Manganese sentence example

manganese
  • Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
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  • Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
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  • Manganese ore is mined for export, and bismuth is reported to have been discovered.
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  • The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
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  • The colour of amethyst is usually attributed to the presence of manganese, but as it is capable of being much altered and even discharged by heat it has been referred by some authorities to an organic source.
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  • The ore generally occurs in the form of oxides, manganite and pyrolusite, and contains a high percentage of sesquioxide of manganese.
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  • Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
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  • The manganese ores of the Bathurst district of New South Wales often contain a small percentage of cobalt - sufficient, indeed, to warrant further attempts to work them.
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  • Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
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  • The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.
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  • Now, however, the mottled soaps, blue and grey, are produced by working colouring matter, ultramarine for blue, and manganese dioxide for grey, into the soap in the frame, and mottling is very far from being a certificate of excellence of quality.
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  • He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.
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  • To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
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  • The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides.
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  • The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide.
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  • A white precipitate rapidly turning brown indicates manganese.
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  • Lead and manganese are partially separated as peroxides, but the remaining metals are not deposited from acid solutions.
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  • Lead chromate is sometimes used, and many other substances, such as platinum, manganese dioxide, &c., have been suggested.
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  • Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
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  • The mineral wealth of the Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement (pozzolana) from Santorin.
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  • Schefferite, or manganese pyroxene, is a brown mineral found in the manganese mines of Sweden.
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  • Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
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  • Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.
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  • Iron and manganese have, on the contrary, been greatly developed in the same period.
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  • Manganese is mined mainly near La Maya and El Cristo in Oriente.
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  • Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome, manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent building stone.
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  • The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.
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  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
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  • It oxidizes a manganese salt (free from chlorine) in the presence of nitric acid to a permanganate; this is a very delicate test for manganese.
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  • Heusler that an alloy consisting of copper, aluminium and manganese (Heusler's alloy), possesses magnetic qualities comparable with those of iron.
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  • The most striking phenomenon which they bring into prominence is the effect of any considerable quantity of manganese in annihilating the magnetic property of iron.
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  • A sample of Hadfield's manufacture, containing 1 2.36% of manganese, differed hardly at all from a non-magnetic substance, its permeability being only 1.27.
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  • 5 More than fifty different specimens were tested, most of which contained a known proportion of manganese, nickel, tungsten, aluminium, chromium, copper or silicon; in some samples two of the substances named were present.
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  • The addition of 15.2% of manganese produced an enormous effect C.R., 1897, 124, 176 and 1515; 1897, 125, 235; 1898, 126, 738.2 Ibid., 1898, 126, 741.
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  • Heusler 2 in 1903 that certain alloys of the non-magnetic metal manganese with other non-magnetic substances were strongly magnetizable, their susceptibility being in some cases equal to that of cast iron.
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  • The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
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  • So far, the best results have been attained with aluminium, and the permeability was greatest when the percentages of manganese and aluminium were approximately proportional to the atomic weights of the two metals.
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  • Thus in an alloy containing 26.5% of manganese and 14.6% of aluminium, the rest being copper, the induction for H= 20 was 4500, and for H=150, 5550.
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  • When the proportion of aluminium to manganese was made a little greater or smaller, the permeability was diminished.
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  • In all such magnetizable alloys the presence of manganese appears to be essential, and there can be little doubt that the magnetic quality of the mixtures is derived solely from this component.
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  • Manganese, though belonging (with chromium) to the iron group of metals, is commonly classed as a paramagnetic, its susceptibility being very small in comparison with that of the recognized ferromagnetics; but it is remarkable that its atomic susceptibility in solutions of its salts is even greater than that of iron.
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  • Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.
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  • Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
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  • 4 No record can be found of experiments with manganese at the temperature of liquid air or hydrogen; probably, however, negative results would not be published.
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  • On the other hand, its susceptibility is about fifty times less than that of Hadfield's 12% manganese steel, which is commonly spoken of as non-magnetizable.
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  • The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
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  • Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.
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  • Manganese is mined in Minas Geraes for export.
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  • Mines of iron, manganese, and especially of mispickel, are worked, and there are stone-quarries and productive saltmarshes.
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  • Of the impurities of the ore the wolframite (tungstate of iron and manganese) is the most troublesome, because on account of its high specific gravity it cannot be washed away as gangue.
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  • Other metals, such as manganese, copper, nickel, may show their presence by characteristic colours.
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  • The purple-blue of cobalt, the chrome green or yellow of chromium, the dichroic canarycolour of uranium and the violet of manganese, are constant.
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  • Oxidation may be effected by the addition to the glass mixture of a substance which gives up oxygen at a high temperature, such as manganese dioxide or arsenic trioxide.
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  • Manganese dioxide not only acts as a source of oxygen, but develops a pink tint in the glass, which is complementary to and neutralizes the green colour due to ferrous oxide.
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  • A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
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  • The material has been considered by some to be magnetic iron ore and by others oxide of manganese.
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  • Oxides of iron and manganese can only be used in glass manufacture in comparatively small quantities for the purpose of colouring or neutralizing colour in glass, and their introduction would not be a matter of sufficient importance to be specially recorded.
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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).
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  • The same holds for the following group (A): [manganese, zinc, magnesium] iron, aluminium, cobalt, nickel, cadmium.
