They had compared Martha's drawing to the contour maps of the area back at Bird Song and decided this was as close to the general area of the mine that any type of roadway touched.
Han had laid out a few maps on the table near his desk.
One didn't keep maps of the location of witnesses they were hiding.
This great work was begun in July 1708, and the completed maps were presented to the emperor in 1718.
The glove compartment contained a registration in the name of World Wide Insurance Company and maps of the east coast states.
His eyes lingered on her before he moved toward the largest of the maps on the wall before him.
The conquest by Venice in 1687 led to the publication of several works in that city, including the descriptions of De la Rue and Fanelli and the maps of Coronelli and others.
Bacon argued keenly on geographical matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South America and Africa.
Shaw subsequently accompanied Forsyth's mission in 1870, when Henry Trotter made the first maps of Chinese Turkestan.
The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
The men of that party, remembering Suvorov, said that what one had to do was not to reason, or stick pins into maps, but to fight, beat the enemy, keep him out of Russia, and not let the army get discouraged.
It then deflects south-east till it touches the Kerulen affluent of the Amur river at a point which is shown in unofficial maps as about 117° 30' E.
The average elevation of the surface of the state above the sea-level is less than that of any other state except Louisiana, but there is not the monotony of unbroken level which descriptions and maps often suggest.
The surface is not so level and monotonous as it appears on many maps; for, although there are scarcely any running streams, it is diversified by a few lakes, of which Bacalar and Chichankanab are the largest, as well as by low isolated hills and ridges in the W., and in the E.
For a short time he worked for his father in the hardware business; in1852-1856he worked as a surveyor in preparing maps of Ulster, Albany and Delaware counties in New York, of Lake and Geauga counties in Ohio, and of Oakland county in Michigan, and of a projected railway line between Newburgh and Syracuse, N.Y.
The best maps are those in Die Karten von Attika, published with explanatory text by the German Archaeological Institute (Berlin, 1881).
Fred said he'd check the maps and list all the Burlington locations he could find but neither was sure what that information would tell them.
Rissa gazed at the maps before her, half listening to Hilden explaining their situation to her.
Specimens of such maps are given in C. F.
The mole-hills and serrated ridges of medieval maps were still in almost general use at the close of the 18th century, and are occasionally met with at the present day, being cheaply produced, readily understood by the unlearned, and in reality preferable to the uncouth and misleading hatchings still to be seen on many maps.
Owing to the great extent of Asia, it is not easy to obtain a correct conception of the actual form of its outline from ordinary maps, the distortions which accompany projections of great and misleading.
Maps differ greatly, not only as to the scale on which they are drawn, but also with respect to the fullness or the character of the information which they convey.
Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.
XWpa, country or region) and general maps are either reduced from topographical maps or compiled from such miscellaneous sources as are available.
He ought not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination, when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the whole of the information available.
The second group includes all maps compiled for special purposes.
Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central meridian or the equator.
The linear scale of maps can obviously be used only in the case of maps covering a small area, for in the case of maps of greater extension measurements would be vitiated owing to the distortion or exaggeration inherent in all projections, not to mention the expansion or shrinking of the paper in the process of printing.
The indiscriminate use of Mercator's projection, for maps of the world, is to be deprecated owing to the inordinate exaggeration of areas in high latitudes.
In the case of topographical maps sheets bounded by meridians and parallels are to be commended.
Measurement On Maps Measurement of Distance.
When she felt the maps and blackboards she asked, "Do men go to school?"
Maps of the 16th and 17th centuries often show Cambaluc in an imaginary region to the north of China, a part of the misconception that has prevailed regarding Cathay.
In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
We spent the balance of our time formulating what I should say to Merrill Cooms and pouring over Internet maps.
That, and looking at maps.
Now the boys are out there doing the same damn thing—more maps!
There were rows of grey chairs and several white benches in the rear, a handful of tables next to yawning windows, and a wall of what looked like constellation maps.
A large drawer on the left side of the desk contained files on various branch offices of the company while the drawers on the right, three in all, contained blank paper, company circulars and a few maps.
Over this country water-courses are shown on maps.
Although very little of the coast belt is actually swampy, a kind of natural canalization connects many of the rivers at their mouths with each other, though some of these connecting creeks are as yet unmarked on maps.
l Bibliography: Memoirs, Izvestia and Geological Maps of the Committee for the Geological Survey of Russia; Memoirs and Sborniks of the Mineralogical Society, of the Academy of Science and of the Societies of Naturalists at the Universities; Mining Journal; Murchison's Geology of Russia; Helmersen's and MSller's Geological Maps of Russia and the Urals; Inostrantsev in Appendix to Russian translation of Reclus's Geogr.
In 1598 Sebald de Wert, a Dutchman, visited them, and called them the Sebald Islands, a name which they bear on some Dutch maps.
Under the Venetian government Candia, a fortress originally built by the Saracens, and called by them " Khandax," became the seat of government, and not only rose to be the capital and chief city of the island, but actually gave name to it, so that it was called in the official language of Venice " the island of Candia," a designation which from thence passed into modern maps.
Bonaventura (1221-1274) was a diligent student of the Victorines, and in his Itinerarium mentis ad Deum maps.
Scale of Maps.
The above remarks apply more particularly to topographic maps.
Distances such as these can be measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer be represented.
When dealing with maps not drawn on an equal area projection we substitute quadrilaterals bounded by meridians and parallels, the areas for which are given in the " Smithsonian Geographical Tables " (1894), in Professor H.
Relief maps on a small scale necessitate a generalization of the features of the ground, as in the case of ordinary maps, as likewise an exaggeration of the heights.
If contoured maps are available it is easy to build up a strata-relief, which facilitates the completion of the relief so that it shall be a fair representation of nature, which the strata-relief cannot claim to be.
Relief maps are frequently objected to on 2 Professor Henrici, Report on Planimeters (64th meeting of the British Association, Oxford, 1894); J.
- Maps were first printed in the second half of the 15th century.
Those in the Rudimentum novitiarum published at Lubeck in 1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates.
Wood engraving kept its ground for a considerable period, especially in Germany, but copper in the end supplanted it, and owing to the beauty and clearness of the maps produced by a combination of engraving and etching it still maintains its ground.
The art of lithography greatly affected the production of maps.
3 Compare the maps of Europe, Asia, &c., in this work.
4 Movable types are utilized in several other ways in the production of maps.
Photographic processes have been utilized not only in reducing maps to a smaller scale, but also for producing stones and plates from which they may be printed.
