He frowned at the map before him.
He needed a written map to perform simple chores like finding a grocery store or getting around Boston.
Clara was putting the finishing touches on her map when Megan approached the counter.
Fred grabbed for the map and began searching.
His face was a road map of emotion, traveling from puzzled, to comprehensive and then on to frustration.
Several were in Southern California while two blue dots – the one in her cell phone and the other in a shoe – appeared on the map in Texas.
The map had been altered.
The micro would allow her to map a route west, and she could put on his tactical clothing and mask and leave the tent.
I can't believe he thought I'd have a map to Baratto just lying around.
Dean tossed aside the map and papers and flopped down on the living room sofa, startling Mrs. Lincoln.
He turned to face the map again.
Lisa did the best she could to draw a map on the small piece of paper.
I was so busy following the road map I made so many years ago that I didn't notice it was outdated.
The helo left them at Texarkana, the southernmost point on their map, before missile fire from the other side of the river erupted.
She explained the map and Megan tucked it in her pocket.
From now on I'm going to get a new map every time there's a change.
One could see that he wished to pass through the rooms as quickly as possible, finish with the bows and greetings, and sit down to business in front of a map, where he would feel at home.
(For map see French West Africa and Gold Coast).
In the attempt that has been made to map out the land surface of the earth, probable community of origin has been relied upon more than the possession of obvious characters.
I'll draw you a map while you make your phone call.
Expect solutions in the future to come from countries you couldn't find on a map today.
She chewed her lip as she watched the micro map multiple routes, gauging how much food and water she'd have to carry to survive.
The small states, Lucca and San Marino, completed the map of Italy.
Look it up on a map, Swami.
The railway map of the state thus has roughly the appearance of a gridiron.
"Do you have any questions?" he asked, motioning to the map of the forest before her.
After she handed the stub-pencil map back to him, she repeated her question.
"There are three'" answered a clerk with an accent from a country I couldn't fine on a map and a name tag that said Pual.
What did you do with that old road map to your future?
We searched unsuccessfully for a map of the West Virginia.
Two more turns were negotiated and marked and in spite of their slow progress, according to the map they were nearing their goal.
(alluding to a map of love much in vogue at that time).
A geological map of the whole continent, on the scale of 50 m.
(For map, see Pacific Ocean.) The principal island is Tahiti.
She wore those half-stockings that were supposed to be hidden by something far longer than what covered her pudgy legs, which were streaked with the stark blue of veins looking like a map of a very congested and curvy area.
His ambition was insatiable; he is said to have exclaimed when looking at a map that the whole world did not form a sovereignty vast enough for one monarch.
long., an extent of half a million square miles, still remained a blank in the map. But the two expeditions of 1873, conducted by William Christie Gosse (1842-1881), afterwards deputy surveyorgeneral for South Australia, and Colonel (then Major) Egerton Warburton, made a beginning in the exploration of this terra incognita west of the central telegraph route.
The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.
"Since Prince Bagration is not coming, we may begin," said Weyrother, hurriedly rising from his seat and going up to the table on which an enormous map of the environs of Brunn was spread out.
Then he gave careful directions about the fortification of the Kremlin, and drew up a brilliant plan for a future campaign over the whole map of Russia.
It was a detailed map, with the sea painted blue and the land border meticulously drawn.
I just pulled up a map of the area on my screen.
There was a crude map to the Pacific Crest Inn.
The distance between Ouray and Telluride was less than twenty miles, on a map, or as the eagle soars, when he feels like a thrill.
Instead, he stared at the map on the table between them.
It is usually regarded as the Chretes or Chremetes of Hanno, and the Nachyris and Bambotus of the Greeks and Romans, but it is not possible definitely to identify it with any of the rivers on Ptolemy's map. Idrisi and other medieval Arabian geographers undoubtedly refer to it.
He knew without Martha's map he'd never remember the various turns he and Cynthia had taken to where the skeleton had reposed for over fifty years.
From this point of view it is not sufficient, in attempting to map out the earths surface into regions of vegetation, to have regard alone to adaptations to physical conditions.
It is concerned with the land-surface, and this is more symmetrically disposed than would at first sight appear from a glance at a map of the world.
As soon as Prince Andrew began to demonstrate the defects of the latter and the merits of his own plan, Prince Dolgorukov ceased to listen to him and gazed absent-mindedly not at the map, but at Prince Andrew's face.
But the Austrian general, continuing to read, frowned angrily and jerked his elbows, as if to say: "You can tell me your views later, but now be so good as to look at the map and listen."
Tell me why you always stare at that map whenever I call.
When Westlake obligingly opened a map and pointed out various high country locations, he had the Dawkins' rapt attention.
"Oh, that is all the same," Dolgorukov said quickly, and getting up he spread a map on the table.
The place must be on a map.
Sure. I can compare Martha's drawing with a map and get the location.
xviii.; Nissardi's map of the Nurra, published by G.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
Then he became absorbed in a map laid out on the logs.
For people accustomed to think that plans of campaign and battles are made by generals--as any one of us sitting over a map in his study may imagine how he would have arranged things in this or that battle--the questions present themselves: Why did Kutuzov during the retreat not do this or that?
The best way to explore the area is to take a self-guided tour of the area, using the printable map available in the village's official website.
The activity of a commander-in-chief does not at all resemble the activity we imagine to ourselves when we sit at ease in our studies examining some campaign on the map, with a certain number of troops on this and that side in a certain known locality, and begin our plans from some given moment.
She studied the map Mr. Muldrow had sketched for her.
There was no street sign, but according to the map, it had to be the correct road.
The map indicated a bridge and a town not far ahead.
The lakes of Argentina are exceptionally numerous, although comparatively few are large enough to merit a name on the ordinary general map.
The second method is still employed in many cases, and we find thus: In cases where the draughtsman has omitted to indicate the scale we can ascertain it by dividing the actual length of a meridian degree by the length of a degree measure upon the map. Thus a degree between 50° and 51° measures 111,226,000 mm.; on the map it is represented by i r r mm.
