The manufacturing interests of Nevada are unimportant.
Manufacturing is largely localized in the northwestern part of the state along the Ohio river.
Finally, you are making money hand over fist manufacturing the C2000.
Long term, we will be better off manufacturing our food as opposed to growing it.
Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states.
Agricultural strikes, though less frequent than those in manufacturing industries, have special importance in Italy.
These places employed 35.9% of the labour engaged in manufacturing, and the value of their products was 38.8% of the total for the state.
Its nearness to Washington, the material and manufacturing resources concentrated in it, and the moral importance attached to its possession by both sides, caused it to be regarded as the centre of gravity of the military operations in the east to which the greatest leaders and the finest armies were devoted from 1861 to 1865.
This means that non-military manufacturing interests in the United States no longer profit as in the past from war.
Whether it is the notion of manufacturing meat or having the computer tell you what you should order at the restaurant, you may have cringed and thought, "Man, that's kind of creepy."
In 1902 the state took up the sale of quinine at a low price, manufacturing it at the central military pharmaceutical laboratory at Turin.
The greatest proportion of strikes takes place in northern Italy, especially Lombardy and Piedmont, where manufacturing industries are most developed.
of Morelia in a mountainous district celebrated for the fine quality of its coffee; Puruandiro (7782), a commercial and manufacturing town 40 m.
He won the good-will of his employers by devoting himself to the improvement of their manufacturing business, and he kept his hands clean from the prevalent taint of pecuniary transactions with the nawab of the Carnatic. One fact of some interest is not generally known.
Car construction and general shop work of steam railways was the leading manufacturing industry in 1905; next in importance were the flour and grist milling industry and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals.
Of the manufacturing establishments in the state in 1900, 109, or 47.8%, were situated in Reno, Carson City and Virginia City, named in the order of their importance.
Two rapid streams, Poesten Kill and Wynants Kill, flowing into the Hudson from the east, through deep ravines, furnish good water-power, which, with that furnished by the state dam across the Hudson here, is utilized for manufacturing purposes.
Among Kenosha's manufactures are brass and iron beds (the Simmons Manufacturing Co.), mattresses, typewriters, leather and brass goods, wagons, and automobiles - the "Rambler" automobile being made at Kenosha by Thomas B.
A quantity of it is really brushwood, used for the manufacture of charcoal and for fuel, coal being little used except for manufacturing purposes.
By the early twentieth century, most manufacturing of fertilizer had switched to the synthetic production of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate.
Manufacturing industry in the modern sense can hardly be said to have existed in Russia ' See Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, in English (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1901).
Manufacturing enterprise in Argentina, favoured by the protection of a high tariff, made noticeable progress in the national capital during the closing years of the last century, especially in those small industries which commanded a secure market.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
Richmond is the leading manufacturing city of Virginia, the value of its factory products in 1905 being 828,202,607, an increase of 22.4% since 1900 and nearly 19% of the value of the state's factory products in this year.
"You may need them, some time," he said, "and there is really no use in my manufacturing these things unless somebody uses them."
In most cases, however, a very dense population can only be maintained in regions where mineral resources have fixed the site of great manufacturing industries.
In 1905 the capital invested in manufacturing was $7,625,864, and the value of the products was $19,132,455.
Cotton-weaving and cigar-making are the principal manufacturing industries, after the large engenhos devoted to the manufacture of sugar and rum.
Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
The grout, which he mentions as " coming over to us in Holland ships," about which he desires information, was probably the same as shelled barley; and mills for manufacturing it were introduced into Scotland from Holland towards the beginning of the 18th century.
The following sketch of the manufacturing industry of France takes account chiefly of those of its branches which are capable in some degree of localization.
Occupations.The following table, which shows the approximate numbers of persons engaged in the various manufacturing industries of France, who number in all about 5,820,000, indicates their relative importance from the point of view of employment:
1842 -),whom he had met when he was at Widnes, and thus founded the great chemical manufacturing firm of Brunner, Mond & Co.
These plastids are especially charged with the duty of manufacturing carbohydrates from the carbon dioxide which the air contains, and which is absorbed from it after it has entered the intercellular passages and has so reached the cells containing the plastids.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
A valuable water-power is utilized for manufacturing purposes.
Winston is the county-seat and a manufacturing centre.
The prosperity of the city depends on that of the rich mining country about it, on a very extensive wholesale trade, for which its situation and railway facilities admirably fit it, and on its large manufacturing and farming interests.
The department of Seine, comprising Paris and its suburbs, which has the largest manufacturing population, is largely occupied with the manufacture of dress, millinery and articles of luxury (perfumery, &c.), but it plays the leading part in almost every great branch of industry with the exception of Average Production (Thousands of Basins.
Other towns, like Zaria, may do as much trade, but Kano is pre-eminent as a manufacturing centre.
Derbyshire has always been mainly a mining and manufacturing county, though the rich land in the south formerly produced large quantities of corn.
There are a number of small manufacturing industries in Cuzco, including the manufacture of cotton and woollen fabrics, leather, beer, embroidery and articles of gold and silver.
One of the most important manufacturing industries is grading, roasting, cleaning and shelling peanuts (in 1905 valued at $791,760).
In fact, everywhere the demand for goods, especially of those for domestic consumption, fell away; and there was a reduction in the average number of persons employed in the manufacturing industries to the extent of more than 20%.
The working of children under twelve years of age in any factory or manufacturing establishment is unlawful, the working of children between the ages of twelve and thirteen in such places is allowed only on condition that they be employed as apprentices and have attended school for at least four months during the preceding year; and no boy or girl under fourteen is to work in such places during night time.
The principal product is cigars; most of the tobacco used is imported from Cuba, and the manufacturing is done chiefly by Cubans who live in a district known as Ybor City.
Although of early origin, its appearance, like that of other great manufacturing towns of the vicinity, is wholly modern.
Until nearly a century after the founding of the Carolinas there was not a town in North Carolina that had a population of 1000, and the urban population of the state was exceptionally small at the beginning of the rapid rise of the manufacturing industries about 1880.
Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.
Sonsonate is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and one of the busiest manufacturing towns in the republic. It produces cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, boots and shoes, sugar, starch, cigars and spirits.
NEW GLASGOW, a manufacturing and mining town of Pictou county, Nova Scotia, Canada, on the East river, near its entrance into Pictou Harbour, and the Intercolonial railway, 104 m.
It is in the heart of the manufacturing district of the West Riding, and has large woollen and worsted factories; carpets, machinery and soap are also produced.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
Manufacturing industries 3,695,213 2,124,642 5,819,855
The chief manufacturing centres are Cassel, Diez, Eschwege, Frankfort, Fulda, Gross Almerode, Hanau and Hersfeld.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.
During the quarter of a century between 1880 and 1905 a great change was wrought in the industrial life of the state by a phenomenal growth of cotton manufacturing.
T he great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 the value of the products of these cities amounted to 56.7% of that for the entire state.
The principal manufacturing places are Pravali, BrÃ¼ckl, Klagenfurt, Lippitzbach, Wolfsberg, St Veit and Buchscheiden near Feldkirchen.
Manufacturing is to-day the most distinctive industry, as was commerce in colonial times.
It is one of the chief manufacturing places in Rhenish Prussia, its principal industries being the spinning and weaving of cotton, the manufacture of silks, velvet, ribbon and damasks, and dyeing and bleaching.
It is a thriving manufacturing town, its chief industries being leather-making, yarn-spinning, cottonand linen-weaving, the manufactures of cigars, brushes, liquors and oil, and glueand soap-boiling.
Bouillon is the only town on its banks, and since it is not navigable it has escaped the contamination of manufacturing life; its valley remains an ideal specimen of sylvan scenery and medieval tranquillity.
For the revision of the constitution it is necessary that two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature vote for the call of a constitutional convention, that a majority of all electors voting at the next general election approve the call for the convention, and that the convention consist of as many members as the house of representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after the general 1 At International Falls on Rainy River and at Duluth on the St Louis immense water-power is utilized for manufacturing.
