How to use Mantua in a sentence
The kingdom is divided into 69 provinces, 284 regions, of which 197 are classed as circondarii and 87 as districts (the latter belonging to the province of Mantua and the 8 provinces of Venetia), 1806 administrative divisions (mandamenti) and 8262 communes.
She was the last heiress of the great house of Canossa, whose fiefs stretched from Mantua across Lombardy, passed the Apennines, included the Tuscan plains, and embraced a portion of the duchy of Spoleto.
In April 1167 a new league was formed between Cremona, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua and Ferrara.
Lucchinos brother John, arch bishop of Milan, now assumed the lordship of the city, and extended the power of the Visconti over Genoa and the whole of north Italy, with the exception of Piedmont, Verona, Mantua, Ferrara and Venice.
The last scions of the Della Scala family still reigned in Verona, the last Carraresi in Padua; the Estensi were powerful in Ferrara, the Gonzaghi in Mantua.Advertisement
The Estensi recovered theii grasp upon Ferrara, and the Gonzaghi upon Mantua.
The marquessate of Mantua was made a duchy; and Florence was secured, as we have seen, to the Medici.
Charles Emmanuel now attempted the acquisition of Montferrat, which was soon to become vacant by the death of Francesco Gonzaga, who held it together with Mantua.
Charles of Austria, now emperor, took Milan, Mantua, Naples and Sardinia for his portion of the Italian spoil.
Milan and Mantua remained in the hands of the Austrians.Advertisement
The former possessed the rich duchies Frecch of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while Revolu through a marriage alliance with the house of Este UoI, of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme.
The surrender of the last Habsburg stronghold, Mantua, on the 2nd of February 1797 left the field clear for the erection of new political institutions.
On the 16th of April 1814 Eugene, on hearing of Napoleons overthrow at Paris, signed an armistice at Mantua by which he was enabled to send away the French troops beyond the Alps and entrust himself to the consideration of the allies.
At the latters death in 1830 Ferdinand now flew to arms, and the Austrian garrisons, except in the Quadrilateral (Verona, Peschiera, Mantua and Legnano) were expelled.
He might yet have cut off Radetzky on his retreat, or captured Mantua, which was only held by 300 men.Advertisement
The Marquis Lodovico Gonzaga of Mantua had for some time been pressing Mantegna to enter his service; and the following year, 1460, was perhaps the one in which he actually established himself at the Mantuan court, residing at first from time to time at Goito, but, from December 1466 onwards, with his family in Mantua itself.
Mantegna then returned to Mantua, and went on with a series of works - the nine temperapictures, each of them 9 ft.
They were sold in 1628 along with the bulk of the Mantuan art treasures, and were not, as is commonly said, plundered in the sack of Mantua in 1630.
After his return to Mantua from Rome his prosperity was at its height, until the death of his wife.
He then formed some other connexion, and became at an advanced age the father of a natural son, Giovanni Andrea; and at the last, although he continued launching out into various expenses and schemes, he had serious tribulations, such as the banishment from Mantua of his son Francesco, who had incurred the marquis's displeasure.Advertisement
Very soon after this transaction he died in Mantua, on the 13th of September 1506.
In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
Urquhart states that he went to Mantua, became the tutor of the young prince of Mantua, Vincenzo di Gonzaga, and was killed by the latter in a street quarrel in 1582.
Thus when, after the crowning victory of Rivoli (14th of January 1797), Mantua surrendered and the Austrian rule in Italy for the time collapsed, Bonaparte was virtually the idol of the French nation, the master of the Directory and potentially the protector of the Holy See.
After imposing these harsh terms on his enemy, the conqueror might naturally have shown clemency to the Tirolese leader, Andreas Hofer; but that brave mountaineer, when betrayed by a friend, was sentenced to death at Mantua owing to the arrival of a special message to that effect from Napoleon.Advertisement
The next few years were filled with negotiations and intrigues with Spain and France which did not lead to any particular result, but on the death in 1612 of Duke Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua, who was lord of Monferrato, Charles Emmanuel made a successful coup de main on that district.
