from the mainland of Japan.
from the mainland, and stretching from the Zuider Zee E.
of the nearest point in the mainland of South America, between 51° and 53° S., and 57° 40' and 61° 25' W.
This island is joined to the mainland of Friesland by a stone dike constructed in 1873 for the purpose of promoting the deposit of mud.
This island is joined to the mainland of Friesland by a stone dike constructed in 1873 for the purpose of promoting the deposit of mud.
of Civitavecchia, the nearest point on the mainland of Italy.
It belongs to the same volcanic system as the mainland near it, and the Monte Epomeo (anc. 'Eirwircbs, viewpoint), the highest point of the island (2588 ft.), lies on the N.
in length was erected along the Skerries, and on the mainland one of 31 m.
Elephants from the last-named islands present some variations from those of the mainland, and have been separated under the names of E.
Both the mainland of Greece and the Greek colonies practised human sacrifice, usually as a means towards expulsion of evil.
A cable is carried out from the mainland at Crookhaven for 7 m., and the outer end earthed by connexion with a copper mushroom anchor.
from Cape Negrais in Burma, the nearest point of the mainland, and 340 m.
Venice with its mainland End of the territories east of the Adige, inclusive of Istria and Dalmatia, went to the Habsburgs, while the Venetian isles of the Adriatic (the lonian Isles) and the Venetian fleet went to strengthen France for that eastern expedition on which Bonaparte had already set his heart.
Bramhall Hill commands an extensive view west and north-west of the bay, the mainland, and the White Mountains some 80 m.
Unlike the other mainland provinces, it was at first held and used chiefly for the reception of British convicts.
Venice was cut off from the mainland for two days and all the public services were suspended.
Venice was cut off from the mainland for two days and all the public services were suspended.
It should be added that some of these large tusks came from Ceylon; such tuskers being believed to be descended from mainland animals imported into the island.
It was certain that, his work in Sicily done, Garibaldi would turn his attention to the Neapolitan dominions on the mainland; and beyond these lay Umbria and the Marches andRome.
By stretching on the island and mainland parallel wire circuits earthed at each end, good telephonic communication over an average distance of 62 m.
Meanwhile, throughout the middle ages, it had been the policy of Venice to refrain from conquests on the Italian mainland, and to confine her energies to commerce in the East.
Austria recovered the Milanese, and all the possessions of the old Venetian Republic on the mainland, including Istria and Dalmatia.
The contrast between island and mainland was natural enough in the days before the discovery of Australia, and the mainland of the Old World was traditionally divided into three continents.
Antioco, joined by a narrow isthmus and a group of bridges to the mainland, forms a good natural harbour to the south of the isthmus, the Golfo di Palmas; while the north portion of the peninsula, with the island of S.
Founded in 1519 by Pedro Arias de Avila, Panama is the oldest European town on the mainland of America.
It consists of, first, a strip of mainland along the Bay of Bengal, extending from the An pass, across the main range, to the Ma-i River, and, secondly, the large islands of Ramree and Cheduba, with many others to the south, lying off the coast of Sandoway.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
The observations of Captain Furneaux, however, did not strengthen this belief, and when making his final voyage, the great navigator appears to have definitely concluded that it was part of the mainland of Australia.
The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland by shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria vadosa of the Romans.
Following on this he made an interesting experiment, using Morse's method, to connect the Isle of Wight telegraphically with the mainland, by conduction across the Solent in two places, during a temporary failure of the submarine cable in 1882 in that channel.
South of Elba are the equally insignificant islets of Pianosa and Montecristo, while the more considerable island of Giglio lies much nearer the mainland, immediately opposite the mountain promontory of Monte Argentaro, itself almost an island.
Having consolidated their possessions on the mainland, the Normans, under Robert Guiscards brother, the great Count Roger, undertook the conquest of Sicily in 1060.
His conclusions were that the group "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and ways from their ancestors.
Stevenson, who in 1892 advocated the use of the inductive system pure and simple for communication between the mainland and isolated lighthouses or islands.
At the extreme north-eastern end of the lake, on an islet which, when the water is low, becomes part of the mainland, stand the imposing ruins of Kilchurn Castle.
On the mainland, on the south shore of the Golfo dell' Asinara, is the harbour of Porto Torres, the only one of any importance on the north-west coast of Sardinia.
The mainland in the north and east is highly mountainous and forest-clad, and the lower portion is cut up into numerous islands by a network of tidal creeks.
Between the mainland and Ramree lies a group of islands separated by deep, narrow, salt-water inlets, forming the north-eastern shore of Kyaukpyu harbour, which extends for nearly 30 m.
At first, joining to Cimon's antiPersian ambitions and Themistocles' schemes of Western expansion a new policy of aggression on the mainland, he endeavoured to push forward Athenian power in every direction, and engaged himself alike in Greece Proper, in the Levant and in Sicily.
The situation of the town proper, on a small triangular islet only connected with the mainland by three moles and bridges at the angles, has always rendered its fortification comparatively easy, and down to 1873 it was a fortress of the first rank.
to stray " earth currents," and very good signalling was established between the mainland and the rock.
He proposed to employ two large flat coils of wire laid horizontally, on the ground, that on the mainland having in circuit a battery, interrupter and key, and that on the island a telephone.
of Leghorn, and separated from the mainland at Piombino by a strait of only about 6 m.
Several other residential suburbs lie among the hills on the mainland, such as Mount Albert, Mount Eden and Epsom.
The colony of the Straits Settlements consists of the islands of Singapore, Penang and the Dindings, the territory of Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite to Penang, the insignificant territory of the Dindings, and the town and territory of Malacca.
The second voyage was commanded by Sir Henry Middleton; but it was in the third voyage, under Keelinge and Hawkins, that the mainland of India was first reached in 1607.
The typical peninsula is connected with the mainland by a relatively narrow isthmus; the name is, however, extended to any limb projecting from the trunk of the mainland, even when, as in the Indian peninsula, it is connected by its widest part.
Indeed, the very name Australasia, often applied to this part of the world, would induce the belief that all the countless islands, be they large or small - and some of them are among the largest on the globe - were but a southern prolongation of the mainland of Asia.
The island is now the seat of a Greek bishopric. There is communication with the mainland by occasional vessels.
The typical peninsula is connected with the mainland by a relatively narrow isthmus; the name is, however, extended to any limb projecting from the trunk of the mainland, even when, as in the Indian peninsula, it is connected by its widest part.
On the mainland, and more especially on the eastern slope, the temperature is cooler, the thermometer seldom rising above 93° in the shade, and falling at night below 70°.
The difficulty of connecting lightships and isolated lighthouses to the mainland by submarine cables, owing to the destructive action of the tides and waves on rocky coasts on the wll- shore ends, led many inventors to look for a way out of the difficulty by the adoption of some form of inductive Smith.
If a battery on the mainland is connected through a key with the shore end of the main cable, and a speaking galvanometer is in circuit with the short cable crossing the Fastnet rock, then closing or opening the battery connexion will create a deflection of the galvanometer.
Russia has no oceanic possessions; her islands are all appendages of the mainland to which they belong.
The difficulty of connecting lightships and isolated lighthouses to the mainland by submarine cables, owing to the destructive action of the tides and waves on rocky coasts on the wll- shore ends, led many inventors to look for a way out of the difficulty by the adoption of some form of inductive Smith.
But what were islands when viewed by Overweg in 185r, formed in 1903 part of the mainland and new islands had arisen in the lake.
It is situated on Brassay Sound, a fine natural harbour, on the east coast of the island called Mainland, 115 m.
By 1665 the Dutch possessed rough charts of almost the whole of the western littoral, while to the mainland itself they had given the name of New Holland.
Texel was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into the possession of the counts of Holland.
wide, which separates the island of Riigen from the mainland, 135 m.
Its greatest length in a straight line along the mainland is from N.W.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The modern town is a busy and flourishing port with a good harbour protected by Cranae, now connected by a mole with the mainland: it is the capital of the prefecture (voµos) of Aaru,vudi with a population in 1907 of 61,522.
Its greatest length in a straight line along the mainland is from N.W.
The later phase, which follows on the destruction of the Cnossian palace, and corresponds with the diffused Mycenaean style of mainland Greece and elsewhere, is already partly decadent.
Pop. (1905), 31,813, of whom more than a fourth reside in the Knieper, Tribseeser, Franken and other suburbs on the mainland.
No remains, and of course no living species, of these tortoises are known to exist or have existed on the mainland.
It is also interesting to note that fossil remains indicate the former occurrence of thylacines and Tasmanian devils on the Australian mainland.
The three cities founded by these settlers - Lindus, Ialysus and Camirusbelonged to the "League of Six Cities," by which the Dorian colonists in Asia Minor sought to protect themselves against the barbarians of the neighbouring mainland.
An elongation of the shelf to the south joins Tasmania with the mainland.
of the Capo Miseno, the nearest point of the mainland.
of Piombino, the nearest point of the mainland.
In Roman times, and until 1900, however, owing to lack of fuel, the smelting was done on the mainland.
A similar installation of inductive telephony, in which telephone currents in one line were made to create others in a nearly parallel and distant line, was established in 1899 between Rathlin Island on the north coast of Ireland and the mainland.
Many of the Aegean islands, or chains of islands, are actually prolongations of promontories of the mainland.
Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
The Aeolian or Lipari Islands, a remarkable volcanic group, belong rather to Sicily than to Italy, though Stromboli, the most easterly of them, is about equidistant from Sicily and from the mainland.
The Venetian ascendancy in the Levant dates from this epoch; for, though the republic had no power to occupy all the domains ceded to it, Candia was taken, together with several small islands and stations on the mainland.
of Naples, not long after the death of his consort, Maria Carolina, in Austria, returned from Sicily to take possession of his dominions on the mainland.
This result, accruing from British intervention, was in some respects similar to that exerted by Napoleon on the Italians of the mainland.
On the 8th of August, in spite of the protests and threats of most of the powers, the Garibaldians began to cross the Straits, and in a short time 20,000 of them were on the mainland.
This paucity of animal life seems inconsistent with the theory that the islands were once connected with the mainland.
After a short stay at Singapore, whence he despatched several letters to India and Europe, the ship at the end of August 1552 reached Changchuen-shan (St John Island) off the coast of Kwang-tung, which served as port and rendezvous for Europeans, not then admitted to visit the Chinese mainland.
Gulls and amphibious birds abound in large variety; three kinds of penguin have their rookeries and breed here, migrating yearly for some months to the South American mainland.
The coast is fringed by numerous islands, in some instances separated only by narrow straits from the mainland.
The leading characteristics of this mainland civilization are thus indistinguishable from the Minoan.
The colder winter climate of mainland Greece dictated the use of fixed hearths, whereas in the Cretan palaces these seem to have been of a portable kind, and the different usage in this respect again reacted on the respective forms of the principal hall or " Megaron."
Minoan culture under its mainland aspect left its traces on the Acropolis at Athens, - a corroboration of the tradition which made the Athenians send their tribute children to Minoan influences Minos.
It is certain that towards the close of this third and concluding Late Minoan period in the island certain mainland types of swords and safety-pins make their appearance, which are symptomatic of the great invasion from that side that was now impending or had already begun.
It is nevertheless certain that some of the old traditions were preserved by the remnants of the old population now reduced to a subject condition, and that these finally leavened the whole lump, so that once more - this time under a Hellenic guise - Crete was enabled to anticipate mainland Greece in nascent civilization.
- Lying midway between three continents, Crete was from the earliest period a natural stepping-stone for the passage of early culture from Egypt and the East to mainland Greece.
Between Hatteras and Lookout is Raleigh Bay and between Lookout and Fear is Onslow Bay; and between the chain of islands and the deeply indented mainland Currituck, Albemarle, Pamlico and other sounds form an extensive area, especially to the northward, of shallow, brackish and almost tideless water.
Besides the three chief regions into which the mainland is thus seen to be divided, attention should be drawn to the festoons of islands which border the eastern side of the continent, and which are undoubtedly due to causes similar to those which produced the folds of the folded belt.
The present outline of the eastern coast and the nearly enclosed seas which lie between the islands and the mainland, are attributed by Richthofen chiefly to simple faulting.
At the present time the Arabic alphabet is used on the mainland, but Indian alphabets in Java, Sumatra, &c.
A variety with lighter foliage and reddish bark is common in Newfoundland and some districts on the mainland adjacent.
In the campaigns of 1768-69 the French gradually overcame the fierce resistance of the islanders; and Paoli, after sustaining a defeat at Ponte-Novo (9th of May 1769), fled to the mainland, and ultimately to England.
Already, as may be seen by his letters to the Directory, he had laid his plans for the bartering away of the Queen of the Adriatic to Austria; and throughout the lengthy negotiations of the summer and early autumn of 1797 which he conducted with little interference from Paris, he adhered to his plan of gaining the fleet and the Ionian Isles; while the house of Habsburg was to acquire the city itself, together with all the mainland territories of the Republic as far west as the River Adige.
The rest of the Venetian mainland (the districts between the rivers Adige and Ticino) went to the newly constituted Cisalpine republic, France gaining the Ionian Isles and the Venetian fleet.
Prehistoric research had now begun to extend beyond the Greek mainland.
- Ruins of palaces, palatial villas, houses, built domeor cist-graves and fortifications (Aegean isles, Greek mainland and N.W.
We find Cretan vessels exported to Melos, Egypt and the Greek mainland.
The fresco-paintings, ceramic motives, reliefs, free sculpture and toreutic handiwork of Crete have supplied the clearest proof of it, confirming the impression already created by the goldsmiths' and painters' work of the Greek mainland (Mycenae, Vaphio, Tiryns).
The inner Greek mainland remained still in a backward state.
There alone we have proof that the art of writing was commonly practised, and there tribute-tallies suggest an imperial organization; there the arts of painting and sculpture in stone were most highly developed; there the royal residences, which had never been violently destroyed, though remodelled, continued unfortified; whereas on the Greek mainland they required strong protective works.
3) is coincident with a similar decadence all over the Aegean area, we can hardly escape from the conclusion that it was due to the invasion of all the Aegean lands (or at least the Greek mainland and isles) by some less civilized conquerors, who remained politically dominant, but, like their forerunners, having no culture of their own, adopted, while they spoiled, that which they found.
Iron took the place of Bronze, and Aegean art, as a living thing, ceased on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean isles including Crete, together with Aegean writing.
As a precaution against espionage, navigation in the adjacent waters was very severely regulated, and an ever-widening region of the mainland (ultimately extending as far S.
It has frequently been said that the lagoon population was originally composed of refugees from the mainland seeking asylum from the incursions of Huns,, Goths and Lombards; but it is more probable that, long before the date of the earliest barbarian inroad, the lagoon islands already had a population of fisherfolk.
In any case we may take it that the lagoon-dwellers were racially identical with the inhabitants of the neighbouring mainland, the Heneti or Veneti.
Gradually, as time went on, and probably with the influx of refugees from the mainland, bricks made of lagoon mud came to take the place of wattle and reeds in the construction of the houses.
With the destruction of the mainland cities by repeated barbarian invasions, and thanks to the gradual development of Venice as a centre of coasting trade in the northern Adriatic, the aspect of the city changed.
Ferries or traghetti for crossing the canals were also established as early as the 13th century; we find record of ferries at San Gregorio, San Felice, San Toma, San Samuele, and so on, and also of longer ferries to the outlying islands like Murano and Chioggia, or to the mainland at Mestre and Fusina.
But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.
It grew with the growing state whose religious centre it was, and was adorned with the spoils of countless other buildings, both in the East and on the Italian mainland.
When the railway bridge brought Venice into touch with the mainland and the rest of Europe, it became necessary to do something to reopen the harbour to larger shipping.
It is usually affirmed that the state of Venice owes its origin to the barbarian invasions of north Italy; that it was founded by refugees from the mainland cities who sought asylum from the Huns in the impregnable shallows and mud banks of the lagoons; and that the year 452, the year when Attila sacked Aquileia, may be taken as the birth-year of Venice.
This population was augmented from time to time by refugees from the mainland cities of Aquileia, Concordia, Opitergium Altinum and Patavium.
The effect of the final Lombard invasion is shown by the resolve to quit the mainland and the rapid building of churches which is recorded by the Cronaca altinate.
The people who finally abandoned the mainland and took their priests with them are the people who made the Venetian republic. But they were not as yet a homogeneous population.
The rivalries of the mainland cities were continued at closer quarters inside the narrow circuit of the lagoons, and there was, moreover, the initial schism between the indigenous fisher population and the town-bred refugees, and these facts constitute the first of the problems which now affronted the growing community: the internal problem of fusion and development.
There is little doubt that the original lagoon population depended for its administration, as far as it had any, upon the larger cities of the mainland.
The destruction of the mainland cities, and the flight of their leading inhabitants to the lagoons, encouraged the lagoon population to assert a growing independence, and led them to advance the doctrine that they were "born independent."
Narses declined to intervene, Padua was powerless to enforce its claims and Venice established a virtual independence of the mainland.
But it was inevitable that, when the barbarians, Lombard or Frank, were once established on the mainland of Italy, Venice should be brought first into trading and then into political relations with their near neighbours, who as masters of Italy also put forward a claim to sovereignty in the lagoons.
Rivalry in fishing and in trading, coupled with ancient antipathies inherited from the various mainland cities of origin, were no doubt the cause of these internecine feuds.
But the Venetians, in face of the danger, once more removed their capital, this time to Rialto, that group of islands we now call Venice, lying in mid-lagoon between the lidi and the mainland.
A treaty between Charlemagne and Nicephorus (81o) recognized the Venetians as subjects of the Eastern empire, while preserving to them the trading rights on the mainland of Italy which they had acquired under Liutprand.
There was for the future one Venice and one Venetian people dwelling at Rialto, the city of compromise between the dangers from the mainland, exemplified by Attila and Alboin, and the perils from the sea, illustrated by Pippin's attack.
The history of Venice during the next two hundred years is marked externally by the growth of the city, thanks to an ever-expanding trade, both down the Adriatic, which brought the republic into collision with the Dalmatian pirates and led to their final conquest, in 1000, by the doge Pietro Orseolo II., and also on the mainland, where Venice gradually acquired trading rights, partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta.
He was master of the sea, and the flow of provisions from the mainland was cut off by Genoa's ally, Francesco I.
If the various states on the immediate mainland could levy taxes on Venetian goods in transit, the Venetian merchant would inevitably suffer in profits.
The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
She was compelled to turn her attention, though reluctantly, to the mainland of Italy.
