In it various fossil mammalian remains have been found.
Parker, Mammalian Descent (London, 1885); E.
COATI, or COATI-MUNDI, the native name of the members of the genus Nasua, of the mammalian family Procyonidae.
- Representative Mammalian, Avian and Reptilian Trypanosomes, to illustrate the chief morphological characters.
The mammalian remains found in Pleistocene deposits are of exceptional interest.
The great number and variety of mammalian remains has made it possible for the Tertiary rocks to be classified by their means: see A.
Auditory ment in the crocodile, and with the ", chain " of Chicken, X 6 processus folii of the mammalian diameters; lateral and basal malleus, it follows that the whole views.
It receives the three great venous trunks of the body, namely the vena cava superior dextra, the vena cava superior sinistra more dorsally, and the vena cava inferior more to the right and below; the opening of the last is guarded by two prominent valves in place of the mammalian valvula Eustachii.
The communication with the atrium is guarded by a valvula cardiaca dextra, which only in function represents the mammalian tricuspid; it consists of an oblique reduplication of the muscular fibres together with the endocardiac lining of the right ventricle, while the opposite wall is convex and forms neither a velum nor papillary muscles, nor chordae tendineae.
brucei),' among mammalian forms, described by Prowazek (47); T.
Many interesting mammalian fossils, rhinoceros, mammoth, &c., with palaeolithic implements, have been found in the valley gravels of the river Ouse and its tributaries.
Although the present article does not discuss mammalian osteology in general (for which see Vertebrata), it is interesting to notice in this connexion that the primitive condition of the mammalian tympanum apparently consisted merely of a small and incomplete bony ring, with, at most, an imperfect ventral wall to the tympanic cavity, and that a close approximation to this original condition still persists in the monotremes, especially Ornithorhynchus.
This absence of mammalian life in oceanic islands extends even to New Zealand, where the indigenous mammals comprise only two peculiar species of bats, the so-called Maori rat having been introduced by man.
One of the leading features in mammalian distribution is the fact that the Monotremata, or egg-laying mammals, are exclusively confined to Australia and Papua, with the adjacent islands.
Very different, on the other hand, is the condition of things in Australia and Papua, where marsupials (and monotremes) are the dominant forms of mammalian life, the placentals being represented (apart from bats, which are mainly of an Asiatic type) only by a number of more or less aberrant rodents belonging to the mouse-tribe, and in Australia by the dingo, or native dog, and in New Guinea by a wild pig.
The avi-fauna is much richer than the mammalian, and, although wanting the 'largest birds as well as the most brilliantly coloured, comprises two hundred and sixty species, half of which are endemic. Many of the birds are remarkable not so much for their shape or colouring as for their distant relationships; many belong to peculiar genera, and some are so isolated that new families have had to be formed for their reception.
There is a well-marked processus lateralis anterior (the right and left together equivalent to the mammalian manubrium), which is the product of two or three ribs, the dorsal parts of which reduced ribs remain as cervico-dorsal ribs.
The muscles of the limbs show a great amount of specialization, away from the fundamental reptilian and mammalian conditions.
This great muscle covers completely the supracoracoideus, generally described as the second pectoral, or subclavius muscle, in reality homologous with the mammalian supraspinatus muscle.
The walls of these tertiary tubes send out, in all directions, canaliculi aeriferi which, ending in slight swellings, recall the mammalian aveoli.
Owing to the comparatively scanty number of harmful mammalian types, the birds play a considerable part in this large region, and some authorities consider its avifauna the richest in the world.
CHEVROTAIN, a name taken from the French to designate the various representatives of the mammalian ungulate family Tragulidae.
BEAVER,' the largest European aquatic representative of the mammalian order Rodentia, easily recognized by its large trowel-like, scaly tail, which is expanded in the horizontal direction.
The embryo passes through three stages - (I) still enclosed within the egg and living on its own yolk; (2) free, within the vitelline mass, which is directly swallowed by the mouth; (3) there is no more vitelline mass, but the embryo is possessed of long external gills, which serve for an exchange of nutritive fluid through the maternal uterus, these gills functioning in the same way as the chorionic villi of the mammalian egg.
Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).
