Peace and security being established in his dominions, he convoked an assembly of the states and declared his son Malik Shah his heir and successor.
After the death of Malik Shah the head of the family was not strong enough to enforce obedience, and consequently the central government broke up into several independent dynasties.
Malak-bel has been explained as " messenger of Bel "; but more probably Malak is the common Babylonian epithet malik given to various gods, and means " counsellor "; Malak-bel will then be the sun as the visible representative of Bel.
Till the year 1079 the Persian year resembled that of the ancient Egyptians, consisting of 365 days without intercalation; but at that time the Persian calendar was reformed by Jelal ud-Din Malik Shah, sultan of Khorasan, and a method of intercalation adopted which, though less convenient, is considerably more accurate than the Julian.
The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the Kushk gate on the east face.
Babylonia and Assyria, however, seem to be out of the question: malik, " arbiter, decider," is there an epithet of various gods, and as an appellative means "prince" and not king; further, little ' In Hos.
Malik Shah, third of the Seljuk dynasty of Persia, passed the Oxus about the end of the 11th century, and subdued the whole country watered by that river and the Jaxartes.
The Discovery Of The Period Of Thirty Three Years Is Ascribed To Omar Khayyam, One Of The Eight Astronomers Appointed Byjelal Ud Din Malik Shah, Sultan Of Khorasan, To Reform Or Construct A Calendar, About The Year 1079 Of Our Era.
Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.
At his instigation the calendar was revised, and a new era, dating from the reign of Malik Shah and known as the Jelalian, was introduced.
He had fallen into disfavour because of his unwillingness to join in the intrigues of the princess Turkan Khatun, who wished to secure the succession to the throne for her infant son Mahmud at the expense of the elder sons of Malik Shah.
Notwithstanding the intrigues of Turkan Khatun, Malik Shah was succeeded by his elder son Barkiyaroq (1092-1104), whose short reign was a series of rebellions and strange adventures such as one may imagine in the story of a youth who is by turns a powerful prince and a miserable fugitive.'
In 1117 he led an expedition against Ghazni and bestowed the throne upon Bahram Shah, who was also obliged to mention Sinjar's name first in the official prayer at the Ghaznavid capital - a prerogative that neither Alp Arslan nor Malik Shah had attained.
Mention has been made of his war with Malik Shah and of his ensuing death (1073).
But after the death of Toghrul Shah (1170) his three sons disputed with each other for the possession of the throne, and implored foreign assistance, till the country became utterly devastated and fell an easy prey to some bands of Ghuzz, who, under the leadership of Malik Dinar (1185), marched into Kerman after harassing Sinjar's dominions.
Owing to these family discords the decision of Malik Shah was necessary to settle the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria; he kept the sons of Suleiman in captivity, and committed the war against the unbelieving Greeks to his generals Bursuk (IIpovovx) and Buzan (HovTavos).
The sultan Mahommed, however, set at liberty his eldest son Malik Shah, who reigned for some time, until he was treacherously murdered (it is not quite certain by whom), being succeeded by his brother Masud, who established himself at Konia (Iconium), from that time the residence of the Seljuks of Ram.
Sixteen Mahommedan princes, mostly Ayyubite, of Syria and Mesopotamia, under the leadership of Malik al-Kamil, prince of Egypt, marched with considerable forces into Asia Minor against him.
In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.
Malik al-Khuzgi, 198 (813814).
Malik al-N~ir Salab al-din YCsuf b.
Malik al-Aziz Imgd al-din Othman, 589595 (1193-1198).
Malik al-MansCr Mahommed, 595596 (1198-1199).
Malik al-Adi~ Saif al-din AbC Bakr, 596615 (1199-1218).
Malik AL-KAMIL Mahommed, 615635 (1218f 238).
Malik al-Adil II.
Malik al-Salib Najm al-din Ayyub, 637647 (1240-1249).
Malik al-Moazzam TCrnshah, 647648 (I 249I 250).
Malik al-Ashraf MCs, 648650 (1250-1252).
Malik al-Moizz lzz al-din Aibek, 648655 (1250-1257).
Malik al-Man~Cr Nureddin All, 655657 (I 2571259).
Malik al-Mo~affar ~if al-din KOTIJZ, 657658 (1259-1260).
