How to use Mahratta in a sentence
Though the family lost most of its possessions during the Mahratta invasion in the 14th century, it never became tributary to any Malwa chief.
The wazir now bethought him that he had a good opportunity for satisfying an old quarrel against the adjoining tribe of Rohillas, who had played fast and loose with him while the Mahratta army was at hand.
But the government of Bombay had hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta confederacy at a time when France was on the point of declaring war against England, and when the mother-country found herself unable to subdue her rebellious colonists in America.
On the part of Bombay, the Mahratta war was conducted with procrastination and disgrace.
The Bhonsla Mahratta raja of Nagpur, whose dominions bordered on Bengal, was won over by the diplomacy of an emissary of Hastings.Advertisement
The town has a station on the Southern Mahratta railway.
The centres of the cotton trade are Hubli and Gadag, junctions on the Southern Mahratta railway, which traverses the district in several directions.
Sindhia gave up the district of Ajmere to the British, and the pressure of the great Mahratta powers upon Rajputana was permanently withdrawn.
The etymology of the word Mahratta (Maratha) is uncertain.
These states then are not to be included in the Mahratta nation, though they have a share in Mahratta history.Advertisement
For instance, the peshwas, or heads of the Mahratta confederation which at one time dominated nearly all India, were Konkanast Brahmans.
There are indeed many Mahratta chiefs still resident in the country, members of the aristocracy which formerly enjoyed much wealth and power.
The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.
The ancient offices pertaining to the village, as those of the headmen (patel), the village accountant, &c., are in working order throughout the Mahratta country.
The Mahratta peasantry possess manly fortitude under suffering and misfortune.Advertisement
The Mahratta war-cry, "Har, Har, Mahadeo," referred to Siva.
Apart from the Mahratta Brahmans, as already mentioned, the Mahratta nobles and princes are not generally fine-looking men.
There is general truth in what was once said by a high authority to the effect that, while there will be something dignified in the humblest Rajput, there will be something mean in the highest Mahratta.
Bluff good-nature, a certain jocoseness, a humour pungent and ready, though somewhat coarse, a hot or even violent disposition, are characteristics of Mahratta chieftains.
Mahratta ladies and princesses have often taken a prominent part, for good or evil, in public affairs and dynastic intrigues.Advertisement
It was against the Mahommedan king of Bijapur in the Deccan that Sivaji, the hero of Mahratta history, first rebelled in 1657.
The great Mogul emperor's impoverished and enfeebled successor was fain to recognize the Mahratta state by a formal instrument.
The Mahratta king, a descendant of Sivaji, had become a roi fainéant, and the arrangement was negotiated by his Brahman minister, whose official designation was the peshwa.
Thus the Mahratta power was consolidated throughout nearly the whole of Maharashtra under the Brahman peshwa as virtual sovereign, with his capital at Poona, while the titular Mahratta raja or king had his court at the neighbouring city of Satara.
But these principalities, though independent respecting internal administration, and making war or peace with their neighbours according to opportunity, owned allegiance to the peshwa at Poona as the head of the Mahratta race.Advertisement
Such was the Mahratta Empire which supplanted the Mogul Empire.
The Mahratta power grew and prospered till it embraced all western and most of central India.
In this way several Frenchmen - Benoit de Boigne, Perron and others - rose in the Mahratta service to a position dangerous to the British.
But the new system was unsuited to the Mahratta genius; it hampered the meteoric movements of the cavalry, which was obliged to manoeuvre in combination with the new artillery and the disciplined battalions.
Mahratta elders hence uttered predictions of military disaster which were in the end more than fulfilled.
The rapid and amazing success of the Mahratta confederation rendered it the largest Hindu power that ever existed in India.
Thus the Mahratta chouth came to have an ominous significance in Indian history.
The nascent Sikh power prevented Mahratta incursions from being permanently successful in the Punjab.
The defeat, however, did not essentially shake the Mahratta confederation.
The peshwa had fallen into grave difficulties with some of the principal members of the Mahratta confederation.