We are thus working out gradually the separate contributions of the land masses of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and of Australia to the mammalian fauna of the world, a result which can be obtained through palaeontology only.
xlii., 1893), " Ten Years' Progress in the Mammalian Palaeontology of North America " (Comptes rendus du 6 e Congres intern.
As in other parts of the world, the chiefest palaeontological interest of the Tertiary attaches to the mammalian fossils.
4) represents an ideal mammalian liver.
The Alluvium was distinguished from Diluvium by the fact that its mammalian fossils were representatives of still living forms, but it is a matter of great difficulty to separate these two divisions in practice.
The fluvio-marine deposits of the Upper Eocene and Oligocene formations contain an interesting mammalian fauna, proving that the African continent formed a centre of radiation for the mammalia in early Tertiary times.
Although the British representatives of this group should undoubtedly retain their vernacular designations of water-rat and short-tailed field-mouse, the term "vole" is one of great convenience in zoology as a general one for all the members of the group. Systematically voles are classed in the mammalian order Rodentia, in which they constitute the typical section of the subfamily Microtinae in the Muridae, or mouse-group. As a group, voles are characterized by being more heavily built than rats and mice, and by their less brisk movements.
Especial importance attaches to the unexpected discovery by Whitehead of a new and peculiar mammalian fauna, inhabiting a small plateau on the top of Mt Data, in north Luzon, at an altitude of more than 7000 ft.
The caves of the Kyrenian range contain a Pleistocene mammalian fauna.
Roman remains have been found in the vicinity; and, the geological formations exhibiting the process of silting up of a former river channel are exposed in the quarries, and contain large mammalian remains.
HYENA, a name applicable to all the representatives of the mammalian family Hyaenidae, a group of Carnivora allied to the civets.
An osteological question which has been much discussed is the fate of the reptilian quadrate bone in the mammalian skull.
The tympano-hyal is the characteristic mammalian element in this region; but the entotympanic likewise appears to be peculiar to the class, and to be unrepresented among the lower vertebrates.
Two other points in connexion with mammalian osteology may be noticed.
The third upper molar (m 3) is the only tooth wanting to complete the typical heterodont mammalian dentition.
In this generalized form of mammalian dentition the total number of teeth present is 44, or II above and II below on each side.
From this point of view the various adaptive modifications of mammalian dentition may be roughly grouped under the headings of piscivorous, carnivorous, insectivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous.
Possibly mammalian remains also occur in the antecedent Triassic epoch, some palaeontologists regarding the South African Tritylodon as a mammal, while others consider that it was probably a reptile.
Osborn, the tripartite reptilian condyle, by the loss of its median element, has given rise to the paired mammalian condyles; so that this difficulty disappears.
That is to say, he believes that, with the exception of the duckbill and the echidna, the mammalian class as a whole can lay claim to descent from small arboreal forms. This view is, of course, almost entirely based upon palaeontological considerations; and these, in the author's opinion, admit of the conclusion that all modern placental and marsupial mammals are descended from a common ancestral stock, of which the members were small in bodily size.
On the other hand, towards the close of the Cretaceous epoch (when the Chalk was in course of deposition), the spread of a great upland flora vastly extended the territory available for mammalian life.
The muscles of the limbs are modified from those of the ordinary mammalian type in accordance with the reduced condition of the bones and the simple requirements of flexion and extension of the joints, no such actions as pronation and supination, or opposition of digits, being possible or needed.
HBx is conserved in all mammalian (but not avian) hepadnaviruses.
M. R. Munday (2002) " Regulation of mammalian acetyl-CoA carboxylase, " Biochem.
Abstract There has been growing interest in the mechanisms underlying the oscillatory properties of the mammalian cerebral cortex.
cleavage furrow in mammalian cells was largely unknown.
Research Projects: The role of PQQ as a mammalian enzyme cofactor and vitamin?
conductances in the mammalian choroid plexus: Kv and Kir.
elucidate which isoform of the transporter is present in mammalian choroid plexus.
Mammalian embryos have to implant into the mothers womb in order to grow properly.
encoded by the mammalian genome are of unknown function.
The mammalian fauna was truly fabulous, to put it mildly.
We are interested in the molecular mechanisms involved in patterning the early mammalian forebrain.
