Mahommedans Sentence Examples
But the Christian states in Spain were becoming too well organized to be overrun by the Mahommedans, and the Muwahhadis made no permanent advance against them.
Zaminddrs, or government renters, were arrested on mesne process; the sanctity of the zendna, or women's chamber, as dear to Hindus as to Mahommedans, was violated by the sheriff's officer; the deepest feelings of the people and the entire fabric of revenue administration were alike disregarded.
It is the headquarters of the Sikh religion, containing 264,329 Sikhs as against 280,985 Hindus and 474,976 Mahommedans.
Zimbabwe was probably the distributing centre for the gold traffic carried on in the middle ages between subjects of the Monomotapa and the Mahommedans of the coast.
In 1198 he was able to procure a five years' truce with the Mahommedans, owing to the struggle between Saladin's brothers and his sons for the inheritance of his territories.Advertisement
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.
It is now more usually given to polytheistic races, thus excluding Mahommedans.
In the 14th century the district was first overrun by the Mahommedans, after which it was annexed to the newly established Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, an official of which named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at Dharwar town in 1403.
On the whole it is most likely that the Temple was erected by Solomon on the same spot as is now occupied by the Dome of the Rock, commonly known as the Mosque of Omar, and, regard being had to the levels of the ground, it is possible that the Holy of Holies, the most sacred chamber of the Temple, stood over the rock which is still regarded with veneration by the Mahommedans.Advertisement
Since that time, except from 1229 to 12 3 9, and from 124 3 to 1244, the city has been held by the Mahommedans.
It was sacked by the Mahommedans in 1235.
There is also a lycee in which the instruction is similar to that given in France, and in which Christians, Jews and Mahommedans are educated together.
There was also a quarter for the Mahommedans.
Among the inhabitants are numbers of Mahommedans, and there is a settlement of Falashas.Advertisement
Only faint outlines can be traced of the condition of Rajputana previous to the invasion of Upper India by the Mahommedans, and these indicate that the country was subject for the most part to two or three powerful tribal dynasties.
The name of mandi is also given by the Shiite Mahommedans to the last of the imams of the house of `Ali.
Calicut is of considerable antiquity; and about the 7th century it had its population largely increased by the immigration of the Moplahs, a fanatical race of Mahommedans from Arabia, who entered enthusiastically into commercial life.
The Tatars, Bashkirs and Kirghiz are Mahommedans; but the last-named have to a great extent maintained along with Mahommedanism their old Shamanism.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.Advertisement
Alphonso was at once a patron of the church, and a protector if not a favourer of the Mahommedans, who formed a large part of his subjects.
After the Turkish conquest it greatly diminished, but afterwards gradually rose, till it was supposed to have attained to about 260,000, of whom about half were Mahommedans, at the time of the outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821.
Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.
The Turks are Mahommedans; their tribes extend up the Oxus to the borders of Afghanistan and Persia, and to the Caspian, and under the name of Kirghiz into Russia, and their language is spoken over a large part of western Asia.
From the river Sutlej and the borders of the Sind desert, as far as Burma and to Ceylon, the religion of the great bulk of the people of India is Hindu or Brahminical, though the Mahommedans are often numerous, and in some places even in a majority.Advertisement
It contains the ruined capital of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, and on the overthrow of that state by the Mahommedans, in f 564, the tract now forming the district of Bellary was split up into a number of military holdings, held by chiefs called poligars.
By the Mahommedans the impression is regarded as that of the foot of Adam, who here, according to their tradition, fulfilled a penance of one thousand years; while the Hindus claim it as that of their god Siva.
It figures repeatedly in the rising of Sivaji against the Mahommedans, and was the favourite stronghold of the Peshwas whenever the unwalled city of Poona was threatened.
He was killed by an arrow while besieging the town of Viseu in northern Portugal, then held by the Mahommedans.
On the one hand, the reconquest of lost territories from the Mahommedans by Christian powers had been proceeding steadily for more than a hundred years before the First Crusade; on the other hand, the position of the Eastern empire after 1071 was a clear and definite summons to the Christian West, and proved, in the event, the immediate occasion of the holy war.
The Norman conquest of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily.
But while the Christians of the West were thus winning fresh ground from the Mahommedans, in the course of the 11th century, the East Roman empire had now to bear the brunt of a Mahommedan revival under the Seljuksa revival which, while it crushed for a time the Greeks, only acted as a new incentive to the Latins to carry their arms to the East.
In any case, it hampered the Mahommedans as much as the jealousy between Alexius and the Latins hampered the progress of the Crusade.
But though the leaders of the First Crusade did not succeed in utilizing the dissensions of the Mahommedans as fully as they desired, it still remains true that these dissensions very largely explain their success.
When Godfrey died in July 1100 (after successful forays against the Mahommedans which took him as far as Damascus), it might seem as if a theocracy were after all to be established in Jerusalem, in spite of the events of 1099.
The disunion between the Mahommedans of northern Syria and the Fatimites of Egypt, and the political disintegration of the former, were both favourable to the success of the Franks; but they had nevertheless to maintain their ground vigorously both in the north and the south against almost incessant attacks.
Until 1127, however, the Mahommedans of northern Syria were disunited among themselves.
They made their own treaties with the Mahommedans, or attacked them in spite of the king's treaties; they dated their documents by the year of their own reign, and they had each their separate laws or assizes.
Along with this paid cavalry went another branch of the army, the Turcopuli, a body of light cavalry, recruited from the Syrians and Mahommedans, and using the tactics of the Arabs; while an infantry was found among the Armenians, the best soldiers of the East, and the Maronites, who furnished the kingdom with archers.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
They built up great estates, especially in the principality of Tripoli; they quarrelled with one another, until their dissensions prevented any vigorous action; they struggled against the claims of the clergy to tithes and to rights of jurisdiction; they negotiated with the Mahommedans as separate powers; they conducted themselves towards the kings as independent sovereigns.