He therefore placed himself under British protection, and this led to the great Mahratta War, in which the Marquis Wellesley displayed those talents for military and political combination which rendered him illustrious.
The district is traversed by the Madras and Southern Mahratta railways, meeting on the eastern border at Guntakal junction, where another line branches off to Bezwada.
In 1635 the Carnatic was annexed to the Bijapur dominions, from which again it was wrested in 1680 by Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta power.
Among the most conspicuous of these are the mosque of Aurangzeb, built as an intentional insult in the middle of the Hindu quarter; the Bisheshwar or Golden Temple, important less through architectural beauty than through its rank as the holiest spot in the holy city; and the Durga temple, which, like most of the other principal temples, is a Mahratta building of the 17th century.
The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
Under their peaceful rule their territories flourished, until the weakening of the Mogul empire and the rise of the predatory Bundela and Mahratta powers, with the organized forces of which their semi-barbarous feudal levies were unable to cope, brought misfortune upon them.
In 17 4 2 the peshwa advanced to Mandla and exacted the payment of chauth (tributary blackmail), and from this time until 1781, when the successors of Sangram Sah were finally overthrown, Garha-Mandla remained practically a Mahratta dependency.
In 1741 Ratanpur had surrendered to the Mahratta leader Bhaskar Pant without a blow, and the ancient Rajput dynasty came to an end.
About the year 1735 the raja of Kalinjar's territory, including the present district of Banda, was bequeathed to Baji Rao, the Mahratta peshwa; and from the Mahrattas it passed by the treaties of 1802-1803 to the Company.
In 1802, on the eve of Lord Lake's Mahratta war, his chemical knowledge enabled him to render a signal service to the administration by making available a large quantity of gunpowder which damp had spoiled.
Having built the forts of Dig and Kumbher in 1730, he received in 1756 the title of raja, and subsequently joined the great Mahratta army with 30,000 troops.
But the misconduct of the Mahratta leader induced him to abandon the confederacy, just in time to escape the murderous defeat at Panipat.
The abir and aggir butis made at the Mahommedan city of Bijapur in the Mahratta country are celebrated all over western India.
The rich land round about the holy city of Pandharpur, sacred to Vithoba the national Mahratta form of (Krishna)- Vishnu, is wholly restricted to the cultivation of the tulsi plant.
The district contains several old hill forts, the scenes of many engagements during the Mahratta wars.
The other was the rise and rapid growth of the Mahratta power.
At the close of the long contest the Mogul power was weaker, the Mahratta stronger than at first.
The raja is a Punwar Mahratta.
On the occasion of a Mahommedan invasion in 1732, Chhatar Sal asked and obtained the assistance of the Mahratta Peshwa, whom he adopted as his son, giving him a third of his dominions.
The Mahratta power was, however, on the decline; the flight of the peshwa from his capital to Bassein before the British arms changed the aspect of affairs, and by the treaty concluded between the peshwa and the British government, the districts of Banda and Hamirpur were transferred to the latter.
In 1703 a Mussulman convert of the Gond tribe held the country, and in 1743 Raghoji Bhonsla, the Mahratta ruler of Berar, annexed it to his dominions.
Detachments of British troops were stationed at Multai, Betul and Shahpur to cut off the retreat of Apa Sahib, the Mahratta general, and a military force was quartered at Betul until June 1862.
By a treaty of 1822, which extinguished the Mahratta right to levy chauth, the Wardha river was fixed as the eastern boundary of Berar, the Melghat and adjoining districts in the plains being assigned to the nizam in exchange for the districts east of the Wardha held by the peshwa.
Though Berar was no longer oppressed by its Mahratta taskmasters nor harried by Pindari and Bhil raiders, it remained long a prey to the turbulent elements let loose by the sudden cessation of the wars.
The story goes that a Mahratta chief at length succeeded in scaling the precipice and in carrying off the horse, and although the thief was captured before reaching the base of the hill, the spell was broken and the fort, when next attacked, fell.