As a manufacturing centre the city has considerable importance.
It is well known for its well-established, lucrative manufacturing and distribution industries.
Labor legislation is backward in Italy, on account of the late development of manufacturing industry and of working-class organization.
This led to deficiencies in the supply of coal to the manufacturing centres, and to some diversion elsewhere of shipping.
The only manufacturing industries of importance are cotton mills, sugar factories and distilleries, one of the largest sugar usines in Brazil being located at Riachuelo near Larangeiras.
Mannheim is connected by a handsome bridge with Ludwigshafen, a rapidly growing bornmercial and manufacturing town on the left bank of the Rhine, in Bavarian territory.
The older part of the city and the principal business and manufacturing district occupies the low lands; the newer part, chiefly residential, is built upon the heights.
The manufacturing industry of SaxeMeiningen is active, especially in the districts of Sonneberg, Grafenthal and Saalfeld.
A sign of industrial development is to be found in the growing number of manufacturing companies, both Italian and foreign.
The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing industry is that of iron and steel.
Lumber and flour are Cairo's principal manufactured products, and the city is an important hardwood and cotton-wood market; the Singer Manufacturing Co.
In 1900 New Haven was the most important manufacturing centre in Connecticut, and in 1905 it was second only to Bridgeport in the value of its factory product.
In 1905 the total capital inyested in manufacturing was $31,412,715 and the total product $39,666,118 (a gain of 13.7% since 1900).
Pittsfield has water-power and important manufacturing industries.
South St Joseph, a manufacturing suburb, has a library and so has the northern part of the city.
Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the city's growth and wealth until after 1890, when there was a great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three years of the decade.
When the first Europeans visited the Malay Archipelago the Malays had already acquired the art of manufacturing gunpowder and forging canon.
The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.
The oil mixture used differs in the several manufacturing countries, and the commercial name of the product is correspondingly varied.
Soaps are also prepared in which large proportions of fine sharp sand, or of powdered pumice, are incorporated, and these substances, by their abrading action, powerfully assist the detergent influence of the soap on hands much begrimed by manufacturing operations.'
Rockford is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop. In and near the city there are two hospitals and three sanatoriums. Manufacturing is facilitated by good water-power, supplied by a dam across the Rock river about 800 ft.
The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.
The capital, Aguascalientes, named from the medicinal hot springs near it, is a flourishing commercial and manufacturing city.
Louis, $2,000,000; the Missouri athletic club, $500,000; the Railway Exchange, $3,000,000, 18 storeys, covering an entire city block; the University club, $600,- 000; the Young Women's Christian Association, $500,000; the Boatmen's bank, $750,000; the Arcade, $1,250,000; the Post-Despatch building, $500,000; the Bevo Manufacturing Company, $r,000,000.
The name of the city was suggested from the rapids in the river, which afford abundant water power and have enabled the city to take first rank in Iowa (1905) as a manufacturing centre.
In 1880 the capital invested in manufacturing industries was approximately $2,468,000; in 1890 it was $9,508,962; in 1900 it had increased to $16,045,156; and in 1905, when only establishments under the "factory system" were counted in the census, to $21,631,162.
Since 1904 part of the power utilized for manufacturing has been obtained from the Chattahoochee river, 15 m.
Manufacturing interests soon became important, and during the Civil War Atlanta was the seat of Confederate military factories and a depot of supplies.
It is now a manufacturing centre (cloth, woollen and cotton stuffs, &c.) and has a considerable trade.
The water-front, especially on the east side, is given up to manufacturing and shipping establishments.
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in tobacco manufacturing, sugar-refining and boat-building, and in the timber trade.
The method of manufacturing a globe is much the same as it was at the beginning of the 16th century.
It ranks among the first twelve towns in Sweden both in population and in the value of its manufacturing industries.
The gas is excellent, is used for lighting the town, supplies light and fuel for the people, and a number of industries are using the gas for manufacturing.
This quarter has been pierced by several straight roads, one of which, crossing the Mahmudiya canal by the Pont Neuf, leads to Gabbari, the most westerly part of the city and an industrial and manufacturing region, possessing asphalt works and oil, rice and paper mills.
Leon is essentially a manufacturing and commercial city; it has a cathedral and a theatre, the latter one of the largest and finest in the republic. The city is regularly built, with wide streets and numerous shady parks and gardens.
Trade was paralysed and all manufacturing establishments were closed down.
The state's manufacturing interests have during the last few decades grown greatly in importance.
Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
The manufacturing industries of Cuba have never been more than insignificant as compared with what they might be.
Commerce (resting largely upon specialized agriculture) is vastly more prominent as yet than manufacturing and mining in the island's economy.
The manufacturing quarters are chiefly in the valley of the Cuyahoga, and along the railway tracks entering the city, chiefly on the E.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
The total value of factory products in 1905 was $172,115,101, an increase of 36.4% since 1900; and between 1900 and 1905 Cleveland became the first manufacturing city in the state.
The growth during the Civil War was partly due to the rapid development of the manufacturing interests of the city, which supplied large quantities of iron products and of clothing to the Federal government.
At the Falls of St Anthony, St Cloud, Little Falls and other places, it provides ample water-power for manufacturing purposes.
The extraordinary numbers of utilizable water-powers, the unusual transport facilities affording ample means of reaching the great markets, and finally the proximity to the raw materials of manufacture, have made Minnesota of great importance as a manufacturing state.
The federal census showed for the decades1880-1890and1890-1900an increase in the number of manufacturing establishments from 3493 in 1880 to 7505 in 1890, and 11,114 in 1900.
The development of manufacturing industries at Hamburg and its immediate vicinity since 1880, though not so rapid as that of its trade and shipping, has been very remarkable, and more especially has this been the case since the year 1888, when Hamburg joined the German customs union, and the barriers which prevented goods manufactured at Hamburg from entering into other parts of Germany were removed.
In 1905 Dover ranked fourth among the manufacturing cities of the state, and first in manufactures of woollens; the value of the city's total factory product in that year was $6,042,901.
of the Cochecho Falls; the present name was adopted in 1639, and with the development of manufacturing and trading interests the population gradually removed nearer the falls; Hilton and his followers were Anglicans, but in 1633 they were joined by several Puritan families under Captain Thomas Wiggin, who settled on Dover Neck (1 m.
Cotton spinning and power-loom weaving are the chief of numerous manufacturing industries, and there are large collieries in the vicinity.
There is a good water-power, and the city has important manufacturing "Life of Anthony a Wood written by Himself" (Athen.
Although Petropolis is not a commercial centre, its water-power and cool climate are making it an important manufacturing town.
STEVENSTON, a manufacturing town of Ayrshire, Scotland.
Manufactures.-Before the establishment of the republic very little attention had been given to manufacturing industries beyond what was necessary to prepare certain crude products for market.
After that time the duties on imports were repeatedly and largely increased, both as a means of raising larger revenues and as an encouragement to manufacturing enterprise.
Although the protective tariffs thus imposed have resulted in a large increase in manufacturing industries, some of them have been antagonistic to the productive interests of the country, as in the case of weaving mills which use imported yarns.
Flint has important manufacturing interests, its chief manufactures being automobiles, wagons, carriages - Flint is called "the vehicle city," - flour, woollen goods, iron goods, cigars, beer, and bricks and tiles; and its grain trade is of considerable importance.
Although Edinburgh is a residential rather than a manufacturing or commercial centre, the industries which it has are important and flourishing.
Edinburgh is not markedly a manufacturing city, but preserves its character as the Scottish capital.
Among Bristol's manufacturing establishments are machine shops, rolling mills, a planing mill, yarn, hosiery and worsted mills, and factories for making carpets, wall paper and patent leather.
The whole district between Sydney and Parramatta on each side of the railway is practically one continuous town, the more fashionable suburbs lying on the east of the city while the business extension is to the westward and the southern quarters are largely devoted to manufacturing.