Malik al-~~ahir presently restricted to Lower Egypt; Upper Egypt, which was divided into three provinces, being assigned to Abdallgh b.
During this time, however, Syria was overrun by an invader in league with the SeljUk Malik Shah, and Damascus was permanently lost to the Fg~imites; other cities were recovered by Badr himself or his officers.
Saladin at his death divided his dominions between his sons, of whom Othman succeeded to Egypt with the title Malik alAziz Imal al-am.
The division was not satisfactory to the heirs, and after three years (beginning_of 1196) the Egyptian sultan conspired with his uncle Malik al-Adil to deprive Saladins son al-Af~al of Damascus, which had fallen to his lot.
On the death of al-Aziz on the 29tb of November 1198 in consequence of a hunting accident, his infant son Mahommed was raised to the throne with the title Malik al-Man~ur Nd~ir al-din, and his uncle al-Aftjal sent for from Sarkhad to take the post of regent or Atgbeg.
He reigned under the title Malik al-Adil Saif al-din.
He followed the plan of dividing his empire between his sons, the eldest Mahommed, called Malik al-Kdmil, being his viceroy in Egypt, while al-Muazzam Isa governed Syria, al-Ashraf Musa his eastern and al-Malik al-Aubad Ayyub his northern possessions His attitude towards the Franks was at the first peaceful, but later in his reign he was compelled to adopt more strenuous measures.
as the price of his help against the son of Muazzam Isa, who reigned at Damascus with the title of Malik al-Nalir.
At his death (May 8th, 1238) at Damascus, his son Abfl Bakr was appointed to succeed with the title Malik al-AdilSaif al-din; but his elder brother Malik al-Salil~t Najm al-dIn Ayyub, having got possession of Damascus, immediately started for Egypt, with the view of adding that country to his dominions: meanwhile his uncle Ismail, prince of Hamath, with the prince of Horns, seized Damascus, upon hearing which the troops of Najm al-din deserted him at Nablus, when he fell into the hands of Malik al-N~ir, prince of Kerak, who carried him off to that city and kept him a prisoner there for a time; after which he was released and allowed to return to Nablus.
For policys sake, however, Aibek nominally associated with himself on the throne a scion of the Ayyubite house, Malik al-Ashraf Musa, who died in prison (1252 or 1254).
Aibek meanwhile immediately became involved in war with the Ayyubite Malik al-Ngsir, who was in possession of Syria, with whom the caliph induced him after some indecisive actions to make peace: he then successfully quelled a mutiny of Mamelukes, whom he compelled to take refuge with the last Abbasid caliph Mostasim in Bagdad and elsewhere.
person with the title of Malik al-Qahir, presently altered to al-Zhir.
He had originally been a slave of Malik al-Salib, had distinguished himself at the battle after which Louis IX.
The sultans son Malik al-Said ~ ascended the throne; but within little more than two years he was compelled to abdicate in favor of his father-inlaw Kalan, a Mameluke who had risen high in the former sovereigns service.
Kaln was followed by his son Khalil (Malik al-A shraf Sala~z al-din), who carried out his fathers policy of driving the Franks out of Syria and Palestine, and proceeded with the siege of Acre, which he took (May 18th, 1291) after a siege of fortythree days.
led to his being murdered by the latter (December 12th, 1293), who was proclaimed sultan, but almost immediately fell a victim to the vengeance of the deceased sultans party, who placed a younger son of Kalun, Ma/sommed Malik al-N~ir, on the throne.
This cabinet naturally split into rival camps, in consequence of which Kitboga, himself a Mongol, with the aid of other Mongols who had come into Egypt after the battle of Homs, succeeded in ousting his rivals, and presently, with the aid of the surviving assassins of the former sultan, compelling Malik al-N~ir to abdicate in his favor (December 1st, 1294).
After his murder the deposed sultan Malik al-Nglir, who had been living in retirement at Kerak, was recalled by the army and reinstated as sultan in Cairo (February 7th, 1299), though still only fourteen years of age, so that public affairs were administered not by him, but by Salr the viceroy, and Bibars Jashengir, prefect of the palace.
The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.