During the long wars with Genoa, after the defeats of Curzola, Sapienza, Pola, above all during the crisis of the war of Chioggia, it had been brought home to the Venetians that, as they owned no meat or corn-producing territory, a crushing defeat at sea and a blockade on the mainland exposed them to the grave danger of being starved into surrender.
Both these pressing necessities, for a free outlet for merchandise and for a food-supplying area, drove Venice on to the mainland, and compelled her to initiate a policy which eventually landed her in the disastrous wars of Cambrai.
The period with which we are now dealing is the epoch of the despots, the signori, and in pursuit of expansion on the mainland Venice was brought into collision first with the Scaligeri of Verona, then with the Carraresi of Padua, and finally with the Visconti of Milan.
But when she touched the mainland she at once became possessed of a frontier which could be attacked, and found herself compelled either to expand in self-defence or to lose the territory she had acquired.
Venice had already established a tentative hold on the immediate mainland as early as 1339.
But it is not till we come to the opening of the next century that Venice definitely acquired land possessions and found herself committed to all the difficulties and intricacies of Italian mainland politics.
But Venice had been made to suffer at the hands of Carrara, who had levied heavy dues on transit, and moreover during the Chioggian War had helped the Genoese and cut off the food supply from the mainland.
She was therefore forced in self-defence to crush the family of Carrara and to make herself permanently mistress of the immediate mainland.
This expansion of mainland territory was followed in 1420 by the acquisition of Friuli after a successful war with the emperor Sigismund, thus bringing the possessions of the republic up to the Carnic and Julian Alps, their natural frontier on the north-east.
Venice was soon made to feel the consequences of having become a mainland power, the difficulties entailed by holding possessions which others coveted, and the weakness of a land frontier.
The league broke up, and the mainland cities of the Veneto returned of their own accord to their allegiance to St Mark.
The city lies on Massachusetts bay, on what was once a pear-shaped peninsula attached to the mainland by a narrow, marshy neck, often swept by the spray and water.
nearly due eastward from the mainland.
few feet above the lake level and separated from the mainland by a narrow strait, always fordable, and sometimes almost dry; at its eastern end is Sackett's Harbor Lighthouse.
The Arabs had begun the conquest of Sicily from the East Roman empire in 827, and they had attacked the mainland of Italy as early as 840.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
To-day, however, fuller data are available than when Wallace wrote, and the more generally accepted theory is that the Malayan race is distinct, and came from the south, until it was stayed by the Mongolian races living on the mainland of southern Asia.
Their language, which is neither monosyllabic nor tonic, has nothing in common with that of the MonAnnam group. It has, moreover, been pointed out that had the Malays been driven southwards by the stronger races of the mainland of Asia, it might be expected that the people inhabiting the country nearest to the border between Siam and Malaya would belong to the Malayan and not to the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer stock.
Their vigorous foreign policy first made Athens an Aegean power and secured connexions with numerous mainland powers.
FORMOSA (called Taiwan by the Chinese, and following them by the Japanese, into whose possession it came after their war with China in 1895), an island in the western Pacific Ocean, between the Southern and the Eastern China Sea, separated from the Chinese mainland by the Formosa Strait, which has a width of about 90 m.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
The Aeolians founded twelve cities on the mainland, including Cyme, and numerous towns in Mytilene: they were said also to have settled in the Troad and even within the Hellespont.
It stands on the eastern shore of a low fertile islet between Kvald and the mainland, in 69° 38' N., 18° 55' E.
On the southeast Kara Bay penetrates deeply into the mainland, and to the west of this the short Kara river enters the sea.
These maps were originally intended for the use of seamen navigating the Mediterranean and the coasts of the Atlantic, but in the course of time they were extended to the mainland and ultimately developed into maps of the whole world as then known.
above the sea, and is connected with the mainland by an isthmus 12 m.
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
Alexandria consisted originally of little more than the island of Pharos, which was joined to the mainland by a mole nearly a mile long and called the Heptastadium.
We know the names of a few other public buildings on the mainland, but nothing as to their position.
Alexander occupied Pharos, and had a walled city marked out by Deinocrates on the mainland to include Rhacotis.
The Heptastadium, however, and the mainland quarters seem to have been mainly Ptolemaic work.
Besides Mainland, the principal member of the group, the more important are Yell, Unst and Fetlar in the north, Whalsay and Bressay in the east, Trondra, East and West Burra, Papa Stour, Muckle Roe and Foula in the west, and Fair Isle in the south.
is found in the north-west of Mainland).
long) and Spiggie (1 ?„- m.) in Mainland; and Loch of Cliff (2 m.) in Unst, and numerous short streams. The principal capes are Sumburgh Head, the most southerly point of Mainland, a bold promontory 300 ft.
Old Red Sandstone, red grits, sandstones and marls and conglomerate occur in a narrow belt on the east side of Mainland from Sumburgh Head to Rova Head, north of Lerwick; they also form the island of Bressay.
In the western portion of Mainland, in Northmavine, -there is a considerable tract of rocks of this age which are formed largely of intrusive diabase-porphyrite; similar volcanic rocks occur in Papa Stour.
The southern part of Mainland, from Laxfirth Voe to Fitful Head a series of dark schists and slates, is found with subordinate limestones.
The following is a list of the inhabited isles, proceeding from south to north; but it will be understood that they do not lie in a direct line, that several are practically on the same latitude, that the bulk are situated off the east and west coast of Mainland, and that two of them are distinctly outlying members of the group. The figures within brackets.
Mainland (19,676), the largest and principal island, measures 54 m.
above the, sea, almost converting the north-western area of Mainland into an island.
Off the southeastern coast of Mainland, separated by a sound 1 m.
, (25) lies off the west coast of Mainland, south of the two Burras.
broad, is separated from Mainland by Clift Sound, a narrow arm of the sea, 8 m.
of the nearest point of Mainland.
Yell (2483), separated from the north-east coast of Mainland by Yell Sound, is the second largest island of the group, having a length of 17 m., and an extreme width of 62 m., though towards the middle the voes of Mid Yell and Whale Firth almost divide it into two.
The island is divided into Mainland district (comprising the parishes of Northmavine, Delting, Nesting, Sandsting, Walls, Tingwall, Bressay, Lerwick and Dunrossness) and North Isles district (the parishes of Unst, Fetlar and Yell).
George Low (1747-1795), the naturalist and historian of Orkney, who made a tour through Shetland in 1774, described a Runic monument which he saw in the churchyard of Crosskirk, in Northmavine parish (Mainland), and several fragments of Norse swords, shield bosses and brooches have been dug up from time to time.
high, and only joined to the mainland by a narrow strip of sand.
m., and is reached from the mainland by a regular steamboat service to WittdÃ¼n, a favourite sea-bathing resort; or at low water by carriage from FÃ¶hr.
Towards the mainland the water shoals, and the best anchorage is under the lee of the island.
The leased area comprises, besides the harbour and island, a belt of the mainland, io English miles wide, skirting the whole length of the bay.
Crossing to the mainland, he tried in vain to raise the clans, and on the 27th of April he was surprised and routed at Carbiesdale in Ross-shire.
The ocean currents, the trade-winds blowing from the Australian mainland, and north-westerly storms from the Malayan islands, are no doubt responsible for the introduction of many, but not all, of these Malayan and Australasian species.
To Italy was assigned the northern half of the Dalmatian mainland as far as Cape Planka, and all the islands save Krk (Veglia) and Rab (Arbe) in the N., Solta and Brazza in front of Spalato, and the few which lie to the south of Meleda.
Being the port on the mainland nearest the town of Zanzibar, 26 m.
Facing the city is the low barren island of Serrano, or Iquique, which is connected with the mainland by a stone causeway 1500 ft.
- The coast of Venezuela was the first part of the American mainland sighted by Columbus, who, during his third voyage in 1498, entered the Gulf of Paria and sailed along the coast of the' delta of the Orinoco.
It has been suggested that it may be Phoenician: and, again, the plural form has been thought to point perhaps to "the union of two originally distinct posts," one on the island, the other on the mainland on the hill where the ruins of the Olympieum stand, known as iroA(Xvn - the latter being the original Syracuse.
1 the island was connected with the mainland by a mole (Freeman ii.
A siege and blockade, with confused fighting and alternate victory and defeat, and all the horrors of fire and slaughter, followed, till Dion made himself finally master of the mainland city.
The isthmus connecting the island with the mainland, which was defended by strong fortifications erected by Charles V.
(now demolished), does not occupy the site of the mole erected in the 6th or 7th century B.C., which may be recognized as having run due north from the north point of the island to the mainland near the ferry of S.
long, on the north shore, between the peninsula of Prince Edward, near the eastern extremity of the lake, and the mainland.
The artificial harbour was formed (1807-1832) between the mainland and the picturesque island of Ireland's Eye, and preceded Kingstown as the station for the mail-packets from Great Britain, but was found after its construction to be liable to silt, and is now chiefly used by fishing-boats and yachts.
Three years later the fort was removed to the mainland, and near here in 1618 the Dutch made their first treaty with the Iroquois.
It is situated at the head of a bay of the same name on the east of the island of Pomona, or Mainland, 247 m.
Zeeland consists of the delta islands formed about the estuaries of the Maas and Scheldt with its two arms, the Honte or Western Scheldt, and the Ooster Scheldt, together with a strip of mainland called ZeelandFlanders.