There are few manufacturing undertakings other than those connected with mining, agriculture and the development of Johannesburg.
There are few manufacturing industries in Venezuela, and these usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition.
The surrounding country is famous for its celery, and the city is an important manufacturing centre, ranking third among the cities of the state in the value of its factory products in 1904.
Utilitarian, or perhaps rather practical, considerations have very little to do with the subject from a scientific point of view - no more so than the science of chemistry has to do with the art of the manufacturing chemist.
London has no single well-defined manufacturing quarter.
Their population is also largely occupied in local manufacturing establishments; while numerous towns on either bank of the lower Thames share in the industries of the port of London.
These figures point to the fact that London is essentially a mart, and neither is itself, nor is the especial outlet for, a large manufacturing centre; hence imports greatly exceed exports.
No part of London can be pointed out as essentially a manufacturing quarter, and there is a strong tendency for manufacturing firms to establish their factories outside the metropolis.
In 1905 the value of the factory product was $5,231,084, Newport ranking third among the manufacturing centres of the state.
In practice, the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being limited by its power of evaporation.
cane-growing, from the manufacturing work, sugar-making, must obviously conduce to better and more profitable work of both kinds.
ELBERFELD, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Wupper, and immediately west of and contiguous to Barmen.
It is now chiefly devoted to manufacturing.
83), this clay is the same as that on which the heavy manufacturing and export tobacco is grown.
is the normal for ordinary manufacturing and smoking tobaccos, 1 to i z ft.
In the U.S.A., in the cigar tobacco district, fifteen to twenty leaves are often left on each plant, and of manufacturing tobaccos only ten to twelve leaves.
For manufacturing purposes a furnace similar to that used for the making of glass was employed to heat a circular row of crucibles standing on a shelf along the wall of the furnace.
Its importance as a manufacturing centre is due to its location in the natural gas region.
Mariahilf, Neubau and Margarethen are the chief seats of manufacturing industry.
It is a residential and manufacturing suburb of Boston.
Anschutz, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 2161), tin and hydrochloric acid, or, on the manufacturing scale, iron and hydrochloric acid.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
Many of the manufacturing industries are carried on with difficulty and maintained only by protective duties on competing goods.
The modes of distillation enumerated above all occur in manufacturing practice.
For example, in the less modern methods for manufacturing nitric acid the vapours were conducted directly into double-necked bottles (bombonnes) immersed in water.
Allentown is an important manufacturing centre, and the value of its manufactured products increased 9 0.9% from 1890 to 1900, and of its factory product 13.2% between 1900 and 1905.
In 1905 the capital invested in manufacturing industries was $21,184,033, and the total value of the factory products was $22,880,317, an increase of 38.8% since Igloo.
The total value 1 of all the mineral products of the state in 1907 was $937,3 8 4, and in 1908, $708,694, and of these totals granite systems, causing the formation of numerous lakes and of the waterfalls which determined the situation of many of the manufacturing cities of the state.
Manufactures.-Rhode Island is essentially a manufacturing state; of the 191,923 persons in the state engaged in gainful occupations in 1900, 101,162 (or 52.7%) were employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
Textile manufacturing by improved methods was hardly well established in Rhode Island before 1825.
Rhode Island's water powers have been its only natural resources which have aided in the development of its manufactures, and its transportation facilities have always been inadequate, because of shallow water at Providence and scanty railway communication; but the state's manufacturing enterprises are of great importance.
The total capital invested in manufacturing in 1850 was $12,935,676; in 1890, $126,483,401, and in 1900, $183,784,587, of which $176,901,606 was in factories; in 1905 the capital invested in factories was $215,901,375.
The economic transition of the later 17th century from the agricultural to the commercial regime was followed by a further transition to the manufacturing regime during the closing years of the 18th and the early years of the 19th centuries.
Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.
manufacturing industries than any place of its size in the state,.
Steel-grinding was notoriously unhealthy, and manufacturing processes generally were less favourable to life than agricultural.
They are an intelligent and industrious people, growing their own crops, manufacturing their own cloth and mats, and building their own boats, while many read Arabic more or less fluently, although still believers in magic and witchcraft.
In 1520 a potter named Gorodayu Goshonzui (known to posterity as Shonzui) made his way to Fuchow and thence to King-te-chen, where, after five years study, he acquired the art of manufacturing porcelain, as distinguished from pottery, together with the art of applying decoration in blue under the glaze.
Seifu YOhei, however, has the special faculty of manufacturing monochromatic and jewelled porcelain and faience, which differ essentially from the traditional Kioto types, their models being taken directly from China.
But the style was not calculated to win general popularity, and the manufacturing processes were too easy to occupy the attention of great potters.
CALAIS, a seaport and manufacturing town of northern France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 18 m.
The old town stands on an island hemmed in by the canal and the harbour basins, which divide it from the much more extensive manufacturing quarter of St Pierre, enveloping it on the east and south.
Norway and Switzerland have become important producers of chemicals, and pastoral districts such as those in which Niagara or Foyers are situated manufacturing centres.
Considerable progress has been made in manufacturing industries, and there are a large number of sugar-mills, cotton factories, woollen mills, smelting works and iron and steel works.
Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establishments.
Albert Lea is a railway and manufacturing centre of considerable importance, has grain elevators and foundries and machine shops, and manufactures bricks, tiles, carriages, wagons, flour, corsets, refrigerators and woollen goods.
An ample supply of natural gas is utilized by its manufacturing establishments; and among its manufactures are axes, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, furniture, boilers, woollen goods, glass and chemical fire-engines.
Derby, Ansonia and Shelton form one of the most important manufacturing communities in the state; although their total population in 1900 (23, 448) was only 2.9% of the state's population, the product of their manufactories was 7.4% of the total manufactured product of Connecticut.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
From 1858 to 1861 methylated spirit was duty-free when it was required for manufacturing processes, and the methylation or "denaturizing" was carried out in accordance with a prescribed process.
Iowa City has a considerable variety of small manufacturing establishments.
The river furnishes abundant water-power, and the city ranked fourth in the state as a manufacturing centre in 1905.
The foreign whites alone constituted 10.4% of the total number of persons engaged in agricultural pursuits; 11.4% of those in professional services; 2 5.7% in domestic and personal services; 19.2% in trade and transportation; and 30.6% of those engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries.
In addition to these, the native whites of foreign parentage constituted, in agriculture, &c., Io 6%; in professional service, 20.6%; in domestic and personal service, 16.4%; in trade and transportation, 25.7% in manufacturing and mechanical, 25.4% of all those engaged in those occupations.
In so barren and rude a country the manufacturing industry of its people is, as might be expected, in a low stage, the few articles produced being all destined for home consumption.
There is evidence from Cicero (in Verrem) that a very high stage of manufacturing and commercial prosperity, attained in 1 See T.
Binghamton is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, ranking twelfth in the state in 1905 in the value of factory products, $13,907,403, which was an increase of 32.
This was, in its day, a colossal undertaking; and its success transformed Holyoke from a farming village into a great manufacturing centre - in 1900 and 1905 the ninth largest of the commonwealth.
STRATHAVEN (locally pronounced Strevn), a manufacturing and market town of Lanarkshire, Scotland.
The climate and the scenery in and about Biddeford attract summer visitors and there are two resorts, Biddeford Pool and Fortune Rocks within the municipal limits; but the city is chiefly a manufacturing centre (third in rank among the cities of the state in 1905) - good water-power being furnished by the river - and cotton goods, foundry and machine shop products and lumber are the principal products, the first being by far the most important.
The development of manufacturing in Delaware has not been so extensive as its favourable situation relative to the other states, the facilities for water and railway transportation, and the proximity of the coal and iron fields of Pennsylvania, would seem to warrant.