Far superior are those scenographic representations which enable a person consulting the map to identify prominent landmarks, such as the Pic du Midi, which rises like a pillar to the south of Pau, but is not readily discovered upon an ordinary map. This advantage is still fully recognized, for such views of distant hills are still commonly given on the margin of marine charts for the assistance of navigators; military surveyors are encouraged to introduce sketehes of prominent landmarks upon their reconnaissance plans, and the general public is enabled to consult " Picturesque Relief Maps " - such as F.
There are in addition an official map of India (1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1: 2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps.
The Map lists tax topics alphabetically and provides information about their applicability to a tax return and the forms, if any, that a taxpayer must complete to handle the issue.
And I need some time alone with the map to plan.
"Know that if you stir up Prussia against me, I'll wipe it off the map of Europe!" he declared, his face pale and distorted by anger, and he struck one of his small hands energetically with the other.
"I must have seen the name on a map," he answered, convincing no one.
There was one solution: wipe everything off the map.
"You've got a rat," he said, reviewing the past hundred years of battles depicted on the map.
Damian snorted, gaze lingering on the map.
"End of the line," Dean said as he studied Martha's map.
He drew me a map.
I have a map.
Her gaze returned to the map.
"Probably," Lana responded, turning away from the map.
She showed him the map, which showed the property as a forty-kilometer stretch along the Seine.
Brady studied the map.
Her gaze was distant, haunted, as she studied the map.
He pointed on the map.
His eyes took in the map.
He stepped away from her toward the map.
Our scouts have not found more than what was on the map.
He turned to modify the army placement on the map.
Only one vehicle passed her in the fifteen minutes it took her to reach the next turnoff indicated on the map.
Turning on a wide gravel road, she stopped to study the map.
The road began to widen and after a sharp bend she came into the tiny town indicated on the map.
In a small town in Northwest Arkansas, I'm sure it isn't on the map.
Scott Muldrow must have given Dad a copy of the map.
The name Manitoba sprang from the union of two Indian words, Manito (the Great Spirit), and Waba (the " narrows " of the lake, which may readily be seen on the map).
Geology.Many years ago it was pointed out by Elie de Beaumont and Dufrnoy that the Jurassic rocks of France form upon the map an incomplete figure of 8.
A map was attached on which several great equatorial lakes are shown, and the empire of Monomwezi or Unyamwezi is laid down.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.
The result was a more accurate map of China than existed, at that time, of any country in Europe.
Kang-hi next ordered a similar map to be made of Tibet, the survey being executed by two lamas who were carefully trained as surveyors by the Jesuits at Peking.
In 1700 Guillaume Delisle published his map of the continents of the Old World; and his successor D'Anville produced his map of India in 1752.
D'Anville's map contained all that was then known, but ten years afterwards Major Rennell began his surveying labours, which extended over the period from 1763 to 1782.
The measurement of a coast-line is difficult, because the length will necessarily be greater when measured on a largescale map where minute irregularities can be taken into account.
It is usual to distinguish between the general coast-line measured from point to point of the headlands disregarding the smaller bays, and the detailed coast-line which takes account of every inflection shown by the map employed, and follows up river entrances to the point where tidal action ceases.
The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
(for map, see Argentina).
Walter Map >>
An orohydrographical map of Russia in four sheets was published in 1878.
Thus Poland disappeared for a time from the map of Europe.
Venn, prebendary of St Paul's cathedral, London (London, 1862), is polemical, but contains an interesting map of Xavier's journeys.
(For Map, see Pacific Ocean.) It consists of 14 islands forming a slightly curved chain from W.
He constructed a map of as many as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets.
(For map, see California.) Physiography.
In 1885 Arthur Douglas Carey and Andrew Dalgleish, following more or less the tracks of Prjevalsky, contributed much that was new to the map of Asia; and in 1886 Captain (afterwards Sir Francis) Younghusband completed a most adventurous journey across the heart of the continent by crossing the Murtagh, the great mountain barrier between China and Kashmir.
The position of Sachu (or Saitu) in Mongolia may be taken as an obligatory point in modern map construction.
of Greenwich, which is the revised value given by Prjevalsky in the map accompanying the account of his fourth exploration into central Asia.
The trend of modern critical opinion is towards accepting Map as the author of a Lancelot romance, which formed the basis for later developments, and there is a growing tendency to identify this hypothetical original Lancelot with the source of the German Lanzelet.
The city of Kano appears on the map of the Arab geographer, Idrisi, A.D.
Melos, long marked as a source of early objects, but not systematically excavated until taken in hand by the British School at Athens in 1896, yielded at Phylakope remains of all the Aegean periods, except the Neolithic. A map of Cyprus in the later Bronze Age (such as is given by J.
Many insects, however, can readily extend their range, and a careful study of their distribution leads us to discriminate between faunas rather than definitely to map regions.
Vannutelli and C. Citerni, L'Omo (Milan, 1899); British War Office map, Africa, sheet 79.
Soc. (1897, 2); Russian Addenda to Ritter's Asia, East Siberia, Baikal, &c. (1895); Chersky's Geological Map of Shores of Lake Baikal, 63 m.
A Russian traveller, Peter Kalm, in his work on America, published in 1748, showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania, and about the same time Raicevich referred to the " liquid bitumen " of Rumania.
Same Scale as main map Longitude Nest 84 Greenwich 0 Of the rivers the most important are the St Johns, which flows N.
The Council of the Indies claimed that since 1510 fleets and ships had gone to Florida, and Florida is shown on the Cantino map of 1502.
An interesting confirmation of Dorpfeld's view is furnished by the map of Guillet and Coronelli, published in 1672, in which the Enneacrunus is depicted as a well with a stream of running water in the neighbourhood of the Pnyx.
MAP, a representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the whole of the earth's surface.
The words map and chart are derived from mappa and charta, the former being the Latin for napkin or cloth, the latter for papyrus or parchment.
1 The ancient Greeks called a map Pinax, The Romans Tabula geographica.
Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.
ordnance map the roads appear as if they were 130 ft.