The islands of Schouwen and Duiveland are united owing to the damming of the Dykwater; St Filipsland, or Philipsland, and South Beveland are connected with the mainland of North Brabant by naturally formed mud banks.
The mainland of Zeeland-Flanders was formerly also composed of numerous islands which were gradually united by the accumulation of mud and sand, and in this way many once flourishing commercial towns, such as Sluis and Aardenburg, were reduced in importance.
Dunluce Castle, between Portrush and Bushmills, stands on a rock separated from the mainland by a chasm which is spanned by a bridge.
In fact, the country between the Matmata highlands and the strait separating Jerba from the mainland is singularly African in the character and aspect of its flora.
From the mainland it is separated by a narrow channel, which at Hong-Kong roads, between Victoria, the island capital, and Kowloon Point, is about 1 m.
There is good anchorage throughout the entire channel separating the island from the mainland, except in the Ly-ee-mun Pass, where the water is deep; the best anchorage is in Hong-Kong roads, in front of Victoria, where, over good holding ground, the depth is 5 to 9 fathoms. The inner anchorage of Victoria Bay, about a m.
off shore and out of the strength of the tide, is 6 to 7 fathoms. Victoria, the seat of government and of trade, is the chief centre of population, but a tract on the mainland is covered with public buildings and villa residences.
m., has a coast-line of 88 m.; it lies within the ro-fathom line, but is separated from the mainland by Nantucket Sound, which is 25 to 30 m.
extremity of Nantucket Island is Siasconset (locally 'Sconset), a summer resort of some vogue; it has a Marconi wireless telegraph station, connecting with incoming steamers, the Nantucket shoals lightship and the mainland.
in height) which forms the eastern boundary of a spacious bay, and is united to the mainland by a narrow sandy isthmus.
The Sakonnet river is a long bay separating Aquidneck or Rhode Island from the mainland on the E.
The particularistic sentiment was still very strong, however, and in 1651 the union split into two confederations, one including the mainland towns, Providence and Warwick; the other, the island towns, Portsmouth and Newport.
Extensive islands are thrown up, and attach themselves to the mainland, while the river deserts its old bed and seeks a new channel, it may be many miles off.
Several of the islands were once the property of religious houses on the mainland.
On the other hand among the mainland cities revolt was frequent; they were ready to rebel Kai irapa SGvaµiv.
By this peace all the Greek cities on the mainland of Asia with the islands of Cyprus and Clazomenae were recognized as Persian, all other cities except Imbros, Lemnos and Scyros as autonomous.
Victoria is connected with the mainland by cable, and is a favourite tourist resort for the whole west coast of North America.
The Piedmont, Lombardy, mainland of Venetia, Tuscany and the interior of Naples belonged to the Lombards.
It disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the "patricius" of Sicily, and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the Toth century were erected into the themes of Calabria and Langobardia.
The airship factory is situated on Walney which is connected with the mainland by a bridge with an opening span of 120 ft.
He was also appointed marshal of "Romanie" - a term very vaguely used, but apparently signifying the mainland of the Balkan Peninsula, while his nephew and namesake, afterwards prince of Achaia, took a great part in the Latin conquest of Peloponnesus.
from the mainland of Europe and 180 from Africa; it has a magnificent natural harbour.
It is reached by steamer from Geestemiinde, Emden, Bremen or Hamburg, and at low tide by road from the mainland.
An expedition was organized, and landed on the mainland in May 1816, but proved a failure.
The population is composed mainly of Indians, distantly related to the tribes of the mainland, and mestizos.
These passages are guarded by forts placed on islands intervening between the breakwater and the mainland, and themselves united to the land by breakwaters.
Back of the islands are the quiet waters of lagoons, and at the mouths of rivers are several shallow bays indenting the mainland; these bays were formed by only a slight subsidence of the land and the rivers are filling them with deposits of silt.
in a canal along the coast of Texas, underlying the lagoons lying between the islands and the mainland" to develop light navigation to points not reached by the railways.
Bargash in 1877 offered to Sir (then Mr) William Mackinnon a lease of all his mainland territory.
The sultan was forced to acknowledge their validity, and to grant a German company a lease of his mainland territories south of the mouth of the Umba river, a British company formed by Mackinnon taking a lease of the territories north of that point.
On the 28th of October 1890 the sultan of Zanzibar ceded absolutely to Germany the mainland territories already leased to a German company, receiving as compensation £200,000.
Most of the suburbs and the city itself are exposed to the southeast winds which, passing over the flats which join the Cape Peninsula to the mainland, reach the city sand-laden.
The northern extremity of New Guinea is all but severed from the mainland by the deep MacCluer Inlet, running eastwards towards Geelvink Bay which deeply indents the northern coast.
Off its coast-line, on the parallel of 6° S., lies the vast Bismarck Archipelago, of which New Pomerania (Neu Pommern) is the most important member; and, on the parallel of io, the d'Entrecasteaux Islands, with the Marshall Bennett group to their north-east; while stretching out from the south-east promontory of the mainland is the Louisiade Archipelago.
Earthquakes are rare on the mainland, but not infrequent in Bismarck and d'Entrecasteaux archipelagos.
They are absent from the Louisiades, but species occur in the d'Entrecasteaux Islands which have not been seen on the mainland opposite.
On the west coasts there is a semi-civilization, due to intercourse with Malays and Bugis, who have settled at various points, and carry on the trade with the neighbouring islands, in some of which, while the coast population is Malay or mixed, that of the interior is identical with the people of the mainland of New Guinea.
By authority, therefore, of Queensland, the mainland of New Guinea, opposite her shores east of the 141st meridian, was annexed to that colony in 1883.
Now on the mainland and in the islands plantations have been established and tobacco and cotton have been successfully grown.
This ascendancy he abused by numerous acts of piracy which made him notorious throughout Greece; but his real purpose in building his navy was to become lord of all the islands of the archipelago and the mainland towns of Ionia.
He maintained his ascendancy until about 515, when Oroetes, the Persian governor of Lydia, who had been reproached for his failure to reduce Samos by force, lured him to the mainland by false promises of gain and put him to death by crucifixion.
and a lesser one at the N.E., which give the mainland a breadth of 90 m.
It is protected for a long distance by moles, in which a break has been left in the Fischhauser Wiek, to permit of freer circulation of the water and to prevent damage to the mainland.
About the middle of the 15th century their mud-and-rush dwellings were partly replaced by stone structures, grouped around the central enclosure of the great teocalli, and bordering the causeways leading to the mainland.
coast of the mainland.
Between September 1493 and the time of his last voyage (May 1502 to November 1504), Columbus explored the West Indies, reached the mainland of South America at the mouth of the Orinoco and sailed along the coast of Central America from Cape Honduras to Nombre de Dios (near Colon).
The history of the venture is very obscure, but Cabot is thought to have reached Newfoundland and the mainland.
The first Spanish settlement in Hispaniola spread to the mainland by the adventure of Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa in Darien in 1509.
To the north, to the west and to the south of the English settlements on the mainland, a most characteristic French colonial policy was being carried out.
So long as Spain retained her colonies on the mainland, while England held Canada, and the English, Dutch and French had possessions in Guiana, the New World must have remained in political dependence on the Old.
The scanty ruins of a castle are built partly on the mainland, partly on a rugged promontory spoken of as the Island, but united by a narrow peninsula to the shore.
It is connected with the mainland by a pontoon bridge, and has a castle, now used as barracks, in the beautiful chapel of which many members of the Sonderburg-Augustenburg line lie buried; a Lutheran church and a town hall.
The urban district of Barry, with a population in 1901 of 27,030, comprises the ecclesiastical parishes of Barry, Cadoxton, Merthyr-Dovan, and a portion of Sully in which is included Barry Island (194 acres), now, however, joined to the mainland.
1, opened on the 18th of July 1889, is 73 acres (with a basin of 7 acres) and occupies the eastern side of the old channel between the island and the mainland, having a well-sheltered deep-sea entrance.
The mainland, opposite the western end of Long Island, is traversed by the lower Hudson and other channels - submerged valleys - which form a branching bay with several islands, the largest of which are Staten and Manhattan Islands.
Naturally, therefore, a dense population, engaged mainly in manufacturing and commerce, has gathered around the shores of this harbour, the greatest number on Manhattan 'Island and the contiguous mainland in New York City, but large numbers also on western Long Island, in Brooklyn, on the smaller islands, and on the New Jersey side.
The Dutch had long claimed the whole coast from Delaware Bay to Cape Cod, but by the treaty of Hartford (1650), negotiated between himself and the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, Stuyvesant agreed to a boundary which on the mainland roughly determined the existing boundary between New York and Connecticut and on Long Island extended southward from the west side of Oyster Bay to the Atlantic Ocean.
Washington prepared to withstand the British behind fortifications on Harlem Heights, but discovering that Howe was attempting to outflank him by landing troops in the rear he retreated to the mainland, leaving only a garrison at Fort Washington, and established a line of fortified camps on the hills overlooking the Bronx river as far as White Plains.
TAURIDA, a government of southern Russia, including the peninsula of Crimea and a tract of mainland situated between the lower Dnieper and the coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
THAPSUS, a low peninsula, now known as Magnisi, joined by a narrow isthmus to the mainland of Sicily, about 7 m.
