Maranhão Sentence Examples
It has a few miles of Atlantic coast-line on the N., and the Rio Parnahyba forms the boundary line with Maranhao throughout its entire length.
The capitania of Pernambuco was ably governed and took an active part in the expulsion of the French from the trading posts established along the coast northward to Maranhao, and in establishing Portuguese colonies in their places.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
The Parnahyba chapadao covers the state of Piauhy, the southern part of Maranhao, and the western part of Ceara.
It covers the greater part of the states of Matto Grosso and Goyaz, a large part of southern Para, the southern margin of Amazonas, and a considerable part of western Maranhao.Advertisement
If the Tocantins-Araguaya basin is included in the hydrographic system, the greater part of Goyaz and a small part of Maranhao should be added to this drainage area.
It receives only one important tributary from Maranhao - the Rio das Balsas, 447 m.
Piauhy is wholly within its drainage basin, although the river forms the boundary line between that state and Maranhao throughout its entire length.
There are a few small lakes in Maranhao and Piauhy, some in Goyaz in the great valley of the Araguaya, and a considerable number in Matto Grosso, especially in the Paraguay basin, where the sluggish current of that river is unable to carry away the rainfall in the rainy season.
Santa Catharina and Maranhao have well-sheltered harbours formed by an island lying in the mouth of a large bay, but the latter is shallow and difficult of access.Advertisement
The Amazon region has a comparatively narrow frontage on the Atlantic. In Maranhao, which belongs to the coast region, open spaces or campos appear, though the state is well wooded and its forests have the general characteristics of the lower Amazon.
Sugar cane, another exotic, has an equally wide distribution, and cotton is grown along the coast from Maranhao to Sao Paulo.
Jo -do de Barros, the historian, obtained the captaincy of Maranhao.
But the vessels were wrecked upon some shoals about one hundred leagues to the south of Maranhao; the few survivors, after suffering immense hardships, escaped to the nearest settlements, and the undertaking was abandoned.
This attempt led to the erection of Maranhao and Para into a separate Estado.Advertisement
In the course of eight years, the limited period of his government, he succeeded in asserting the Dutch supremacy along the coast of Brazil from the mouth of Sao Francisco to Maranhao.
The proud minister had been resisted p in his plans of reform at home by the Jesuits, and, determining to attack the power of the order, first deprived them of all temporal power in the state of Maranhao and Para.
The Brazilian Company founded by Vieyra, which so materially contributed to preserve its South American possessions to Portugal, had been abolished in 1721 by John V.; but such an instrument being well suited to the bold spirit of Pombal, he established a chartered company again in 1755, to trade exclusively with Maranhao and Para; and in 1759, in spite of the remonstrance of the British Factory at Lisbon, formed another company for Parahyba and Pernambuco.
These scenes were repeated in Pernambuco, where the Portuguese, after various conflicts, were obliged to leave the country; in Bahia, however, as well as in Maranhao and Para, the Portuguese prevailed.
There are no true mountain ranges in Maranhao, those indicated on the maps being only plateau escarpments marking either its northern margin or the outlines of river valleys.Advertisement
The largest of these are the Bay of Turyassu, facing which is the island of Sao Joao, and several others of small size, and the contiguous bays of Sao Marcos and Sao Jose, between which is the large island of Maranhao.
The Parnahyba forms the eastern boundary of Maranhao, but it has one large tributary, the Balsas, entirely within the state.
The principal industries of Maranhao are agricultural, the river valleys and coastal zone being highly fertile and being devoted to the cultivation of sugar-cane, cotton, rice, coffee, tobacco, mandioca and a great variety of fruits.
The coast of Maranhao was first discovered by Pinzon in 1500, but it was included in the Portuguese grant of captaincies in 1 534.
The first European settlement, however, was made by a French trading expedition under Jacques Riffault, of Dieppe, in 1 594, who lost two of his three vessels in the vicinity of the island of Maranhao, and left a part of his men on that island when he returned home.Advertisement
In 1621 Ceara, Maranhao and Para were united and called the "Estado do Maranhao," which was made independent of the southern captaincies.
Ceara was subsequently detached, but the "state" of Maranhao remained independent until 1774, when it again became subject to the colonial administration of Brazil.
Maranhao did not join in the declaration of independence of 1822, but in the following year the Portuguese were driven out by Admiral Lord Cochrane and the province became a part of the new empire of Brazil.
The French were already established on the coast, with their headquarters at Saint Louis, now Maranhao.
The Oldembourg Company (1754) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to the Path and Maranhao Company (1755) and the Pernambuco and Parahyba Company (1759).
We are disposed to agree with the Brazilian historian Constancio that Maranon is derived from the Spanish word marana, a tangle, a snarl, which well represents the bewildering difficulties which the earlier explorers met in navigating not only the entrance to the Amazon, but the whole island-bordered, river-cut and indented coast of the now Brazilian province of Maranhao.
The tributaries of the Tocantins, called the Maranhao and Parana-tinga, collect an immense volume of water from the highlands which surround them, especially on the south and south-east.
The lower Arinos, the Alto Tapajos and the Tapajos to the last rapid, the Maranhao Grande, is a continuous series of formidable cataracts and rapids; but from the Maranhao Grande to its mouth, about 188 m., the river can be navigated by large vessels.