
long, 27,000 tons) in the German mercantile marine, were built; and also sugar, cement and other factories.
They are entirely marine, and are not uncommon in the coralline zone of the sea-coast.
- The Xiphosura are marine in habit, frequenting the shore.
Many Acari are parasitic on marine and freshwater molluscs, and others are found on the feathers of birds and the hair of mammals.
The Carboniferous system in Brazil presents itself under two facies, the one marine and the other terrestrial.
The former appears to be almost unfossiliferous, the latter has yielded a rich marine fauna, which belongs to the top of the Carboniferous or to the Permo-carboniferous.
The only Mesozoic system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the basin of the Amazon.
One of the purposes of this restrictive provision was that of creating a national merchant marine, but the disinclination of Brazilians for maritime pursuits has been a serious obstacle to its realization.
foreign affairs; finance; agriculture, industry and commerce; 1 communications (Viacao) and public works; 1 war; and marine.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
A marine station here was established by Sir John Murray, but has been discontinued.
Of more marine habit are P. philippensis and P. fuscus, the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of the warmer parts of both North and South America.
Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.
Black ironwood is likewise used in building wagons, while sneezewood is largely utilized for supports for piers and other marine structures, being impervious to the attacks of the Teredo navalis.
Suess, during which the Hungarian plain was covered by the sea, and the deposits were purely marine.
The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits.
This was followed by the Sarmatian period, when Hungary was covered by extensive lagoons, the fauna being partly marine and partly brackish water.
With but a short stretch of sea-coast, and possessing only one important seaport, Fiume, the mercantile marine of Hungary is not very developed.
One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
Vaughan Thompson is a type of the marine zoologists, such as Dalyell, Michael Sars, P. J.
Van Beneden, Claparede, and Allman, who during the 19th century approached the study of the lower marine organisms in the same spirit as that in which Trembley and Schaffer in the 18th century, and Swammerdam in the 17th, gave themselves to the study of the minute fresh-water forms of animal life.
The locality is largely residential, but there are breweries, and the marine engineering works of Messrs Thornycroft on the river.
TRIAZINES, in organic chemistry, a series of cyclic compounds, containing a ring system composed of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms. Three series are possible, the positions of Marine Trias Of The Alpine And Indian Types.
Marine rainbow is the name given to the chromatic displays formed by the sun's rays falling on the spray drawn up by the wind playing on the surface of an agitated sea.
and iii., and Chevalier's Histoire de la marine francaise pendant la guerre de l'independance americaine and Pendant la Republique.
About 120 species of Gadids are distinguished, mostly marine, many being adapted to life at great depths; all are carnivorous.
Several of the marine species are of first-rate economic importance.
"The Norwegians," says Cuvier, "give cod-heads with marine plants to their cows for the purpose of producing a greater proportion of milk.
The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
Besides the Royal Exchange, in the building of which are numerous offices, including " Lloyd's," the centre of the shipping business and marine insurance, there are many exchanges for special articles.
he was named director-general of police and afterwards minister of marine.
The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites.
The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.
His friends tried in vain to obtain his appointment as minister of the marine; and he failed to obtain even a post as officer.
Chevalier, Histoire de la Marine franraise sous la premiere Republique; E.
The oldest strata, consisting of gypsiferous marls, are referred to the Muschelkalk and show an alternation of lagoon with marine conditions.
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
5, 6) on the gills of various fresh-water fish; and a large number of genera occur on the skin, cloaca and gills of Elasmobranchs and other marine fish.
The larvae usually live in Molluscs, the mature worm in vertebrates, and the immature but metamorphosed Trematode in either host and also in pelagic and littoral marine and fresh-water invertebrates.
Petroleum refineries, iron-foundries, chemicals, soap-boiling, silk-spinning and the production of ships' fittings, as marine steam boilers, anchors, chains, cables, are the other principal branches of industry.
The staple exports are beans, pulse and peas, marine products, sulphur, furs and timber; the staple imports, comestibles (especially salted fish), kerosene and oil-cake.
With these exceptions, the existing Polyzoa are marine forms, occurring from between tide-marks to abyssal depths in the ocean.