Shortly after 1846, the British began to assert that the Rosario Strait and not Haro Strait (as the Americans held) was the channel separating the mainland and Vancouver Island, thus claiming the Haro Archipelago of which San Juan was the principal island.
These words are for (I) the swim-bladder of a fish; (2) a narrow stretch of water between an inland sea and the ocean, or between an island and the mainland, &c., cf.
Then the advocates of passivity regained the upper hand and kept the squadron in harbour, and henceforward for many months the Japanese navy lay unchallenged off Port Arthur, engaging in minor operations, covering the transport of troops to the mainland, and watching for the moment when the advance of the army should force the Russian fleet to come out.
It is now considered that the people who erected the lake dwellings of Central Europe were also the people who were spread over the mainland.
The same Silurian deposits are widely spread on the mainland as far as Olenek.
The lemmings are very numerous, and in certain years undertake migrations to the mainland and back.
The anchorage is fairly protected from the sea, but the depth of water is only 3 to 4 fathoms. The channel between the island on Diu and the mainland is navigable only by fishing boats and small craft.
Off the mainland near Havant lies Hayling, a flat island of irregular form lying between the harbours of Langstone and Chichester.
The town, which is built on a promontory at a point nearest to the mainland, is largely occupied by Chinese and Tamils, though the Malays are also well represented.
This is mainly due to the construction of the railway which runs from a point on the mainland opposite to Penang, through the Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sembilan to Malacca, and has diverted to other ports and eventually to Singapore much of the coastal traffic which formerly visited Penang.
The estuary of the Thames may be said to stretch from London Bridge to Sheerness in the Isle of Sheppey, which is divided from the mainland by the narrow channel (bridged at Queensbridge) of the Swale.
deep, and connecting a rock, which is used as a salmon-fishing station, with the mainland.
Crossing over to the mainland he proceeded to the residence, on the banks of the Ness, of Brude, king of the Picts.
The conquest of the mainland was speedily effected, though Gaeta, Reggio and the rock of Scylla held out for some months.
and the Asiatic mainland, all rest on a great submerged bank, nowhere more than ioo fathoms below sea-level, which may be considered a continuation of the continent; while to the east the depth of the sea has been found at various places to be from 1000 to 2500 fathoms. As the value of this fact was particularly emphasized by Wallace, the limit of the shallow water, which is found in the narrow but deep channel between Bali and Lombok, and strikes north to the east of Borneo, has received the name of "Wallace's Line."
from the coast, and of similar basaltic and limestone formation to that of the mainland.
The harbour, which is the best on the north coast of South America, is formed by an indentation of the coastline shut in by two long islands lying parallel to the mainland.
in 1898) on the mainland opposite permits the mooring of vessels alongside.
The city occupies a part of the upper island or peninsula facing the northern end of the harbour, and is separated from the mainland on the east by a shallow lagoon-like extension of the bay which is bridged by a causeway passing through the extra-mural suburb of Xiximani on another island.
At the mainland end of the causeway leading from the city is the fort of San Felipe, about ioo ft.
It is separated from the mainland by two narrow straits, and save for these channels blocks the entrance to a large bight identified with the Lake Triton of the Romans.
The western strait, opening into the Gulf of Gabes, is a mile and a half broad; the eastern strait is wider, but at low water it is possible to cross to the mainland by the Tarik-el-Jemil (road of the camel).
At El Kantara (the bridge) on the eastern strait, and formerly connected with the mainland by a causeway, are extensive ruins of a Roman city - probably those of Meninx, once a flourishing seaport.
The Greeks extended their power to the mainland, where they owned gold mines which were even more valuable than those on the island.
After the defeat of Xerxes the Thasians joined the Delian confederacy; but afterwards, on account of a difference about the mines and marts on the mainland, they revolted.
The Athenians defeated them by sea, and, after a siege that lasted more than two years, took the capital, Thasos, probably in 463, and compelled the Thasians to destroy their walls, surrender their ships, pay an indemnity and an annual contribution (in 449 this was 21 talents, from 445 about 30 talents), and resign their possessions on the mainland.
The administration of the Balearic Islands differs in no respect from that of the other Spanish provinces on the mainland.
The journey extended from Salamis " throughout the whole island " of Cyprus as far as Paphos, and on the mainland from Pamphylia to Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe, at each of which places indications are given of a prolonged visit (xiii.
there are practically none, and to the north and south of these parallels respectively the islands, though large and numerous, are purely continental, lying close under the mainland, enclosing no seas, and forming no separate political units.
The view which has received most general acceptance is that they represent a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who migrated at a remote period possibly in Neolithic times from the Asiatic mainland travelling by way of the Malay Archipelago and gradually colonizing the eastern Pacific. The Polynesians, who, as represented by such groups as the Samoans and Marquesas islanders, are the physical equal of Europeans, are of a light brown colour, tall, well-proportioned, with regular and often beautiful features.
In September 1650 he came to an agreement with the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England at Hartford upon the boundary between New Netherland and Connecticut, involving the sacrifice of a large amount of territory, the new boundary crossing Long Island from the west side of Oyster Bay to the Atlantic Ocean, and on the mainland north from a point west of Greenwich Bay, 4 m.
It follows exactly the curve of the mainland, and is continued into Panama, under the name of the Cordillera de Chiriqui.
The peninsula of Lower California (q.v.) lies parallel with the mainland coast and extends southward to about 22° 52' S.
The principal bays on the mainland coast are Olas Atlas, which is the harbour of Mazatlan, San Blas, Banderas, Manzanillo, Acapulco, Salina Cruz and Tonala.
The Totonacs inhabit northern Vera Cruz and speak a language related to that of the Mayas; the Tarascos form a small group living in Michoacan; the Matlanzingos, or Matlaltzincas, live near the Tarascos, the savage Apaches, a nomadic group of tribes ranging from Durango northward into the United States; the Opata-Pima group, inhabiting the western plateau region from Sonora and Chihuahua south to Guadalajara, is sometimes classed as a branch of the Nahuatlaca; the Seris, a very small family of savages, occupy Tiburon Island and the adjacent mainland of Sonora; and the Guaicuros, or Yumas, are to be found in the northern part of the peninsula of Lower California.
The Martha's Vineyard Indians were subject to the Wampanoag tribe, on the mainland, were expert watermen, and were very numerous when the whites first came.
He returned to the mainland at the head of 200 convicts, and committed further excesses in the Terra di Lavoro; but the French troops were everywhere on the alert to capture him and he had to take refuge in the woods of Lenola.
It originally occupied only the small island of Zephyria close to the shore, now occupied by the great castle of St Peter, built by the Knights of Rhodes in 1404; but in course of time this island was united to the mainland and the city extended so as to incorporate Salmacis, an older town of the Leleges and Carians.
The more populous islands are in regular communication with certain points of the mainland by means of steamers fromGlasgow, Oban and Mallaig.
The original inhabitants seem to have been of the same Celtic race as those settled on the mainland.
Matters, however, were not really mended, and in 1884 a royal commission reported upon the condition of the crofters of the islands and mainland.
The island thus divides the seaward approach to St Petersburg into two channels; that on the northern side is obstructed by shoals which extend across it from Kotlin to Lisynos on the Finnish mainland, and is only passable by vessels drawing less than 15 ft.
of water; the southern channel, the highway to the capital, is narrowed by a spit which projects from opposite Oranienbaum on the Russian mainland, and, lying close to Kronstadt, has been strongly guarded by batteries.
In front of the Brazos and the Colorado, the largest of the Texan rivers, the coast-line is very gently bowed forward, as if by delta growth, and the sea touches the mainland in a nearly straight shore line.
- The territory comprises the peninsulas of Aden proper and Little Aden, a strip of mainland including the villages of Sheikh `Othman, 6 m.
There are no permanent ice sheets known on the mainland of north-eastern Canada, but some of the larger islands to the north of Hudson Bay and Straits are partially covered with glaciers on their higher points.
Soon after fishermen from Europe began to go in considerable numbers to the Newfoundland banks, and in time to the coasts of the mainland of America.
The islands are separated from the mainland by the Pentland Firth, which is 64 m.
As in the neighbouring mainland of Caithness, these rocks rest upon the metamorphic rocks of the eastern schists, as may be seen on Pomona, where a narrow strip is exposed between Stromness and Inganess, and again in the small island of Graemsay; they are represented by grey gneiss and granite.
from the mainland, belongs to Caithness and is situated in the parish of Canisbay; South Ronaldshay (1991) is the best cultivated and most fertile of the southern isles of the group. On Hoxa Head, to the west of the large village of St Margaret's Hope, is a broch, or round tower, and the island contains, besides, examples of Picts' houses and standing stones.
and as such is known also as Mainland.
It is separated from the mainland of Greece by the Euboic Sea.
Euboea was believed to have originally formed part of the mainland, and to have been separated from it by an earthquake.
The neighbourhood of the fertile Lelantian or Lelantine plain, and their proximity to the place of passage to the mainland, were evidently the causes of the choice of site, as well as of their prosperity.
from the nearest point in the mainland.
Here Hertha, according to tradition, had her great temple, and hither came from the mainland the Angles to worship at her shrine.
Sonderburg, the capital, with a good harbour and a considerable trade, is connected with the mainland by a pontoon bridge.