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  • The following, though volatile at higher temperatures, are not volatilized at dull redness: KC1, NaCI, LiC1, NiC1 2, CoC1 2, MnC1 2, ZnCl 2, MgCl 2, PbCl 2, AgCI, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, magnesium, lead, silver.
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  • Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.
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  • Second in importance is the carbonate, calamine (q.v.) or zinc spar, which at one time was the principal ore; it almost invariably contains the carbonates of cadmium, iron, manganese, magnesium and calcium, and may be contaminated with clay, oxides of iron, galena and calcite; "white calamine" owes its colour to much clay; "red calamine" to admixed iron and manganese oxides.
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  • Here very clean non-magnetic concentrate of willemite, which is an anhydrous zinc silicate and a very highgrade zinc ore, is separated from an intimate mixture of willemite, zincite and franklinites, with calcite and some manganese silicates.
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  • It is chemically related to cadmium and mercury, the resemblance to cadmium being especially well marked; one distinction is that zinc is less basigenic. Zinc is capable of isomorphously replacing many of the bivalent metals - magnesium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and cadmium.
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  • If care be taken to keep the zinc in excess, the solution will be free from all foreign metals except iron and perhaps manganese.
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  • The iron and manganese are precipitated as hydroxides, and are filtered off.
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  • Manganese dioxide and dilute sulphuric acid oxidize it to quinone.
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  • Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
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  • It is now a centre of the tunny fishery, and there are manganese mines also.
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  • Potassium permanganate in acid solution oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water; the manganese sulphate formed has a catalytic accelerating effect on the decomposition.
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  • It is also obtained by the action of hydrogen peroxide on hydrocyanic acid, or of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid on potassium cyanide.
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  • Manganese not only forms with iron several alloys of great interest, but alloyed with copper it is used for electrical purposes, as an alloy can thus be obtained with an electrical resistance that does not alter with change of temperature; this alloy, called manganin, is used in the construction of resistance-boxes.
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  • One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.
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  • Elsner recognized, in 1846, the part played by the atmosphere, and in 1879 Dixon showed that bleaching powder, manganese dioxide, and other oxidizing agents, facilitated the solution.
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  • Secondary products, such as glauconite, phosphatic concretions and manganese nodules, occur though less frequently than in the hemipelagic sediments.
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  • The reddish colour comes from the presence of oxides of iron, and particles of manganese also occur in it, especially in the Pacific region, where the colour is more that of chocolate; but when it is mixed with globigerina ooze it is grey.
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  • The dredge often brings up large numbers of nodules formed upon sharks' teeth, the ear-bones of whales or turtles or small fragments of pumice or other volcanic ejecta, and all more or less incrusted with manganese oxide until the nodules vary in size from that of a potato to that of a man's head.
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  • Derived products in the form of crystals of phillipsite are not uncommon, but the most abundant of all are the incrustations of manganese oxide, as to the origin of which Murray and Renard are not fully clear.
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  • The manganese nodules afford the most ample proof of the prodigious period of time which has elapsed since the formation of the red clay began; the sharks' teeth and whales' ear-bones which serve as nuclei belong in some cases to extinct species or even to forms derived from those familiar in the fossils from the seas of the Tertiary period.
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  • Many of the elements such as copper, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt and manganese have only been found in the substance of sea-weeds and corals.
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  • Other minerals found in small quantities are copper, lead, zinc, iron ores, manganese ores and tin.
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  • Gold, copper, iron and manganese are also found in various parts of the district, and there are tin mines at Maliwun, upon which European methods have been tried without much profit, owing to the cost of labour.
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  • There are many other valuable ores - copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, chrome and manganese.
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  • Manganese could be readily worked in Timor, where it lies in the Carboniferous Limestone.
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  • Over a large part of the central Pacific, far removed from any possible land-influences or deposits of ooze, the red-clay region is characterized by the occurrence of manganese, which gives the clay a chocolate colour, and manganese nodules are found in vast numbers, along with sharks' teeth and the ear-bones and other bones of whales.
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  • Thermit was discovered by Dr. Hans Goldschmidt of Essen, Germany, in 1895, while trying to reduce chromium and manganese.
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  • The analysis of manganese dioxide in 1774 led him to the discovery of chlorine and baryta; to the description of various salts of manganese itself, including the manganates and permanganates, and to the explanation of its action in colouring and decolourizing glass.
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  • The former, "fire-air," or oxygen, he prepared from "acid of nitre," from saltpetre, from black oxide of manganese, from oxide of mercury and other substances, and there is little doubt but that he obtained it independently a considerable time before Priestley.
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  • According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.
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  • The liquid is run into the iodine still and gently warmed, manganese dioxide in small quantities being added from time to time, when the iodine distils over and is collected.
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  • Iodine may also be prepared by the decomposition of an iodide with chlorine, or by heating a mixture of an iodide and manganese dioxide with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • Nitrous acid and chlorine readily decompose them with liberation of iodine; the same effect being produced when they are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide.
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  • Manganese ore is the chief mineral, and is extracted for export to the extent of 160,000 to 180,000 tons annually, besides coal, lead and silver ores, copper, naphtha, some gold, lithographic stone and marble.
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  • A railway runs from the Caspian Sea, via Tiflis and the Suram tunnel, to Kutais, and thence to Poti and Batum, and from Kutais to the Tkvibuli coal and manganese mines.
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  • There is abundance of minerals, including lead, copper, manganese and especially iron.
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  • Its exports include coffee, sugar, hides, cabinet woods, tobacco and cigars, tapioca, gold, diamonds, manganese and sundry small products.