- For general accounts of the structure and development of the Polyzoa the reader's attention is specially directed to 12, 14, 6, 25, I, 2, 17, 26, 18, 23, 3, in the list given below; for an historical account to i; for a full bibliography of the group, to 22; for fresh-water forms, to 1-3, 7-10, 17; for an indispensable synonymic list of recent marine forms, to 15; for Entoprocta, to to, II, 24; for the classification of Gymnolaemata, to 21, 1 4, 4, 13, 20; for Palaeontology, to 27, 22.
References to important works on the species of marine Polyzoa by Busk, Hincks, Jullien, Levinsen, MacGillivray, Nordgaard, Norman, Waters and others are given in the Memoir (22) by Nickles and Bassler.
The marine fauna is of economic importance.
The Trias proper is represented by truly marine dep~its, while the Rhaetic beds contain plant remains.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are also in part marine and in part terrestrial.
During the whole of the Mesozoic era Japan appears to have lain on or near the margin of the Asiatic continent, and the marine deposits are confined for the most part to the eastern side of the islands.
Of reptiles Japan has only 30 species, and among them is included the marine turtle (urni-ganie) which can scarcely be said to frequent her waters, since it is seen only at rare intervals on the southern coast.
The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal economique (1751-1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1764-1782); the political economists established the Ephemerides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'education was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des theatres (1770); in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopedia militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778.
There are two gymnasia, schools of marine engineering, navigation, wood-carving and agriculture.
Cerberus rhynchops; Hypsirhina plumbea, Homalopsis; Hipistes hydrinus of Siam has a compressed body, and much resembles the Hydrophinae in general appearance and its partly marine life.
- Tail laterally compressed; marine.
Jurien de la Gravihre in Les Corsaires barbaresques et la marine de Soliman le Grand (1887), and Doria et Barberousse (1886).
The majority have a compressed well-proportioned body, which in the marine species is of a more elongate form, leading to the allied group of flute-mouths (Fistulariidae), which are, in fact, gigantic marine sticklebacks.
Among the marine flora may be mentioned.
A marine force was raised to stop smuggling; and the subtraction of coal during coaling operations was stopped by drastic legislation.
This idea originated in the discovery of a jelly-fish, gasteropods, and other organisms of a more or less marine type, and presenting some affinity with forms of Jurassic age.
Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.
At the second Restoration he was for a brief period minister of marine, but held no further office.
For the French side: Abraham du Quesne et la marine de son temps, by A.
It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (1895), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools.
This family of Hemiptera (the Hydrometridae) and the Saldidae contain several insects that are marine, haunting the tidal margin.
For marine Hemiptera (Halobates) see F.
He held the posts of Minister of Marine, and, later, of Foreign Affairs.
By 1904 more than 6800 of these meteorological logs with 7,000,000 observations had been accumulated by the Meteorological Office in London; 20,000 with io,600,000 observations by the German Marine Observatory at Hamburg; 4700 with 3,300,000 observations by the Central Institute of the Netherlands at de Bilt near Utrecht.
In the archives of the French Marine in Paris there were 3300 complete logs with 830,000 entries and II, 000 abstract logs from men-of-war.
Greater depths These preliminary trips of scientific marine investigation were than those usually sounded by a hand-line may possibly not have followed by the greatest purely scientific expedition ever underbeen beyond the reach of the earlier navigators, for Strabo taken, the voyage of H.M.S.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
Surveying Ships, Indian Marine Survey and British Submarine Telegraph.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
The commencement of the Carboniferous period is marked by a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or Sequences Mountain Limestone,which contains a large assemblage of carbon- of marine fossils, and has a maximum thickness in iferous S.W.
The latter member is marked by a thin limestone band near the top, containing Spirorbis carbonarius, a small marine univalve.
In this way the effective horse-power and also the mechanical efficiency of a number of large marine engines, each of several thousand horse-power, have been determined.
There is a fine pier with pavilion, and a marine parade nearly 3 m.
They are marine and probably Miocene; and range up to the height of 800 ft.
It is the most popular watering-place on the west coast of Wales, and possesses a pier, and a fine sea-front which stretches from Constitution Hill at the north end of the Marine Terrace to the mouth of the harbour.
and a marine biological laboratory.
Just after his first election to Congress, he was placed on the important marine committee, and he was made a member of the board of admiralty when it was established in 1779.
confined to the land, but had to do also with those littoral meadows where invertebrate and vertebrate marine animals fed in unlimited numbers.