This district, including the finest land, is on the southern slope of the Organ Mountains between the Honda river and Mantua; bananas are cultivated with the tobacco.
It remained prosperous (we may note that Virgil came here to school from Mantua) until it was taken and destroyed by the troops of Vespasian after the second battle of Betriacum (Bedriacum) in A.D.
It appears that as early as 1295 furnaces had been established at Treviso, Vicenza, Padua, Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna and Bologna.
At some period unknown, prior to the 6th century, the Etrurians became a conquering people and extended their power not only northwards over, probably, Mantua, Felsina, Melpum and perhaps Hadria and Ravenna (Etruria Circumpadana), but also southwards into Latium and Campania.Advertisement
It was an important point in the road system of the district, lying on that between Mediolanum and Aquileia, while here diverged to the north the roads up the Athesis valley and over the Brenner into Raetia, and to the south roads ran to Betriacum, Mantua and Hostilia.
They fortified it strongly in 1814, and with Peschiera, Mantua and Legnago it formed part of the famous quadrilateral which until 1866 was the chief support of their rule in Italy.
Charles now sought to increase his authority in Italy, where Frankish counts were set over various districts, and where Hildebrand, duke of Spoleto, appears to have recognized his overlordship. In 780 he was again in the peninsula, and at Mantua issued an important capitulary which increased the authority of the Lombard bishops, relieved freemen who under stress of famine had sold themselves into servitude, and condemned abuses of the system of vassalage.
At Mantua he designed the church of Sant' Andrea and at Rimini the celebrated church of San Francesco, which is generally esteemed his finest work.
Commerce is chiefly agricultural and is stimulated by a good position in the railway system, and by a canal which opens a water-way by the Panaro and the Po to the Adriatic. Modena is the point at which the railway to Mantua and Verona diverges from that between Milan and Bologna, and has several steam tramways to neighbouring places.Advertisement
It has an old castle, much altered and restored, especially by the Gonzaga family of Mantua in the 16th century.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the French under the duke of Vendome occupied it; and during the siege of Mantua in 1796, the Austrians under Wiirmser were defeated here by the French under Augereau, who was later created by Napoleon duke of Castiglione.
The first great school of the Renaissance was that established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua, where he resided for the last twenty-two years of his life (1424-1446).
Another route into Austria, the Brenner, leaves the Milan-Venice line at Verona, which is connected with Modena (and so with central and southern Italy) by a railway through Mantua.
The Po, however, forms somewhat of an obstacle, but is crossed by the main lines to Modena and Bologna near Mantua and Rovigo respectively.Advertisement
At length, however, he was abandoned by the Germanic court and deposed by a council held at Mantua; and Alexander's position remained unchallenged.
Federigo's only son Guidubaldo, who succeeded his father, married in 1489 the gifted Elizabeth Gonzaga, of the ruling family in Mantua.
The first edition was printed in Mantua in 1476.
The city with its walls was, however, rebuilt five years later by the allied cities of Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua and Verona.
This led to a coalition, formed in March 1167, between the cities of Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo and Brescia to confine Frederick to the rights which the emperors had enjoyed for the past hundred years.Advertisement
Brescia is situated on the main railway line between Milan and Verona, and has branch railways to Iseo, Parma, Cremona and (via Rovato) to Bergamo, and steam tramways to Mantua, Soncino, Ponte Toscolano and Cardone Valtrompia.
For many years he resided at Mantua, and superintended the education of the celebrated Lucrezia Gonzaga, in whose honour he composed a long poem.
First, it seems, he had made an excursion to Bologna, having intended to take Mantua on the way, in order to do homage to the old age of that Italian master, Andrea Mantegna, from whose work he had himself in youth learned the most.
But the end was in most cases the establishment of the despotism of some leading family, such as the Visconti at Milan, the Gonzaga at Mantua, the della Scala in Verona and the Carrara in Padua.