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  • We must refer to Kayser and Runge's Handbuch for further details, as well as for information on other spectra such as those of silver, thallium, indium and manganese, in which series lines have been found.
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  • Iron and manganese ores are also found.
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  • Bog iron ore is an impure limonite, usually formed by the influence of micro-organisms, and containing silica, phosphoric acid and organic matter, sometimes with manganese.
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  • The various kinds of brown and yellow ochre are mixtures of limonite with clay and other impurities; whilst in umber much manganese oxide is present.
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  • Mines of copper, manganese, lead, silver and tin are in the neighbourhood, and the town possesses a considerable trade in cattle and corn, and industries in brewing and iron-founding.
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  • Of quicksilver there are several mines, chiefly in the Palatinate of the Rhine; and small quantities of copper, manganese and cobalt are obtained.
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  • (Tungsten steel and certain classes of manganese steel are malleable only when red-hot.) Normal or carbon steel contains between 0.30 and 2.20% of carbon, enough to make it harden greatly when cooled suddenly, but not enough to prevent it from being usefully malleable when hot.
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  • These include the austenitic or gamma non-magnetic manganese steel, already patented b y Robert Hadfield in 1883, the first important known substance which combined great malleableness with great hardness, and the martensitic or beta " high speed tool steel " of White and Taylor, which retains its hardness and cutting power even at a red heat.
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  • The important manganese steels of commerce and certain nickel steels are manganiferous and niccoliferous austenite, unmagnetic and hard but ductile.
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  • Austenite may contain carbon in any proportion up to about 2.2 It is non-magnetic, and, when preserved in the cold either by quenching or by the presence of manganese, nickel, &c., it has a very remarkable combination of great malleability with very marked hardness, though it is less hard than common carbon steel is when hardened, and probably less hard than martensite.
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  • Only in the presence of much manganese, nickel, or their equivalent can the true austenite be preserved in the cold so completely that the steel remains non-magnetic.
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  • Nickel and manganese lower these critical points, so that with 25% of nickel Ar lies below the common temperature 20° C. With 13% of manganese Ar is very low, and the austenite decomposes so slowly that it is preserved practically intact by sudden cooling.
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  • These steels then normally consist of y-iron, modified by the large amount of nickel or manganese with which it is alloyed.
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  • Slow cooling, slow solidification, the presence of an abundance of carbon, and the presence of silicon, all favour the formation of graphite; rapid cooling, the presence of sulphur, and in most cases that of manganese, favour the formation of cementite.
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  • The chief ones are nickel steel, manganese steel, chrome steel and chrome-tungsten steel.
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  • Manganese steel and nickel steel form an important exception to this rule, in being at once very strong and hard and extremely ductile.
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  • As actually made, manganese steel contains about 12% of manganese and 1.5 o% of carbon.
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  • Although the presence of 1.50% of manganese makes steel relatively brittle, and although a further addition at first increases this brittleness, so that steel containing between 4 and 5.5% can be pulverized under the hammer, yet a still further increase gives very great ductility, accompanied by great hardness-a combination of properties which was not possessed by any other known substance when this remarkable alloy, known as Hadfield's manganese steel, was discovered.
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  • But neither this nor any other procedure softens manganese steel rapidly.
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  • Manganese by itself rather lessens than increases the malleableness and, indeed, the general merit of the metal, but it is added intentionally, in quantities even as large as 1 5 to palliate the effects of sulphur and oxygen.
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  • In the former case there is no later chance to remove sulphur, a minute quantity of which does great harm by leading to the formation of cementite instead of graphite and ferrite, and thus making the cast-iron castings too hard to be cut to exact shape with steel tools; in the latter case the converting or purifying processes, which are essentially oxidizing ones, though they remove the other impurities, carbon, silicon, phosphorus and manganese, are not well adapted to desulphurizing, which needs rather deoxidizing conditions, so as to cause the formation of calcium sulphide, than oxidizing ones.
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  • In like manner, if the molten iron in the mixer contains manganese, this metal unites with the sulphur present, and the manganese sulphide, insoluble in the iron, slowly rises to the surface, and as it reaches the air, its sulphur oxidizes to sulphurous acid, which escapes.
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  • In making very low-carbon steel this recarburizing proper is not needed; but in any event a considerable quantity of manganese must be added unless the pig iron initially contains much of that metal, in order to remove from the molten steel the oxygen which it has absorbed from the; blast, lest this make it redshort.
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  • If, on the other hand, the carbon-content is to be raised, then carbon and manganese are usually added together in the form of a manganiferous molten pig iron, called spiegeleisen, i.e.
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  • " mirror-iron," from the brilliancy of its facets, and usually containing somewhere about 12% of manganese and 4% of carbon, though the proportion between these two elements has to be adjusted so as to introduce the desired quantity of each into the molten steel.
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  • Part of the carbon of this spiegeleisen unites with the oxygen occluded in the molten iron to form carbonic oxide, and again a bright flame, greenish with manganese, escapes from the converter.
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  • Mushet had no such exclusive knowledge of the effects of manganese that he alone could have helped Bessemer; and even if nobody had then proposed the use of spiegeleisen, the development of the Swedish Bessemer practice would have gone on, and, the process thus established and its value and great economy thus shown in Sweden, it would have been only a question of time how soon somebody would have proposed the addition of manganese.