At Spring Point is Fort Preble, established in 1808 and now a coast artillery station; and at Portland Head is Fort Williams. The city has steel-rolling mills, car shops of the Boston & Maine railway, and ship-building interests, and manufactures marine hardware and varnish.
From 1869 to 1879 he took part in local politics, and was premier from 1876-1879; in 1882 he entered the Canadian parliament as a Liberal, and from 1896 to 1901 was minister of marine and fisheries.
Beyond the Bab-el-Bahar (sea-gate), now called Porte de France, on the level ground by the Bahira, is the marine town, or Quartier Franc, built since the French occupation in 1881.
From the landing stage a short street leads into the broad Avenue Jules Ferry or de la Marine running east to west and ending in the Place de la Residence, on the north side of which is the Roman Catholic cathedral and on the south side the palace of the French resident-general, with a large garden.
in length, and there is a marine drive along the top of the cliffs.
The borings of marine shellfish visible in these columns between II and 19 ft.
Several of the marine and many species of freshwater algae are peculiar to the island.
Sand-dunes cover large tracts on the shores of the Baltic. No traces of marine deposits are found higher than loo or 150 ft.
The products of the marine fisheries decreased nearly 30% in value from 1891 to 1897, but from 1897 to 1904 they increased from $3,391,595 to $6,230,558, or 80.3%, and a large part of this increase was due to the extension of the successful oyster culture at the E.
Unlike Australia, its geological structure is unusually varied, and owing to its instability, it includes, for its size, an unusually complete series of marine sedimentary rocks.
Suess therefore suggested that the northern continuation of the Alps had foundered, and its summits been buried beneath the Pliocene marine rocks of the Wanganui basin and the volcanic rocks of the Taupo area.
The Wairoa series includes marine limestones characterized by Monotis salinaria, and the Otapira series is characterized by Spiriferina spatulata.
Their fossils include belemnites, ammonites, scaphites and marine saurians, such as Cimoliosaurus.
Marine beds of the Pliocene are best developed in the Wanganui basin.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
He had to accept the services of many ex-officers whose hearts were with the old regime, and he also found it difficult and, in some cases impossible, to dissolve reactionary Free Corps like those which returned from the Baltic provinces or like Ehrhardt's Marine Brigade.
His attributes are a pitcher, cornucopiae (", horn of plenty"), rushes, marine animals and a sceptre.
Apart from its scriptural usage, the word is applied to any gigantic marine animal such as the whale, and hence, figuratively, of very large ships, and also of persons of outstanding strength, power, wealth or influence.
The rocks are heavily scored by ice, but this was probably marine ice, not that of glaciers.
The port has assumed first-class importance, mail steamers calling vL23 d regularly as well as men-of-war and the mercantile marine of all nations; and it is now one of the finest artificial harbours in the world.
Meantime seven Japanese cruisers under Vice-Admiral Kaimamura went in search of the Russian Vladivostok squadron; this, however, evaded them for some months, and inflicted some damage on the Japanese mercantile marine and transports.
In the region east of the Crazy Mountains, in Sweetgrass county, are marine beds of upper Cretaceous.
At present, besides the president, who has usually a seat in the cabinet,' and whose salary is 5000 a year, there is a parliamentary secretary with a salary of 1200, a permanent secretary (salary X1500, rising to £1800), and four assistant secretaries (each with a salary of i 200) for the harbour, marine, commercial, labour and statistical, and railway departments.
The Marine Department was created a separate branch of the board of trade in 1850, about which time many new and important marine questions came under the board of trade, such, for example, as the survey of passenger steamers, the compulsory examination of masters and mates, the establishment of shipping offices for the engagement and discharge of seamen.
Further work fell to the marine department by the act of 1853, which gave it the control of lighthouse funds, and to a certain extent of pilotage.
the present marine department, which deals with ships and seamen, the harbour department and the finance department.
The Harbour Department was, as stated above, a branch of the marine department until 1866, so far as it is connected with the physical adjuncts of navigation, but various other matters have since been added, e.g.
The Finance Department was, like the harbour department, separated in 1866 from the marine department.
It also deals with the accounts of harbours, lighthouses and mercantile marine offices, and of the merchant seamen's fund, and with the consuls' accounts for disabled seamen abroad.
His results, according to Kelvin, led directly and speedily to the present practical method of surface-condensation, one of the most important improvements of the steam engine, especially for marine use, since the days of James Watt.