Before the year was out the new sultan had been rendered unpopular by the occurrence of a famine, and Malik al-Na~ir was easily able to induce the Syrian amirs to return to his allegiance, in consequence of which Bibars in his turn abdicated, and Malik al-Ng~ir re-entered Cairo as sovereign on the 5th of March 1310.
in 1307), desiring aid against Malik al-Na~ir; and for many years the courts of the sultan and the Ilkhan continued to be the refuge of malcontents from the other kingdom.
Much of Malik al-N~irs third administration was spent in raids into Nubia, where he endeavoured to set up a creature of his own as sovereign, in attempts at bringing the Bedouins of south-eastern Egypt into subordination, and in persecuting the Nosairis, whose heresy became formidable about this time.
Like other Egyptian sultans he made considerable use of the Assassins, 124 of whom were sent by him into Persia to execute Kara Sonkor, at one time governor of Damascus, and one of the murderers of Malik al-Ashraf; but they were all outwitted by the exile, who was finally poisoned by the Ilkhan in recompense for a similar service rendered by the Egyptian sultan.
For a time Malik al-Na~ir was recognized as suzerain in north Africa, the Arabian Irak, and Asia Minor, but he was unable to make any permanent conquests in any of these countries.
Among the literary ornaments of his reign was the historian and geographer Ismgil Abulfeda, to whom Malik al-N5~ir restored the government of Hamath, which had belonged to his ancestors, and even gave the title sultan.
This persons authority was, however, soon overthrown by a party formed by the Syrian prefects, and on the 11th of January Malik al-N~ir A~zmad, an elder son of the former sultan of the same title, was installed in his place, though he did not actually arrive in Cairo till the 6th of November, being unwilling to leave Kerak, where he had been living in retirement.
This sultan was mainly occupied during his short reign with besieging and taking Kerak, whither Abmad had taken refuge, and himself died on the 3rd of August I345, when another son of Malik al-Nlir, named Shabn, was placed on the throne.
I.IajjI was deposed and killed on the 10th of December 1347, and another infant son of Malik al-N~ir, Jlfasan, who took his fathers title, was proclaimed, the real power being shared by three amirs, Sheikhun, Menjek and Yelbogha Arus.
Towards the beginning of 1351 the sultan got rid of his guardians and attempted to rule by himself; but though successful in war, his arbitrary measures led to his being dethroned on the 21st of August 1351 by the amirs, who proclaimed his brother Sglil~ with the title of Malik al-Salih.
The next day a son of the dethroned sultan IjajjI was proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-Man~ar.
On the a9th of May 1363 this sultan was also dethroned on the ground of incompetence, and his place was given to another grandson of Malik al-Ng~ir, She b.rn, son of Ilosain, then ten years old.
The infant son of the late sultan All, a lad of eight years, was proclaimed with the title Malik al-Manv2r; the power was in the hands of the ministers Kartai and Ibek, the latter of whom overthrew the former with the aid of his own Mamelukes, Berekeh and Barktik.
on the part of his Circassian Mamelukes to abdicate (September 20th, 1405), when his brother Abd al-aziz was proclaimed with the title Malik al-Man~ur; after two months this prince was deposed, and Faraj, who had been in hiding, recalled.
On the 23rd of May 1412, after being defeated and shut up in Damascus, he was compelled by Sheik Mabrnudi to abdicate, and an Abbasid caliph, Mostain, was proclaimed sultan, only to be forced to abdicate on the 6th of November of the same year in Sheiks favor, who took the title Malik al-Muayyad, his colleague Newruz having been previously sent to Syria, where he was to be autocrat by the terms of their agreement.
Sheik himself died a few months after the decease of his son (January I3th, 1421), and another infant son, A.!zmad, was proclaimed with the title Mcilik al-Mozaffar, the proclamation being followed by the usual dissensions between the amirs, ending with the assumption of supreme power by the amir Tatar, who, after defeating his rivals, on the 29th of August 1421 had himself proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-~ahir.
This usurper, however, died on the 30th of November of the same year, leaving the throne to an infant son Mohammed, who was given the title Malik al-.~aliiz; the regular intrigues between the amirs followed, leading to his being dethroned on the following 1st of April 1422, when the amir appointed to be his tutor, Barsbai, was proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-A shraf.
In accordance with the custom of his predecessors he left the throne to a son still in his minority, A bul-Mahdsin Vusuf, who took the title Malik al-Aziz, but as usual after a few months he was displaced by the regent Jakmak, who on the 9th of September 1438 was proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-Zhir.