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  • The oxidation of manganese is capable of generating a very high temperature, but it has the very serious disadvantage of causing such thick clouds of smoky oxide of manganese as to hide the flame from the blower, and prevent him from recognizing the moment when the blow should be ended.
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  • Manganese to the extent of 1.80% is desired as a means of preventing the resultant steel from being redshort, i.e.
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  • He then pours or taps the molten charge from the furnace into a large clay-lined casting ladle, giving it the final additions of manganese, usually with carbon and often with silicon, needed to give it exactly the desired composition.
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  • Here sulphur may indeed be removed to a very important degree in the form of manganese sulphide, which distributes itself between metal and slag in rough accord with the laws of equilibrium.
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  • Of these several qualities which cast iron may have, fluidity is given by keeping the sulphur-content low and phosphoruscontent high; and this latter element must be kept low if shock is to be resisted; but strength, hardness, endurance of shock, density and expansion in solidifying are controlled essentially by the distribution of the carbon between the states of graphite and cementite, and this in turn is controlled chiefly by the proportion of silicon, manganese and sulphur present, and in many cases by the rate of cooling.
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  • If this carbon is all present as graphite, so that in cooling the graphite-austenite diagram has been followed strictly (§ 26), the constitution is extremely simple; clearly the mass consists first of a metallic matrix, the carbonless iron itself with whatever silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur happen to be present, in short an impure ferrite, encased in which as a wholly distinct foreign body is the graphite.
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  • - Manganese in many cases, but not in all, opposes the formation of graphite and thus hardens the iron, and it lessens the red shortness (§ 40), which sulphur causes, by leading to the formation of the less harmful manganese sulphide instead of the more harmful iron sulphide.
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  • In the better classes of castings it is usually between 0.40 and 0.70%, and in chilled railroad car-wheels it may well be between 0.15 and 0.30%; but skilful founders, confronted with the task of making use of cast iron rich in manganese, have succeeded in making good grey iron castings with even as much as 2.20% of this element.
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  • The permissible phosphorus-content is lessened by the presence of either much sulphur or much manganese, and by rapid cooling, as for instance in case of thin castings, because each of these three things, by leading to the formation of the brittle cementite, in itself creates brittleness which aggravates that caused by phosphorus.
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  • This is done chiefly by casting the steel at a relatively low temperature, and by limiting the quantity of manganese and silicon which it contains.
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  • Brinell finds that, for certain normal conditions, if the sum of the percentage of manganese plus 5.2 times that of the FIG.
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  • The solid variety prepared by Staedel forms colourless, prismatic crystals which melt at -2° C.; it is decomposed with explosive violence by platinum sponge, and traces of manganese dioxide.
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  • The mineral products of the district also include lignite, copper, manganese, vitriol, lime, gypsum, volcanic stones (used for millstones) and slates.
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  • Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
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  • The cast-iron contained nearly 3% each of silicon and graphite, and 1% each of phosphorus and manganese.
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  • Other varieties contain small amounts of mercury, tin, manganese or thallium.
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  • In the barren mountainous country surrounding the city are valuable mines of iron, copper and manganese.
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  • The shipping trade amounts to £500,000 to £600,000 a year, almost entirely manganese ore, with some maize.
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  • Many of the Egyptian rocks in the desert areas and at the cataracts are coated with a highly polished film, of almost microscopic thinness, consisting chiefly of oxides of iron and manganese with salts of magnesia and lime.
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  • Such cement, if free also from manganese, is white, and its manufacture has been proposed for exterior decorative use.
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  • The resulting cement varies somewhat in composition, but approximates to the following figures: I 00.00 The most characteristic constituent is the oxide of iron, which gives the cement a reddish colour, and the presence of manganese also differentiates Roman from Portland cement, which rarely contains appreciable quantities of that element.
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  • Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
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  • Manganese is found widely distributed in nature, being generally found to a greater or less extent associated with the carbonates and silicates of iron, calcium and magnesium, and also as the minerals braunite, hausmannite, psilomelane, manganite, manganese spar and hauerite.
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  • Bunsen prepared the metal by electrolysing manganese chloride in a porous cell surrounded by a carbon crucible containing hydrochloric acid.
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  • Wahl [German patent 70773 (1893)] prepare a 97% manganese from pyrolusite by heating it with 30% sulphuric acid, the product being then converted into manganous oxide by heating in a current of reducing gas at a dull red heat, cooled in a reducing atmosphere, and finally reduced by heating with granulated aluminium in a magnesia crucible with lime and fluorspar as a flux.
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  • In the hydrated condition it is a dark brown powder which readily loses water at above too° C., it dissolves in hot nitric acid, giving manganous nitrate and manganese dioxide: 2MnO(OH) + 2HNO 3 = Mn(NO 3) 2 + MnO 2 + 2H 2 0.
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  • It is almost impossible to prepare a pure hydrated manganese dioxide owing to the readiness with which it loses oxygen, leaving residues of the type xMnO yMn0 2.
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  • The anhydrous chloride, MnCl2, is obtained as a rose-red crystalline solid by passing hydrochloric acid gas over manganese carbonate, first in the cold and afterwards at a moderate red heat.
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  • Manganous Carbonate, MnCO 3, found native as manganese spar, may be prepared as an amorphous powder by heating manganese chloride with sodium carbonate in a sealed tube to 150° C., or in the hydrated form as a white flocculent precipitate by adding sodium carbonate to a manganous salt.