In 1839 George Smith and Alexander Mitchell established the Fire and Marine Insurance Company Bank.
A Marine Drive encircles the Great Orme.
The valley, which extends from the borders of Sussex to Hythe, is occupied chiefly by the Weald clays, which contain a considerable number of marine and freshwater fossils.
The size which they finally attain and their general condition depend chiefly on the abundance of food (which consists of crustaceans and other small marine animals), on the temperature of the water, on the season at which they have been hatched, &c. Their usual size is about 12 in., but in some particularly suitable localities they grow to a length of 15 in., and instances of specimens measuring 17 in.
In the Baltic, where the water is gradually losing its saline constituents, thus becoming less adapted for the development of marine species, the herring continues to exist in large numbers, but as a dwarfed form, not growing either to the size or to the condition of the North-Sea herring.
a close analogy with the Mexican calendar sign Cipactli, a kind of marine monster resembling a narwhal s Aquarius is a still more exclusively meteorological sign than Leo.
Reminiscences of the Greek signs of Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Capricornus and Pisces are obvious severally in the Hindu Two Faces, Lion's Tail, Beam of a Balance, Arrow, Gazelle's Head (figured as a marine nondescript) and Fish.
in a marine service of about 10,000, and in the beginnings of first and second reserves.
There are nine departments, each under a director: namely, justice; interior; instruction, public worship and industry; agriculture (created in 1905); civil public works; government works (created in 1908); finance; war; marine.
About six ironclads and twenty smaller vessels of the royal navy are stationed in colonial waters; the vessels of the colonial marine number about twenty-four, and undertake police supervision, prevention of slave trading, &c.
Above these, marine Rhaetic beds appear at intervals, notably near Lame, where they are succeeded by Lower Lias shales and limestones.
Recently elevated marine clays, of post-glacial date, fringe the south-eastern coast, while gravels with marine shells, side by side with flint implements chipped by early man, have been lifted some 20 ft.
Brozik is known for his historical canvases, among them " John Hus before the Council of Constance," while others worth mention are the marine painter Knuepfer, the landscape painters Slavicek and Hudecek, and Preisler and Svabinsky as painters of portraits and allegorical subjects.
They are for the most part marine in habitat, but a familiar fresh-water form is the common Hydra of ponds and ditches, which gives origin to the name of the class.
Among the institutions are the City infirmary (at Hartwell, a suburb), which, besides supporting pauper inmates, affords relief to outdoor poor; the Cincinnati hospital, which is supported by taxation and treats without charge all who are unable to pay; twenty other hospitals, some of which are charitable institutions; a United States marine hospital; the Longview hospital for the insane, at Carthage, Io m.
824) Phorcys was a king of Corsica and Sardinia, who, having been defeated by King Atlas in a naval engagement in the course of which he was drowned, was subsequently worshipped as a marine divinity.
The mercantile marine of the United States was almost driven off the high seas by the terror of these destructive cruisers.
In 1882 he became Conservative member for King's County, N.B., in the Dominion parliament, and in 1885 entered the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as minister of marine and fisheries; in 1888 he became minister of finance, which position he held till the defeat of his party in 1896.
The Oligocene period consists of a marine phase confined to the littoral zone of Kabylia, and of a continental phase occupying vast areas composed of lacustrine, alluvial, gypsiferous marls, sandstones and conglomerates.
Hitherto marine conditions were confined to the littoral; in Middle Miocene times (Helvetian) the sea broke in and spread in a south-east direction in the form of long ramified fjords but did not extend as far as the Sahara.
To the Pliocene period the marine deposits of the Sahel of Algiers and of the Sahel Jijelli must be attributed; also the lacustrine marls and limestone of the basin of Constantine, and the ancient alluviums of the basins and depressions which bear no relation to the existing valleys.
All the species are marine.
Penilia (Dana, 1849) is perhaps the only exclusively marine genus.
Of this family the members are almost exclusively marine, but Limnicythere is found in fresh water, and Xestoleberis bromeliarum (Fritz Muller) lives in the water that collects among the leaves of Bromelias, plants allied to the pine-apples.
Among them is the cosmopolitan Calanus finmarchicus, the earliest described (by Bishop Gunner in 1770) of all the marine free-swimming Copepoda.
Muller, 1776), though greatly restricted since Miiller's time, still has several scores of species abundantly peopling inland waters of every kind and situation, without one that can be relied on as exclusively marine like the species of Oithona (Baird).
