There is evidence that about three centuries ago elephants wandered in the forests of Malwa and Nimar, while they survived to a later date in the Chanda district of the Central Provinces.
Though the family lost most of its possessions during the Mahratta invasion in the 14th century, it never became tributary to any Malwa chief.
It is now a centre of the trade in Malwa opium, with a wealthy colony of Bohra merchants.
DEWAS, two native states of India, in the Malwa Political Charge of Central India, founded in the first half of the 18th century by two brothers, Punwar Mahrattas, who came into Malwa with the peshwa, Baji Rao, in 1728.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
The country is traversed throughout by the Rajputana railway, with its Malwa branch in the south, and diverging to Agra and Delhi in the north.
There are indeed still three large native states nominally Mahratta: that of Sindhia near the borders of Hindustan in the north, that of Holkar in Malwa in the heart of the Indian continent, and that of the gaekwar in Gujarat on the western coast.
Skandagupta repelled an invasion in 455, but the defeat of the Persians in 484 probably stimulated their activity, and at the end of the 5th century their chief Toromana penetrated to Malwa in central India and succeeded in holding it for some time.
Five hundred youths then came to him for enlistment from the Manjha, Doab and Malwa districts.
(780-815) extended the power of the family from the Vindhya Mountains and Malwa on the north to Kanchi on the south.
The founder of the present ruling family was Anand Rao Punwar, a descendant of the great Paramara clan of Rajputs who from the 9th to the 13th century, when they were driven out by the Mahommedans, had ruled over Malwa from their capital at Dhar.
The town, the name of which is usually derived from Dhara Nagari (the city of sword blades), is of great antiquity, and was made the capital of the Paramara chiefs of Malwa by Vairisinha II., who transferred his headquarters hither from Ujjain at the close of the 9th century.
The Sind, rising near Sironj in Malwa, marks the frontier line of Bundelkhand on the side of Gwalior.
About the year 1418 Sultan Husain Shah of Malwa invaded Kherla, and reduced it to a dependency.
A century later the kingdom of Malwa became incorporated into the dominions of the emperor of Delhi.
BETWA, a river of India, which rises in the native state of Bhopal in Malwa, and after a course of 360 m., for the most part in a north-easterly direction, falls into the Jumna at Hamirpur.
The majority of them seem to have been Mahommedans: when the regular forces of the Mahrattas had been broken up in the campaigns conducted by Sir Arthur Wellesley and Lord Lake in 1802-04, the Pindaris made their headquarters in Malwa, under the tacit protection of Sindhia and Holkar.
The southern, or Malwa, portion is made up of detached or semi-detached districts, between which are interposed parts of other states, which again are mixed up with each other in bewildering intricacy.
In 1726, together with Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder of the house of Indore, he was authorized by the peshwa to collect tribute (chauth) in the Malwa districts.
It lies in Malwa, near the frontier of Bombay.
Separated from this chain by the valley of the Nerbudda on the west, and that of the Sone on the east, the plateau of Malwa and Baghelkhand occupies the space intervening between these valleys and the Gangetic plain.
Malwa opium is exported from Bombay, the duty having previously been levied on its passage into British territory.
Loo there appeared in the west three foreign tribes from the north, who conquered the native population and established themselves in Malwa, Gujarat and Kathia waged by his father and brother against the Huns on the northwestern frontier.
Towards the end of his reign Harsha's empire embraced the whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to the Nerbudda, including Nepa1, 2 besides Malwa, Gujarat and Surashtra (Kathiawar); while even Assam (Kamarupa) was tributary to him.
Chief among these generals were the gaikwar in Gujarat, Sindhia and Holkar in Malwa, and the Bhonsla raja of Berar and Nagpur.
The freebooter, Jaswant Rao Holkar, alone remained in the field, supporting his troops by ravages through Malwa and Rajputana.
Their headquarters were in Malwa, but their depredations were not confined to central India.
The discarded regent lived for some time in rebellion, endeavouring to establish an independent principality in Malwa, but at last he was forced to cast himself on Akbar's mercy.
Central India maybe divided into three great natural divisions: the highlands of the Malwa plateau, with a mean elevation of some 1500 ft.
The Malwa plateau consists of great undulating plains, separated by flat-topped hills, whose sides are boldly terraced, with here and there a scarp rising above the general level; it is covered with long grass, stunted trees and scrub, which owing to the presence of deciduous plants is of a uniform straw colour, except in the rains.
After this he visited Malwa, Cutch, Surashtra (peninsular Gujarat, Syrastrene of the Greeks), Sind, Multan and Ghazni, whence he rejoined his former course in the basin of the Kabul river.
The city is served by five different railways, the East Indian, the Oudh & Rohilkhand, the Rajputana-Malwa & Bombay-Baroda, the Southern Punjab, and the North-Western, and occupies a central position, being 940 m.
Malwa opium is produced in a large number of states in the Central India and Rajputana Agencies, chiefly Gwalior, Indore and Bhopal, in the former, and Mewar in the latter.
The cultivation of Malwa opium is free and extremely profitable, the crop realizing usually from three to.
On its entering British territory a heavy duty is imposed on Malwa opium, so as to raise its price to an equality with the government article.
It is shipped from Bombay to northern China, where nearly the whole of the exported Malwa opium is consumed.
The collection of opium commences in Behar about 25th February, and continues to about 25th March, but in Malwa is performed in March and April.
In Malwa a flat scraper is employed, a small piece of cotton soaked in linseed oil being attached to the upper part of the blade, and used for smearing the thumb and edge of the scraper to prevent adhesion of the juice; sometimes water is used instead of oil, but both practices injure the quality of the product.
In Malwa the opium is manufactured by private enterprise, the government levying an export duty of 600 rupees (60) per chest.
The cultivation in Malwa does not differ in any important particular from that in Bengal.
It is a remarkable fact that the only Indian opium ever seen in England is an occasional sample of the Malwa sort, whilst the government monopoly opium is quite unknown; indeed, the whole of the opium used in medicine in Europe and the United States is obtained from Turkey.
P. 434; Impey, Report on Malwa Opium (Bombay, 1848); Report on Trade of Hankow (1869); New Remedies (1876), p. 229; Pharmacographia (1879), p. 42; Journal of the Society of Arts (1882); The Friend of China (1883), &c. Report of the Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States Opium Commission (1908), App. xxiii.
Under this empire Ujjain was the seat of a viceroy, a prince of the imperial house, who ruled over Kathiawar, Malwa and Gujarat.
647 or 648), Malwa, Gujarat and Kathiawar were subject to his sway; but the southern boundary of his kingdom was the Nerbudda, south of which the Chalukyas in the 7th century, having overcome the Rashtrakutas and other rivals, had absorbed the smaller kingdoms into their empire.
The south-west monsoon sweeps up the Nerbudda valley from Bombay and crossing the tableland at Neemuch gives copious supplies to Malwa, Jhalawar and Kotah and the countries which lie in the course of the Chambal river.