In the former case the cartographer is merely called upon to reduce and generalize the information given by his originals, to make a judicious selection of place names, and to take care that the map is not overcrowded with names and details.
Far more difficult is his task where no surveys are available, and the map has to be compiled from a variety of sources.
He ought not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination, when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the whole of the information available.
Again, on the map illustrating Livingstone's " Last Journals " the Luapula is shown as issuing from the Bangweulu in the north-west, when an examination of the account of the natives who carried the great explorer's remains to the coast would have shown that it leaves that lake on the south.
Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central meridian or the equator.
Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.
As an extreme instance of the misleading character of the scale given on maps embracing a wide area we may refer to a map of a hemisphere.
The scale of that map, as determined by the equator or centre meridian, we will suppose to be i: 125,000,000, while the encircling meridian indicates a scale of i: 80,000,000; and a " mean " scale, equal to the square root of the proportion which the area of the map bears to the actual area of a hemisphere, is r: 112,000,000.
Map Projections are dealt with separately below.
The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign countries local meridians are still adhered to - the more important among which are: The outline includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman generally describes as " ornament."
All objects on a map are required to be shown as projected horizontally upon a plane.
The first of these methods yields a hypsographical, or - if the sea-bottom be included, in which case all contours are referred to a common datum line - a bathy hypsographical map. Carl Ritter, in 1806, employed graduated tints, increasing in lightness on proceeding from the lowlands to the highlands; while General F.
C. von Sonklar, in his map of the Hohe Tauern (r: 144,000; 1864) coloured plains and valleys green; mountain slopes in five shades of brown; glaciers blue or white.
Ravenstein's map of Ben Nevis (1887) first employed the colours of the spectrum, viz.
i csos, equal; f aOin, deep) 1 -- Section of a Cone on his map of Sweden and Norway (1:600,000; 1835), coloured the lowlands up to 300 ft.
Papen, on his hypsographical map of Central Europe (1857) introduced a perplexing range of colours.
On the international map of the world, planned by Professor A.
for example, the map of Switzerland in this work).
On the map of Germany (1:Ioo,000) a slope of 50° is shown in solid black while stippled hachures are used for gentle slopes up to 100.
the map of Afghanistan in this work).
The Dufour map of Switzerland (i :ioo,000) is one of the finest examples of this style of hill-shading.
The same combination is possible if hills engraved in the ordinary manner are printed in colours, as is done in an edition of the i-inch ordnance map, with contours in red and hills hachured in brown.
One of the best modern examples of this kind is Vogel's map of Germany, on a scale of i :500,000.
Not only should the names be carefully selected with special reference to the objects which the map is intended to serve, and to prevent overcrowding by the introduction of names which can serve no useful object, but they should also be arranged in such a manner as to be read easily by a person consulting the map. It is an accepted rule now that the spelling of names in countries using the Roman alphabet should be retained, with such exceptions as have been familiarized by long usage.
In all other cases recourse must be had to a map, a globe or mathematical formula.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.
Even a general map may be trusted, as long as we keep within ten degrees of its centre.
Distances such as these can be measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer be represented.
The Measurement of Areas is easily effected if the map at our disposal is drawn on an equal area projection.
In that case we need simply cover the map with a network of squares - the area of each of which has been determined with reference to the scale of the map - count the squares, and estimate the contents of those only partially enclosed within the boundary, and the result will give the area desired.
Instead of drawing these squares upon the map itself, they may be engraved or etched upon glass, or drawn upon transparent celluloid or tracing-paper.
It is obvious that the area of a group of mountains projected on a horizontal plane, such as is presented by a map, must differ widely from the area of the superficies or physical surface of those mountains exposed to the air.
A hypsographical map affords the readiest solution of this question.
The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
A simple plan is as follows - draw an outline of the country of which a map is to be produced upon a board; mark all points the altitude of which is known or can be estimated by pins or wires clipped off so as to denote the heights; mark river-courses and suitable profiles by strips of vellum and finally finish your model with the aid of a good map, in clay or wax.
A pantograph armed with cutting-files a which carve the relief out of a block of gypsum, was employed in1893-1900by C. Perron of Geneva, in producing his relief map of Switzerland on a scale of 1: ioo,000.
If a number of copies is required it may be advisable to print a map of the country represented in colours, and either to emboss this map, backed with papier-mâché, or paste it upon a copy of the relief - a task of some difficulty.
On the other hand a map drawn on the surface of a sphere representing a terrestrial globe will prove true to nature, for it possesses, in combination, the qualities which the ingenuity of no mathematician has hitherto succeeded in imparting to a projection intended for a map of some extent, namely, equivalence of areas of distances and angles.
Finally the globe is covered with the paper gores upon which the map is drawn.
These accessories are indispensable if it be proposed to solve the problems usually propounded in books on the " use of the globes," but can be dispensed with if the globe is to serve only as a map of the world.
Thus the lettering of the map, having been set up in type, is inked in and transferred to a stone or a zinc-plate, or it is impressed upon transfer-paper and transferred to the stone.
Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).
The original drawings for this map had to be done with exceptional neatness, the draughtsman spending twelve months on that which he would have completed in four months had it been intended to engrave the map on copper; yet an average chart, measuring 530 by 630 mm., which would have taken two years and nine months for drawing and engraving, was completed in less than fifteen months - fifty days of which were spent in " retouching " the copper plate.
Henry Youle Hind, in his work on the Labrador Peninsula (London, 1863) praises the map which the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians drew upon bark.
Tupaya, a Tahitian, who accompanied Captain Cook in the " Endeavour " to Europe, supplied his patron with maps; Raraka drew a map in chalk of the Paumotu archipelago on the deck of Captain Wilkes's vessel; the Marshall islanders, according to Captain Winkler (Marine Rundschau, Oct.
Montezuma presented Cortes with a map, painted on Nequen cloth, of the Gulf coast.
