Malpighi, who affirmed that the body of the chick is to be seen in the egg before the punctum sanguineum makes it appearance.
The Englishman Grew and the Italian Malpighi almost simultaneously published ifiustrated works on the subject, in which they described, for the most part very accurately, what they saw with the new instruments.
It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.
In the anatomical field the work of Malpighi and Swammerdam was at first continued most energetically by French students.
Valuable summaries of the labours of Malpighi, Swammerdam and other early entomologists are given in L.
One of the most famous professors was Marcello Malpighi, a great anatomist of the 17th century.
It was not until the 19th century that the microscope, thus early applied by Leeuwenhoek, Malpighi, Hook and Swammerdam to the study of animal structure, was perfected as an instrument, and accomplished for zoology its final and most important service.
This minuter study had two origins, one in the researches of the medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537-1619), Severinus (1580-1656), Harvey (1578-1657), and Tyson (1649-1708), the other in the careful work of the entomologists and first microscopists, such as Malpighi (1628-1694), Swammerdam (1637-1680), and Hook (1635-1702).
Nehemiah Grew and his contemporary Marcello Malpighi were the earliest discoverers in the department of plant anatomy.
He showed that the gaseous constituents of the air contribute largely to the nourishment of plants, and that the leaves are the organs which elaborate the food; the importance of leaves in nutrition had been previously pointed out by Malpighi in a short account of nutrition which forms an appendix to his anatomical work.
In the first volume a chapter "De plantis in genere" contains an account of all the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the time regarding plants, with the recent speculations and discoveries of Caesalpinus, Grew, Malpighi and Jung; and Cuvier and Dupetit Thouars, declaring that it was this chapter which gave acceptance and authority to these authors' works, say that "the best monument that could be erected to the memory of Ray would be the republication of this part of his work separately."