The manuscript maps intended to be produced by photographic processes upon stone, zinc or aluminium, are drawn on a scale somewhat larger than the scale on which they are to be printed, thus eliminating all those imperfections which are inherent in a pen-drawing.
MacClintock and others - have profited from rough maps drawn for them by Eskimos.
Tupaya, a Tahitian, who accompanied Captain Cook in the " Endeavour " to Europe, supplied his patron with maps; Raraka drew a map in chalk of the Paumotu archipelago on the deck of Captain Wilkes's vessel; the Marshall islanders, according to Captain Winkler (Marine Rundschau, Oct.
1893) possess maps upon which the bearings of the islands are indicated by small strokes.
Far superior were the maps found among the semi-civilized Mexicans when the Spainiards first discovered and invaded their country.
Among them were cadastral plans of villages, maps of the provinces of the empire of the Aztecs, of towns and of the coast.
Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, New 4 The great majority of the maps in this work are made by this process.
Peru, the empire of the Incas, had not only ordinary maps, but also maps in relief, for Pedro Sarmiento da Gamboa (History of the Incas, translated by A.
These were the first relief maps on record.
Lauth and other Egyptologists, and have been referred to as the two most ancient maps in existence.
They can, however, hardly be described as maps, while in age they are surpassed by several cartographical clay tablets discovered in Babylonia.
The maps referred to may have been Assyrian.
3 We are indebted to Strabo for nearly all we know about Greek cartographers anterior to Ptolemy, for none of their maps has been preserved.
Circular maps, however, remained in the popular favour long after their erroneousness had been recognized by the learned.
Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.
In fact, he demanded that maps should be based upon a regular projection, several 1 If, with W.
descriptions of which he had adopted for his star maps.
form an index to the maps.
latitudes and longitudes, and with their aid it is possible to reconstruct the maps.
The 26 special maps are drawn on a rectangular projection.
We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca, Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and topographical maps.
the Roman Empire at that time was traversed in all directions by roads furnished with mile-stones, that the Agrimensores employed upon such a duty were skilled surveyors, and that the official reports of the commanders of military expeditions and of provincial governors were available, this map, as well as the provincial maps upon which it'was based, must have been a work of superior excellence, the loss of which is much to be regretted.
Their maps, however, seem to have met the practical requirements of political administration and of military undertakings.
We have to deal thus with three types of these early maps, viz.
The authors of rectangular maps look upon the Tabernacle as an image of the world at large, and believe that such expressions as the " four corners of the earth " (Isa.
The map or diagram of which Leonardo Dati in his poem on the Sphere (Della Spera) wrote in 1422 " un T dentre a uno 0 mostra it disegno " (a T within an 0 shows the design) is one of the most persistent types among the circular or wheel maps of the world.
T maps of more elaborate design illustrate the MS. copies of Sallust's Bellum jugurthinum; one of these taken from a codex of the 11th century in the Leipzig town library is shown in fig.
The outlines of several medieval maps resemble each other to such an extent that there can be no doubt that they are derived from the same original source.
Similar maps illustrating the Commentaries exist at St Sever (1050), Paris (1203), and Tunis; others are rectangular, the oldest being in Lord Ashburnham's library (970).
On the maps illustrating the encyclopaedic Liber floridus by Lambert, Lambert Liber flori dus 1120 FIG.
Both maps abound in miniature pictures of towns, animals, fabulous beings and other subjects.
Among countries represented on a larger scale on maps, Palestine not unnaturally occupies a prominent place in this age of pilgrimages and crusades (1095-1291).
The maps which accompany St Jerome's translation of the Onomasticon of St Eusebius (388).
Among more recent maps of Palestine, that by Petrus Vesconte (1320) is greatly superior to the earlier maps.
Further materials serviceable to the compilers of maps were supplied by numerous Arabian travellers and geographers, among FIG.
1038), Ibn Batuta (1325-1356) and Abul Feda (1331-1370), occupy a foremost place, yet the few maps which have reached us are crude in the extreme.
Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description of which was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work.
These maps are based upon information collected during many years at the instance of King Roger.
- Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.
In China, maps in the olden time were engraved on bronze 1 M.
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
Dulceti, 1339, and b, On Mercator's projection, according to modern maps.
The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the socalled " Pisan chart," which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists.
Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs.
These maps were originally intended for the use of seamen navigating the Mediterranean and the coasts of the Atlantic, but in the course of time they were extended to the mainland and ultimately developed into maps of the whole world as then known.
Most of the expansions of Portolano maps into maps of the world are circular in shape, and resemble the wheel maps of an earlier period.
Jerusalem occupies the centre of these maps, Arab sources of information are largely drawn upon, while Ptolemy is neglected and contemporary travellers are ignored.
Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the author has availed himself not only of the information collected by Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but *was able, by personal intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians who lived in Italy at that time.
the other hand, an anonymous Genoese would-be reformer of maps (14J7; fig.
None of these maps is graduated, but if we give the Mediterranean a length of 3000 Portolano miles, equivalent in 36° N.
This version was first printed in 1475 at Vicenza, but its contents had become known through MS. copies before this, and their study influenced the construction of maps in two respects.
They led firstly to the addition of degree lines to maps, and secondly to the compilation of new maps of those countries which had been inadequately represented by Ptolemy.
Nicolaus Germanus, a monk of Reichenbach, in 1466 prepared a set of Ptolemy's maps on a new projection with converging meridians; and Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in 1474 compiled a new chart on a rectangular projection, which was to guide the explorer across the western ocean to Cathay and India.
Of the seven editions of Ptolemy which were published up to the close of the 15th century, all except that of Vicenza (1475) contained Ptolemy's 27 maps, while Francesco Berlinghieri's version (Florence 1478), and two editions published at Ulm (1482 and 1486), contained four or five modern maps in addition, those of Ulm being by Nicolaus Germanus.
Other cosmographers of distinction were Pedro Reinel (1504-1542), Nuno Garcia de Toreno (1520), to whom we are indebted for 21 charts, illustrating Magellan's voyage, Diogo Ribero (maps of the world 1527, 1529), 2 Alonzo de Santa Cruz, of Seville, whose Isolario general includes charts of all parts of the world (1541), John Rotz or Rut (1542), Sebastian Cabot (1544), as also Nicolas Desliens, Pierre Desceliers, G.
Of the many general maps of the world or of particular countries, a large number illustrate such works as G.