In 1905 the wage-earners engaged in manufacturing (under the factory system) numbered 18,475, and the total capital invested in manufacturing was $50,925,630; the gross value of products was $41,160,276; the net value (deducting the value of material purchased in partly manufactured form) was $16,276,470.
The great manufacturing centre is Wilmington, where in 1905 almost two-thirds of the capital was invested, and nearly threefourths of the product was turned out.
There is much manufacturing also at New Castle.
Manufactures.-The value of the manufactured products of Texas in 1905 was $150,528,389, the capital invested in manufacturing being $115,664,871, and the number of factories, 3158.
Close by, on the left bank of the Leine, lies the manufacturing town of Linden, which, though practically forming one town with Hanover, is treated under a separate heading.
The principal branches of manufacturing industry are flour-milling, potteries, ironworks and tobacco factories.
It was estimated that the project would furnish water for one million people, beside supplying power for lighting, manufacturing and transportation purposes.
The leading manufacturing industries in 1905, with the product-value of each in this year, were slaughtering and meat-packing ($4,040,162), foundry and machine shop work ($3,146,914), flour and grist milling ($ 2, 79 8, 74 0), lumber manufacturing and planing ($2,519,081), printing and publishing (newspapers and periodicals, $2,097,339 and book and job printing, $1,278,841), car construction and repairing ($1,549,836) - in 1910 there were railway shops here of the Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric, Los Angeles Street, Salt Lake and Santa Fe railways - and the manufacture of confectionery ($953,915), furniture ($879,910) and malt liquors ($789,393).
Historical priority of development, exceptionally extensive and well utilized water-power, and good transportation facilities are largely responsible for the exceptional rank of Massachusetts as a manufacturing state.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
The decline of commerce, however, had already begun, manufacturing supplanting it in importance; and this decline was rapid by 1850.
Of males (1,097, 581) engaged in 1900 in gainful occupations 47.1% were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits (77.9 in every loo in 1870 and 73 in 1900), 27.1 in trade and transportation, 14.2 in domestic and personal service, 7.4 in agricultural pursuits and 4.2 in professional service.
The corresponding percentages for females (1,169,467) were 46.4 in manufacturing (in 1890, 52 °A), 32.3 in domestic and personal service, 13.6 in trade and transportation, 7.1 in professional service and o 6 in agriculture.
WILLIAM GEORGE ARMSTRONG, BARON ARMSTRONG (1810-1900), British inventor, founder of the Elswick manufacturing works, was born on the 26th of November 1810, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was educated at a school in Bishop Auckland.
These experiments resulted in the legislation of 1855, when the use of duty-free alcohol mixed with 10% by volume of wood naphtha, known as methylated spirits, was authorized for manufacturing purposes only.
The first aniline dye-stuff to be prepared on a manufacturing scale was mauveine, C 27 H 25 N 4 C1, which was obtained by Sir W.
Though a place of considerable antiquity - being mentioned in 1086 as the meeting-place of insurgents against Knud, the saint - Randers has few remains of old buildings and bears the stamp of a compact, modern manufacturing town that owes its importance to its distilleries, manufactories of gloves, railway carriages, &c. St Marten's church dates from the 14th century, but was frequently altered and enlarged down to 1870.
In the manufacturing branches are required skill, and efficient and economical work, both executive and administrative; in the storekeeping part, good arrangement, great care, thorough knowledge of all warlike stores, both in their active and passive state, and scrupulous exactness in the custody, issue and receipt of stores.
The capital invested in manufacturing increased from $1,857,844 in 1900 to $4,837,281 in 1905, or 160.4%, and the value of the factory product rose from $1,798,607 in 1900 to $5,340,264 in 1905, or 196.9%.
The principal manufactures are builders' hardware, locks and keys (the works of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company are here), woollen goods, dye stuffs, &c. The township of Stamford, known until 1642 by the Indian name of Rippowam, was settled in 1641 by twenty-nine persons who for religious reasons seceded from the Wethersfield church and joined the colony of New Haven.
The difficulties facing the manufacturing census were of a different character.
Furthermore, the manufacturing schedule presupposes some uniformity in the method of accounting among different companies or lines of business, and this is often lacking.
Another source of error in the manufacturing census of the United States is that the words of the census law are construed as requiring an enumeration of the various trades and handicrafts, such as carpentering.
Busto Arsizio is an active manufacturing town, the cotton factories being especially important.
In the peripheral ring farming increases, especially dairying; and manufacturing industries connected with the products of forests, farms and mines are developed.
These and other manufacturing industries are greatly aided by the extensive water power furnished by the mountain streams which flow out radially from the central area.
Naturally, therefore, a dense population, engaged mainly in manufacturing and commerce, has gathered around the shores of this harbour, the greatest number on Manhattan 'Island and the contiguous mainland in New York City, but large numbers also on western Long Island, in Brooklyn, on the smaller islands, and on the New Jersey side.
Thus it happens that from Buffalo to New York City there is a chain of busy manufacturing centres along the natural highway followed by the Erie Canal and the Hudson river.
Other parts of the state, where connected with the main highway, are influenced by it to some extent; but away from the great natural route of commerce New York is not especially noteworthy either for it, density of population or for extensive manufacturing and commerce.
It is now the leading manufacturing industry of the state.
In compensation the coal and gold, which form the chief mineral wealth, are found in the broken and less practicable west and centre, and these portions also furnish the water-power which may in days to come make the island a manufacturing country.
Except in meat-freezing, wool-scouring, butterand cheese-making, flax-milling and timber-sawing, manufacturing is almost entirely for consumption within the colony.
It is a place of considerable manufacturing activity.
There was remarkable growth in the manufacturing industries of Washington between 1880 and 1905, due primarily to the extraordinary development of its lumber industry.
Apart from a growing import trade in coal and machinery, its commerce has declined; but it is among the first twelve manufacturing places in Sweden, having large mechanical workshops.
With the exception of the smelting and refining of copper, manufacturing is in Montana a decidedly minor industry.
SARPSBORG, a seaport and manufacturing town of Norway, in Smaalenene amt (county), 68 m.
There are wood-pulp factories (one worked by an English company employing over 1000 hands), factories for calcium carbide (used for manufacturing acetylene gas), paper and aluminium; and spinning and weaving mills.
In the manufacturing towns of France, there are also boards of umpires (Conseils de Prud'hommes) to deal with trade disputes between masters and workmen belonging to certain specified trades.
In manufacturing districts and near large towns loads of 30 tons may come on road bridges, and county and borough authorities insist on provision being made for such loads.
BEDWORTH, a manufacturing town in the Nuneaton parliamentary division of Warwickshire, England; on the NuneatonCoventry branch of the London & North Western railway, ioo m.
Manufacturing in South Dakota is of little importance and is confined chiefly to articles for home consumption.
Other suburbs are West Allis (pop., 1905, 2306; local est., 1908, 7500), an incorporated rapidly growing manufacturing city on the west; Cudahy (pop., 1905, 2556), a manufacturing village south of Milwaukee, largely devoted to meat packing; South Milwaukee (pop., 1905, 6284), an incorporated city with several large manufactories, and North Milwaukee (pop., 1905, 1236), a village immediately adjoining the city on the north.
The Rock river furnishes water-power which is utilized for manufacturing.
Bernburg is the seat of considerable industry, manufacturing machinery and boilers, sugar, pottery and chemicals, and has lead and zinc smelting.
The city is the commercial and financial centre of the state (Butte being the mining centre), and is one of the richest cities in the United States in proportion to its population, It has large railway car-shops, extensive smelters and quartz crushers (at East Helena), and various manufacturing establishments; the value of the factory product in 1905 was $1,309,746, an increase of 68.7% over that of 1900.
It pursues a winding course in a northerly direction, and after passing the manufacturing town of Hof, flows amid well-wooded hills until it reaches the pleasant vale of Saalberg.
Four large firms manufacturing every variety of art china and earthenware alone employ over 5000 hands.
Canals connect with the great manufacturing district of South Yorkshire, and the Trent opens up wide communications with the Midlands.