After filling several subordinate posts, he was appointed in 1801 assistant to the British resident at Poona, at the court of the peshwa, the most powerful of the Mahratta princes.
The difficulty arose from the general complication of Mahratta politics, and especially from the weak and treacherous character of the peshwa, which Elphinstone rightly read from the first.
After studying Oriental languages as the first student at Lord Wellesley's College of Fort William, he, at the age of nineteen, was appointed political assistant to General Lake, who was then conducting the final campaign of the Mahratta war against Holkar.
From this time to his death he devoted himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga, Bengali and Bhotanta dialects.
When pressed in Mysore, Doondiah moved into Mahratta territory, whither Wellesley followed him.
Here, negotiating and bargaining with the Mahratta chiefs, Wellesley acquired a knowledge of their affairs and an influence over them such as no other Englishman possessed.
The result of V6 r ellesley's singular personal ascendancy among the Mahrattas came into full view when the Mahratta War broke out.
He returned in May 1801 to Mysore, where he remained until the Mahratta War broke out.
The power of the Peshwa, nominally supreme in the Mahratta territory, had been overthrown by his rivals Holkar and others, and he had himself fled.
Starting from Seringapatam, he crossed the frontier on March 12, 1803, and moved through the southern Mahratta territory on Poona.
In these critical circumstances Wellesley was charged with "the general direction and control of military and political affairs in the territories of the Nizam, the Peshwa and the Mahratta states and chiefs."
He threw himself upon the Mahratta host, and, carrying out a bold manoeuvre under an intense fire, ultimately gained a complete victory, though with the loss of 2500 men out of a total probably not much exceeding 7000.
The Sindhia family, the rulers of the Gwalior state, belong to the Mahratta nation and originally came from the neighbourhood of Poona.
Realizing the superiority of European methods of warfare, he availed himself of the services of a Savoyard soldier of fortune, Benoit de Boigne, whose genius for military organization and command in the field was mainly instrumental in establishing the Mahratta power.
When, during the period of unrest that followed the deaths of the peshwa, Madhu Rao II., in 1795 and of Tukoji Holkar in 1797, the Mahratta leaders fought over the question of supremacy, the peshwa, Baji Rao II., the titular head of the Mahratta confederation, fled from his capital and placed himself under British protection by the treaty of Bassein (December 31, 1802).
This interposition of the British government was resented by the confederacy, and it brought on the Mahratta War of 1803.
In the campaign that followed a combined Mahratta army, in which Daulat Rao's troops furnished the largest contingent, was defeated by General Arthur Wellesley at Assaye and Argaum in Central India; and Lord Lake routed Daulat Rao's European trained battalions in Northern India at Agra, Aligarh and Laswari.
The Mahratta troops were defeated simultaneously at Maharajpur and Punniar (December 29), with the result that the Gwalior government signed a treaty ceding territory with revenue sufficient for the maintenance of a contingent force to be stationed at the capital, and limiting the future strength of the Gwalior army, while a council of regency was appointed during the minority to act under the resident's advice.
In the Mahratta War the army under General Wellesley, afterwards the duke of Wellington, took Burhanpur (1803), but the treaty of the same year restored it to Sindhia.
The Mahratta chiefs availed themselves of these circumstances to endeavour to possess themselves of the whole country, and Ahmad was compelled more than once to cross the Indus in order to protect his territory from them and the Sikhs, who were constantly attacking his garrisons.
A combination of Mahratta powers was constantly threatening the continuance of British rule, under the guise of plausible assurances severally given by the peshwa, Sindhia, Holkar and other princes.
Before the end of 1817 the preparations of Lord Hastings were completed, when the peshwa suddenly broke into war, and the British were opposed at once to the Mahratta and Pindari powers, estimated at 200,000 men and 500 guns.
In the battles of Lalsot and Chaksana Boigne and his two battalions proved their worth by holding the field when the rest of the Mahratta army was defeated by the Rajputs.
In the battle of Agra (1788) he restored the Mahratta fortunes, and made Mahadji Sindhia undisputed master of Hindostan.