Honter (1546) and Gulielmus Postel (1561) or the Geographia of Livio Sanuto 0588); others, and these the more numerous and important, supplement the original maps of several editions of Ptolemy.
Thus the Roman edition of 1507, edited by Marcus Benaventura and Joa Cota, contains 6 modern maps, and to these was added in 1508 Joh.
The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1513 has a supplement of as many as 20 modern maps by Martin Waldseemiiller or Ilacomilus, several among which are copied from Portuguese originals.
Kohl published facsimiles of the American section of the maps (Weimar, 1860).
In 1511 Waldseemuller published a large map of Europe, in 1513 he prepared his maps for the Strassburg edition of Ptolemy, and in 1516 he engraved a copy of Canerio's map of the world.
The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1522 contains Waldseemiiller's maps,' edited on a reduced scale by Laurentius Frisius, together with three additional ones.
The same set of maps is reprinted in the Strassburg edition of 1524, newly translated by W.
The new maps of the Basel edition of 1540, twenty-one in number, are by Sebastian Munster; Jacob Gastaldo supplied the Venice edition of 1548 with 34 modern maps, and these with a few additions are repeated in Girolamo Ruscelli's Italian translation of Ptolemy published at Venice in 1561.
Equally interesting with these Ptolemaic supplements are collections like that of Anton Lafreri, which contains reprints of 142 maps of all parts of the world originally published between 1556 and 1572 (Geografica tavole moderne, Rome, n.d.), or that of J.
Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.
New maps of Spain and Portugal appeared in 1560, the former being due to Pedro de Medina, the latter to Fernando Alvarez Secco and Hernando Alvaro.
1510) furnished maps of the British Isles, Olaus Magnus (1539) of Scandinavia, Anton Wied (1542), Sigismund von Herberstein (1549) and Anthony Jenkinson (1562) of Muscovy.
The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus, was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these.
Thus Facsimiles of the maps of 1507 and 1517 were published by J.
This is illustrated by the four sketch maps shown in fig.
Such an error could never have arisen had the old compilers of maps taken the trouble to plan Marco Polo's routes.
Mercator's maps are carefully engraved on copper.
Latin letters are used throughout; the miniatures of older maps are superseded by symbols, and in the better-known countries the maps are fairly correct, but they fail lamentably when we follow their author into regions - the successful delineation of which depends upon critical combination of imperfect information.
It then contained 53 maps, by various authors.
By 1595 the number of maps had increased to 119, including a Parergon or supplement of 12 maps illustrating ancient history.
It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many editions, was issued in several languages and became known as Charettier and Waggoner.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
These Dutch maps and charts are generally accompanied by descriptive notes or sailing directions printed on the back of them.
These corrected longitudes were not yet available for the maps produced by Nicolas Sanson of Abbeville, since 1627.
Tavernier and Mariette, and in many instances he mentioned the authors whose maps he copied.
By 1710 the maps published by the firm numbered 466.
The first maps illustrating the variation of the compass were published by Chris.
1632) and Athanasius Kircher (Magnes, Rome, 1643), and maps of the ocean and tidal currents by the latter in his Mundus subterraneus (1665).
Bourguignon d'Anville, able to utilize in the compilation of their maps the information they acquired.
Delisle (1675-1726) published 98 maps, and although as works of art they were inferior to the maps of certain contemporaries, they were far superior to them in scientific value.
On one of his earliest maps compiled under advice of his father Claude (1700), he gave the Mediterranean its true longitudinal extension of 41°.
Altogether he published 211 maps, of which 66 are included in FIG.
1724) founded a geographical establishment in 1702, which depended at first upon copies of British and French maps, but in course of time published also original maps such as J.
On the maps of Delisle and d'Anville the ground is still represented by " molehills."
Two relief maps of Central Switzerland deserve to be mentioned, the one by R.
The compiler of maps of the present day enjoys many advantages not enjoyed by men similarly occupied a hundred years ago.
Mere outline maps, such as formerly satisfied the public, suffice no longer.
He is called upon more] especially to give a satisfactory delineation of the ground, he must meet the requirements of various classes of the public, and be prepared to record cartographically all the facts of physical or political geography which are capable of being recorded on his maps.
The titles of these atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing the information up to the date of publication.
Holzer in Vienna (Vincenz von Haardt's maps).
Maps on that scale of a great part of Africa, Asia and America have been published by British, French, German and United States authorities.
Reliefs from printed maps were first produced.
The exaggeration in altitude, on these maps and on those of a later date and on a larger scale, was very considerable.
The giant globe proposed by Elisee Reclus in 1895 has never been erected; he has, however, produced maps on a concave surface, as suggested by J.
-The history of maps is dealt with ably in Vivien de Saint Martin's Histoire de la geographie (Paris, 1875), and in Peschel's Geschichte der Erdkunde (2nd ed.
Among these may be mentioned Konrad Miller's Die ¢ltesten Weltkarten (Stuttgart, 1895-1897), which only deals with maps not influenced by the ideas of Ptolemy.
Coote's Remarkable Maps of the X Vth, X Vlth and X VIIth Centuries reproduced in their Original Size (Amsterdam, 1894-1897), and Bibliotheca lindesiana (London, 1898) with facsimiles of the Harleian and other Dieppese maps of the 16th century.
Stevenson's Maps Illustrating the early Discovery and Exploration of America, 1502-1530 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1906).
In addition to these collections, numerous single maps have been published in geographical periodicals or separately.
21 a contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments.
Even though the hill hachures on the older one-inch maps are not quite satisfactory, this deficiency is in a large measure compensated for by the presence of absolutely trustworthy contours.
Originally the maps were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in 1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been rapid.
Carefully revised editions of these and of the other maps are brought out at intervals of 15 years at most.
Since 1898 the department has also published maps on a smaller scale, viz.
On both these maps the hills are printed in grey chalk.
The maps are based upon the cadastral plans (1: 1000), thoroughly revised and connected with the triangulation of France and furnished with contours at intervals of 5 m.
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
The earlier sheets of this excellent map were lithographed, but these are gradually being superseded by maps engraved on copper.
This applies more especially to the maps of Saxony (since 1879) and Wurttemberg (since 1893).
The features of the ground on most of these maps are shown by contours at intervals of 10 metres.
In addition to these maps there are D.
In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was carried out in 1766-1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general staff depend upon more recent surveys.
Maps of the Faroer and of Iceland have likewise been issued.