It is possible that these primitive efforts of American Indians might have been further developed, but the Spanish conquest put a stop to all progress, and for a consecutive history of the map and map-making we must turn to the Old World, and trace this history from Egypt and Babylon, through Greece, to our own age.
It was upon a map based upon such a source that Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) measured the distance between Syene and Alexandria which he required for his determination of the length of a degree.
It should be noted that he places Syene only two degrees to the east of Alexandria instead of three degrees, the actual meridian distance between the two places; a difference which would result from an error of only 7° is the orientation of the map used by Ptolemy.
One of the most distinguished among them was Thales of Miletus (6 4 o -543 B.C.), the founder of the Ionian school of philosophy, whose pupil, Anaximander (611-546 B.C.) is credited by Eratosthenes with having designed the first map of the world.
The Aegean Sea occupied the centre of the map, while the line where ocean and firmament seemed to meet represented an enlarged horizon.
after 360), the great philosopher and founder, with Leucippus, of the atomic theory, was also the author of a map of the inhabited world which he supposed to be half as long again from west to east, as it was broad.
Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.
In compiling his map he was able to avail himself of the information obtained by the bematists (surveyors who determined distances by pacing) who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns; of the results of the voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, and of the " Periplus " of Scylax of Caryanda, which described the coast from between India and the head of the Arabian Gulf.
In the end the map of Dicaearcus resembled that of Democritus.
This treatise was intended to illustrate and explain his map of the world.
His map formed a parallelogram measuring 75,800 stadia from Usisama (Ushant island) or Sacrum Promontorium in the west to the mouth of the Ganges and the land of the Coniaci (Comorin) in the east, and 46,000 stadia from Thule in the north to the supposed southern limit of Libya.
This map of Eratosthenes, notwithstanding its many errors, such as the assumed connexion of the Caspian with a northern ocean and the supposition that Carthage, Sicily and Rome lay on the same meridian, enjoyed a high reputation in his day.
Hipparchus, the famous astronomer, on the other hand, (c. 150 B.C.) proved a somewhat captious critic. He justly objected to the arbitrary network of the map of Eratosthenes.
He moreover accuses Eratosthenes, (whose determination of a degree he accepts without hesitation) with trusting too much to hypothesis in compiling his map instead of having recourse to latitudes and longitudes deduced by astronomical observations.
Hipparchus is not known to have compiled a map himself.
The map of Marinus was accompanied by a list of places arranged according to latitude and longitude.
Masudi (loth century) saw a copy of it and declared it to be superior to Ptolemy's map.
" Geography," in the sense in which he uses the term, signifies the delineation of the known world, in the shape of a map, while chorography carries out the same objects in fuller detail, with regard to a particular country.
- Ptolemy's Map.
The map of Marinus and the descriptive accounts which accompanied it have perished, but we learn sufficient concerning them from Ptolemy to be able to appreciate their merits and demerits.
The number of places whose position had been determined by astronomical observation was as yet very small, and the map had thus to be compiled mainly from itineraries furnished by travellers or the dead reckoning of seamen.
He was he deals with the principles of mathematical geography, map projections, and sources of information with special reference FIG.
gives further details with reference to the principal towns of each map, as to geographical position, length of day, climata, &c.
Ptolemy's great merit consists in having accepted the views of Hipparchus with respect to a projection suited for a map of the world.
As a map compiler Ptolemy does not take a high rank.
Thus, Varro (De rustici) mentions a map of Italy engraved on marble, in the temple of Tellus, Pliny, a map of the seat of war in Armenia, of the time of the emperor Nero, and the more famous map of the Roman Empire which was ordered to be prepared for Julius Caesar (44 B.C.), but only completed in the reign of Augustus, who placed a copy of it, engraved in marble, in the Porticus of his sister Octavia (7 B.C.).
The map is supposed to be based upon actual surveys or rather reconnaissances, and if it be borne in mind that.
the Roman Empire at that time was traversed in all directions by roads furnished with mile-stones, that the Agrimensores employed upon such a duty were skilled surveyors, and that the official reports of the commanders of military expeditions and of provincial governors were available, this map, as well as the provincial maps upon which it'was based, must have been a work of superior excellence, the loss of which is much to be regretted.
193-211), now in the Museo Capitolino, and an itinerarium scriptum, or road map of the world, compressed within a strip 745 mm.
The map, apparently of the 3rd century, was copied by a monk at Colmar, in 1265, who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and having been acquired by the learned Conrad Peutinger of FIG.
w The Earth beyond the Ocean where men dwelt before the Flood The Earth beyond the Ocean nearly every case the East occupies the top of the map. Neither parallels nor meridians are indicated, nor is there a scale.
The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes, after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled Christian Topography.
Far more simple is a small map of the world of the 8th century found in a codex in the library of Albi, an archiepiscopal seat in the department of Tarn.
Far greater interest attaches to the so-called AngloSaxon Map of the World in the British Museum (Cotton MSS.), where it is bound up in a codex which also contains a copy of the Periegesis of Priscianus.
Map and Periegesis are FIG.
- Anglo-Saxon Map of the World (9th century).
More than half the nomenclature of the map is derived from Orosius, an annotated Anglo-Saxon version of which had been produced by King Alfred (871-901).
- T map from Isidor of Seville's Origines.
The map or diagram of which Leonardo Dati in his poem on the Sphere (Della Spera) wrote in 1422 " un T dentre a uno 0 mostra it disegno " (a T within an 0 shows the design) is one of the most persistent types among the circular or wheel maps of the world.
- Map illustrating Sallust's Bellum jugurthinurn (1 ith century, Leipzig).
authors is assumed to have been the official map of the Roman Empire, but if we compare the crude outline given to the Mediterranean with the more correct delineation of Ptolemy, who was certainly in a position to avail himself of these official sources, such an assumption is untenable.
The earliest delineation of the description has already been referred to as the AngloSaxon map of the world.
Next in the order of age, follows the oval map which Henry, canon of Mayence Cathedral, dedicated to Mathilda, consort of the emperor Henry V.