The west of the district is served by the Southern Mahratta railway.
This object was not accomplished without many tedious campaigns, in which Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta confederacy, first comes upon the scene.
The rising Mahratta power was thus for a time checked, and the Mogul armies were set free to operate in the eastern Deccan.
Real power had passed into the hands of Mahommedan courtiers and Mahratta generals, both of whom were then carving for themselves kingdoms out of the dismembered empire, until at last British authority placed itself supreme over all.
The victory of Panipat, won by Ahmad Shah Durani over the united Mahratta confederacy in 1761, gave the Mahommedans one more chance of rule.
Neither Mogul nor Mahratta had yet appeared above the political horizon.
In his days the Mahratta horsemen began to ravage the country, and the British at Calcutta obtained permission to erect an earth-work, which is known to the present day as the Mahratta ditch.
The family of Sivaji produced no great names, either among those who continued to be the nominal chiefs of the Mahratta confederacy, their capital at Satara, or among M the Y?
Next rose several Mahratta generals, who, though recognizing the suzerainty of the peshwa, carved out for themselves independent kingdoms in different parts of India, sometimes far from the original home of the Mahratta race.
At one time it seemed probable that the Mahratta confederacy would expel the Mahommedans even from northern India; but the decisive battle of Panipat, won by the Afghans in 1761, gave a respite to the Delhi empire.
The Mahratta chiefs never again united heartily for a common purpose, though they still continued to be the most formidable military power in India.
The military operations that followed are known as the first Mahratta War.
The soldiers of Sindhia, the military head of the Mahratta confederacy, were disciplined and led by French adventurers.
The central portion, forming the old state of Mysore, was restored to an infant representative of the Hindu rajas, whom Hyder Ali Meanwhile Warren Hastings had to deal with a more formidable enemy than the Mahratta confederacy.
The diplomacy of Hastings won over the nizam and the Mahratta raja of Nagpur, but the army of Hyder Ali fell like a thunderbolt upon the British possessions in the Carnatic. A strong detachment under Colonel Baillie was cut to pieces at Perambakam, and the Mysore cavalry ravaged the country unchecked up to the walls of Madras.
The Mahratta powers at this time were five in number.
The recognized head of the confederacy was the peshwa of Poona, who ruled the hill country of the Western Ghats, the cradle of the Mahratta race.
Wellesley tried assiduously to bring these several Mahratta powers within the net of his subsidiary system.
This greatly extended the British territorial influence in western India, but led directly to the second Mahratta war, for neither Sindhia nor the raja of Nagpur would tolerate this abandonment of Mahratta independence.
This period was marked by two wars of the first magnitude, the campaigns against the Gurkhas of Nepal, and the third and last Mahratta War.
Though the great Mahratta chiefs were learning to live rather as peaceful princes than as leaders of predatory bands, the example of lawlessness they had set was being followed, and bettered in the following, by a new set of freebooters, known as the Pindaris.
To suppress the Pindari hordes, who were supported by the sympathy, more or less open, of all the Mahratta chiefs, Lord Hastings (1817) collected the strongest British army that had been seen in India, numbering nearly 1 20,000 men, half to operate from the north, half from the south.
In the same year (1817) as that in which the Pindaris were crushed, and almost in the same month (November), the three great Mahratta powers at Poona, Nagpur and Indore Third ro s e against the English.
To fill the peshwa's place to some extent at the head of the Mahratta confederacy, the lineal descendant of Sivaji was brought forth from obscurity, and placed upon the throne of Satara.
But the proudest boast of Lord Hastings and Sir John Malcolm was, not that they had advanced the pomoerium, but that they had conferred the blessings of peace and good government upon millions who had suffered unutterable things from Mahratta and Pindari tyranny.
At the close of the Mahratta War, in 1804, and again in 1805, he negotiated important treaties with Sindhia and Holkar, and in 1806, besides seeing the arrangements arising out of these alliances carried out, he directed the difficult work of reducing the immense body of irregular native troops.