In consequence of a lengthy illness Jakmak abdicated on the 1st of February 1453, when his son Othman was proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-Manlr.
Though not a minor, he had no greater success than the sons of the usurpers who preceded him, being dethroned after six weeks (March I5th, 1453) in favor of the amir Inal al-Ala~, who took the title Malik al-A shraf.
A~~-imad was proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-Muayyad; he had the usual fate of sultans sons, earned in his case by an attempt to bring the Mamelukes under discipline; he was compelled to abdicate on the 28th of June 146,, when the amir Khoshkadam, who had served as a general, was proclaimed sultan.
He died on the 9th of October 1467, when the Atgbeg Yelbai was selected by the Mamelukes to succeed him, and was proclaimed sultan with the title of Malik al-,~hir.
This person, proving incompetent, was deposed by a revolution of the Mamelukes on the 4th of December 1467, when the Atabeg Timurbogha was proclaimed with the title Malik al-Zahir, In a months time, however, there was another palace revolution, and the new Atabeg Kait Bey or Kaietbai (January 3tst, 1468) was proclaimed sultan, the dethroned Timurbogha being, however, permitted to go free whither he pleased.
with the title Malik al-Nd~ir; this was in.
two years, filled mainly with struggles between rival amirs, Malik al-N~ir was murdered (October 31st, 1498), and his uncle and vizier Kdnsh proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-Zahir.
of Kasrawah, governor of Damascus, whom he had been sent to reduce to subjection, ousted Jan Belgt, and was himself proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al- Adil (January 25th, 1501).
During the 12th and 13th centuries a family called Hoysala attained considerable prominence in the Mysore country, but they were overthrown by Malik Kafur in A.D.
The Yadava kings of Deogiri were descendants of feudatory nobles of the Chalukya kingdom, but they, like the Hoysalas, were overthrown by Malik Kafur, and Ramachandra, the last of the line, was the last independent Hindu sovereign of the Deccan.
1120) the Chola power gradually declined, and was practically extinguished by Malik Kafur.
A third army, commanded by Malik Kafur, a Hindu renegade and favourite of Ala-ud-din, penetrated to the extreme south of the peninsula, scattering the unwarlike Dravidian races, and stripping every Hindu temple of its accumulations of gold and jewels.
To this day the name of Malik Kafur is remembered in the remote district of Madura, in association with irresistible fate and every form of sacrilege.
After Saladin's death Beha-ud-Din remained the friend of his son Malik uz-Zahir, who appointed him judge of Aleppo.
When Malik uz-Zahir died, his son Malik ul-`Aziz was a minor, and Beha ud-Din had the chief power in the regency.
After the abdication of Malik ul-`Aziz, he fell from favour and lived in retirement until his death in 1234.
Moawiya has been accused of having poisoned more than one of his adversaries, among them Malik Ashtar, Abdarrahman the son of the great captain Khalid b.
In the third case - that of Malik Ashtar - the evidence is equally inadequate.
A vague message from Mahommed, that it was the duty of every good Moslem to take part with the family of the Prophet, was interpreted in favour of Mokhtar, and thenceforward all the Shiites, among them the powerful Ibrahim, son of Ali's right hand Malik Ashtar, followed him blindly as their chief.
Touching the coast of Arakan or Burma, he reached Sumatra in forty days, and was provided with a junk for China by Malik al Dhahir, a zealous disciple of Islam, which had recently spread among the states on the northern coast of that island.
It was founded in 1610, under the name of Fatchnagar, by Malik Ambar, an Abyssinian, who had risen from the condition of a slave to great influence.
The Assyrian inscriptions name as tributary kings of Edom, Kausmelek (time of Tiglath-Pileser IV.), Malik (?)-ram (701 B.C.), and Kaus-gabri (7th century).
Baal, Hadad, Malik (cf.
runs almost due south to the border of Seistan in 31 N., and then through Seistan follows the line fixed by Sir Frederick Goldsmids and Sir Henry McMahons commissions in 1872 and1903-1905to Kuh i Malik Siah.
In Teheran the board of merchants is presided over by the malik ut tujjar, King of Merchants, in the provincial cities by a person called malik amin, and mum of merchants.