Of far greater importance is the map seen in Hereford Cathedral.
- Map of Albi (8th century) Aethicus a work widely read at the time, but this does not prove that the author was able to avail himself of a map based upon that survey.
A map essentially identical with that of Hereford, but larger - its diameter is 156 cm.
(6 in.), and consequently Our little map (fig.
- The Hereford Map (c. 1280).
The Hereford map is surmounted by a picture of the Day of Judgment.
- The Map of Beatus (776).
13 shows his map of the world reduced from a MS. at Wolfenbiittel, to which is added a diagram of the zones from a MS. at Ghent, which illustrates Macrobius' commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis.
This is the oldest original of a map in existence, for it dates back to the 6th century.
Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description of which was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work.
It may have been a map of this kind which accounts for Ptolemy's moderate exaggerations of the size of Taprobana (Ceylon).
Nor can Idrisi's map of the world, were drawn at intervals of zams, supposed to be equal to three hours' sail.
Among the more important productions of more recent times, may be mentioned a map of the empire, said to be based upon actual surveys by Yhang (721), who also manufactured FIG.
In the case of Japan, the earliest reference to a map is of 646, in which year the emperor ordered surveys of certain provinces to be made.
2L - Map illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis.
Phison +barya L op felice Other Catalans are, Jahuda Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes (1413-1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439-1447) and Pietro Roselli, a pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462).
Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252.
This is the character of the map of Petrus Vesconte of 1320 (fig.
21), of Giovanni Leardo (1448) and of a Catalan map of 1450.
Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the author has availed himself not only of the information collected by Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but *was able, by personal intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians who lived in Italy at that time.
Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author, discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula.
- Catalan Map of the World (1375).
24), still adheres to the erroneous Ptolemaic delineation of southern Asia, and the same error is perpetuated by Henricus Marvellus Germanus on a rough map showing the Portuguese discoveries up to 1489.
to 41 °, then the longitudinal extent of the old world as measured on the Genoese map of 1457 would be 136° instead of 177° or more as given by Ptolemy.
Thus Claudius Clavus Swartha (Niger), who was at Rome in 1424, compiled a map of the world, extending westward as far as Greenland.
The learned Cardinal Nicolaus Krebs, of Cusa (Cues) on the Moselle, who died 1464, drew a map of Germany which was first published in 1491; D.
- Genoese Map (1457).
23, Catalan Map of the World (1375).
to introduce two scales of latitude on his map of the northern Atlantic (1504; fig.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
Ruysch's famous map of the world on a modified conical projection.
He published in 1507 a huge map of the world, in 12 sheets, together with a small globe of a diameter of I 10 mm., the segments for which were printed from wood-blocks.
In 1511 Waldseemuller published a large map of Europe, in 1513 he prepared his maps for the Strassburg edition of Ptolemy, and in 1516 he engraved a copy of Canerio's map of the world.
Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.
A map, of the Netherlands from actual survey was produced by Jacob of Deventer (1536-1539).
Petrus Apianus (1524) gave his map an elliptical shape.
Gastaldo (1548) presents us with a map of Italy, which, except as to nomenclature, differs but little from that of Ptolemy, although on the Portolano charts the peninsula had long since assumed its correct shape.
Bologninus Zalterius on a map of 1566, and Mercator on his famous chart of 1569, separates the two continents by a narrow strait which they call Streto de Anian, thus anticipating the discovery of Bering Strait by more than a hundred and fifty years.
Leonardo da Vinci's rough map of the world in 8 segments (c. 1513) seems likewise to have been intended for a globe.
The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.
120 mm.), and a large map of Europe which has been praised deservedly for its accuracy (1554).
Germany is thus represented, among others, by C. Henneberger (map of Prussia, 1576), by M.
Rauh (fine hill features on a map of the environs of Wangen and Lindau, 1617), FIG.
Among more recent Dutch map publishers are Nicolaus Vischer (Piscator), R.
1719), and these were utilized in a Carte de France " as corrected from the observations of the members of the Academy of Sciences " (1666-1699), in a map of the world (1694) by D.
Vischer (map of Austria and Styrai, 1669-1786); Switzerland by H.
Speed (Theatrum of Great Britain, 1610), Timothy Pont and Robert Gordon of Strathloch (map of Scotland, 1608), and A.
Isaac Voss, in his work De Nili (1659), published a map of central Africa, in which he anticipated D'Anville by rejecting all the fanciful details which found a place upon Filippo Pigafetta's map of that continent.
(3-57 metres) and is hollow, the inner surface of the shell being covered with a star map, and the outer surface with a map of the world.
32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.
Giissfeld's map of Brandenburg (1773), John Majer's Wiirttemburg (17,0), and J.
Of the Austrian Netherlands, Count Joseph de Ferrari published a chorographic map on the same scale as Cassini's Carte de la France (1777).
Map projections were dealt with by two eminent mathematicians, J.
Hachures of a rude nature first made their appearance on David Vivier's map of the environs of Paris (1674), and on Cassini's Carte de la France.
Carla, compiled a contoured map of France (1791), and it only needed the introduction of graduated tints between these contours to secure a graphic picture of the features of the ground.
Penck proposed to prepare a map of the world, including the oceans, on a scale of 1: 1,000,000, and his scheme was promised the support of a committee which met in London in 1909, and upon which were represented the leading powers of the world.
A map of Italy in the baptistery of St Peter at Rome has occasionally been described as a relief, though it is merely a rude outline map of Italy, by Carlo Fontana (1698), carved into a convex surface.
At first it was merely intended to produce a map sufficiently accurate on a scale of 1 in.
The one-inch map for the whole of the United Kingdom was completed in 1890.
a map of England and Wales, on a scale of 2 m.
to i in., in two editions, both printed in colour, the one with hills stippled in brown, the other coloured on the " layer system " as a strata-relief map; a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of 4 m.
to i in., also in two editions, the one in outline, showing five classes of roads and parish boundaries, the other in colours, with stippled hills; a map on a scale of io m.
to i in., also in two editions, and finally a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of I: 1,000,000.