The academy established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua under the protection of Gian Francesco Gonzaga for the training of pupils of both sexes, might be chosen as the type of this Italian method.Advertisement
Other important vines are the Perruno and the Mantua Castellano.
The "dolce libriccino," the famous Trattato utilissimo del beneficio di Gesu Christo crocifisso verso i christiani, which was the composition of a Sicilian Benedictine and had been touched up by the great latinist Flaminio, just appeared at Mantua in 1542 under the auspices of Morone, and had a wide circulation (over 40,000 copies of the second edition, Venice 1543, were sold).
He was associated with David Reubeni, who also made Messianic claims. Molko, after a chequered career, was condemned to death by the ecclesiastical court at Mantua.
The royal authority in Portugal was delegated to Margaret of Savoy, duchess of Mantua, whose train of Spanish and Italian courtiers aroused the jealousy of the Portuguese nobles, while the harsh rule of her secretary of state, Miguel de Vasconcellos de Brito, provoked the resentment of all classes.
The noble houses of Gonzaga at Mantua, at Carrara at Padua, of Este at Ferrara, of Malatesta at Rimini, of Visconti at Milan, vied with Azzo di Correggio in entertaining the illustrious man of letters.
In 1880 he refused the bishopric of Treviso, but in 1884, on the express command of Leo XIII., he accepted that of Mantua.
Isabella Gonzaga, who cherished the hope that he might be induced permanently to attach himself to the court of Mantua, wrote about this time to ask news of him, and to beg for a painting from him for her study, already adorned with masterpieces by the first hands of Italy, or at least for a "small Madonna, devout and sweet as is natural to him."
The first edition appeared at Mantua about 1480; the second at Constantinople in 1516; this was reprinted at Venice in 1544 and 1605, and at Jessnitz in 1722.
Mantua has an academy of arts and sciences (Accademict Vergiliana), occupying a fine building erected by Piermarini, a public library founded in 1780 by Maria Theresa, a museum of antiquities dating from 1779, many of which have been brought from Sabbioneta, a small residence town of the Gonzagas.
As a fortress Mantua was long one of the most formidable in Europe, a force of thirty to forty thousand men finding accommodation within its walls; but it had two serious.
Mantua had still a strong Etruscan element in its population during the Roman period.
It became a Roman municipium, with the rest of Gallia Transpadana; but'lvIartial calls it little Mantua, and had it not been for Virgil's interest in his native place, and in the expulsion of a number of the Mantuans (and among them the poet himself) from their lands in favour of Octavian's soldiers, we should probably have heard almost nothing of its existence.
In 568 the Lombards found Mantua a walled town of some strength; recovered from their grasp in 590 by the exarch of Ravenna, it was again captured by Agilulf in 601.
From him it passed to Geoffrey, duke of Lorraine, and afterwards to the countess Matilda, whose support of the pope led to the conquest of Mantua by the emperor Henry IV.
A three days' bombardment in 1799 again placed Mantua in the hands of the Austrians; and, though restored to the French by the peace of Luneville (1801), it became Austrian once more from 1814 till 1866.
Between 1849 and 1859, when the whole of Lombardy except Mantua was, by the peace of Villafranca, ceded to Italy, the city was the scene of violent political persecution.
In 15 70 he sustained no fewer than three hundred and eighteen theses at a disputation in Mantua, with such applause that the duke made him court theologian.
Sarpi spent four years at Mantua, applying himself to mathematics and the Oriental languages.
After leaving Mantua, he repaired to Milan, where he enjoyed the protection of Cardinal Borromeo, but was soon transferred by his superiors to Venice, as professor of philosophy at the Servite convent.
In 1536 it passed to the Gonzagas of Mantua, who fortified it very strongly.
His hiding-place was betrayed by one of his neighbours, named Josef Raffi, and on the 27th of January 1810 he was captured by Italian troops and sent in chains to Mantua.
In 1823 Hofer's remains were removed from Mantua to Innsbruck, where they were interred in the Franciscan church, and in 1834 a marble statue was erected over his tomb.