HORDE, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, is 2 m.
Manufacturing in North Dakota is of small importance, being largely confined, with the exception of flour and grist milling, to the supply of local needs.
The chief manufacturing centres are Fargo and Grand Forks.
Newark has long been one of the leading manufacturing cities of the country.
In 1905 the value of the city's factory product was almost onefifth of that for the whole state, and Newark ranked tenth among the manufacturing cities of the entire country.
Partly because of its Puritanic genesis and partly because of its independent manufacturing interests, Newark has kept, in spite of its nearness to New York City, a distinct character of its own.
This is one of the chief manufacturing centres in the United Kingdom, and the name arises from the effect of numerous collieries and furnaces, which darken the face of the district, the buildings and the atmosphere.
Lemaire, the French consul at Cairo, sent the Academy an account of the mode of manufacturing sal ammoniac in Egypt.
Niagara Falls is an important manufacturing city; the value of the factory products increased from $8,540,184 in 1900 to $16,915,786 in 1905, or 98.1%.
Successive governments in France made endeavours to break with the prohibitive system, but naturally met with strong opposition from the manufacturing interests, not prepared to meet the competition of Great Britain, whose industries had made, and were continually making, rapid strides.
With the overthrow of the Chinese rule in 1865 the manufacturing industries of Kashgar declined.
Like other towns in this populous region, it is an important manufacturing centre, having coal-mines, iron; wire, glass, chemical and oil works, breweries, &c.
The manufacturing and wholesale districts are for the most part confined to the "bottoms" (which have suffered much from floods) between Third Street and the river, although many of these interests are now on the higher levels or in the suburbs; the principal retail houses are on the higher levels N.
Although the second city in population in the state, Cincinnati ranked first in 1900 as a manufacturing centre, but lost this pre-eminence to Cleveland in 1905, when the value of Cincinnati's factory product was $166,059,050, an increase of 17.2% over the figures for 1900.
The modern city has some small manufacturing industries, including woollen fabrics for clothing, but its trade is much restricted, and its importance is political rather than commercial.
The city is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric. Both coal and iron ore abound in the vicinity, and the city has numerous manufacturing establishments.
During the 18th century Hartford enjoyed a large and lucrative commerce, but the railway development of the 19th century centralized commerce in New York and Boston, and consequently the principal source of the city's wealth has come to be manufacturing and insurance.
In 1905 Haverhill's manufacturing establishments produced goods valued at $24,446,594, 8 3.9% of this output being represented by boots and shoes or their accessories.
There are a number of manufacturing establishments; in 1905 the total factory product of the city was valued at $4,101,168, boots and shoes accounting for more than one-half of the total.
Other manufactures are flour and grist mill products, bricks, planingmill products, &c. In 1905 the total value of the borough's factory products was $15,745,628; the capital invested in manufacturing increased from $6,266,068 in 1900 to $18,642,853 in 1905, or 197.5%.
Between 1850 and 1900, while the population increased 103.8%, the average number of wage-earners employed in manufacturing establishments increased 258.5%, constituting 5.2% of the total population in 1850 and 9.1% in 1900.
Baltimore is still the great manufacturing centre, but of the state's total product the percentage in value of that manufactured there decreased from 82.5 in 1890 to 66.5 in 1900, and to 62.3 (of the factory product) in 1905.
The bluffs approach the Missouri more closely at this point than elsewhere in the state, so that little more than manufacturing establishments and business blocks are built on the bottom lands, and the residences are spread over the slope and summit of the bluffs.
As a manufacturing centre, it ranked first in 1900 and third in 1905 among the cities of the state; the value of its factory product in 1905 was $14,760,751.
Louisville is the great manufacturing centre, the value of its products amounting in 1905 to $83,204,125, 52.1% of the product of the entire state, and showing an increase of 25.9% over the value of the city's factory products in 1900.
Iserlohn is one of the most important manufacturing towns in Westphalia.
Irrigation, careful husbandry and railroad communications have much developed the resources of their country, in themselves excellent; and there are many manufacturing towns and industrial establishments.
For engineering and manufacturing purposes the more important linear gauges are, however, now used, adjusted to some fundamental unit of measure as the inch; although in certain trades, as for wires and flat metals, gauges continue to be used of arbitrary scales and of merely numerical sizes, having no reference to a legal unit of measure; and such are rarely accurate.
The former is exemplified in the labour of the manufacturing workman, the latter in that of the menial servant.
It is also a great manufacturing centre, and both city and suburbs have their distinctive industries.
The principal cities of Mexico, other than the capitals above mentioned, are as follows, the populations being those of 1900 except when otherwise stated: Acapulco (pop. 4932), a famous port on the Pacific coast in Guerrero, which was wrecked by the earthquake of 1909; Carmen, or Laguna de Terminos (about 6000), a thriving commercial town and port on the Gulf coast in Campeche; Celaya (2 5,5 6 5), a railway centre and manufacturing town of Guanajuato; Ciudad Guzman, or Zapotlan (about 17,500), an interesting old town of Jalisco; Cholula (about 9000), an ancient native town of Puebla, widely known for its great pyramid; Comitan (9316), the commercial centre of Chiapas; Cordoba (7974 in 1895), a picturesque Spanish town in the sierras of Vera Cruz; Cuautla (6269), the centre of a rich sugar-producing district of Morelos; Guaymas (8648), a flourishing port of Sonora on the Gulf of California; Leon (62,623), the largest city in Guanajuato and distinguished for its commercial activity, manufactures and wealth; Linares (20,690), the second city of Nuevo Leon in size and importance; Matamoros (8347), a prominent commercial centre and river port of Tamaulipas; Mazatlan (17,852), the foremost Mexican port on the Pacific coast; Orizaba (32,894), a city of Vera Cruz famous for its delightful climate and picturesque surroundings; Parral (14,748), a well-known mining centre of southern Chihuahua; San Cristobal (about 16,00o), once capital of Chiapas and rich in historical associations; Tampico (16,313), a Gulf port and railway terminus of Tamaulipas; Tehuantepec (10,386), the largest town on the Tehuantepec railway in Oaxaca; Vera Cruz (29,164), the oldest and best known Gulf port of Mexico.
Manufacturing for international trade has not been and may never be reached, but the industry certainly has reached the stage of meeting a great part of the home demand for manufactured goods, where the raw material can be produced in the country.
Another very important manufacturing industry is that of tobacco, the consumption of its various products being large among all classes of the population.
The rivers with their numerous falls and the lakes with their high altitudes furnish a vast amount of water power for manufacturing, the Merrimac, in particular, into which many of the larger lakes, including Winnepesaukee, find an outlet, is one of the greatest power-yielding streams of the world.
A quartz schist, suitable for making whetstones and oilstones, was discovered in 1823 by Isaac Pike at Pike Station, Grafton county, and the Pike Manufacturing Company now owns and operates quarries outside this state also; in 1907 New Hampshire was the principal producer of scythe-stones in the United States, and the total value of whetstones made in 1907 (including the value of precious stones') was $59,870.
Manufactures.-The heavy precipitation on the elevated central and northern parts, and the hundreds of lakes and ponds which serve as reservoirs, give to the lower southern part of the state on the Merrimac and other rivers such an abundant and constant water-power that southern New Hampshire has become an important manufacturing district, and manufacturing has become the leading industry of the state.
During the last two decades of the 19th century the number of inhabitants engaged in agricultural pursuits decreased from 45,122 to 38,782; and the number engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits increased from 57,283 to 75,945.
Cotton goods, the manufacture of which was introduced in 1804, increased in value only slightly during the last decade of the 19th century, from $21,958,002 to $22,998,249, but from 1900 to 1905 their value increased 28.4%, or to $29,540,770; except in 1900 the manufacture of cotton goods had long ranked first, measured by the value of the product, among the state's manufacturing industries.