But if this is true of the land fauna as a whole, especially on the atolls, where it consists mainly of a few birds, lizards and insects, the opposite is the case with the marine fauna.
Among marine mammals, the dugong occurs in the parts about New Guinea and the Caroline Islands.
In considering the marine fauna the remarkable palolo or balolo should be mentioned.
In 1873 Admiral Saint-Bon, minister of marine, appointed him undersecretary of state.
On the advent of the Left to power in 1876, Brin was appointed minister of marine by Depretis, a capacity in which he continued the programme of Saint-Bon, while enlarging and completing it in such way as to form the first organic scheme for the development of the Italian fleet.
He died on the 24th of May 1898, while minister of marine in the Rudini cabinet.
They are assisted by a cabinet of four ministers, representing the departments of the interior, police and public works; foreign affairs, justice, religion and education; finance and commerce; war and marine.
the services of an admiral, subordinate to the ministry of marine.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
As early as the middle of the 15th century Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) recognized in seashells as well as in the teeth of marine fishes proofs of ancient sea-levels on what are now the summits of the Apennines.
Since fossils afford an immediate and generally a decisive clue to the mode of deposition of rocks, whether marine, lacustrine, fluviatile, flood plain or aeolian, they lead us naturally into palaeophysiography.
Instances of marine and lacustrine analysis have been cited above.
The external similarity in the fore paddle and back fin of these three marine animals is absolute, although they are totally unrelated to each other, and have a totally different internal or skeletal structure.
He has applied the theory with especial ingenuity to the interpretation of the circular bony plates in the carapace of the aberrant leather-back sea-turtles (Sphargidae) by prefacing an initial land phase, in which the typical armature of land tortoises was acquired, a first marine or pelagic phase, in which this armature was lost, a third littoral or seashore phase, in which a new polygonal armature was acquired, and a fourth resumed or secondary marine phase, in which this polygonal armature began to degenerate.
Among marine Mesozoic reptiles, each of the groups broadly known as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and crocodiles were polyphyletic in a marked degree.
MEDUSA, the name given by zoologists to the familiar marine animals known popularly as jelly-fishes; or, to be more accurate, to those jelly-fishes I in which the form of the body resembles that of an umbrella, bell or parachute.
Medusae are exclusively aquatic animals and for the most part marine, but at least two fresh-water species are known.'
below the mouth of the Gila river, thence northward to the mouth of the Gila, and thence, nearly due W., along the old line between Upper and Lower California to a point on the Pacific coast one marine league S.
The Jurassic beds are marls, sandstones and limestones, which contain marine fossils.
They occur, however, along the coasts, where they are marine, and also on the central plateau, where they are of lacustrine origin.
In 1905 the mercantile marine of Mexico comprised only 32 steamers, of 13,199 tons, and 29 sailing vessels, of 8451 tons.
The egg is holoblastic, but the segmentation is very unequal, recalling that of marine annelids and of molluscs.
SPRAT, a marine fish (Clupea sprattus), named `` garvie " in Scotland, one of the smallest species of the genus Clupea or herrings, rarely exceeds 5 in.
There is very little doubt that they lived at the bottom of the sea, feeding upon worms or other soft marine organisms, crawling slowly about the sandy or muddy bottom and burying themselves beneath its surface when danger threatened.
The French side will be found in the Histoire de la marine francaise pendant la Guerre de l'Independence americaine (Paris, 1877), by Captain Chevalier.
The Hibernian Marine Society for the maintenance of seamen's sons was established in the city in 1766, but now has buildings at Clontarf.
In January 1860 Fanti became minister of war and marine under Cavour, and incorporated the League's army in that of Piedmont.
Among other public buildings are the naval hospital, the British seaman's hospital (established in 1867), the civic hospital, admiralty (founded 1785), arsenal, dockyards and foundries, school of marine engineering, the cathedral of St Andrew, and the English church.
As in all such cases, the plain consists of marine (with some estuarine and flu viatile) stratified deposits, more or less indurated, which were laid down when the land stood lower and the sea had its shore line farther inland than to-day.
The erosion of the region must have been far advanced, perhaps practically completed, in very ancient times, for the even surface of the peneplain is overlapped by fossiliferous marine strata of early geological date (Cambrian); and this shows that a depression of the region beneath an ancient sea took place after a long existence as dry land.