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  • Manganous Sulphide, MnS, found native as manganese glance, may be obtained by heating the monoxide or carbonate in a porcelain tube in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour.
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  • The sulphate, Mn2(S04)3, is prepared by gradually heating at 138° C. a mixture of concentrated sulphuric and manganese dioxide until the whole becomes of a dark green colour.
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  • With potassium sulphate in the presence of sulphuric acid it forms potassium manganese alum, K2S04 Mn2(S04)3.24H20.
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  • Manganese Carbide, Mn 3 C, is prepared by heating manganous oxide with sugar charcoal in an electric furnace, or by fusing manganese chloride and calcium carbide.
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  • Manganese salts can be detected by the amethyst colour they impart to a borax-bead when heated in the Bunsen flame, and by the green mass formed when they are fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate.
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  • Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.
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  • The atomic weight of manganese has been frequently determined.
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  • The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.
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  • The mines are still worked at the present day by French and Greek companies, but mainly for lead, manganese and cadmium.
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  • One of the most valuable characteristics of the iron alloys is their capacity for hardening, which they owe in the main to the presence of certain small percentages of carbon relatively to minute quantities of other elements: as manganese, tungsten, nickel and others of less importance.
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  • Even now, where chlorine is required for immediate use in some other chemical operations on a comparatively small scale, it is obtained by the action of hydrochloric acid on native manganese dioxide, according to the equation: Mn02+4HC1= MnC1 2 +C1 2 +2H 2 0.
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  • This action must be promoted by heating the mixture, but even then nothing like all of the hydrochloric acid employed is made to act as above, because the attack on the manganese ore requires a certain minimum concentration of the acid.
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  • This process is very costly, as much of the acid and all of the manganese is wasted.
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  • Many endeavours were made to avoid the loss of the manganese in this operation, but with only partial or no success.
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  • It begins with " still-liquor," obtained in the old way from native manganese ore and hydrochloric acid.
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  • The mud thus formed is settled out, and the clear liquor, which is now quite neutral and contains both manganese and calcium chlorides, is mixed with cream of lime and treated by a strong current of air, produced by a blowing-engine.
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  • The first action of the lime is to convert the manganese chloride into manganous hydrate (Mn(OH) 2) and calcium chloride; then more lime is added which greatly promotes and hastens the oxidizing process.
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  • The object of the latter is to convert the manganous hydroxide by the atmospheric oxygen into manganese dioxide, but this would take place much too slowly if there was not an excess of lime present ready to combine with the manganese dioxide to form a calcium manganite.
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  • This additional lime, which is called the " basis," certainly takes up hydrochloric acid in the next stage of the process, but that causes no more waste of acid than the incomplete action on native manganese ore, mentioned before.
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  • The new stillliquor formed in this manner is treated as above, so that the manganese does its work over and over again.
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  • There is only a slight mechanical loss, which is reduced in the best managed works to about parts of manganese dioxide to ioo of bleachingpowder.
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  • (Sectional Elevation.) Scale C, Stone steam column resting in stone socket process, by employing the active oxygen of manganese dioxide to convert hydrochloric acid into free chlorine, and he employed the atmospheric oxygen only indirectly, for the recovery of manganese dioxide from the manganese chloride formed.
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  • The sulphides can be removed by " oxidizing " them into thiosulphates by means of atmospheric air, with or without the assistance of other agents, such as manganese peroxide; or by " carbonating " them with lime-kiln or other gases containing carbon dioxide; or by precipitating them with lead or zinc oxide.
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  • Putting aside salt, which has been already treated, the chief mining resources of India at the present day are the coal mines, the gold mines, the petroleum oil-fields, the ruby mines, manganese deposits, mica mines in Bengal, and the tin ores and jade of Burma.
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  • - Manganese ore is found in very large quantities on a tract on the Madras coast about midway between Calcutta and Madras.
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  • There are also valuable deposits of manganese in the Central Provinces and, it is believed, in Burma.
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  • The export of manganese, which had been only about ten years in existence in 1905-1906, amounted then to 316,694 tons, with a value of £250,000.
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  • It thus resembles magnetite in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considerable amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 20% of manganese oxides).
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  • Associated with franklinite at Franklin Furnace, and found also at some other localities, is another member of the spinel group, namely, gahnite or zinc-spinel, which is a zinc aluminate, ZnAl 2 O 4, with a little of the zinc replaced by iron and manganese.
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  • In the form of a powder, it is obtained by reducing the oxide with zinc and extracting with soda, or by dissolving out the manganese from its alloys with tungsten.
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  • The iron deposits are very extensive, and the ores consist of red haematites, magnetites, titanic, chrome and manganese irons.
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  • The preparation of chlorine, both on the small scale and commercially, depends on the oxidation of hydrochloric acid; the usual oxidizing agent is manganese dioxide, which, when heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid, forms manganese chloride, water and chlorine: - Mn02-I-4HC1=MnC12+2H20+ C1 2.
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  • The manganese dioxide may be replaced by various other substances, such as red lead, lead dioxide, potassium bichromate, and potassium permanganate.
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  • Manganese ore-mining began in Virginia in 1857 in the Shenandoah Valley, and the product increased from about 100 tons in that year to about 5000 tons (mined near Warminster, Nelson county) in 1868 and 1869.
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  • Besides the dryers already mentioned, lead acetate, manganese borate, manganese dioxide, zinc sulphate and other bodies are used.