During this period, however, Baran had properly no separate history, being a dependency of Koil, whence it continued to beadministered under the Mahratta domination.
At the close of the Pindari War in 1818 the whole country that is now under the Central India agency was in great confusion and disorder, having suffered heavily from the extortions of the Mahratta armies and from predatory bands.
It had been the policy of the great Mahratta chiefs, Holkar and Sindhia, to trample down into complete subjection all the petty Rajput princes, whose lands they seized and from whom they levied heavy contributions of money.
Many of these minor chiefs had been expelled from their possessions, had taken refuge in the hills and forest, and retaliated upon the Mahratta usurpers by wasting the lands which they had lost, until the Mahrattas compounded for peace by payment of blackmail.
The greater part of the population of Central India is of the Hindu religion, but a few Mahommedan groups still exist, either traces of the days when the Mogul emperors extended their sway from the Punjab to the Deccan, or else the descendants of those northern adventurers who hired out their services to the great Mahratta generals.
He was the son of Shahji Bhonsla, a Mahratta soldier of fortune who held a jagir under the Bijapur government.
In the north wall is situated the famous Kashmir gate, while the Mori or Drain gate, which was built by a Mahratta governor, has now been removed.
When Lord Lake broke the Mahratta power in 1803, and the emperor was taken under the protection of the East India Company, the present districts of Delhi and Hissar were assigned for the maintenance of the royal family, and were administered by a British resident.
He was succeeded by Mahommed Shah, in whose reign the Mahratta forces first made their appearance before the gates of Delhi, in 1736.
In 1771 Shah Alam, the son of Alamgir II., was nominally raised to the throne by the Mahrattas, the real sovereignty resting with the Mahratta chief, Sindhia.
An attempt of the puppet emperor to shake himself clear of the Mahrattas, in which he was defeated in 1788, led to a permanent Mahratta garrison being stationed at Delhi.
Delhi, once more attacked by a Mahratta army under the Mahratta chief Holkar in 1804, was gallantly defended by Colonel Ochterlony, the British resident, who held out against overwhelming odds for eight days, until relieved by Lord Lake.
It is a station on the Southern Mahratta railway, 60 m.
The district of Bijapur, formerly called Kaladgi, occupies a barren plain, sloping eastward from a string of feudatory Mahratta states to the nizam's dominions.
The East Deccan line of the Southern Mahratta railway traverses the district from north to south.
The chief, who is a Mahratta of the Bhonsla family, resides at Poona on a pension, while the state is under British management.
The dynasty was founded by a succession of three warriors, Damaji I., Pilaji and Damaji II., who established Mahratta supremacy throughout Gujarat during the first half of the 18th century.
The town of Banganapalle is not far from the branch of the Southern Mahratta railway frpm Guntakal to Bezwada.
In 1759 the Peshwa obtained possession of the place by bribing the Mahommedan commander, and in 1797 it was ceded by the Peshwa to the Mahratta chief Daulat Rao Sindhia.
This young Mahratta, since known to universal execration as the arch-villain of the Mutiny, was secretly burning with a sense of injury received from the Indian government.
Mahratta invasions from central India, piratical devastations on the sea-board, banditti who marched about the interior in bodies of 50,000 men, floods which drowned the harvests of whole districts, and droughts in which a third of the population starved to death, kept alive a sense of human powerlessness in the presence of an omnipotent fate.
During the next fifty years the British had a long and hazardous struggle alike with the Mogul governors of the province and the Mahratta armies which invaded it.
Meanwhile the Mahratta conquest of Bassein and Salsette (1737-1739) had put a stop to the hostility of the Portuguese, and a treaty of alliance with the Siddis (1733) had secured a base of supplies on the mainland.
The town of Miraj, at which the chief of the senior branch resides, is situated near the river Kistna; it is a junction of the Southern Mahratta railway for the branch to Kolhapur.
Somewhat later we find it enumerated among the jagirs of Shahji, father of Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta sway; and at an early period of his career in the service of the Bijapur state, that adventurer seemed to have fixed his residence there.
