B, Antenna of male; c, antenna swollen tail-ends black with the contained food-material, are often dug up in numbers in well-manured fields.
Ray, who made a tour along the eastern coast in that year, says, " We observed little or no fallow ground in Scotland; some ley ground we saw, which they manured with sea wreck.
The ground has to be thoroughly cleared of stones, manured and trenched, and the corms are planted in ridges.
Upon the London Clay the land is generally heavy and stiff, but very fruitful when properly manured and cultivated.
Maize or Indian corn was cultivated on patches of ground where, as in the Hindu jam, the trees and bushes were burnt and the seed planted in the soil manured by the ashes.
The ground should be kept free of weeds by frequent hoeing and, if not subject to periodical alluvial floods, manured yearly.
The pyrethrum grows best in soil of a loamy texture; this should be well manured and deeply trenched up before planting, and should be mulched in the spring by a surface dressing of half-decayed manure.
The seeds are sown in April, on rich ground, which should not be too highly manured; the young larches are planted out when two years old, or sometimes transferred to a nursery bed to attain a larger size; but, like all conifers, they succeed best when planted young; on the mountains, the seedlings are usually put into a mere slit made in the ground by a spade with a triangular blade, the place being first cleared of any heath, bracken, or tall herbage that might smother the young tree; the plants should be from 3 to 4 ft.
The clay marls are, like clay soils, too stiff for garden purposes until well worked and heavily manured; but loamy marls are fertile and well suited to fruit trees, and sandy marls are adapted for producing early crops.
Bedding plants thrive best in a light loam, liberally manured with thoroughly rotten dung from an old hotbed or thoroughly decomposed cow droppings and leaf-mould.
River water, especially that which has received town sewage, or the drainage of highly manured land, would naturally be considered most suitable for irrigation, but excellent results are obtained also with waters which are uncontaminated with manurial matters, and which contain but 8 or io grains per gallon of the usual dissolved constituents of spring water.
It is common to cut down the green wheat and barley before the ear forms, for fodder, and the repetition of this, with barley at least, is said not to injure the grain crop. Bellew gives the following statement of the manner in which the soil is sometimes worked in the Kandahar district: - Barley is sown in November; in March and April it is twice cut for fodder; in June the grain is reaped, the ground is ploughed and manured and sown with tobacco, which yields two cuttings.
A number of experiments in jute cultivation were made during 1906, and the report showed that very encouraging results were obtained from land manured with cow-dung.
Soils which are naturally wet and heavy, as well as those which are heavily manured, are not suitable.
The land intended for poppy culture is usually selected near villages, in order that it may be more easily manured and irrigated.
Newly-manured soil was found to act prejudicially on the poppy.
Under a high state of cultivation, being manured with the hearts and brains of men!
In Lombardy a six-year shift is common: either wheat, clover, maize, rice, rice, rice (the last year manured with lupines) or maize, wheat followed by clover, clover, clover ploughed in, and rice, rice and rice manured with lupines.
Tulips flourish in any good garden soil that has been deeply dug or trenched and manured the previous season.