The maps issued by this authority include one of southern Sweden, 1:100,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general map on a scale of 1:1,000,000.
The Siberian departments have published a number of maps on a scale of 1:420,000.
In addition to these the survey for the Trans-Siberian railway has been published on a scale of 1:630,000, as also maps of the Russo-Chinese frontier districts, 1:210,000 and 1:1,168,000.
Coello's Atlas de la Espana (1848-1890), the maps of which are on a scale of I: 200,000.
Greece is still dependent upon foreigners for its maps, among which the Carte de Grece (1: 200,000) from rapid surveys made.
Far superior to these maps is the Karte von Attika (1: ioo,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E.
For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers.
Among maps based upon actual surveys those of Palestine, by Lieutenant G.
Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.
There are in addition an official map of India (1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1: 2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps.
There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
A similar map has been in progress for Sumatra since 1883, while the maps for the remaining Dutch Indies are still based, almost exclusively, upon flying surveys.
The geographical section of the British general staff is publishing maps of all Africa on scales of i: 250,000 and i: 1,000,000.
Of Morocco there are many maps, among which several compiled by the French service geographique de 1'armee, including a Carte du Maroc (1;200,000), in progress since 1909.
Guggisberg since 1907 (1:125,000 and 1:200,000); southern and northern Nigeria are adequately represented on the maps of the general staff (1:250,000).
This survey is rapidly superseding other maps, such as the surveyor-general's map of Cape Colony (I:127,000); A.
These British possessions, together with the whole of Somaliland and southern Abyssinia, are satisfactorily represented on the maps of the British general staff.
Maps of the French Africa Colonies have been published by the service geographique de l'Afrique occidental and the service geographique des colonies.
The official maps of the other colonies have been compiled by A.
Good maps of the Portuguese colonies are to be found in an Atlas colonial Portugues, a second edition of which was published by the Commissao de Cartographia in 1909.
Of Italian Eritrea we have excellent maps on various scales of i :ioo,000, 1:200,000 and 1:500,000, based upon surveys made between 1888 and 1900.
and the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe.
In Victoria the so-called geodetic survey was begun in 1858; the maps are published on a scale of 1:126,730.
Maps on the same scale are available of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania, on a scale of 1:560,000 for Western Australia, on a scale of 1:253,460 for Queensland.
There are likewise maps on smaller scales, which undergo frequent revision.
He publishes the topographical maps (i :63,366) since 1906.
The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000.
He is responsible likewise for maps of Yukon and of Labrador, supplied by the geological survey, the former on a scale of 1:380,200, the latter of 1:1,584,000.
The intelligence branch of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904 topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours.
Maps of Newfoundland, orographical as well as geological, scale I: 1, 584, 200, have been published.
Powell, rightly conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage.
The maps of the more densely peopled parts of the Union are published on a scale of 1: 62,500, and those of the remainder of the country on half or a quarter of that scale.
Colombia is but inadequately represented by rough maps.
Since that time, however, valuable maps have been published by an Oficina de mensura de tierras, by a seccion de geografia y minas connected with the department of public works, by the Oficina hidrografica, and more especially in connexion with surveys necessitated by the boundary disputes with Argentina, which were settled by arbitration in 1899 and 1902.
In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.
Hoskold's Mapa topografica (1: 2,000,000; London, 1895), which were published by it, nor any of the numerous provincial maps are based upon scientific surveys.
It need hardly be said that hydrographic surveys have been of great service to compilers of maps.
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
This lake was marked on English and other maps until its existence was disproved by A.
(For maps of Asiatic Turkey, see Arabia; Armenia; Asia Minor; Palestine; Syria.) The possessions of the sultan in Europe now consist of a strip of territory stretching continuously across the Balkan Peninsula from the Bosporus to the Adriatic (29° to' to 19° 20' E.), and lying in the east mainly between 40° and 42° and in the west between 39 0 and 43° N.
de Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc 1883-1884 (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball and Maw, Marocco and the Great Atlas (London, 1879, a most valuable contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological data); Louis Gentil, Mission de Segonzac, &c. (Paris, 1906; the author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs, Adventures in Morocco (London, 1874); Walter B.
The inhabited districts are well laid down on the best maps; but the immense areas between and beyond them are mapped only along a few routes hundreds of miles apart.
1, with maps).
After his superannuation at the Ecole des Mines he continued to superintend the issue of the detailed maps almost until his death, which occurred at Canon on the 21st of September 1874.
These usually dry sandy beds, which on many maps appear rivers of imposing length, for a few hours or days following rare but violent thunderstorms, are deep and turbulent streams. The northern system consists of the Nosob and its tributaries, the Molopo and the Kuruman.
The king's representatives were unable to draw the frontier line by reason of the imperfection of the maps then in existence, and he therefore directed a further survey.
The colouring of ordinary ethnographical maps is necessarily somewhat misleading.
Strickland, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896); S.
- It was during this period that the first maps of London were drawn.
Braun and Hogenberg's map was published in 1572-1573, and the so-called Agas's map was probably produced soon afterwards, and was doubtless influenced by the publication of Braun and Hogenberg's excellent engraving; Norden's maps of London and Westminster are dated 1593.
Some of these maps were pasted upon walls, and must have been largely destroyed by ordinary wear and tear.
By the help of these maps we are able to obtain a clear notion of the extent and chief characteristics of Tudor London.
The cost of these two marches in the year was very considerable, and, having been suspended in 1528 on account of the prevai 1 " A map of London engraved on copper-plate, dated 1497," which was bought by Ferdinand Columbus during his travels in Europe about 1518-1525, is entered in the catalogue of Ferdinand's books, maps, &c., made by himself and preserved in the Cathedral Library at Seville, but there is no clue to its existence.
One is in the Guildhall Library, and the other among the Pepysian maps in Magdalene College, Cambridge.
The maps show us much that remains somewhat the same as it was, but also much that has greatly altered.
On many maps it is marked as the Bahr-el-Arab, a designation also used as an alternative name for the Lol l another tributary of the Ghazal, which eventually unites with the Bahr-el-Homr. The Bahr-el-Homr in its lower reaches was in 1906 completely blocked by sudd, and then brought no water into the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
In the 16th-century maps the name is variously rendered St Bernardo, Bernados, Barbudoso, Barnodos and Barnodo.