In the township there are several villages, including Weymouth, North Weymouth, East Weymouth and South Weymouth, and the smaller villages of Weymouth Centre, Weymouth Heights, Lovell's Corner, Nash's Corner and Old Spain, and there are also four islands, Round, Grape, Slate and Sheep. The mainland itself is largely a peninsula lying between the Weymouth Fore river and the Weymouth Back river, to the west and east respectively.
On the mainland opposite Zaudzi is Msapere, the chief centre of trade.
The fauna is allied to that of Madagascar rather than to the mainland of Africa; it includes some land birds and a species of lemur peculiar to the islands.
In 1560 their fort was captured and destroyed by' a Portuguese expedition from Bahia under Mem de Sa, and in 1567 another expedition under the same commander again destroyed the French settlements, which had spread to the mainland.
He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland, and in September 981 he marched into Apulia, where he met at first with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and the Eastern Empire, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apulia, resulted in a severe defeat on Otto's troops near Stilo in July 982.
of the centre of the island, is a comparatively low peninsula (separated from the mainland by a rock wall 2000 ft.
In 1909 about 4500 acres were in coffee, the value of the crop was $350,000; and 1,763,119 lb of coffee, valued at $206,460, were exported from Hawaii to the mainland of the United States.
Each of the larger islands has one or more ports which a local steamboat serves regularly, and Honolulu has the regular service of seven trans-Pacific lines (the American-Hawaiian Steamship Co., the Canadian-Australian Steamship Co., the Matson Navigation Co., the Oceanic Steamship Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., the Mexican Oriental and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha); it is a midway station for vessels between the United States (mainland) and Australia and Southern Asia.
In 1908 five steamship companies were engaged in traffic between island ports and the mainland (including Mexico).
The governor appoints, by and with the consent of the Senate of the Territory, an attorney-general, treasurer, commissioner of public lands, commissioner of agriculture and forestry, superintendent of public works, superintendent of public instruction, commissioners of public instruction, auditor and deputy-auditor, surveyor, high sheriff, members of the board of health, board of prison inspectors, board of registration, inspectors of election, &c. All such officers are appointed for four years except the commissioners of public instruction and the members of the said 1 Large numbers of Japanese immigrants have used the Hawaiian Islands merely as a means of gaining admission at the mainland ports of the United States.
For, as the Japanese government would issue only a limited number of passports to the mainland but would quite readily grant passports to Honolulu, the latter were accepted, and after a short stay on some one of the islands the immigrants would depart on a " coastwise " voyage to some mainland port.
This provision has been successful in reducing the number of Japanese coming to the mainland from Hawaii.
The causeway connecting the isle with the mainland was long submerged too deeply for use, but the reclamation operations already referred to almost brought it into view again.
The islands, which are long and narrow (the long axis lying parallel with the coast of the mainland), rise rather abruptly to elevations of a few hundred feet, while on the mainland, notably in the magnificent inlet of the Bocche di Cattaro, lofty mountains often fall directly to the sea.
Suakin stands on a coralline islet connected with the suburb of El-Kef on the mainland by a causeway and a viaduct.
The mainland part of the town is surrounded by a high coral wall, built in 1884 to resist dervish attacks.
The amir of the Hadarib was still sovereign of the mainland at the time of J.
Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, though now connected with the mainland, were built originally upon islands; the Phoenicians preferred such sites, because they were convenient for shipping and easily defended against attack.
Sidon was annihilated; Abd-milkath fell into the hands of Esarhaddon, who founded a new Sidon on the mainland, peopled it with foreigners, and called it after his own name.
Even when cut off from its possessions on the mainland the city itself was not captured; its seafaring trade went on; and though by degrees the colonies were lost, yet the ties of race and sentiment remained strong enough to bind the Phoenicians of the mother-country to their kindred beyond the seas.
With enormous toil the king drove out a mole from the mainland to the island and thus brought up his engines; ships from the other Phoenician towns and from Cyprus lent him their aid, and the town at length was forced in July 332; 8000 Tyrians were slain, 30,000 sold as slaves, and only a few notables, the king Azemilkos, and the festal envoys from Carthage who had taken refuge in the sanctuary of Melkarth, were spared (Diod.
Then at the beginning of the 8th century B.C. the colonial power of Tyre began to decline; on the mainland and in Cyprus the Assyrians gained the Upper hand; in the Greek islands the Phoenicians had already been displaced to a great extent by the advancing tide of Dorian colonization.
The whole of the lakes to the north of the former Y, including the famous Purmer and Beemster lakes, and the Wieringerwaard and Zype sea-polders, were drained in the beginning of the 17th century; but the Waard-en-Groet, the Anna Paulowna and the Koegras sea-polders to the north of these, were only added to the mainland in the first half of the 19th century.
It stood originally on the isthmus connecting the mainland with the peninsula on which Erythrae stood; but the inhabitants, alarmed by the encroachments of the Persians, removed to one of the small islands of the bay, and there established their city.
This island was connected with the mainland by Alexander the Great by means of a pier, the remains of which are still visible.
The island is reached by a regular steamboat service from Hoyer on the mainland to Munkmarsch, which is connected by a steam tram with Westerland.
The shallow strait separating it from the mainland is liable to be blocked by sand-banks; a canal was cut through these in the 7th century B.C. by the Corinthians, and was again after a long period of disuse opened up by the Romans.
In 1903, however, a canal was completed rendering navigable the channel between the island and the mainland.
From this point a Roman bridge seems to have crossed to the mainland.
ACADIE, or Acadia, a name given by the French in 1603 to that part of the mainland of North America lying between the latitudes 40° and 46°.
It was built partly on the mainland and partly on the Island of Triopion or Cape Krio, which anciently communicated with the continent by a causeway and bridge, and now by a narrow sandy isthmus.
By means of the causeway the channel between island and mainland was formed into two harbours, of which the larger, or southern, now known as Port Freano, was further enclosed by two strongly-built moles that are still in good part entire.
postern gate to the lake-side, and thence in a boat to the mainland, where George Douglas, Lord Seton and others were awaiting her.
vitellinus, which has its headquarters on the mainland, is said to be common in Trinidad, but none are found in the Antilles proper.
m., and is reached by a regular steamboat service from Husum and Dagebtill on the mainland to Wyk, the principal bathing resort on the E.
The natives of the mainland of Sumatra are all of Malay stock (those of the north being the most hybrid), but it is doubtful to what extent Malay has here absorbed pre-Malay blood.
Between the mainland dependency of the RiouwLingga residency and the residency of Palembang lies Jambi, an extensive sultanate, of which a portion belongs to the residency of Palembang as a protectorate, the sultan having in his capital (also called Jambi) a Dutch " comptroller," who represents the resident of Palembang; another portion is claimed by a quasi-independent sultan who reigns in the interior.
The residency of Riouw, which embraces many hundreds of islands, great and small, also includes a portion of the Sumatra mainland, between the residencies of Palembang to the south and the east coast of Sumatra to the north.
At the head of Jamestown peninsula Cornwallis, in July 1781, attempted to trick the Americans under Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne by displaying a few men on the peninsula and concealing the principal part of his army on the mainland; but when Wayne discovered the trap he made first a vigorous charge, and then a retreat to Lafayette's line.
The street then crosses a bridge on to the Slottsholm, an island divided from the mainland by a narrow arm of the harbour, occupied mainly by the Christiansborg and adjacent buildings.
On the mainland, immediately west of the Slottsholm, is the Prinsens Palais, once the residence of Christian V.
wide, separated from the mainland by a narrow strip of salt water and 4 or 5 m.
The portion of the city on the mainland rises in an amphitheatre.
The island is practically inaccessible for eight months of the year, but the inhabitants communicate with the outer world by means of "sea messages," which are despatched in boxes when a strong west wind is blowing, and generally make the western islands or mainland of Scotland in a week.
It lies opposite the island of Oland, mainly on two small islands, but partly on the mainland, where there is a pleasant park.
Clonmel is built on both sides of the Suir, and also occupies Moore and Long Islands, which are connected with the mainland by three bridges.
In the jungles of Ceylon are to be found remains of gigantic irrigation dams, and on the neighbouring mainland of Southern India, throughout the provinces of Madras and Mysore, the country is covered with irrigation reservoirs, or, as they are locally termed, tanks.
A great difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts of the North Sea and those of the Baltic. On the former, where the sea has broken up the ranges of dunes formed in bygone times, and divided them into separate islands, the mainland has to be protected by massive dikes, while the Frisian Islands are being gradually washed away by the waters.
A company, the Gesellschaft fr deutsche Kolonization, was founded early in 1884 by Dr Carl Peters, who with two companions went off to the east coast of Africa and succeeded in November of that year in negotiating treaties with various chiefs on th~ mainland who were alleged to be independent of Zanzibar.
Dakar was originally a dependency of Goree and was founded in 1862, a year after the declaration of a French protectorate over the mainland.
It is a diamond-shaped peninsula jutting out from the mainland in a north-easterly direction, the longer axis, from Muir of Ord station to the South Sutor at the entrance to Cromarty Firth, measuring 20 m., and the shorter, from Ferryton Point to Craigton Point, due north and south, 12 m., and it has a coastline of 52 m.
It occupies a peninsula projecting toward the north-east, a small island (Winter Island) connected with the neck of the peninsula (Salem Neck) by a causeway, and some land on the mainland.
Sicilia), an island of the Mediterranean Sea belonging to the kingdom of Italy, and separated from the nearest point of the mainland of Italy only by the Straits of Messina, which at their narrowest part are about 2 m.