Dover led in the manufacture of woollens; Laconia in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods; and Berlin, the chief manufacturing centre north of the White Mountains, in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp.
The Black river furnishes water-power which is utilized by manufacturing establishments of diversified character.
To the manufacturing industries of the city there should be added mineral water works, foundries and shipbuilding.
The manufacturing industry of the province, which chiefly depends upon its mineral wealth, is very extensive.
In 1900 and 1905 it was the principal manufacturing centre in the state, the value of its factory product in 1905 being $15,627,668, an increase of 64.7% over that in 1900.
JOHN HENRY BLUNT (1823-1884), English divine, was born at Chelsea in 1823, and before going to the university of Durham in 1850 was for some years engaged in business as a manufacturing chemist.
The entire township includes the old village of Matlock, the commercial and manufacturing district of Matlock Bridge, and the fashionable health resorts of Matlock Bath and Matlock Bank.
Relatively to their share of the countrys aggregate population the North Atlantic states, and those upon the Great Lakesthe manufacturing and urbanized states of the Unionhold much the heaviest share of immigrant population.
The first and third lead to-day in manufacturing interests; the third in agricultural; the fifth in mining.
The same years, however, made apparent a rapid fall, general and marked, yet possibly only temporary, in the rate at which such urban centres, as well as larger ones, had been gaining upon the rural districts; this reaction being most pronounced in the South and least so in the North Atlantic states, whose manufacturing industries are concentrated in dense centres of population.
Here too both factorsfarm-life, as in North Dakota, and manufacturing, as in illinoisshowed their plain influence.
In the third group women greatly preponderate in the occupation of stenographers and type-writers; and in those of book-keepers and accountants, clerks and copyists, packers and shippers, saleswomen (which is the largest class), and telegraph and telephone operators they have a large representation (13 to 34 ~ A great Variation exists in the proportion of the sexes employed in different manufacturing industries.
in agriculture, 18-4%; professional service, 8f %; domestic and personal service, 39,4%; trade and transportation, 9.4%; manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, 24-7%.
In the North Atlantic and North Central states, notwithstanding their manufacturing industries, the proportions were much lower (17.1 and I 7O in 1900), and they increased very little in the period mentioned.
In the colonial period there were beginnings in some lines of manufacturing, but the policy of the British government was generally hostile and the increase was insignificant.
is the value added to materials by manufacturing processes.
These facts give an idea of the rank of the country among the manufacturing countries of the world.
In 1643 the business of smelting and manufacturing iron was begun at Lynn, Mass., where it was successfully carried on, at least up to 1671, furnishing most of the iron used in the colony.
Classifying imports and domestic exports as of six groups: (I) crude foodstuffs and good animals; (2) foodstuffs partly or wholly prepared; (3) raw materials for use in manufacturing; (4) manufactured articles destined to serve as materials in further processes of manufacture; (5) finished manufactures; (6) miscellaneous productsthe table on p. 645 shows the distribution of imports and exports among these six classes since 182o.i It will be seen from the table that the share of the first two classes in both imports and exports has been relatively constant.
The town, or township, of New England is generally a rural community occupying a comparatively small area, and with a population averaging about 3000, hut ranging from 200 in newly-settled, districts or thinly-peopled hilly districts up to 17,000 in the vicinity of large cities and in manufacturing neighborhoods.
It is the centre of a prosperous farming and manufacturing district, inhabited chiefly by German immigrants and their descendants.
Berlin is a flourishing manufacturing town, and contains a beet sugar refinery, automobile, leather, furniture, shirt and collar, felt, glove, button and rubber factories.
After the Civil War manufacturing became Newburyport's chief interest.
In 1905 the aggregate capital of the city's manufacturing industries was $3 8, 74 0, 6 5 1, and the value of its factory products was $34,823,751, 31.2% more than in 1900.
Between 1800 and 1805 a dozen families settled here, and in the latter year a grist mill, the first manufacturing establishment, was built on Onondaga Creek.
Between 1891 and 1901 the number of farmers in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces decreased, and there seemed a prospect of the country being divided into a manufacturing east and an agricultural west, but latterly large tracts in northern Ontario and Quebec have proved suitable for cultivation and are being opened up.
Besides furnishing technical and general information as to the carrying on of dairying operations, the government has established and maintained illustration cheese factories and creameries in different places for the purpose of introducing the best methods of co-operative dairying in both the manufacturing and shipping of butter and cheese.
In commerce and manufacturing, Augusta ranks second among the cities of Georgia.
In respect of industry and commerce as a whole Gothenburg ranks as second to Stockholm in the kingdom; but it is actually the principal centre of export trade and port of register; and as a manufacturing town it is slightly inferior to Malmo.
In 1900 and in 1905 Alabama ranked second among 1 The special census of manufactures taken in 1905 was confined to manufacturing establishments conducted under the so-called "factory system."
The development of mining and manufacturing was accompanied by economic distress among the farming classes, which found expression in the Jeffersonian Democratic party, organized in 1892.
It is a residential and manufacturing suburb of Boston, of which, industrially, it forms a part; it is included in the metropolitan water, sewer and park districts, and in the Boston postal district.
The most important manufacturing industries are those that depend upon cotton for raw material, with a gross product in 1900 valued at $26,521,757.
The rank of Georgia among the cotton manufacturing states was seventh in 1900 and fourth in 1905.
The population of Georgia in 1880 was 1,542,180; in 1890 it was 1,837,353, an increase of 19.1%; in 1900 it was 1 The manufacturing statistics for 1900 which follow are not those given in the Twelfth Census, but are taken from the Census of Manufactures, 1905, the 1900 figures here given being only for " establishments on a factory basis," and thus being comparable with those of 1905.
The city is the seat of the state hospital for tuberculosis, has a fine court-house, a public library, and various manufacturing establishments.
As a manufacturing centre Buffalo ranks next to New York among the cities of the state.
Up to the year 1718 England depended on the thrown silks of Europe for manufacturing purposes.
On this account the fibres of tussur or tussore silk tend to split up into fine fibrillae under the various preparatory processes in manufacturing, and its riband structure is the cause of the glassy lustre peculiar to the woven and finished fibres.
considerable manufacturing centre.
Most of the manufacturing industries, indeed, are maintained for supplying the local market, there being only three important exceptions - the manufacture of sugar, the cleaning of coffee and the cleaning and polishing of rice.
The manufacture of sugar, which began between 1830 and 1840, has long been much the most important of the manufacturing industries: thus in 1900 the value of the sugar production was $ 1 9, 2 54,773, and the total value of all manufactures, including custom work and repairing, was only $24,992,068.
The growth of manufacturing is much hampered by the lack of labour.
The municipality has natural gas for heating, lighting and manufacturing.
The general export of yarn varies according to influences such as tariff charges, spinning and manufacturing development in the importing countries and the price of cotton.
The great improvement in trade during 1905 and 1906 checked this tendency, and probably the manufacturing extensions owed something to the capital set free by the reductions of stocks.
Transactions between spinners and manufacturers are largely effected on Tuesdays and Fridays, the old "market days," when the manufacturing towns are well represented, but a large amount of business is transacted every day.
A busy manufacturing activity has long been united with the underground industries of Silesia, and the province in this respect is hardly excelled by any other part of Prussia.
A little later, about 1868, successful experiments were made with gas as a manufacturing fuel, and in 1872 the gas industry was fairly well established near Titusville by drilling a well and piping the gas for consumption both as fuel and light.
The most marked advances from 1900 to 1905 were in worsted goods (61.4%) structural iron-work (60%), and tin and terne-plate (54.4%) Philadelphia is the great manufacturing centre.
The city is a manufacturing and railway centre, and ships grain, pork and neat cattle.
Aurora is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are railway cars - the shops of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway being 927 here - flour and cotton, carriages, hardware specialties, corsets, suspenders, stoves and silver-plate.
The capital invested in manufacturing under the factory system in 1905 was $3 8, 6 43,39 0 (62.4% more than that of 1900).