It contains numerous illustrations; maps of the routes of the ancient aqueducts and the city of Rome in the time of Frontinus; a photographic reproduction of the only MS. (the Monte Cassino); several explanatory chapters, and a concise bibliography, in which special reference is made to P. d Tissot, E tude sur la condition des agrimensores (1879).
He also wrote a Description of the World illustrated by maps, in which was probably included his Measurements of Mountains.
Cave introduced the practice of giving engravings, maps and portraits, but his greatest success was the addition of Samuel Johnson to the regular staff.
See also the Post Office Directory, Transvaal (Johannesburg, annually), which contains specially prepared maps, and the annual reports of the Johannesburg chamber of commerce.
Schneider, Flora Carpatorum Centralium (2 vols., Leipzig, 1891); Muriel Dowie, A Girl in the Carpathians (London, 1891); Orohydrographisches Tableau der Karpathen (Vienna, 1886), in six maps of scale 1: 750,000; V.
Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.
Soc. of Australia, Queensland, 1907, pp. 71-134, maps and plates; J.
of Archaeology in Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., in the museum of which are exhibits, maps and photographs.
The Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas has maps on the 1:1,000,000 scale.
west of its true position in the maps used when the frontier was agreed upon, and that if it was maintained as the dividing line it would cut off the Uganda Protectorate from access to Albert Edward Nyanza while giving a corner of the Congo forest to Uganda.
1.53-85, with 3 maps and 3 plates; bibliography, p. 85), which shows that the axis of the territory is a high range, composed of slates and schists of undetermined age, with intrusive plutonic rocks.
The first sufficient explorations for cartographical record were made by John Smith in 1614, and his map was long the basis - particularly in its nomenclature - of later maps.
After some exploration of the coast they made a permanent landing on the 21st of December 1620 (N.S.) at Plymouth, a harbour which had already been so named by John Smith in his maps of 1614 and 1616.
p. 45) as having branch roads to Equus Tuticus and Potentia, and Kiepert's maps annexed to the volume, do not agree with one another.
At the time of the Dissolution there were nearly 300 Black Benedictine houses, great and small, men and women, including most of the chief religious houses of the land (for lists see tables and maps in Gasquet's English Monastic Life, and Catholic Dictionary, art.
He also wrote essays and prepared maps on the geology of Seine et Marne and Seine et Oise for the Geological Survey of France (1844).
His mathematical writings, which account for some forty entries in the Royal Society's catalogue of scientific papers, cover a wide range of subjects, such" s the theory of probabilities, quadratic forms, theory of integrals, gearings, the construction of geographical maps, &c. He also published a Traite de la theorie des nombres.
Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
(1899), with maps.
Through an error, in many recent maps and Assyriological publications Eridu is described as located in the alluvial plain, between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
See the separate articles on the states, and also the following references: - Topographic maps and Geologic Folios of the United States Geological Survey; Bailey Willis, "The Northern Appalachians," and C. W.
These, which are described in separate articles, helped to maintain the tradition of an earthly paradise which had become associated with the myth of Atlantis; and all except Avalon were marked in maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and formed the object of voyages of discovery, in one case (St Brendan's island) until the 18th century.
Ransome, Geology and Gold Deposits of the Cripple Creek District, Colorado, with maps (Washington, 5906), being Professional Paper No.
In 1873 he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he proved that the existing maps of Asia entirely misrepresented the physical formation of the country, the main structural lines being in fact from south-west to north-east, not from north to south, or from east to west as had been previously supposed.
The best general maps are those of the Carte de l'Algerie, in numerous sheets, on the scale of I: 50,000 (published by the Service geographique de l'Armee, Paris).
Such are Patrocinio (about 28° 30' N., 177° 18' E.) and Ganges (39° 47' N., 154° 15' E.), among others which appear on most maps.
The best maps are that of the Bureau of American Republics (1903), and, for physical features, that of Col.
We can restore then the old English system of long measure from the buildings, the statute-prohibition, the surviving chain and furlong, and the old English mile shown by maps and itineraries, thus:
For maps see A.
One of his most important publications was La Geographie du moyen age (5 vols., Brussels, 1852-1857), with an atlas (1849) of fifty plates entirely engraved by himself, for he rightly attached such importance to the accuracy of his maps that he would not allow them to be executed by any one else.
The volume is interspersed, far more extensively and richly than any other treatise on the war, with reproductions of contemporary plans, maps, documents, portraits and prints.
The moraines are of too small relief to be shown on any maps but those of the largest scale; yet small as they are, they are the chief relief of the prairie states, and, in association with the nearly imperceptible slopes of the till plains, they determine the course of many streams and rivers, which as a whole are consequent upon the surface form of the glacial deposits.
The library of the episcopal palace, built between 1694 and 1701, possesses the oldest maps of Bohemia made in 1518 by Nicolaus Claudianus of Jung-Bunzlau.
Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.
(3) Maps: The best are that by P. Carlo, to illustrate Camperio and Haimann's Report, in Petermann's Mitth.
There are no true mountain ranges in Maranhao, those indicated on the maps being only plateau escarpments marking either its northern margin or the outlines of river valleys.
and 20,000 maps.
The name has remained attached to the island from the earliest historical times with but little interruption of the tradition; though in Brompton's travels (12th century) and in the old Venetian maps we find it called Fale or Val de Compar, and at a later date it not unfrequently appears as Little Cephalonia.
We may quote one of the principal conclusions at which they arrived: " An inspection of our maps will show that the radical of a body is represented by certain well-marked bands, some differing in position according as it is bonded with hydrogen, or a halogen, or with carbon, oxygen or nitrogen.
Having encouraged a warlike spirit in his people and having introduced firearms, Kamehameha attacked and overcame the chiefs of the other kingdoms one after another, until (in 1795) he became undisputed master of the whole group. He made John Young (c. 1775-1835) and Isaac Davis, Americans from one of the ships of Captain Metcalf which visited the island in 1789, his advisers, encouraged trade with foreigners, 2 Their discovery in the 16th century (in 1542 or 1555 by Juan Gaetan, or in 1528 when two of the vessels of Alvaro de Saavedra were shipwrecked here and the captain of one, with his sister, survived and intermarried with the natives) seems probable, because there are traces of Spanish customs in the islands; and they are marked in their correct latitude on an English chart of 1687, which is apparently based on Spanish maps; a later Spanish chart (1743) gives a group of islands 10 0 E.
Vigil (Madrid, 1887) - folio, with maps and illustrations.
and W., with great certainty, without that multiplication of bearings of the points of the compass usual in our maps, which serves as the root of the others."