The channel between Cape Bon in Tunis and the south-west of Sicily (a distance of 80 m.) is, on the whole, shallower than the Straits of Messina, being for the most part under 100 fathoms in depth, and exceeding 200 fathoms only for a very short interval, while the Straits of Messina, have almost everywhere a depth exceeding 150 fathoms. The geological structure in the neighbourhood of this strait shows that the island must originally have been formed by a rupture between it and the mainland, but that this rupture must have taken place at a period long antecedent to the advent of man, so that the name Rhegium cannot be based even on the tradition of any such catastrophe.
The flora of Sicily is remarkable for its wealth of species; but, comparing Sicily with other islands that have been long separated from the mainland, the number of endemic species is not great.
Artichokes and tomato sauce are the principal of these products, of which several dozen million tins are annually exported from Sicily to the Italian mainland, to Germany and to South America.
Messina is connected with the railway system of the mainland by ferry-boats from Villa S.
Lying nearer to the mainland of Europe and nearer to Africa than any other of the great Mediterranean islands, Sicily is, next to Spain, the connecting-link between those two quarters of the world.
In the later mapping out of the empire into purely military divisions, the theme (O a) of Sicily took in both the island and the nearest peninsula of the mainland, the oldest Italy.
He brought the Saracens of the mountains back again to a life in plains and cities, and presently planted a colony of them on the mainland at Nocera, when they became his most trusty soldiers.
The final result of the Angevin conquest of Sicily was its separation from the mainland.
Hitherto the war had been waged on the mainland; now it was transferred to Sicily.
The king of the mainland is often spoken of for convenience as king of Naples, but that description was never borne as a formal title save in the 16th century by Philip, king of England and Naples, and in the 19th by Joseph Buonaparte and Joachim Murat.
In 1837 the king of Bimbia, a district on the mainland on the north of the estuary, made over a large part of the country round the bay to Great Britain.
In 1845, at which time there was a flourishing trade in slaves between Cameroon and America, the Baptist Missionary Society made its first settlement on the mainland of Africa, Alfred Saker (1814-1880) obtaining from the Akwa family the site for a mission station.
It is the largest of the several low islands which are separated from the mainland by the ramifying creeks about the mouth of the river.
Egyptian objects of the age of the XVIIIth Dynasty are found in the Greek islands and on the mainland among remains of the Mycenaean epoch, and on the other hand the products of the workshops of Crete and other centres of that culture are found in Egypt and are figured as tribute of the Keftiu in the tomb-paintings, though we have no information of any war with or conquest of that people.
Small objects with his name and that of Taia are found on the mainland and in the islands of Greece.
In occupying the town the British general had expressly refrained from pledging Great Britain to remain there; and the government held that any permanent occupation of a post on the mainland carried with it risks of complications out of all proportion to any possible benefit.
Its northern part is actually insular, divided from the mainland by the Limfjord or Liimfjord, which communicates with the North Sea to the west and the Cattegat to the east, but this strait, though broad and possessing lacustrine characteristics to the west, has only very narrow entrances.
(4) On the mainland, HjOrring, Aalborg, Thisted, RingkjObing, Viborg, Randers, Aarhus, Vejle, Ribe.
The heroic poetry of the Anglo-Saxons may carry the name further back, though probably it is not very ancient, at all events on the mainland.
The town is built on a huge rock connected with the mainland by a rocky isthmus.
Melilla, the first place captured by Spain on the African mainland, was seized from the Moors in 1490.
They inhabit the Black Sea littoral from Varna to the Bosporus, the shores of the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean, the Aegean archipelago, the mainland of Greece, Epirus and the western islands as far north as Corfu.
This appears to have been held from the first on the mainland.
Greek Mainland.-Exploration of 'the Mycenaean sites of the Greek mainland have shown that beneath the characteristic painted pottery which is so plainly derived from the late Minoan wares, there is no unbroken sequence of development such as is found at Cnossos and elsewhere in Crete: that is to say, the Mycenaean civilization was not native to Greece proper, but was imposed there in a mature form upon a more backward culture.
For the mainland cultures a new term " Helladic " has lately been invented, and three chronological divisions, Early, Middle and Late Helladic, are proposed to correspond with the parallel Cycladic and Minoan periods.
Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary or Mamiya Strait, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Yezo (Japan) by the Strait of La Perouse.
The mainland lies between 58° 40' 30" (at Dunnet Head in Caithness) and 54° 38' N.
2.1.2 Table II.-Population in Towns, Villages and Rural Districts, Mainland and Islands, 1891 and 1901.
In this view the Outer and Inner Hebrides were formerly one with themselves and the mainland, and the western isles therefore are truly grouped with the Highland province of Scotland.
The next table affords a comparison of the numbers of the population as grouped in towns, villages and rural districts, and in the mainland and islands.
Its prosperity has been greatly enhanced by the rapid development of the Federated Malay States on the mainland.
broad, and is separated from the native state of Johor, situated on the mainland of the Malay Peninsula, by a strait which, at its narrowest point, is less than 1 m.
It affected Ionia in the first place, and the mainland of Greece indirectly; the art of Ionia at this period is almost unknown, but it was probably closely allied to that of Phrygia.
Keane, who suggests that they are a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who possibly migrated in the Neolithic period from the Asiatic mainland.
The city is built on the southern extremity of the sandy sea beach, on the island of Antonio Vaz, and on the mainland to the westward, the river channels being crossed by numerous bridges.
The three principal parishes of the city are known as Sao Jose do Recife, occupying the sandy peninsula or beach north of the outlet of the united rivers; Santo Antonio, on the island of Antonio Vaz, which was called Mauritia or Mauritzstad during the Dutch occupation; and Boa Vista, on the mainland to the westward, which is the most modern and the most rapidly growing part.
The mainland and Cingalese animals form distinct races.
They begin by more or less desultory raids, in the course of which they seize upon some island, which they generally use as an arsenal or point d'appui for attacks on the mainland.
It lies in the north-east part of the gulf, and is separated from the Ecuadorean mainland by the Morro channel, and from the southern mainland by the wider and deeper Jambeli channel.
It is bounded on the south by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and is separated from the mainland of the province by the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound.
The Sheikh of Bahrein exercises no authority over the mainland, which from the S.
It occupies a position similar to that held by Vancouver Island farther to the south, in regard to the mainland coast and its immediately adjacent islands, but is separated by a somewhat wider sea from the coast.
The wonderfully productive halibut fisheries of Hecate Strait, which separates these islands from the mainland and its adjacent islands, have attracted the attention of fishing companies, and great quantities of this fish are taken regularly and shipped across the continent in cold storage.
They are separated from Skye by Cuillin Sound and from the mainland by the Sound of Ardnamurchan.
from the nearest point of the mainland lies the island of Eigg, or Egg (pop. 211), measuring from N.
Some of these are united to the mainland and to each other by jetties which curve round so as to form the Port de Refuge, a haven available only in fair weather.
Adjoining the mainland is the native town, consisting mostly of roughly made wooden houses with well thatched roofs.
Remains of buildings also exist behind the sand dunes, which possibly mark the line of the channel which separated the island from the mainland, and these may have belonged to the post-station on the Via Severiana.
from the mainland of Borneo at the nearest point, and lies opposite to the northern end of the great Brunei Bay.
There is also a considerable trade in sago, much of which is produced on the mainland, and there are three small sago-factories on the island where the raw product is converted into flour.
There is a Roman Catholic church with a resident priest, an Anglican church, visited periodically by a clergyman from the mainland, two native and Chinese schools, and a sailors' club, built by the Roman Catholic mission.
The European graveyard has repeatedly been the scene of outrages perpetrated, it is believed, by natives from the mainland of Borneo, the graves being rifled and the hair of the head and other parts of the corpses being carried off to furnish ornaments to weapons and ingredients in the magic philtres of the natives.
The rectory of Aberdaron (on the mainland, opposite Bardsey), Penmachno and Llangwnadl(Llangwynhoedl), in Lleyn (S.
Sokotra thus "again became part of the mainland, though it is likely for only a short period, and during this union the life of the adjacent continent covered its plains and filled its valleys.
At the present time the Dutch flag flies nowhere on the mainland of India, though the quaint houses and regular canals at Chinsura, Negapatam, Jaffna, and many petty ports on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts remind the traveller of familiar scenes in the Netherlands.
This outrage was not avenged until the time of Cromwell (1654), and in the meantime the English abandoned the struggle for the Spice Islands, and turned their attention entirely to the mainland of India.
At first the trade was mainly with the Indian archipelago, but soon the English began to feel their way towards the mainland of India itself.
From the imperial firman of December 1612 dates the British settlement on the mainland of India.
KINGDOM OF NAPLES, the name conventionally given to the kingdom of Sicily on the Italian mainland (Sicily beyond the Pharos), to distinguish it from that of Sicily proper (Sicily on this side of the Pharos, i.e.
for all conquests they had made both in the island and upon the mainland, and that in 1130 Roger de Hauteville (Roger II.
He easily conquered both the mainland and the island, and Tancred's only son William III.
British troops to occupy Messina and Agosta, so that they might operate against the French on the mainland.
Ferdinand succeeded in getting a reactionary ministry appointed, and dissolved parliament in May 1815, after concluding a treaty with Austria - now freed by Murat's defection from her engagements with him - for the recovery of his mainland dominions by means of an Austrian army paid for by himself.