The business and manufacturing section is close to the river and only a few feet above it; behind this, along a ridge, is the residential district; along the Sound are summer cottages and pleasure resorts.
South Norwalk is chiefly a manufacturing and commercial city.
Burlington is the most important manufacturing centre in the state; among its manufactures are sashes, doors and blinds, boxes, furniture and wooden-ware, cotton and woollen goods, patent medicines, refrigerators, house furnishings, paper and machinery.
In 1900 Nebraska City ranked third among the manufacturing cities of the state, the manufactures including canned fruits and vegetables, packed pork, flour, oatmeal, hominy, grits, meal, starch, cider-vinegar, agricultural implements, windmills, paving bricks, concrete, sewer pipe, beer, over-ails and shirts.
Though so little sensitive to drought and extremes of temperature lichens appear to be very easily affected by the presence in the air of noxious substances such as are found in large cities or manufacturing towns.
He next devised a plan for manufacturing pure alumina from the natural ores, and finally elaborated a process and plant which held the field for almost thirty years.
army corps, the chief financial centre of Italy and the wealthiest manufacturing and commercial town in the country.
It lies on the river Darwen, which traverses a densely populated manufacturing district, and is surrounded by high-lying moors.
It is, however, as a commercial rather than as a manufacturing city that Rotterdam is distinguished, its progress in this respect having been very striking.
In the 18th century, and early in the 19th, Norwich had a lucrative trade with the Atlantic ports and the West Indies, but later manufacturing became the most important industry; the manufactures including textiles, cutlery, firearms, paper, electrical supplies, printing presses, &c. In 1905 the factory products were valued at $6,022,391.
With the city's growth in manufacturing there has been a large increase in the foreign element in the population.
A great stimulus was given to manufacturing industry in Bavaria by the law of 1868, which abolished the last remains of the old restrictions of the gilds, and gave the whole country the liberty which had been enjoyed by the Rhine Palatinate alone.
Among the prominent causes of this increase is the diversion of mankind from agricultural to manufacturing, i.e.
Fur skins taken out of season are indifferent, and the hair is liable to shed itself freely; a good furrier will, however, reject such faulty specimens in the manufacturing.
The majority have two stripes of white hair, extending the whole length of the skin, but these are cut out by the manufacturing furrier and sold to the dealers in pieces for exportation.
This process with a moderate degree of heat thoroughly cleans it of external greasy matter, and all that is necessary before manufacturing is to gently tap the fur upon a leather cushion stuffed with horsehair with smooth canes of a flexibility suited to the strength of the fur.
Perhaps for ingenuity and the latest methods of manipulating skins in the manufacturing of furs the Americans lead the way, but as fur cutters are more or less of a roving and cosmopolitan character the larger fur businesses in London, Berlin, Vienna, St Petersburg, Paris and New York are guided by the same thorough and comparatively advanced principles.
Berlin Falls, on the picturesque Androscoggin river, furnishes an immense water-power, the development of which for manufacturing purposes accounts for the rapid growth of the city.
The mineral resources of the Prussian Rhine province, coupled with its favourable situation and the facilities of transit afforded by its great waterway, have made it the most important manufacturing district in Germany.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.
Manufactures and Mines.-Since 1864, and more especially since 1875, there has been a remarkable development of manufacturing enterprise in Poland, the branch of industry which has shown the greatest progress being the textile.
Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute, hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
Paisley has been an important manufacturing centre since the beginning of the 18th century, but the earlier linen, lawn and silk-gauze industries have become extinct, and even the famous Paisley shawls (imitation cashmere), the sale of which at one time exceeded i,000,000 yearly in value, have ceased to be woven.
Erie is the commercial centre of a large and rich grape-growing and agricultural district, has an extensive trade with the lake ports and by rail (chiefly in coal, iron ore, lumber and grain), and is an important manufacturing centre, among its products being iron, engines, boilers, brass castings, stoves, car heaters, flour, malt liquors, lumber, planing mill products, cooperage products, paper and wood pulp, cigars and other tobacco goods, gas meters, rubber goods, pipe organs, pianos and chemicals.
It rose into importance in the reign of Charles X., who bestowed on it considerable privileges, and gave the first impulse to its manufacturing activity.
With these exceptions manufacturing is in a rather primitive state.
The parish includes the large manufacturing districts of Upper and Lower Gornal, Coseley and Deepfields, the last having a station on the London & North-Western railway, 10 m.
After this it rose rapidly into importance as a manufacturing and commercial town, becoming, after Nuremberg, the centre of the trade between Italy and the north of Europe; its merchant princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence; but the alterations produced in the currents of trade by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries occasioned a great decline.
The Shawsheen river supplies power for a considerable manufacturing industry (twine, woollens and rubber goods being manufactured) in the villages of Andover, Ballardville and Frye.
Helsingborg ranks among the first manufacturing towns of Sweden, having copper works, using ore from Sulitelma in Norway, india-rubber works and breweries.
resolved to institute an experimental establishment in Assam for cultivating and manufacturing tea, leaving the industry to be developed by private enterprise should its practicability be demonstrated.
In 1843, however, Mr Robert Fortune found that, although the two varieties of the plant existed in different parts of China, black and green tea were produced from the leaves of the same plant by varying the manufacturing processes.
What may be termed the chemistry of production, viz., that relating to soils, manures, manufacturing processes, &c., has of recent years received great attention from the scientific FIG.
This tea is mostly prepared from exceedingly rough leaf, including even bush prunings, which would not be plucked for manufacturing purposes in India or Ceylon.
The manufacturing methods are elaborate and careful, and the produce has in its choicest qualities a particular delicacy and bouquet possessed by no other variety of tea.
As the planting, productive and manufacturing processes of India may be taken to be generally representative of Indian tea Ceylon and Java also, and therefore of the tea of modern trade.
Of late years the production has somewhat diminished, owing to the extensive tobacco manufacturing indu~tries of Brernen and Hamburg, which import almost exclusively foreign leaves.
Manufactures.In no other country of the world has the manufacturing industry made such rapid strides within recent years as in Germany.
Increased prosperity, a still greater increase in population and the social and economic disturbances incidental to the conversion of an agricultural into a manufacturing community, led to the practical abandonment of the principle of universal service.
This is of great importance in Germany, as all the chief coal-fields and manufacturing districtsSilesia, Saxony, Westphalia and Alsaceare far removed from the sea.
Another son of the first John Lowell, Francis Cabot Lowell (1775-1817), the founder in the United States of cotton manufacturing, was born in Newburyport on the 7th of April 1775, graduated at Harvard in 1793, became a merchant in Boston, and, during the war of 1812, with his cousin (who was also his brother-in-law), Patrick Tracy Jackson, made use of the knowledge of cotton-spinning gained by Lowell in England (whither he had gone for his health in 1810) and devised a power loom.
New Britain is an important manufacturing centre; its principal products are hardware, cutlery and edge tools, hosiery, and foundry and machine shop products.
In 1905 the capital invested in manufacturing was $19,979,712 (an increase of 45.1% since 1900) and the value of the factory products was $14,959,543 (an increase of 34.8%).
The harbour is not deep enough for ocean-going vessels, and manufacturing is the most important industry.
While all the larger cities and most of the manufacturing and farming districts of the province belong to old Ontario, there is now in process of development a "New Ontario," stretching for hundreds of miles to the north and north-west of the region just described and covering a far larger area, chiefly made up of Laurentian and Huronian rocks of the Archaean protaxis.
Hungary, on the other hand, was still in favour of free trade, for there were no important manufacturing industries in that country, and it required a secure market for agricultural produce., After 1875 the commercial treaties expired; Hungary thereupon also gave notice to terminate the commercial union with Austria, and negotiations began as to the principle on which it was to be renewed.
Owing to economic causes the Sla y s, who increase more rapidly than the Germans, tend to move westwards, and large numbers settle in the towns and manufacturing districts.