He was supposed to have died on the Afghan frontier in 1825 on his second journey; but if Huc's story is true he reached Lhasa in 1826, and did not leave it till 1838, being assassinated on his homeward journey, when maps and drawings were found on him, and his identity was for the first time suspected by the Tibetans.
The results of this exploration were a large number of maps and a report of great scientific importance.
His careful and detailed maps, lake soundings, hydrographic, geological, meteorological and other investigations gave him the highest rank among modern explorers.
The name Guinea is found on maps of the middle of the 14th century, but it did not come into general use in Europe till towards the close of the 15th century.'
It consists of two large volumes, with 240 illustrations and maps.
The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.
Ravenstein's maps (scale :250,000) of the Swiss Alps (2 sheets) and of the Eastern Alps (8 sheets) include the whole chain, save that portion south of the range of Mont Blanc.
All the countries which include Alpine districts have now issued official Government maps.
The Italian Government has published maps on scales of 1: 50,000 and 1: 100,000, the Austrian on a scale of 1: 75,000, and the Bavarian on a scale of 1: 50,000.
For maps of the Swiss Alps and their neighbours, see J.
A few of the best special maps of certain districts may be mentioned - such as H.
Duhamel's maps of the Dauphine Alps (4 sheets on a scale of 1:100,000, 1889, 2nd ed., 1892), and that of the range of Mont Blanc (scale 1:50,000, 1896, 2nd ed., 1905), by X.
The German and Austrian Alpine Club is publishing a very fine set of maps (scale I: 50,000) of the Eastern Alps, which are clearer and better than the Austrian Government's Topographische Detailkarten (11 sheets, scale 1: 50,000).
The Bureau has a library of some 15,000 volumes, and publishes numerous handbooks, pamphlets and maps, in addition to its monthly Bulletins.
A figure of Atlas supporting the heavens is often found as a frontispiece in early collections of maps, and is said to have been first thus used by Mercator.
Provinz (Vienna, 1879); papers (with maps) by Capt.
Three others - "Valladolid" of about 1035, "Madrid" of 1047, and "London" of 1109 - are derivatives of the "Valcavado-Ashburnham" of 970; the eighth, "Paris II," is connected, though not very intimately, with "St Sever," otherwise "Paris I"; the ninth and tenth, "Gerona" and "Paris III," belong to the Turin group of Beatus maps.
Woodward, The Geology of England and Wales, and ed., 1887.) The conception of an underlying " solid " geological structure covered by a superficial mantle of " drift " is still retained for certain practical purposes; thus, the Geological Survey of Great Britain issues many of the maps in two forms, the " Solid Edition," showing the " solid geology," which embraces all igneous rocks and the stratified rocks older than Pleistocene, and the " Drift Edition," which shows only such older strata as are unobscured by drift.
But in the " Drift " maps many other types of deposit are indicated, such, for instance, as the ordinary modern alluvium of rivers, and the older river terraces (River-drift of various ages), including gravels, brickearth and loam; old raised sea beaches and blown-sand (Aeolian-drift); the " Head " of Cornwall and Devon, an angular detritus consisting of stones with clay or loam; clay-with-flints, rainwash (landwash), scree and talus; the " Warp," a marine and estuarine silt and clay of the Humber; and also beds of peat and diatomite.
He tells how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing off species of themselves for perception, and as moved by sympathies and antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky, traced the sun in his path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands.
Maps of the country on the scale of i.10o,o-Go and ?zeToTi are published by the War Office.
The best maps are those of the Survey Department, Cairo, on the scale of I: 50000 (1.3 In.
It was circumnavigated by one of their vessels in 1525, and the general outline of the coasts is correctly given in their maps at a time when separate portions of Celebes, such as Macassar and Menado, are represented as distinct islands.
Bourchier, "A Balkan Confederation," in the Fortnightly Review (London, September 1891); the Austrian and Russian staff maps, and the ethnographical maps of Kiepert and Peucker.
It is doubtful whether Rapanui was discovered by Davis in 1686, though it is sometimes marked Davis Island on maps.
The maps of Ecuador, which are very defective, usually describe its territory as extending eastward to the Brazilian frontier, but as Peru is in actual occupation of the region east of Huiririma-chico, on the Napo river, 31 degrees west of that frontier, those maps cannot be considered correct.
Samler Brown, a guide for travellers and invalids, with coloured maps and plates (London, 1901); A Guide to the Canary Islands, by J.
Whitford (London, 1890, with maps and illustrations); De la Tierra Canaria, by L.
Besides the interesting folio atlas of von Buch (Paris, 1836), good modern maps have been published by E.
At the end of 1845 they returned home, and the results of the expedition, consisting of casts, drawings and squeezes of inscriptions and scenes, maps and plans collected with the utmost thoroughness, as well as antiquities and papyri, far surpassed expectations.
Many subsequent attempts were made at the North-West Passage from 1576 to 1616, which have left on our modern maps the imperishable names of Frobisher, Davis, Hudson and Baffin.
Cooke & Sons of York, has been employed by Franklin Adams for making his maps of the sky.
In old maps of south-east Africa, derived originally from Portuguese and from Dutch sources, an extensive region on the Cuama or Zambezi and to the south of it is styled regnum monomotapae.
9, 1887, " List of Printed Maps of California "; catalogue of state official publications by State Library (Sacramento, 1894).
Most of the Cambrian rocks were coloured as Silurian on the British official geological maps.
- Much exploration has been done in and around the Beaufort Sea, although the greater part of that sea is still a blank on our maps.
The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.
The Library of Congress contains more than 1,800,00o volumes and 100,000 manuscripts, and large collections of maps and pieces of music. In the library of the State Department are 70,000 volumes of documents.
Ptolemy gives maps of European and Asiatic Sarmatia.
Bogusla y skiy, The Volga as a Means of Communication (Russian, 1887), with detailed profile and maps; Peretyatkovich, Volga Region in the 15th and 16th Centuries (1877); and Lender, Die Wolga (1889).
Contourlines of this character are marked upon most modern maps of small areas and upon all government survey and military maps at varying intervals according to the scale of the map.
The Taytao peninsula, incorrectly called the Tres Montes on some maps, is a westward projection of the mainland, with which it is connected by the narrow isthmus of Ofqui, over which the natives and early missionaries were accustomed to carry their boats between the Moraleda Channel and Gulf of Penas.