Proposals for a new map of France, to replace the famous Cassini map of1744-1793were made in 1802 and again by France.
It has served as a basis for a Carte de la France, published by the Service Vicinal on a scale of i: 100,00°, in 59 6 sheets, and of a general map prepared by the ministere des travaux publics on a scale of I: 200,000 in 80 sheets.
A third topographical map of France is being published in accordance with the recommendation of a committee presided over by General de la Noix in 1897.
The surveys for this map were begun in 1905.
These minutes are published on a scale of r: 10,000 or i: 20,000 for mountain districts, while the scale of the general map is 1: 50,000.
A geological map of France on a scale of I: 80,000 is nearly completed, there are also a map (1: 500,000) by Carez and Vasseur, and an official Carte geologique (1: i,000,000; 1906).
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
The earlier sheets of this excellent map were lithographed, but these are gradually being superseded by maps engraved on copper.
The map was completed in 1909, but is continually undergoing renewal.
The map produced on this large scale numbers over 5000 sheets, and is used as a basis for the geological surveys carried on in several of the states of Germany.
A general map of the German Empire (Uebersichtskarte) on a scale of 200,000, in 196 sheets, is in progress since 1893.
Reymann's well-known Specialkarte von Mittel Europa (: 200,000), acquired by the Prussian government in 1874 (it will ultimately consist of 796 sheets), a government and Liebenow's map of central Europe (1:300,000) and C. Vogel's beautiful map of Germany (1: 500,000).
This map was repeatedly revised, Antgria- g P P Y ?
A general map of central Europe in 283 sheets published by the Austrian government (1: 200,000) includes nearly the whole of the Balkan Peninsula.
The famous map of Switzerland, with which is associated the name of General H.
The new survey of Belgium was completed in 1872 and there have been published 527 plane-table sections or planchettes on a scale of 1: 20,000 (1866-1880), a " Carte topographique de la Belgique," in 72 sheets, on a scale of g 1:40,000 (1861-1883), and a more recent map in 26 sheets on a scale of 1:100,000 (1903-1912).
The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).
These include plane-table sections (Maalebordsblade), 1209 sheets on a scale of 1:20,000, with contours at intervals of 5 to io ft., published since 1830; Atlasblade of Jutland and of De Danske Der, on a scale of I :40,000, the former in 131 sheets, since 1870, the latter, on the same scale, in 94 sheets, since 1890, and still in progress, and a general staff map on a scale of 1: ioo,000, in 68 sheets, since 1890.
The maps issued by this authority include one of southern Sweden, 1:100,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general map on a scale of 1:1,000,000.
In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.
The most readily available map of the whole country is the io-verst map (1:420,000), known as General J.
A topographic map (i: 126,000) embracing the whole of western Russia, with Poland and the country of the Don Cossacks, is designed to be extended over the whole empire.
Certain governments-Moscow, Kief, Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.-have been published on a scale of 1: 24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895, and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion.
To the latter we are indebted for a valuable map of Caucasia, 1:210,000, which since the first publication (1863-1885) has undergone careful revision.
A map of Asiatic Russia, 1:420,000, by Bolshef, in 192 sheets, is in course of publication.
A similar map, mainly based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H.
Philippson's map of the Peloponnese (1:300,000; 1901).
A map of Turkey in Europe, scale 1: 210,000, was published by the Turkish general staff (1899), and another map, scale 1:250,000, by the intelligence division of the British war office is in progress since 1906.
Kiepert's Asia Minor (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 1910), published by the Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000, published 1880-1885).
Of Cyprus an excellent map from surveys by Major (Lord) H.
In the case of Persia and Afghanistan we are still dependent upon compilations such as a Russian staff map (1:840,000, published in 1886), Colonel Sir T.
Holdich's map of Persia (1:1,014,000, Simla, 1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056,000), published by the geographical division of the general staff.
The British North Borneo Company published a Map of British North Borneo, on a scale of 1:633,600 (1905).
The Bureau of the Indo-Chinese general staff, has published a map of Indo-China, including Cambodia, in 45 sheets (1: 200,000, 1895), while to the service geographique de l'Indo-Chine, organized in 1899, we owe a Carte de l'Indo-Chine (I :500,000).
has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of [[[Topographical Surveys]] Berlin, 1885-1890) or Bretschneider's Map of China (1:4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900.
The primary triangulation was completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (1 :200,000) was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and others.
The Japanese government has likewise published a map of Korea (1:1,000,000; 1898).
The Philippine Islands are represented in a carefully compiled map by C. W.
Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).
A similar map has been in progress for Sumatra since 1883, while the maps for the remaining Dutch Indies are still based, almost exclusively, upon flying surveys.
In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully surveyed and marked on the ground, since 1880, and yield a good basis as a guide for the map compiler.
A general map of Africa, by Colonel Lannoy de Bissy, on a scale of i: 2,000,000 was first published in 1882-1888, but is carefully revised from time to time.
It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (I:10o,000), a general map (1: 2 50,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Of the Gambia Colony there is a map by Major E.
This survey is rapidly superseding other maps, such as the surveyor-general's map of Cape Colony (I:127,000); A.
Duncan's map of the Orange River State (1:148,705; 1902-1904) and Jeppe's map of the Transvaal (1:476,000; 1899).
The results of a survey of southern Rhodesia are given on the map of the British general staff (1:500,000; 1909), while of north-eastern Rhodesia we have an excellent map compiled by C. L.
A map of Senegal (1:100,000) is in progress since 1905.
A map of the French Congo by J.
Of the Congo State we have an official map on a scale of 1:1,000,000, published in 1907.
and the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe.
There exists also a general map, on a scale of 1:506,930.
The map of British New Guinea is on a scale of 1:330,200 (1898).
New Zealand has a good general map on a scale of 1:633,700.
The " Lands Department " of the Fiji Islands has published a map on a scale of 1:380,000 (1008).
annually, and in course of time it will supersede the map of the separate states, based on older surveys.