South and west of this highland, along the Kansas river, is a low, level tract occupied chiefly by railway yards, stock yards, wholesale houses and manufacturing establishments; north and east of the highland is a flat section, the Missouri River bottoms, occupied largely by manufactories, railway yards, grain elevators and homes of employes.
The British drill-book, minus about onethird ~f the least serviceable movements, was translated by an English officer, and by 1900 every necessary British official book had been published in English and Arabic, except the new Recruiting Law (1885) and a manufacturing manual, for which French and Arabic editions are in use.
As a manufacturing centre Allegheny was outranked in 1905 by only two cities in the state - Philadelphia and Pittsburg; among the more important of its large variety of manufactures are the products of slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, iron and steel rolling mills, the products of foundries and machineshops, pickles, preserves and sauces, the products of railwayconstruction and repair shops, locomotives, structural iron and plumbers' supplies.
FREDRIKSTAD (FREDERIKSTAD), a seaport and manufacturing town of Norway in Smaalenene amt (county), 58 m.
Thus it comes about that the largest use of cement is for manufacturing concrete for dock and harbour work, and for the making of foundations.
A supply of natural gas (from Pennsylvania) and a fine water-power combine to render Jamestown a manufacturing centre of considerable importance.
Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.
In 1905 the value of its factory product was $60,633,761, an increase of 57.1% over that of 1900, Bayonne ranking third in 1905 among the manufacturing cities of the state.
The manufacturing interests are greatly promoted by the fine water-power, and as a furniture centre the city has a world-wide reputation - the value of the furniture manufactured within its limits in 1904 amounted to $9,409,097, about 5.5% of the value of all furniture manufactured in the United States.
He was a director in many organizations, including the Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., Old Colony Trust Co., Puget Sound Light & Power Co., Walter Baker Co., and Ames Plow Co.
Since the Cromwellian occupation the interest of Scottish men had slowly shifted from religion to commerce; but a tariff war between England and Scotland had checked manufacturing and other enterprises.
Besides being well furnished with a convenient railway system, linking it with the innumerable manufacturing towns and villages of the iron district, it is also connected with the river Ems by the Dortmund-Ems Canal, 170 m.
The city is a trading centre for the rich agricultural and fruit-growing district by which it is surrounded, has good water-power, and is an important manufacturing centre, its chief manufactured products being cereal health foods, for which it has a wide reputation, and the manufacture of which grew out of the dietetic experiments made in the laboratories of the sanitarium; and threshing machines and other agricultural implements, paper cartons and boxes, flour, boilers, engines and pumps.
Manufactures.-The manufacturing industries are chiefly of a primitive character and have been developed to meet local necessities.
The growth of manufacturing in Illinois during the last half of the 19th century, due largely to the development of her exceptional transportation facilities, was the most rapid and remarkable in the industrial history of the United States.
In the building of railway cars by manufacturing corporations, Illinois also led the states in 1900 and in 1905, the product being valued at $24,845,606 in 1900 and at $30,926,464 (an increase of nearly one-fourth) in 1905; and in construction by railway companies was second in 1900, with a product valued at $16,580,424, which had increased 53.7% in 1905, when the product was valued at $25,491,209.
The great manufacturing centre is Chicago, where more than seven-tenths of the manufactured products of the state were produced in 1900, and more than two-thirds in 1905.
The hills in the vicinity rise to some 900 ft., and among English manufacturing towns Blackburn ranks high in beauty of situation.
The town owes its existence as a manufacturing centre to the tsar Alexander I.
The process of manufacturing new sites, however, continues unchecked.
But in all the great modern manufacturing processes it is true that metals and alloys, though of the same name, have a different composition according as they are intended for casting on the one hand, or for forging, rolling and drawing on the other.
A great many processes have been proposed for the manufacture of alkali from various materials, but none of these has become of any practical importance except those which start from sodium chloride (common salt); and among the latter again only three classes of processes are actually employed for manufacturing purposes, viz.
Leblanc himself for a time carried out his process on a manufacturing scale, but he was ruined in the political troubles of the time and died by his own hand in 1806.
Formerly, instead of free hydrochloric acid a mixture of common salt and sulphuric acid was sometimes employed, but this is never done on a manufacturing scale now.
The chief manufacturing industry of Havana is that of tobacco.
There are minor manufacturing interests in tanneries, and in the manufacture of sweetmeats, malt and distilled liquors, especially rum, besides soaps, candles, starch, perfume, &c. There is one large and complete petroleum refinery (1905).
The city is in one of the richest coal regions of the state, and ranks high as a manufacturing centre, pork-packing, and the manufacture of iron and steel, machinery and agricultural and mining implements being the leading industries.
Manufacturing industries are being slowly developed in India, though their growth has not yet materially affected the pressure on the land.
The subsequent history of the development of the art of manufacturing glass disks for telescopic objectives will be found in the article Glass: § Optical.
The manufacturing industry consists mainly in preparing agricultural products for market, and in the production by the natives of wearing apparel, furniture, household utensils, and other articles required to supply their primitive wants.
Ipswich has several manufacturing industries, including hosiery.
Leyton is in the main a residential as distinct from a manufacturing locality.
10,219 in 1902) is a railway junction and manufacturing town.
OSHAWA, a manufacturing town and port of entry of Ontario county, Ontario, Canada, on Lake Ontario and the Grand Trunk railway, 30 m.
Its trade is due to its position in the agricultural and horsebreeding district known as the "Campagne de Caen" and to its proximity to the iron mines of the Orne valley, and to manufacturing towns such as Falaise, Le Mans, &c. In the south-east of the town there is a floating basin lined with quays and connected with the Orne and with the canal which debouches into the sea at Ouistreham 9 m.
The city is in a rich farming country, which produces Indian corn, oats and wheat; and is in the Indiana natural gas region, to which fact it owes its rapid growth as a manufacturing centre.
The manufacturing and shipping districts are mostly along the west water-front.
The borough of Brooklyn is one of the most important manufacturing centres in the United States, most of the factories being located along or near the East river north of the Brooklyn bridge.
Brooklyn's largest manufacturing industry is the refining of sugar, about one-half of the sugar consumed in the United States being refined here; in 1900 the product of the sugar and molasses refining establishments was valued at $77,942,997.
Although Arkansas is rich in minerals and in forests, in 1900 only 2% of its population were engaged in manufacturing.
2 The special census of the manufacturing industry for 1905 was concerned only with the establishment conducted under the socalled " factory system "; for purposes of comparison the figures for 1900 have been reduced to the same standard, and this fact should be borne in mind with regard to the percentages of increase given above.
The manufacturing industries in the grand-duchy are considerable; they employ 41% of the population.
Of the population 61% were engaged in manufacturing.
Such as it was, this was about the only manufacturing or handicraft in California.
Frederick has a considerable agricultural trade and is an important manufacturing centre, its industries including the canning of fruits and vegetables, and the manufacture of flour, bricks, brushes, leather goods and hosiery.
McKinley reflected the strong sentiment of his manufacturing constituency in behalf of a high protective tariff, and he soon became known in Congress (where he particularly attracted the attention of James G.
This is now being used by the Chicago & North Western Railroad Company on its locomotives, and it is also used in Omaha (Nebraska) by manufacturing establishments.
Wyoming's manufacturing industries are relatively unimportant.
Sea-going vessels can navigate up to Blaydon, and collieries and large manufacturing towns line the banks - Newburn, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Wallsend and North Shields on the Northumberland side; Gateshead, Jarrow and South Shields on the Durham side, with many lesser centres, forming continuous lines of factories and shipbuilding yards.
The city is an important market for cotton grown in the surrounding country, and is the principal manufacturing city in the state.
In September 1902 the standard method of manufacturing this fluid was changed by the director of the Plague Institute on his own authority, with the object of expediting the process, and thus meeting the heavy demand then being made by the Punjab government in connexion with a large scheme of inoculation.