The chief groups of states are North Gujarat, comprising Cutch, Kathiawar agency, Palanpur agency, Mahi Kantha agency, Rewa Kantha agency and Cambay; South Gujarat, comprising Dharampur, Bansda and Sachin; North Konkan, Nasik and Khandesh, comprising Khandesh political agency, Surgana and Jawhar; South Konkan and Dharwar, comprising Janjira, Sawantwari and Savanur; the Deccan Satara Jagirs, comprising Akalkot, Bhor, Aundh, Phaltan, Jath and Daphlapur; the southern Mahratta states, comprising Kolhapur and other states, and Khairpur in Sind.
The southern or Mahratta group includes Kolhapur, Akalkot, Sawantwari, and the Satara and southern Mahratta Jagirs, and has an historical bond of union in the friendship they showed to the British in their final struggle with the power of the peshwa in 1818.
The table-land of the Deccan above the Ghats, on the contrary, has an agreeable climate except in the hot months, as has also the southern Mahratta country; and in the hills of Mahabaleshwar, Singarh, and other detached heights, Europeans may go out at all hours with impunity.
American varieties have been introduced with much advantage in the Dharwar collectorate and other parts of the southern Mahratta country.
The other chief lines are the Great Indian Peninsula, Indian Midland, Bombay, Baroda & Central India, RajputanaMalwa & Southern Mahratta systems. In 1905 the total length of railway under the Bombay government open for traffic was 7980 m.
In 1312 the Mahommedan arms were triumphant through the Mahratta country; and seven years later the whole of Malabar fell a prey to the invaders.
The first collision of the English with the Mahratta power was in 1774 and resulted in 1782 in the treaty of Salbai, by which Salsette was ceded to the British, while Broach was handed over to Sindhia.
More important were the results of the second Mahratta war, which ended in 1803.
Outbreaks among the troops at Karachi, Ahmedabad and Kolhapur were quickly put down, two regiments being disbanded, and the rebellions in Gujarat, among the Bhils, and in the southern Mahratta country were local and isolated.
In Oudh the native regiments placed themselves under a Mahratta chief, Nana Sahib, by whose orders the British in Cawnpore, including the women and children, were foully murdered.
The princes of Baroda were one of the chief branches of the Mahratta confederacy, which in the 18th century spread devastation and terror over India.
The West Deccan line of the Southern Mahratta railway runs through the district from north to south.
The place is celebrated as the site of a battle fought on the 23rd of September 1803 between the combined Mahratta forces under Sindhia and the rajah of Berar and the British under Major-General Wellesley, afterwards the duke of Wellington.
The Mahratta force consisted of 50,000 men, supported by loo pieces of cannon served by French artillerymen, and entrenched in a strong position.
The place, however, came into note only after 1741, the year of the Mahratta invasion (see below), when a Mahratta official took up his abode there and began to build a fort which was never completed.
From 1818 to 1830 Bilaspur came under the management of the British government, the Mahratta chief of Nagpur being then a minor.
It was founded in 1723 by the thakor sahib Bhausinghji, after whom it is named, in place of his former capital, Sihor, which was considered too exposed to the Mahratta power.
Tilak conducted law classes till 1890, by which time he had become the sole proprietor as well as the editor of the two weekly papers, the Mahratta (in English) and the Kesari (" Lion " in Mahratti) which he and his friends had founded in 1880.
Captain Popham, with a small detachment, stormed the rock fortress of Gwalior, then deemed impregnable and the key of central India; and by this feat held in check Sindhia, the most formidable of the Mahratta chiefs.
The Mahratta war was not yet terminated, but a far more formidable danger now threatened the English in India.
This has always been held with the utmost pomp and magnificence at every centre of Mahratta wealth and power.
Mahratta resistance, once aroused by him, was never extinguished, and the imperial resources were worn out by ceaseless though vain efforts to quell it.
To explain his Mahratta policy, it will be necessary to give a short retrospective sketch of the history of that people.