A " reconnaissance " map of Alaska (on a scale of 1: 250,000) was published in 1908.
There are also a map of the state of S.
A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical section of the British general staff on a scale of i: 170,300.
In South America, in proportion to the area of the country, only few surveys of a thoroughly scientific nature have been made, and it is therefore satisfactory that the service geographique of the French army should be publishing, since 1900, a map of the entire continent on a scale of 1: 1,000,000.
Sir Martin Conway's "Map of the Andes of La Paz" (1: 600,000; 'goo) as well as Major P. H.
In Chile a comision topografico was appointed as long ago as 1848, but the map produced under its auspices by Professor F.
In Venezuela a commission for producing a Plano militar or military map of the country was appointed by General Castro in 1904, but little progress seems to have been made, and meantime we are dependent upon a revised edition of A.
Codazzi's map of 1840 which was published in 1884.
de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a map of Brazil on a scale of I: 200,000 has never been acted upon, and in the meantime we are dependent upon works like the Atlas do imperio do Brazil by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases.
Map Projections >>
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
(3) Italian protectorate - Somalia italiana,1885-1895 (official " Green Book "); C. Rossetti, Somalia italiana settentrionale, with map (Rome, 1906); U.
A "map" of the spores should be taken by separating a pileus and placing it flat on a piece of thin paper for a few hours when the spores will fall and leave a nature print of the arrangement of the gills which may be fixed by gumming the other side of the paper.
On the formation of the kingdom of Italy in 1860 they were reduced to the Comarca of Rome, the legation of Velletri, and the three delegations of Viterbo, Civita Vecchia and Frosinone; and in 1870 they disappeared from the political map of Europe.
142) further states that roads must have run direct from Nola to Neapolis and Pompeii, but Kiepert's map annexed to the volume does not indicate them.
The best map is that of the Austrian General Staff.
(1822), who, with his father, explored the coast between 69° and 75° N., and gave the first fairly trustworthy map of it.
Nathorst, " Bidrag till nordostra Gronlands geologi," with map Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar, No.
3 See " General Sketch of the Orography of Siberia," with map and " Sketch of the Orography of Minusinsk, &c.," by Prince P. A.
A map indicating the direction of the force in different parts of the field due to a magnet may be constructed in a very simple manner.
The direction of the induction is also of course indicated by the direction of the lines, which thus serve to map out space in a convenient manner.
Amongst his topographical works mention may be made of: Topographie von Aiken (1841); Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja (1850), a commentary on a map of the locality executed by T.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
Probably, however, the best service Elie de Beaumont rendered to science was in connexion with the geological map of France, in the preparation of which he had the leading share.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
In a map of 1544, preserved among the Cotton MSS.
(For map see South Africa.) The province consists of two great divisions, namely Natal proper and Zululand.
You may keep Turkey on the map of Europe, you may call the country by the name of Turkey if you like, but do not think you can keep up the Mahommedan rule in the country."
The ethnographical map of Hungary does much to explain the political problems of the country.
Associated with Ray in his work, and more especially occupied with the study of the Worms and Mollusca, was Martin Lister (1638-1712), celebrated also as the author of the first geological map.
(For map see South Africa.) Physical Features.
MAP (or MAPES), Walter (d.
Map's career was an active and varied one; he was clerk of the royal household and justice itinerant; in 1179 he was present at the Lateran council at Rome, on his way thither being enter tained by the count of Champagne; at this time he apparentm held a plurality of ecclesiastical benefices, being a prebend of St Paul's, canon and precentor of Lincoln and parson of Westbury, Gloucestershire.
The special interest of Map lies in the perplexing question of his relation to the Arthurian legend and literature.
Sundry manuscripts of the yet more extensive compilation which begins with the Grand Saint Graal also refer to Map as having composed the cycle in conjunction with Robert de Borron, to whom, as a rule, the Grand Saint Graal and Merlin are exclusively assigned.
It seems difficult also to believe that Map's name should be so constantly connected with our Arthurian tradition without any ground whatever; though it must be admitted that he himself never makes any such claim - the references in the romances are all couched in the third person, and bear no sign of being other than the record by the copyist of a traditional attribution.
A different and very interesting piece of evidence is afforded by the Ipomedon of Hue de Rotelande; in relating how his hero appeared at a tournament three days running, in three different suits of armour, red, black and white, the author remarks, Sul ne sai pas de mentir l'art Walter Map reset ben sa part.
This apparently indicated that Map, also, had made himself responsible for a similar story.
Map was, as we have seen, frequently in France; Chretien had for patroness Marie, countess of Champagne, step-daughter to Henry II., Map's patron; Map's position was distinctly superior to that of Chretien.
Taking all the evidence into consideration it seems more probable that Map had, at a comparatively early date, before he became so important an official, composed a poem on the subject of Lancelot, which was the direct source of the German version, and which Chretien also knew and followed.
The form in which certain of the references to him are couched favours the above view; the compiler of Guiron le Cortois says in his prologue that "maistre Gautier Map qui fu clers au roi Henrydevisa cil l'estoire de monseigneur Lancelot du Lac, que d'autre chose ne parla it mie gramment en son livre"; and in another place he refers to Map, "qui fit lou pro pre livre de monsoingnour Lancelot dou Lac."
After saying how Map translated the romance from the Latin at the bidding of King Henry, the usual statement, the scribe adds "qui riche loier l'en donor."
It is of course possible that Map's rise at court may have been due to his having hit the literary taste of the monarch, who, we know, was interested in the Arthurian tradition, but it must be admitted that direct evidence on the subject is practically nil, and that in the present condition of our knowledge we can only advance possible hypotheses.
"Map" in Dict.
De nugis curialium and the Latin Poems attributed to Map have been edited for the Camden Society by T.
The passages relating to Map cited above have been frequently quoted by scholars, e.g.
Albert Nyanza was consequently entered on his map as a vast lake extending about 380 m.
' See map in London Statistics (vol.
in Main Map: in.
constituting what is known as " Water London " (see map in London Statistics, vol.