It contains land shells, and hence cannot be attributed to marine or lacustrine submergence.
An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
The lower, middle and upper parts of the system all contain marine fossils.
It seems probable, therefore, that marine animals found migratory conditions between these regions, probably by way of northern islands.
In part, at least, it is equivalent in time of origin to the Chemung formation; but the latter is of marine origin, while the Catskill formation appears to be of terrestrial origin.
The Hamilton fauna which followed represents the admixture of the resident Onondaga fauna with new types which are thought to have come from South America, showing that faunal connections for marine life had been made between the interior of the United States and the lands south of the Caribbean Sea, a connection of which, before this time, there was no evidence.
Among the more important features of the marine life of the period were (1) the great development of the molluscs, especially of cephalopods; (2) theabundanceoflargebrachiopods; (3) theaberrant tendencies of the trilobites; (4) the profusion of corals; and (5) the abundance, size and peculiar forms of the fishes.
Certainly there is no younger marine formation of comparable extent in the continent.
Marine fishes had made great progress before the close of the period.
The larger part of the system in this part of the country is not of marine origin; yet the sea had access to parts of the interior more than once, as shown by the marine fossils in some of the beds.
The dominantly terrestrial formations of the eastern half of the country are in contrast with the marine formations of the west.
Some of the Permian beds of this region are marine, while others are of terrestrial origin.
The Triassic system is well developed on the Pacific coast, where its strata are of marine origin, and they extend inland to the Great Basin region.
On the Pacific coast marine Jurassic beds reach in from the Pacific to about the same distance as the Triassic system.
In this great bay formations of marine origin were laid down.
At the same time marine sedimentation was continued on the Pacific coast, but the faunas of the west coast and the interior bay are notably unlike, the latter being more like that of the coast north of the United States.
In the first two of these positions, the formations show by their fossils that they are of terrestrial origin in some places, and partly of terrestrial and partly of marine origin in others.
In the United States, marine Shastan beds are restricted to the area west of the Sierras, but they here have great thickness.
Unlike the Cornanchean, the larger part of the Cretaceous system is of marine origin.
The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
This widespread submergence, followed by the deposition of marine sediments on the eroded surface of Comanchean and older rocks, is the physical reason for the separation of the system from the Comanchean.
The Montana series, most of which is marine, was deposited in water deeper than that of the Colorado epoch, though the series is less widespread than the preceding.
They consist, in most parts of the country, of unconsolidated sediments, consisting of gravel, sand, clay, &c., together with large quantities of tuff, volcanic agglomerate, &c. Some of the sedimentary formations are of marine, some of brackish water, and some of terrestrial origin.
The marine Tertiary formations are confined to the borders of the continent, appearing along the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts.
Thus the lower Eocene has some lignite in the eastern Gulf region, while in Teias lignite and saliferous and gypsiferous sediments are found, though most of the system is marine and of shallow water origin.
On the Pacific coast the marine Eocene lies west of the Sierras, and between it and the Cretaceous there is a general, and often a great, unconformity.
In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.
The marine Pliocene has but trifling development on the Atlantic Piior~ne coast north of Florida, and somewhat more extensive System.
The marine Pliocene of the continent has its greatest development in California (the Merced series, peninsula of San Francisco), where it is assigned a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 ft., and possibly as much as 13,000 ft.
Marine Pliocene beds are reported to have an altitude of as much as 5000 ft.
Under these conditions sediments from the high lands were washed out and distributed widely over the plains, giving rise to a thin but widespread formation of ill-assorted sediment, without marine fossils, and, for the most part, without fossils of any kind, and resting unconformably on Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene formations.
To the seaward the non-marine phase of the formation doubtless grades into a marine phase along the shore of that time, but the position of this shore has not been defined.
distribution, except that marine beds have little representation on the land.
On the Pacific coast marine Quaternary formations occur up to elevations of a few scores of feet, at least, above the sea.
The Civil War caused enormous losses to the merchant marine, and the worldwide substitution about this time of iron steamers for wooden steamers and sailing vessels contributed to prevent a recovery; because, although ship-building was one of the earliest arts developed in the colonies, and one that was prosecuted with the highest success so long as wooden ships were the dominant type, the United States has never achieved marked success with the iron steamer, and the law has precluded the registry as American of vessels built abroad.