The large number of English names on this coast is due to the fact that the earliest detailed survey of this region was made by English naval officers; the charts prepared from their surveys are still in use and form the basis of all subsequent maps.
Maps on the scale of I: 250,000 are published by the War Office.
Several Chinese memoirs of this kind appear to have perished; and especially to be regretted is a great collection of the works of travellers to India, religious and secular, in sixty books, with forty more of maps and illustrations, published at the expense of the emperor Kao-Tsung of the T'ang dynasty, A.D.
Prince Henry placed at the disposal of his captains the vast resources of the Order of Christ, the best information and the most accurate instruments and maps which could be obtained.
The survey executed by Petty was, somewhat whimsically, called the "Down Survey," because the results were set down in maps; it is called by that name in Petty's will.
The maps, some of which were injured by a fire in 1711, are preserved in the Public Record Office, Dublin.
Although it is certain that the four great geographical landmarks which to-day serve to keep Hudson's memory alive, namely the Hudson Bay, Strait, Territory and River, had repeatedly been visited and even drawn on maps and charts before he set out on his voyages, yet he deserves to take a very high rank among northern navigators for the mere extent of his discoveries and the success with which he pushed them beyond the limits of his predecessors.
The study of the scenery of England and Wales as a whole, or the study of orographical and geological maps of the country, allows a broad distinction to be drawn between the types of land-forms in the west and in the east.
For ordinary detailed work the best series of maps is found in Bartholomew's Survey Atlas of England and Wales (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1903), which, besides small distributional, physical and other maps and letterpress, contains a magnificent series of colouredcontour maps on the scale of z in.
Buchan, " The Mean Atmospheric Temperature and Pressure of the British Islands " (with maps), Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society, vol.
Baker, " List of Charts, Maps, and Publications relating to Alaska," in United States Pacific Coast Pilot, 1879; Monthly Catalogue United States Public Documents, No.
Baker; United States Post Office, " Map of Alaska " (1901); United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Bulletins and maps; Bulletin American Geographical Society, February 1902, F.
A Bibliographie du Congo, 1880-1895 (a list of 3800 books, pamphlets, maps and notices), compiled by A.
He has left dated notes and drawings made at most of the stations we have named, besides a set of six large-scale maps drawn minutely with his own hand, and including nearly the whole territory of the Maremma, Tuscany and Umbria between the Apennines and the Tyrrhene Sea.
Although on ordinary maps this region presents to the eye a hopelessly confused aggregate of islands, channels and fjord-like inlets, it is nevertheless clearly disposed in three main sections: (1) the main island; (2) the islands to the south, from which it is separated by Beagle Channel; (3) the islands to the west, marked off from those to the south by the Brecknock Peninsula.
Fauvel (Mahe, 1909); Ancient Maps of Seychelles Archipelago, a portfolio containing 28 maps (Mahe, 1909); J.
76 of Greemrich C There are few islands on the coast of Colombia, and the great majority of these are too small to appear on the maps in general use.
But the maps and surveys for the railway were given to the war office, and proved most useful to Lord Wolseley in his Nile expedition.
Commander Whitehouse's work led to considerable modification of the previously accepted maps.
It reappears in the maps of the Genoese B.
Among De Morgan's miscellaneous writings may be mentioned his Explanation of the Gnomonic Projection of the Sphere, 1836, including a description of the maps of the stars, published by the Useful Know ledge Society; his Treatise on the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial,1845, and his remarkable [[Book]] of Almanacks (2nd edition, 1871), which contains a series of thirty-five almanacs, so arranged with indices of reference, that the almanac for any year, whether in old style or new, from any epoch, ancient or modern, up to A.
Still better was the reception of his admirable Maps of England in the First Thirteen Centuries (1870).
Such "cartouches" are used for titles, &c,, on engravings of maps, plans, and the like.
For topography: - the Servian and Austrian General Staff Maps; P. Coquelle, La Royaume de Serbie (Paris, 1894); and A.
We hear also of one Master Peter, who inscribed and illuminated maps for the infante; the mathematician Pedro Nunes declares that the prince's mariners were well taught and provided with instruments and rules of astronomy and geometry "which all map-makers should know"; Cadamosto tells us that the Portuguese caravels in his day were the best sailing ships afloat; while, from several matters recorded by Henry's biographers, it is clear that he devoted great attention to the study of earlier charts and of any available information he could gain upon the trade-routes of north-west Africa.
The work of drawing up a detailed description of the lunar surface, and laying its features down on maps, has from time to time occupied telescopic observers.
See maps and explanatory memoirs of the Geological Survey of Ireland (Dublin); G.
The island is mentioned by several of the early Arabic writers and geographers, but medieval maps show curious ignorance of its size and position.
That day being the feast of St Lawrence, Madagascar was named the " Isle of St Lawrence," and retained that name on all maps and charts for a hundred years.
Many of the volumes consist of coloured lithograph plates illustrating the natural history of the country, as well as atlases of maps from the earliest period.
From 1820 to 1827 he served in the army, where his drawing and military maps attracted the attention of the king, and he soon attained the rank of captain.
Their proceedings were very cautious and tentative; they excited the curiosity and interest of even the more intelligent Chinese by their clocks, their globes and maps, their books of European engravings, and by Ricci's knowledge of mathematics, including dialling and the projection of maps.
Among the scientific works which Ricci took into China was a set of maps, which at first created great interest, but afterwards disgust when the Chinese came to perceive the insignificant place assigned to the "Middle Kingdom," thrust, as it seemed, into a corner, instead of being set in the centre of the world like the gem in a ring.
But the maps deceived Grant and Sherman as they had previously deceived Rosecrans.
The best maps are those published by the French and British War Offices; an Atlas du tours du Niger de Tombouctou aux rapides de Boussa in 50 sheets on the scale of I: 50,000, by Lieut.
It has been recognized, as shown in the maps of MM.
Since the publication of the maps by de Margerie and Schrader it has been shown that the phenomena of "recouvrement" play almost as large a part in the Pyrenees as in the Alps themselves.
Stielers Handatlas (Gotha, 1907) contains the best maps for general use.
For geology, see the maps and other publications of the Comision del Mapa Geolgico de Espana; L.
Consult also P. C. Meyer, Erforschungsgeschichte and Staatenbildungen des Westsudan (Gotha, 1897), an admirable summary with bibliography and maps; Karl Kumm, The Sudan (London, 1907); Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905); and the bibliographies given under the various countries named.