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  • The decomposition is rendered more easy and regular by mixing the salt with powdered manganese dioxide.
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  • The figures for the more important minerals are as follows: Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.
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  • The principal exports are gold, silver, copper (bars, regulus and ores), cobalt and its ores, lead and its ores, vanadium ores, manganese, coal, nitrate of soda, borate of lime, iodine, sulphur, wheat and guano.
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  • Manganese ores are mined in Atacama and Coquimbo, and their export is large.
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  • It combines directly with sulphur and phosphorus, and is readily oxidized when heated with metallic oxides (such as litharge, mercuric oxide, manganese dioxide, &c.).
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  • These actions are of extreme importance in nature, as their continuation results in the enormous deposits of bog-iron ore, ochre, and - since Molisch has shown that the iron can be replaced by manganese in some bacteria - of manganese ores.
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  • There are valuable manganese deposits in the sandstone of the eastern plateau.
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  • The periodic process depends on the interaction between manganese dioxide (pyrolusite), sulphuric acid, and a bromide, and the operation is carried out in sandstone stills heated to 60° C., the product being condensed as in the continuous process.
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  • Gessner (Berichte, 1876, 9, p. 1507) removes chlorine by repeated shaking with water, followed by distillation over sulphuric acid; hydrobromic acid is removed by distillation with pure manganese dioxide, or mercuric oxide, and the product dried over sulphuric acid.
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  • Hydrobromic acid and its salts can be readily detected by the addition of chlorine water to their aqueous solutions, when bromine is liberated; or by warming with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide, the same result being obtained.
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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.
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  • Dyson has measured some eight hundred lines in the lower chromosphere and identified them with emission spectra of the following elements: hydrogen, helium, carbon with the cyanogen band, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, ytterbium, lead, europium, besides a few doubtful identifications; it is a curious fact that the agreement is with the spark spectra of these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or more definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a lower temperature.
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  • Of the bulkier and less valuable minerals Colombia has copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc and mercury.
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  • There is some roofing slate along the Rogue river, natural cement, nickel ore, bismuth and wolframite in Douglas county, gypsum in Baker county, fire-clay in Clatsop county, borate of soda on the marsh lands of Harney county, infusorial earth and tripoli in the valley of the Deschutes river, chromate of iron in Curry and Douglas counties, molybdenite in Union county, bauxite in Clackamas county, borate of lime in Curry county, manganese ore in Columbia county, and asbestos in several of the southern and eastern counties.
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  • Other impurities such as zinc and manganese sulphates are more difficult to remove, and hence to prepare the pure salt it is best to dissolve pure iron wire in dilute sulphuric acid.
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  • By evaporating a solution containing free sulphuric acid in a vacuum, the hepta-hydrated salt first separates, then the penta-, and then a tetra-hydrate, FeSO44H2O, isomorphous with manganese sulphate.
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  • Gold is found in several places, and some arsenic, antimony, bismuth, manganese, mercury and sulphur.
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  • A simpler explanation is that the manganese dioxide first gives a normal sulphite which rearranges to dithionate, thus: Mn0 2 +2S0 2 = Mn(S03)2-MnS206, whilst the lead dioxide gives a basic sulphite which rearranges to sulphate, thus: PbO-l-S0 2 = PbOS03 - > PbS04.
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  • Nickel, mercury, manganese, graphite, marble, sulphur and oil shales are found in various regions, but the mineral resources of the country, as a whole, remain almost undeveloped.
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  • Silver has been detected in certain galenas, and also platinum; copper has been found in various localities, as well as zinc, lead, nickel, antimony and manganese, but none of these metals has yet been discovered in sufficient quantities for profitable working.
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  • Alloys prepared in this way, and known as phosphor bronze, may contain only about 1% of phosphorus in the ingot, reduced to a mere trace after casting, but their value is nevertheless enhanced for purposes in which a hard strong metal is required, as for pump plungers, valves, the bushes of bearings, &c. Bronze again is improved by the presence of manganese in small quantity, and various grades of manganese bronze, in some of which there is little or no tin but a considerable percentage of zinc, are extensively used in mechanical engineering.
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  • Among the less important Spanish minerals are manganese (chiefly in Ciudad Real), antimony, gold, cobalt, sodic sulphate, sulphate of barium (barytes), phosphorite (found in Chceres), alum, sulphur, kaolin, lignite, asphalt, besides a variety of building and ornamental stones.
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  • Another famous mare was Manganese (1853) by Birdcatcher from Moonbeam by Tomboy from Lunatic by the Prime Minister from Maniac by Shuttle.
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  • Manganese when mated with Rataplan threw Mandragora, dam of Apology, winner of the Oaks and St Leger, whose sire wasAdventurer, son of Newminster.
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  • Birdcatcher was a chestnut, so also were Stockwell and his brother Rataplan, Manganese, Mandragora, Thormanby, Kettledrum, St Albans, Blair Athol, Regalia, Formosa, Hermit, Marie Stuart, Doncaster, George Frederick, Apology, Craig Millar, Prince Charlie, Rayon d'Or and Bend Or.
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  • The town is connected by rail with the main Transcaucasian railway to Tiflis, and is the chief port for the export of naphtha and paraffin oil, carried hither in great part through pipes laid down from Baku, but partly also in tank railway-cars; other exports are wheat, manganese, wool, silkworm-cocoons, liquorice, maize and timber (total value of exports nearly 52 millions sterling annually).