His daughter Margaret married Vincent, duke of Mantua.
But the taking of, La Rochelle allowed Louis to force the pass of Susa, to induce the duke of Savoy to treat with him, and to isolate the Spaniards in Italy by a great Italian league between Genoa, Venice and the dukes of Savoy and Mantua (April 1629).
Weimar; by that of Rivoli he united against Spain the dukes of Modena, Parma and Mantua; he signed an open alliance with The the league of Heilbronn, the United Provinces and Frwch Sweden and after these alliances military operations Thirty began, Marshal de la Force occupying the duchy of Lor Years raine.
It is also connected by rail with Parma and Mantua (via Suzzara).
There was also a desire to lay the Confession before the council summoned at Mantua by Pope Paul III.
They are found chiefly in north Italy, in the valley of the Po, round Modena, Mantua and Parma.
He had come to Rome to endeavor to obtain the annulment of marriage of a lady who was in a convent at Mantua.
The mantua on display at Kensington Palace is made of white silk brocaded in white and colored silk.
He was chosen to be the bishop of Mantua and also the diocesan chancellor.
A conspiracy, planned with the object, among others, of kidnapping the emperor while on a visit to Venice and forcing him to make concessions, was postponed in consequence of the coup detat by which Louis Napoleon became emperor of the French (1852); but a chance discovery led to a large number of arrests, and the state trials at Mantua, conducted in the most shamelessly inquisitorial manner, resulted in five death sentences, including that of the priest Tazzoli, and many of imprisonment for long terms. Even this did not convince Mazzini of the hopelessness of such attempts, for he was out of touch with Italian public opinion, and he greatly weakened his influence by favoring a crack-brained outbreak at Milan on the 6th of February 1853, which was easily quelled, numbers of the insurgents being executed or imprisoned.
Parliamentary pressure further obliged Bonghi, minister of public instruction, to compel clerical seminaries either to forgo the instruction of lay pupils or to conform to the laws of the state in regard to inspection and examination, an ordinance which gave rise to conflicts between ecclesiastical and lay authorities, and led to the forcible dissolution of the Mantua seminary and to the suppression of the Catholic university in Rome.
He was in fact the first painter of any eminence ever domiciled in Mantua.
Academia di Torino, xxxii., that "Vac. Mantuanus," the author of the Contraria, must have been "Vacella," who, in 1189, was a judge at Mantua.
His attempt to capture Geneva by treachery (1602) failed, and although on the death of Francesco Gonzaga, duke of Mantua and Montferrat, he seized the latter city (1612) he was forced by Spain and her allies to relinquish it.
His best known works are the Conciliator differentiarum quae inter philosophos et medicos versantur (Mantua, 1472; Venice, 1476), and De venenis eorumque remediis (1472), of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593.
The struggle against the bishops, in which a clamour for a reform of clerical life and a striving for local self-government were strangely interwoven, had raged for a couple of generations when King Henry V., great patron of municipal freedom as he was, legalized by a series of charters the status quo (Cremona, 1114, Mantua, 1116).
They made a brief stay at Mantua, where Leonardo was graciously received by the duchess Isabella Gonzaga, the most cultured of the many cultured great ladies of her time, whose portrait he promised to paint on a future day; meantime he made the fine chalk drawing of her now at the Louvre.
But after a period of internal discord Ludovico Gonzaga attained to power (1328), and was recognized as imperial vicar (1329); and from that time till the death of Ferdinando Carbo in 1708 the Gonzagas were masters of Mantua (see Gonzaga).
The rest of his life was passed in Verona, Mantua and Rome - chiefly Mantua; Venice and Florence have also been named, but without confirmation.
Some of his early Mantuan works are in that apartment of the Castello which is termed the Camera degli Sposi - full compositions in fresco, including various portraits of the Gonzaga family, and some figures of genii, &c. In 1488 he went to Rome at the request of Pope Innocent VIII., to paint the frescoes in the chapel of the Belvedere in the Vatican; the marquis of Mantua (Federigo) created him a cavaliere before his departure.