This beautiful tract of country until recent years was comparatively little known to the tourist, but a club (Spessart Klub) through the establishment of finger-posts and the issue of maps, has indicated the more interesting tours to be followed.
The marine surveys of these islands are still meagre and unsatisfactory, but the whole of the Nicobars and outlying islands were surveyed topographically by the Indian Survey Department in 1886-1887, when a number of maps on the scale of 2 in.
The only civil function of the parish clerk remaining in 1894 was the custody of maps and documents, required to be deposited with him under standing orders of parliament before certain public works were begun.
(1901); Maps of Cordillera de los Andes, Surveys of Argentine Boundary Commission; L.
In former times when maps were rare it was usual to make a formal perambulation of the parish boundaries on Ascension day or during Rogation week.
Three walls were covered with digital maps, the fourth with a blank projection screen.
Now the boys are out there doing the same damn thingâ€”more maps!
absorption coefficient maps can be calculated based on an adequate model of the sample.
Previous models have shown how the tilt aftereffect can be explained through adaptation of lateral interactions between neurons in visual maps.
aggregate statistics for the Areas of Town Center Activity defined on the maps held on the CD.
Model-based linkage disequilibrium unit (LDU) maps appear robust to marker density and consistently influenced by marker allele frequency.
A special class of such systems are Hamiltonian flows and their discrete analog, symplectic maps.
A*C*G maps are tools to describe the effect of planetary angularity upon the earth for a given moment of time.
Sarah maps Andy at 18:43 on 08 May 2006 can anybody tell me the best place to buy air charts or maps online?
Figure 6.6 - Residual maps for four quadratic approximations.
apt quotations from old documents and reproductions of maps, plans and pictures.
architects drawings and plans, ideas to develop teaching and learning, aerial photographs and digital maps.
aspen stands were plotted on maps at 1:10,000 scale from which their sizes were estimated.
Updated Maps The deadline for records included in the provisional Atlas was the end of 2000.
Esso appears to have abandoned sheet maps, but did issue a special value softback Atlas in 2000.
Not too bad a piece of work by Munro in 1891, using existing maps and aneroid barometer!
bathymetry maps can be used by many other scientific disciplines.
In addition the site includes texts and browseable maps and also offers free online registration to access advanced services, including a personal bookshelf.
But not all blind people know Braille, so audio-taped descriptions are also very useful to support tactile diagrams, maps and pictures.
buy these books direct from Amazon; or visit our bookshop to browse through a large range of Scottish books and maps.
It represents almost all samples of China maps produced by European cartographers from the 16th to 19th centuries.
All these 1960s Shell maps used cartography by Hallwag.
Several recent scholars of early modern cartography have noted the close association of maps with the studies in which writers imagine them being consumed.
We have a fairly chaotic process for choosing names of maps.
Its ultra-sharp color screen displays maps with unprecedented clarity.
It does something clever with Google maps to create a map where visitors to your site are logged.
This all seemed to fit with what was already known, albeit using maps with a relatively coarse Most to Least marking.
Alternatively, the absorption coefficient maps can be calculated based on an adequate model of the sample.
compendium indicators Tables, maps, graphs in the menu panel on the left.
compo results and reviews, ads, tips, maps and more.
composite based on 1876 and later maps.
A former confidante of Ferdinand Marcos, Curtis possessed copies of the 172 treasure maps made by Japanese cartographers.
The main driving force in China to survey and draw maps was often for military reasons but also for problems such as water conservancy.
contour maps to be used with our route notes.
Then = n (f g ). In other words, the discrete Fourier transform maps convolution to pointwise multiplication.
Maps are equally uncommon from gasoline stations associated other European agricultural co-ops.
It will have maps showing PCTs countrywide with their status (site live, site going live etc.
CS (gas)s are a very essential part of any map, let alone cs maps.
Consequently, relying entirely on maps (rather than guide books) can sometimes pose problems for off-road cyclists.
Bladder maps are made at the time of resection and at 3 month check cystoscopy and compared.
declination diagram is a part of the information in the lower margin on most larger maps.
Maps, diagrams and photographs are used to describe the movement of the glacier and the glacial deposits.
It is however normally necessary to follow the route descriptions provided together with the maps.
Reproducibility was defined as the median deviation across the seven maps divided by the median T 1 value in the region of interest.
Consider the use of mind maps or simplified diagrams.
Building mental maps, concept maps, spray or spider diagrams Prioritizing key points for each section of a topic.
The proteins were cleaved by chemical or enzymatic digestion to produce peptide maps, which were analyzed by pulsed delayed extraction MALDI-MS.
dimer interface made it difficult to isolate a single molecule during the model building in the MIR maps.
If, however, you want topographical maps of say the Italian dolomite hiking trails then availability of digital maps is a problem.
The company delivers more online maps, point-to-point driving directions and geo-spatial (" where's my nearest?
earthquake hazard maps like this are more often expressed in terms of ground acceleration.
Hardback, illustrated endpapers, 165 color photographs plus 50 color maps.
Black cloth stamped in silver, color endpaper maps.
In addition to images, maps, and diary excerpts, you'll find biographical essays about the intrepid travelers.
exhaustive bibliography, three maps, and a table.
exigency find a point on a trench map The trench maps used in the Great War resulted from the exigencies of war.
os explorer maps will save you vast amounts of time.
explorer maps will save you vast amounts of time.
IRM thermography maps the extent of moisture or water ingress beneath the roof felting or covering.
Travel Spain Visitors guide to Spain, including useful maps, main attractions, and Spanish fiestas.
Figure 3.19 - Difference maps showing difference between surfaces interpolated in each of the four profile directions and the original surface fractal.
frustration factors, with some bland level maps, linear routes and samey gunfights.
Every car we do is CUSTOM mapped, we do not believe in using generic off the shelf maps as some tuning companies do.
hardiness maps and gardening advice.
The maps provided are the best available estimates of seismic hazards in Lebanon and are recommended for use in risk assessment.
helix clincher was the fact that the electron density maps revealed perfect left-handed helices.
A visual map is an essentially hierarchical two-dimensional graphical representation that is similar to other common representations variously called idea maps or brain maps.
They have a large hippocampus, the part of the brain that stores mental maps.
holomorphic maps f: X?
homunculuslly, these maps are called homunculi or little men.
With the maps unfolded on the table our morning's cycling looks hopeless.
In this article, we describe an approach to generating peptide maps by limited acid hydrolysis.