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  • They may also be prepared by oxidizing chromium salts (in alkaline solution) with hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, bleaching powder, potassium permanganate and manganese dioxide.
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  • It is rich in minerals, including chrome, manganese, zinc, antimony, iron, argentiferous lead, arsenic and lignite, but some of these are unworked.
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  • The methods of bleaching by oxygen include all those which aim at the bleaching by exposure to the air and to sunlight (as in the case of artists' linseed-oil), or where oxygen or ozone is introduced in the form of gas or is evolved by chemicals, as manganese dioxide, potassium bichromate or potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid..
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  • - These include iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, zinc, copper, silver, gold, platinum, lead, mercury, and probably antimony, arsenic and bismuth.
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  • Soluble salts of manganese, aluminium, zinc, copper, gold, platinum and bismuth have, when given by the mouth, little action beyond their local astringent or irritating effects; but when injected into a blood vessel they all exert much the same depressing effect upon the heart and nervous system.
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  • Lumps of manganese oxide, with a black, shining outer surface, are also characteristic of this deposit, and frequently encrust pieces of pumice or animal remains.
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  • Among the rocks of the continents nothing exactly the same as this remarkable deposit is known to occur, though fine dark clays, with manganese nodules, are found in many localities, accompanied by other rocks which indicate deep-water conditions of deposit.
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  • Among the other minerals found and mined to a limited extent are lead, manganese, barytes, fluorspar, slate, granite and petroleum.
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  • This method has received considerable extension, notably in furnace-smelting of iron ores containing manganese, where the entire hearth is often completely water-cased, and in some lead furnaces where no firebrick lining is used, the lower part of the furnace stack being a mere double iron box cooled by water sufficiently to keep a coating of slag adhering to the inner shell which prevents the metal from being acted upon.
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  • He also studied the magnetic and thermo-electric properties, and the resistance of short rods of manganese arsenide.
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  • These include bauxite, iron, manganese, tin and copper.
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  • Where trace elements are used, boron plus cocktails of zinc, magnesium, manganese and sulfur will be applied.
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  • It may also occur as a result of the toxic effects of manganese, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, and other chemicals.
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  • Most of the manganese in alloy steels dissolves in the alpha ferrite.
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  • Manganese bronze is actually a brass that contains manganese bronze is actually a brass that contains manganese.
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  • Elements which stabilize austenite include manganese, nickel, cobalt and copper.
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  • Ranchers often use manganese in the mineral supplements they give to farm animals.
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  • Trace elements -do you wish to add manganese or magnesium?
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  • If dissolved iron and/or manganese are more than a few mg/l, a manganese filter on the supply pipe may be necessary.
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  • Also implicated in calcium absorption is the mineral manganese, a glass of pineapple juice two or three times a week will suffice.
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  • On the Ocean beds lie immense riches in the form of manganese nodules - roughly 10,000 tons per square mile.
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  • Both occur as microcrystalline orange-brown veinlets in massive manganese ore.
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  • The purple color of the potassium manganate(VII) is eventually replaced by a dark brown precipitate of manganese(IV) oxide.
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  • His maps on the distribution of carbonates, siliceous deposits and manganese nodules form the basis of understanding oceanic sedimentology.
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  • The process is based on a manganese phosphate solution which produces a fairly thick coating.
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  • It can be obtained by the oxidation of uric acid by means of lead dioxide, manganese dioxide, ozone or potassium permanganate: C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3 + H 2 O + O = C 4 H 6 N 4 O 3 + C02.
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  • In the cultivated parts the land is so exceedingly fertile and productive that it sells for almost fabulous prices, and its value is still further enhanced by the discovery of manganese and copper mines in the basin of the Rion, and of the almost inexhaustible supplies of naphtha and petroleum at Baku in the Apsheron peninsula.
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  • 2 a but may unite with three of chlorine, which never combines with more than a single atom of hydrogen; an atom of phosphorus unites with only three atoms of hydrogen, but with five of chlorine, or with four of hydrogen and one of iodine; and the chlorides corresponding to the higher oxides of lead, nickel, manganese and arsenic, Pb0 2, Ni 2 0 3, Mn0 2 and As 2 0 5 do not exist as stable compounds, but the lower chlorides, PbCl 2j NiC12, MnC1 2 and AsC1 3j are very stable.
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  • Nickel and manganese lower these critical points, so that with 25% of nickel Ar lies below the common temperature 20° C. With 13% of manganese Ar is very low, and the austenite decomposes so slowly that it is preserved practically intact by sudden cooling.
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  • If the carbon-content is not to be raised materially, this manganese is added in the form of preheated lumps of " ferro-manganese," which contains about 80% of manganese, 5% of carbon and 15% of iron, with a little silicon and other impurities.
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  • But two remedies were quickly offered, one by the skilful Swede, Goransson, who used a pig iron initially rich in manganese and stopped his blow before much oxygen had been taken up; and the other by a British steel maker, Robert Mushet, who proposed the use of the manganiferous cast iron called spiegeleisen, and thereby removed the only remaining serious obstacle to the rapid spread of the process.
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  • The solid variety prepared by Staedel forms colourless, prismatic crystals which melt at -2° C.; it is decomposed with explosive violence by platinum sponge, and traces of manganese dioxide.