If we take from the Itinerary the last station before Londinium in all the routes we shall be able to obtain some idea of the position of the gate entered from each route by drawing a line on the map of London to the nearest point.
Braun and Hogenberg's map was published in 1572-1573, and the so-called Agas's map was probably produced soon afterwards, and was doubtless influenced by the publication of Braun and Hogenberg's excellent engraving; Norden's maps of London and Westminster are dated 1593.
It is curious that the only two existing copies of Agas's map 2 were published in the reign of James I., although apparently they had not been altered from the earlier editions of Elizabeth's reign which have been lost.
The cost of these two marches in the year was very considerable, and, having been suspended in 1528 on account of the prevai 1 " A map of London engraved on copper-plate, dated 1497," which was bought by Ferdinand Columbus during his travels in Europe about 1518-1525, is entered in the catalogue of Ferdinand's books, maps, &c., made by himself and preserved in the Cathedral Library at Seville, but there is no clue to its existence.
This circumstance allows us to test the date of certain views; thus Wyngaerde's map has the spire, but Agas's map is without it.
The Bankside was of old a favourite place for entertainments, but two only - the bull-baiting and the bear-baiting - were in existence when Agas's map was first planned.
On Norden's map,' however, we find the gardens of Paris Garden, the bearhouse and the playhouse.
The new hospital chapel and ' This map of London by Norden is dated 1593, as stated above.
The same topographer published in his Middlesex a map of Westminster as well as this one of the City of London.
(direct map measurement) from the outpost of Russia at Langar Kisht on the river Panja, with the Dorah pass across the Hindu Kush intervening.
The first map on which the course of the Ghazal is indicated with anything like accuracy is that of the French cartographer d'Anville, published in 1772.
In 1862 a Frenchman named Lejean surveyed the main river, of which he published a map. In 1863 Miss Alexandrine Tinne (q.v.) with a large party of friends and scientists ascended the Ghazal with the intention of seeing how far west the basin of the Nile extended.
Since then a number of other monuments have been found, some on new sites, others on sites already known to be Hittite, the distribution of which can be seen by reference to the accompanying map. It will be observed that, so far as at present known, they cluster most closely in Commagene, Cappadocia and S.
The following notes supplement the map: A.
(For map, see Pacific Ocean.) It is about 250 m.
Jomard's map, published in 1839, based on the information given by the French officers employed with Ibrahim Pasha's army in Asir from 1824 to 1827, and of J.
Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.
If the journeys detailed above be traced on the map they will be found to cover the northern half of the peninsula above the line Mecca-Hofuf, with a network of routes, General which, though sometimes separated by wide intervals, results are still close enough to ensure that no important of ex- geographical feature can have been overlooked, ploration.
Mulert, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte, Map III.
(For map, see Algeria.) Physical Features.
Baleato also constructed a map of Peru.
See sketch map in article WAG RAM.
For practical purposes the northern limit of Glossina, as at present known, may be shown on the map by drawing a line from Cape Verde to the Nile a little to the south-east of El Obeid, and thence to the coast of Somaliland at 4° N; while the southern boundary of the genus may similarly be represented by the Cunene river, in the south of Angola, and a line thence to the north-eastern end of St Lucia lake, in Zululand.
Returning to the Dominion, he published in 1836 Remarks on the Geology and Mineralogy of Nova Scotia, and continuing his researches he was enabled in 1843 to bring before the Geological Society of London "A Geological Map of Nova Scotia, with an accompanying Memoir" (Proc. Geol.
He returned to Paris in 1744 and published the results of his measurements and travels with a map of the Amazon in Mein.
During the 19th century the measurements of the various parts of the Carpathians was undertaken by the ordnance survey of the Austrian army, which published their first map of the central Carpathians in 1870.
In 1662, as appears by a map still extant, there were i 50 houses within the wall, forming five streets and as many lanes; and the upland districts around were one dense forest of giant oaks and sycamores, yielding an unfailing supply of timber to the woodmen of Carrickfergus.
See map, Plate I.
He is by some credited with a work entitled Ns 7repioSos ("Travels round the Earth"), in two books, one on Europe, the other on Asia, in which were described the countries and inhabitants of the known world, the account of Egypt being especially comprehensive; the descriptive matter was accompanied by a map, based upon Anaximander's map of the earth, which he corrected and enlarged.
resolved to wipe from the map of Europe an inconvenient rival, and without any warning, in defiance of all international equity, let loose his veterans upon Denmark a second time.
(For map see Maryland.) It is bounded N.
These proportions are not readily grasped from a map of the world on Mercator's projection, and must be studied on a globe.
as limits; but in none of these schemes has the coast of Antarctica been adequately considered, and they have all been too much influenced by the Mercator map. Each of the three oceans, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific, possesses an Antarctic facies in the southern part and a tropical facies between the tropics, and the Atlantic and Pacific an Arctic facies in their northern parts.
It is there that Fra Mauro's great map (1459) presents a fine city with the rubric, "Qui it Preste Janni fa residentia principal."
LUXEMBURG, a district in the European low countries, of which the eastern part forms the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, and the western is the Belgian province of that name (for map, see Belgium).
A little vegetation is met with in the stream valleys, but most of the rivers marked on the map have ceased to show running water in their lower courses.
Pring and Champlain at a later date coasted along what is now Massachusetts, but the map of Champlain is hardly recognizable.
The first sufficient explorations for cartographical record were made by John Smith in 1614, and his map was long the basis - particularly in its nomenclature - of later maps.
In Waldseemiiller's map of 1507 the name is given to a body of land roughly corresponding to the continent of South America.
Wellington and Blucher were disposed as follows in the early days of June (Map I.).
1 Corps Map I.
'Scale, 1:x19,000 ° 4 r, 1 MAP II.
But a glance at the map shows that this was impossible.
The remains of the villa of Pliny, too, were excavated in 1713 and in 1802-1819, and it is noteworthy that the place bears the name Villa di Pino (sic) on the staff map; how old the name is, is uncertain.