The first three Seljuk rulers were Toghrul Beg, Alp Arsian and Malik Shah.
The prince, under whom a definite peace was made with Malik al-Nasir, the Mameluke ruler of Egypt, had great trouble with powerful viziers and generals which he accentuated by his passion for Bagdad-Khatun, wife of the amir Uosain and daughter of the amir Chupan.
The affairs of State Shahs during his absence were entrusted to a council of Visits to ministers, under the presidency of his second son, Europe, Malik Mansur Mirza, Shua-es-Sultaneh, who had made 1909, 1902.
The boundary between Baluchistan and Afghanistan, starting from Nushki, cuts across the Lora hamun, leaving the frontier post of Chagai to Baluchistan, and from this point to the Malik Siah Koh it is based partly on the central moun tainous water-divide already referred to, and partly runs in straight lines through the desert south of the salt swamps of the Gaud-i-Zirreh.
MALIK IBN Anas (c. 718-795), the founder of the Malikite school of canon law, was born at Medina about A.D.
In 795 Harun al-Rashid made the pilgrimage, came with two of his sons to Medina, and sat at the feet of Malik as he lectured in the mosque.
The story, legendary or historical, adds that Malik had refused to go to the caliph, saying that it was for the student to come to his teacher.
Malik Ibn Anas >>
At the wish of the sultan Malik Shah he again undertook professorial work, this time in the college of Nizam ul-Mulk at Nishapur, but returned soon after to Tus, where he died in December 'tit.
ABULFEDA [Abu l-Fida' Isma`il ibn 'Alf `Imad-ud-Dni] (1273-1331), Arabian historian and geographer, was born at Damascus, whither his father Malik ul-Afdal, brother of the prince of Hamah, had fled from the Mongols.
In 1298 he entered the service of the Mameluke Sultan Malik al-Nasir and after twelve years was invested by him with the governorship of Hamah.
In 1312 he became prince with the title Malik us-Salih, and in 1320 received the hereditary rank of sultan with the title Malik ul-Mu`ayyad.
One of these latter, Malik Ashraf, about A.D.
At the time of the Afghan invasion of Mir Mahmud (1722), Malik Mahommed Kaiani was the resident ruler in Seistan, and by league with the invader or other intrigue he secured for himself that particular principality and a great part of Khorasan also.
Malik, south by east of Ochrida, is drained by the Devol.
long and 23 broad, with an inscription partly illegible, commemorating Mahmud, a grandson of the Seljuk king Malik Shah, and dated A.H.
After Akbar's death (1605) Berar once more became independent under the Abyssinian Malik Ambar (d.
Malik Shah, the son and successor of Alp Arslan, had to encounter his uncle Kavurd, founder of the Seljukian empire of Kerman (see below), who claimed to succeed Alp Arslan in accordance with the Turkish laws, and led his troops towards Hamadan.
1152); Malik Shah and Mahommed (d.
On the roth of April 1257 Aibek was murdered by his wife Shajar al-durr, who was indignant at his asking for the hand of another queen: but Aibeks followers immediately avenged his death, placing on the throne his infant son Malik al-Man~iir, who, however, was almost immediately displaced by his guardian Koluz, on the plea that the Mongol danger necessitated thepresence of a grown man at the head of affairs.
An insurrection in Syria which spread to Egypt presently caused the fall of Ibek, and led to the occupation of the highest posts by the Circassian freedmen Berekeh and Barkuk, of whom the latter ere long succeeded in ousting the former and usurping the sultans place; on the 19th of May 1381, when the sultan All died, his place was given to an infant brother I~IjjI, but on the 26th of November 1382, Barkuk set this child aside and had himself proclaimed sultan (with the title Malik al-Zdhir), thereby ending the BahrI dynasty and commencing that of the Circassians.
762 at Medina against the 'Abbasids, Malik gave a fatwa, or legal opinion, that the oath of allegiance to the `Abbasids was invalid, as extorted by force.
Sam Edelman Malik have more straps than you can imagine.
Her best friend is Malik, who has some trouble with her relationship with Tyler.
Malik has dreams of ending up in the bright lights of Broadway.
Malik heads up The Definition, a hip hop crew challenged by Tyler.
She is part of The Definition with Malik and Jasmine.
On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.