The mechanism by which the microtubules communicated the positioning of the cleavage furrow in mammalian cells was largely unknown.
Nature genetics publishes advances in all fields of modern genetic research, with a special emphasis on mammalian genetics and gene function.
The similarities between mammalian genomes can be exploited in a variety of ways.
glycogen synthase kinase 3 in the mammalian clock.
Saizen contains recombinant human growth hormone produced by genetically engineered mammalian cells.
Initially focused on mammalian herbivores, we are now also working on the birds of the coastal marshes.
I will then consider the circuitry and dynamics of the mammalian hippocampus.
Corticosteroids mediate a number of functions of mammalian brain, including blood pressure homeostasis, salt appetite and neuronal excitability.
This expression pattern in adults is distinct from any of the putative mammalian homologues.
Clues to the normal function of MLL in mammalian haematopoiesis have come from the identification of domains that share homology with other known proteins.
Sheep exhibit novel variations in the organization of the mammalian type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene.
In the adult mammalian eye, stem cells are known to be present at the corneal limbus, and the ciliary marginal zone.
locomotor biomechanics across a range of mammalian species.
While the chicken locus looks similar to the mammalian beta-globin loci at first glance, there are some major differences.
In human beings permethrin is efficiently metabolized by mammalian livers.
Research Interests Our group studies the control of cell division when mammalian oocytes undergo meiosis.
Further projects are focussed on the structure and function of bacterial and mammalian cytochromes P450 and a family of plant respiratory burst oxidases.
Mouse CD1d-restricted T cell hybridoma recognizes normal mammalian phospholipids and it is the only one that self-antigens have been defined for.
We concentrate on human and mammalian physiology, tho we draw on examples from other animals to illustrate physiological principles.
All would be vulnerable to mammalian predators (Ryan & Glass, 2001 ).
The retina of the octopus is constructed more logically than the mammalian retina.
septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.
To maintain synchrony with the 24h day, the mammalian circadian clock is reset by light.
thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus, also known as the Tasmanian Tiger, was the largest living mammalian carnivore in Australia.
Cell Culture We have a tissue culture laboratory, which can undertake mammalian cell and tissue culture laboratory, which can undertake mammalian cell and tissue culture.
The current test was the double intradermal test using only mammalian tuberculin, necessitating three visits over a period of 72 hours.
virulence gene expression in mammalian cells.
As regards geographical distribution, existing marsupials, with the exception of two families, Didelphyidae and Epanorthidae, are mainly limited to the Australian region, forming the chief mammalian fauna of Australia, New Guinea, and some of the adjacent islands.
Dollo's view that marsupials were originally arboreal, that, on account of their foot-structure, they could not have been the ancestors of placentals, and that they themselves are degenerate placentals, Mr Bensley contrasts this with Huxley's scheme of mammalian evolution.
In addition, there are two or three obervations to hand which shew that piscine, amphibian and mammalian Trypanosomes may also become attached.
Considering now the Trypanosomes in an unaccustomed, mammalian host, they may either remain infrequent or rare (sometimes, indeed, being unnoticed until shortly before death), or, on the other hand, they may soon become numerous and go on increasing (fig.
In the circumpolar Evotomys (represented in England by the red-backed field-mouse) and the nearly allied North American Phenacomys, the molars develop roots in old age; but in Microtus (which includes the water-rat, and is circumpolar) they are rootless throughout life, the genus being' one of the largest in the mammalian class (see Vole).
CIVET, or properly Civet-Cat, the designation of the more typical representatives of the mammalian family Viverridae (see Carnivora).
For example atrial septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.
The recently extinct marsupial thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus, also known as the Tasmanian Tiger, was the largest living mammalian carnivore in Australia.
Cell Culture We have a tissue culture laboratory, which can undertake mammalian cell and tissue culture.
Recently experiments have been performed to look at the levels of virulence gene expression in mammalian cells.
They're our closest mammalian cousin and do quite well on a vegan diet.
"Roles of FGF receptors in mammalian development and congenital diseases."
Since mosquitoes are naturally drawn to things that are reminiscent of mammalian flesh, it's helpful to stay covered as much as possible.
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