Cavour's attempt to bring about the annexation of Sicily to Sardinia failed, for Garibaldi wished to use the island as a basis for an invasion of the mainland.
of Cape Sable, the most southerly point of the mainland.
The harbour is formed by the widening of the strait separating the island from the mainland, which is nearly 2 m.
There are some German colonies farther up the coast whose products find a market here, and a number of small settlements along the mainland coast add something to the trade of the town.
distant from the nearest point of the mainland, is mostly barren rock.
The era of discontent may be said to have begun in 1825 when the loss of her colonies on the mainland of America caused Spain Era of to take a more immediate interest in the Philippines, missionary era and brought about the definite entry of the islands into the world of commerce and progress.
At the close of his life King James divided his states between his sons by Yolande of Hungary, Pedro and James, leaving the Spanish possessions on the mainland to the first, the Balearic Islands and the lordship of Montpellier to the second - a division which inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts.
It occupies a part of the former peninsula of Xiphonia, now a small island, connected with the mainland by a bridge.
Its mainland portion consists of a peninsula stretching southwards from Manchuria, with an estimated length of about 600 m., an extreme breadth of 135 m., and a coast-line of 17 4 0 m.
Affairs in Italy demanded the attention of the king, as Roger I., king of Sicily, had won considerable authority on the mainland, and refused to recognize the German king, whose help Pope Lucius II.
Tradition also has it that it was once a well-watered island (hence the designation Hydrea), but the inhabitants are now wholly dependent on the rain supply, and they have sometimes had to bring water from the mainland.
The only fact in its history is that the people of Hermione (a city on the neighbouring mainland now known by the common name of Kastri) surrendered it to Samian refugees, and that from these the people of Troezen received it in trust.
Portsmouth Harbour opens into Spithead, one of the arms of the Channel separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland.
It is built on the little island of Tombo which lies off the promontory of Konakry, the town being joined to the mainland by an iron bridge.
Various other things indicate a separation of the islands from the mainland in quaternary times; since which, owing to the later southward movement on the continent of northern forms in glacial times, there has been a struggle for existence on the mainland from which the islands have largely escaped.
Dangerous reefs lie off the point, and one group a mile from the mainland is marked by the Longships Lighthouse, in 50° 4' N.
It was not till the invasions of Hun and Langobard that fugitives from the Venetian mainland took refuge among the poor fishermen on the small islands in the lagoons and on the lido - the narrow stretch of coast-line which separates the lagoons from the Adriatic - some at Grado, some at Malamocco, others on Rialto.
The Dusun language, it is interesting to note, presents very curious grammatical complications and refinements such as are not to be found among the tongues spoken by any of the other peoples of the Malayan Archipelago or the mainland of south-eastern Asia.
The inhabitants are distinguished from those of the mainland by peculiarities of dialect, costume and habits; and even the various peninsulas differ from each other in these particulars.
and a week later Bartlett, accompanied by an Eskimo and his crew and seven dogs, set out for the mainland, 160 m.
and then returned to the mainland.
The land rises to 1,500 ft., is heavily glaciated, and in geological structure is similar to the mainland.
Between Nikolas Land and the mainland two islands were discovered and named Alexis and Starokadomski, each with a greatest width of about 6 miles.
On the west of the Aegean a new symbol was invented for the aspirate value, and this spread over the mainland and was carried by emigrants to Rhodes, Sicily and Italy.
The wombat of Tasmania and the islands of Bass's Straits (P. ursinus), and the closely similar but larger P. platyrhinus of the southern portion of the mainland of Australia, belong to this group. On the other hand, in the hairy-nosed wombat (P. latifrons) of Southern Australia, the fur is smooth and silky; the ears are large and more pointed; the muzzle is hairy; the frontal region of the skull is broader than in the other section, with well-marked postorbital processes; and there are thirteen ribs.
The large wombat of the mainland is variable in colour, some individuals being pale yellowish brown, others dark grey and some black.
Plague appears to have been equally persistent and destructive on the mainland in southern China during the period indicated, but no accurate details are available.
Returning north he passed by the chief cities of Oman to New Ormuz (Hurmuz), which had about 15 years before, c. 1315, been transferred to its famous island-site from the mainland (Old Ormuz).
When, by the 4th article of the treaty of Fredrikshavn (Friedrichshamn), 5/17 September 1809, the islands were ceded to Russia, together with the territories forming the grand-duchy of Finland on the mainland, the Swedes were unable to secure a provision that the islands should not be fortified.
In 309, he founded Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonese with the mainland.
The iron mines of Elba, and the tin and copper of the mainland, were owned and smelted by the people of Populonia; hot springs too lay some 6 m.
Their effects are best seen in sculpture and in metal work, though it remains doubtful whether the best examples of the latter were made in Cyprus or on the mainland.
5 The persecution of Christians on the mainland after the death of Stephen drove converts as far as Cyprus; and soon after converted Cypriote Jews, such as Mnason (an " original convert ") and Joses the Levite (better known as Barnabas), were preaching in Antioch.
The chief inlets are the mouth of the Dee, dividing Flint from Cheshire; the Menai Straits, separating Anglesea from the mainland; Carnarvon Bay; Cardigan Bay, stretching from Braich-y-Pwll to St Davids Head; St Brides Bay; Milford Haven; Carmarthen Bay; and Swansea Bay.
from the mainland.
East of Skeppsholm an inlet, Ladugardslandsviken, so named from the proximity of the former royal farm-yard (ladugard), and bordered on the mainland by a quay with handsome houses called Strandvagen, throws off a narrow branch (Djurgardsbrunnsviken) and separates from the mainland an island about 2 m.
long, connected with the mainland by a bank of sand.
Its northernmost promontory, Murchison Point, is also the northernmost point of the American mainland.
The great ruins, among the most notable in Asia Minor, have been re-occupied by some 200 families of Cretan Moslems. They cover a large promontory, fenced from the mainland by a ditch and wall which has been repaired in medieval times and is singularly perfect.
The port was formerly protected on the north by the Qal`at el-Bahr ("Sea Castle"), a building of the 13th century, situated on an island still connected with the mainland by a bridge.
on the Finnish frontier, the extreme length being about 990 m., the extreme breadth (mainland) about 250 m., and the total area estimated at 173,547 sq.
All, however, have a common feature in the fringe of islands which, throughout nearly the entire length, shelters the coast of the mainland from the open sea.
Between it and the mainland lies a connected series of navigable sounds of the greatest advantage to coastwise traffic, and also of no little importance as a natural defence.
British Columbia (the mainland portion) and Vancouver Island.
45° 50' to 46° 55' S.), and with the mainland to the E.
These archipelagoes are separated from the mainland in the north by the gulfs of Chacao (or Ancud) and Corcovado, 30 to 35 m.
The Taytao peninsula, incorrectly called the Tres Montes on some maps, is a westward projection of the mainland, with which it is connected by the narrow isthmus of Ofqui, over which the natives and early missionaries were accustomed to carry their boats between the Moraleda Channel and Gulf of Penas.
in length, separate another series of archipelagoes from the mainland.
of the Chilean coast contain numerous bays and inlets affording safe harbours, but the mainland and islands are uninhabited and the climate inhospitable.
The unsettled southern regions of Chiloe (mainland) and Magallanes are traversed by a number of important rivers which have been only partially explored.
The Frias is wholly a Chilean river, draining an extensive Andean region between the 44th and 45th parallels and discharging into the Puyuguapi channel, which separates Magdalena island from the mainland.
The Las Heras discharges into Martinez Inlet, the northern part of a large estuary called Baker or Calen Inlet which penetrates the mainland about 75 m.
It is generally conceded that the potato originated in southern Chile, as it is found growing wild in Chiloe and neighbouring islands and on the adjacent mainland.
There are also some remnants of tribes in the province of Chiloe, which inhabit the island of that name, the Chonos and Guaytecas archipelagoes and the adjacent mainland, who have the reputation of being good boatmen and fishermen; and there are remnants of a people called Changos, on the desert coast, and traces of Calchaqui blood in the neighbouring Andean foothills.
During the years which have elapsed since the War of Independence the territory south of the Bio-Bio has been effectively occupied and divided into six provinces, Chiloe and the neighbouring islands and mainland to the east became a province, and four provinces in the northern deserts were acquired from Bolivia and Peru.
Venetians were in special request for this purpose during the 12th and 13th centuries, probably because at this time, at least, they were less concerned than other Italians in the affairs of the mainland.
Its depots on the mainland, both about 30 m.
For many years an asylum for lunatics was also maintained, but in 1904 the lunatics were removed to the mainland.
The common rabbit, brought from England, abounds, but its introduction to the mainland is prohibited.
They have been detached fr;m the mainland partly by a marine inlet, partly by the lagoon-like creeks formed by the rivers..
The broad estuary which separates Sherbro Island from the mainland, and is popularly called the Sherbro river, receives the Bagru from the N.W.
from the mainland by the sound of Jura, and on the S.
Cefalonia, ancient and modern official Greek Cephallenia, KE4aXX via), an island belonging to the kingdom of Greece, and the largest of those known as the Ionian Islands, situated on the west side of the mainland, almost directly opposite the Gulf of Corinth.
The town was captured and garrisoned, and thus the first Portuguese outpost was established on the mainland of Africa.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.