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  • Chem., 1866, 9 8, p. 340); by the action of chlorine on steam at a bright red heat; by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by bleaching powder, manganese dioxide, potassium ferricyanide in alkaline solution, or potassium permanganate in acid solution; by heating barium peroxide with an aqueous solution of potassium ferricyanide (G.
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  • (See Iron And Steel.) Compounds Manganese forms several oxides, the most important of which are manganous oxide, MnO, trimanganese tetroxide, Mn304, manganese sesquioxide, Mn203, manganese dioxide, Mn02, manganese trioxide, Mn03, and manganese heptoxide, Mn207.
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  • In the hydrated condition it is a dark brown powder which readily loses water at above too° C., it dissolves in hot nitric acid, giving manganous nitrate and manganese dioxide: 2MnO(OH) + 2HNO 3 = Mn(NO 3) 2 + MnO 2 + 2H 2 0.
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  • Manganese dioxide combines with other basic oxides to form manganites, and on this property is based the Weldon process for the recovery of manganese from the waste liquors of the chlorine stills (see Chlorine).
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  • Manganous Carbonate, MnCO 3, found native as manganese spar, may be prepared as an amorphous powder by heating manganese chloride with sodium carbonate in a sealed tube to 150° C., or in the hydrated form as a white flocculent precipitate by adding sodium carbonate to a manganous salt.
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  • The sulphate, Mn2(S04)3, is prepared by gradually heating at 138° C. a mixture of concentrated sulphuric and manganese dioxide until the whole becomes of a dark green colour.
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  • Scheele, the discoverer of chlorine, in 177 4, is the peroxide of manganese (manganese dioxide), found in considerable quantities in nature as " manganese ore " (the purest of which is called pyrolusite), and also artificially regenerated from the waste liquors of a former operation.
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  • The minerals known to exist are - alum, antimony, arsenic, asbestos, boracide, chrome, coal, copper, emery, fuller's earth, gold, iron, kaolin, lead, lignite, magnetic iron, manganese, meerschaum, mercury, nickel, rock-salt, silver, sulphur and zinc. The vegetation varies with the climate, soil and elevation.
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  • Owing to the enormous quantities of chlorine required for various industrial purposes, many processes have been devised, either for the recovery of the manganese from the crude manganese chloride of the chlorine stills, so that it can be again utilized, or for the purpose of preparing chlorine without the necessity of using manganese in any form (see Alkali Manufacture).
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  • The periodic process depends on the interaction between manganese dioxide (pyrolusite), sulphuric acid, and a bromide, and the operation is carried out in sandstone stills heated to 60° C., the product being condensed as in the continuous process.
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  • Manganese is a naturally occurring metal, but when dissolved in water it can react with chlorine added during treatment and turn black.
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  • Blades of grass dyed with manganese were woven into the baskets in geometric patterns with a symbolic significance.
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  • Calcium and magnesium deposits are the two most common elements found in hard water, but depending on the area you live, you may also find manganese and ferrous iron.
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  • In some bodies of water, fish and other aquatic life is so badly poisoned that they are unsafe for human consumption, containing heavy metals like mercury, chromium, manganese, and lead, or chemical substances like PCBs and pesticides.
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  • They mixed, pressed and broke down precious copper based minerals, such as malachite, along with carbon and manganese oxides to create colored powders used for face powders or eye colors.
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  • Pineapple is a good source of the mineral manganese.
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  • A manganese or iron deficiency often causes yellow leaves.
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  • As far as human nutrition is concerned, the inorganic nutrients include water, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, sulfate, magnesium, iron, fluorine, copper, zinc, chromium, manganese, iodine, selenium, and molybdenum.
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  • Manganese: Manganese toxicity is most likely to affect adults rather than children.
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  • It occurs most commonly in workers in manganese mines who must breathe air containing high levels of manganese dust (in a concentration of 5-250 mg/cubic meter).
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  • Manganese toxicity in miners has been documented in Chile, India, Japan, Mexico, and elsewhere.
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  • Symptoms of manganese poisoning typically occur within several months or years of exposure.
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  • Treatment of manganese toxicity involves removal of the patient from the high manganese environment as well as giving him or her lifelong doses of the drug L-dopa.
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  • Some heavy metals, such as zinc, copper, chromium, iron, and manganese, are required by the body in small amounts, but these same elements can be toxic in larger quantities.
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  • The minerals that are relevant to human nutrition are water, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, sulfate, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, selenium, and molybdenum.
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  • Manganese is necessary for normal bone growth and cartilage development.
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  • Along with B vitamins, manganese produces feelings of well-being.
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  • Experimental studies of individuals fed a manganese deficient diet have revealed that the deficiency produces a scaly, red rash on the skin of the upper torso.
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  • Nutritional supplements that may be beneficial include large amounts of antioxidants (vitamins C, A, E, zinc, selenium, and flavenoids), as well as B vitamins and a full complement of minerals (including boron, copper, and manganese).
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  • The addition of the sweet potatoes makes for a healthier recipe with plenty of vitamin C, potassium, and manganese.
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  • Pigments containing lead, manganese, and cobalt accelerate drying.
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  • Additional nutrients necessary for optimum nutrition include chloride, potassium, sodium, chromium, copper, iodine, fluoride, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc.
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  • Boswelox: An exclusive phyto-complex containing boswellia serrata extract and manganese, which cause micro-contractions in the skin.
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  • Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.
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    1
  • Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
    2
    2
  • He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
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  • The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
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  • Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
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  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
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  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.
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