In any case the native Frank, accustomed to commercial intercourse and diplomatic negotiations with the Mahommedans, could hardly share the unreasoning passion to make a dash for the "infidel."
The tables were turned; and fighting on their own soil for the recovery of what was to them too a holy place, the Mahommedans easily carried the day.
National rivalries had been accentuated and national differences brought into prominence by the meeting of the nations in a common enterprise; while, on the other hand, Mahommedans and Christians had fraternized as they had never done before during the progress of a Crusade.
Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
But, with Syria in the hands of the Mahommedans, the attack on Egypt must necessarily be directed by sea; and thus the Crusade henceforth becomes - what the Third Crusade, here as elsewhere the turning-point in crusading history, had already in part been - a maritime enterprise.
In the second place, the Mongols of the 13th century were not as yet, in any great numbers, Mahommedans; the official religion was "Shamanism," but in the Mongol army there were many Christians, the results of early Nestorian missions to the far East.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
The Christians constitute the educated portion of the Syrian people; but the spirit of rivalry has produced stimulative effects on the Mahommedans, who had greatly fallen away from that zeal for knowledge which characterized the earlier centuries of their faith.
On both sides was civil war, urged as fiercely as that against the common enemy, in which the parties sought allies indiscriminately among Christians and Mahommedans.
The Cid appeared before the place at the head of an army of 7000 men, for the greater part Mahommedans.
The Malays to-day are Sunni Mahommedans of the school of Shafi`i, and the y habitually use the terms Orang Malayu, i.e.
The raja of Achin, in northern Sumatra, is said to have been converted as early as 1206, while the Bugis people in Celebes are supposed not to have become Mahommedans until 1495.
In India as in other countries the Mahommedans took possession of the ancient buildings and adapted them to their religious requirements.
The population is about 23,000, of whom 14,900 are pagans, and 8300 Mahommedans.
The Hawiya, with numerous sub-groups, such as the HabrJalet, Habr-Gader, Rer-Dollol, Daji, Karanle, Badbadan, Kunli, Bajimal and Ugass-Elmi; mostly fanatical Mahommedans forming the powerful Tarika sect, whose influence is felt throughout all the central and eastern parts of Somaliland.
In the 15th century the territory which now forms the state of Bikanir was occupied by Rajput clans, partly Jats, partly Mahommedans.
This period lasted' from the time of Thales, c. 600 B.C., to the capture of Alexandria by the Mahommedans, A.D.
Out of a population of 13,241,000 (1896) in Armenia, Kurdistan and Asia Minor, 10,030,000 were returned as Mahommedans, 1,144,000 as Armenians, 1,818,000 as other Christians, and 249,000 as Jews.
Since the beginning of the 19th century they have been bigoted Wahhabis, though previously regarded by their neighbours as very lax Mahommedans; during Mehemet Ali's occupation of Nejd their constant raids on the Egyptian communications compelled him to send several punitive expeditions into the district, which, however, met with little success.
One-third are Mahommedans and the remainder Hindus of various castes.
The Jarejas have a tradition that when they entered Cutch they were Mahommedans, but that they afterward adopted the customs and religion of the Hindus.
The country of Cutch was invaded about the 13th century by a body of Mahommedans of the Summa tribe, who under the guidance of five brothers emigrated from Sind, and who gradually subdued or expelled the original inhabitants, consisting of three distinct races.
Of the Asiatics, 87,234 were classed as Hindus and 10,111 as Mahommedans.
On the other hand, both the Jews and the "Ishmaelites " (Mahommedans) enjoyed complete civil and religious liberty in Hungary, where, indeed, they were too valuable to be persecuted.
That it was proper to wear special garments (or at least to rearrange one's weekday clothes) on the Jewish sabbath was recognized in the Talmud, and Mahommedans, after discussing at length the most suitable raiment for prayer, favoured the use of a single simple garment (Bukhari, viii.).
The population in 1901 was 471,149, the great majority being Baluch Mahommedans.
An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess Christianity, and there are about the same number of Mahommedans among them.
It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
The Mahommedans promptly responded to the challenge, for the danger was too serious to be neglected; the Sikh army was dispersed and two of Guru Govind Singh's sons were murdered at Sirhind by the governor of that fortress, and his mother died of grief at the cruel death of her grandchildren.
The kachh or drawers fastened by a waist-band was more convenient and suitable for warriors than the insecurely tied dhoti of the Hindus or the tamba of the Mahommedans.
Since the overthrow of the native Christian states all have become Mahommedans, but not of a fanatical type.
Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 49 o; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.
Nevertheless, though overpowered in the end, the Khazars had protected the plains of Europe from the Mahommedans, and made the Caucasus the limit of their conquests.
The merchants of Byzantium, Armenia and Bagdad met in the markets of Itil (whither since the raids of the Mahommedans the capital had been transferred from Semender), and traded for the wax, furs, leather and honey that came down the Volga.
The Jews, expelled from Constantinople, sought a home amongst them, developed the Khazar trade, and contended with Mahommedans and Christians for the theological allegiance of the Pagan people.
From a native's point of view Tunisia still appears to be governed by the Bey of Tunis, his Arab ministers and his Arab officials, the French only exercising an indirect - though a very real - control over the indigenous population (Mahommedans and Jews).
All are Mahommedans.
He was also the means of checking the fanaticism of the more turbulent Mahommedans in British India, which in times of internal troubles and misunderstandings finds vent in the shape of religious or political riots.
They are mostly Christians or Mahommedans.
The intermediate rice plains, known as the Mogholbandi, from their having been regularly settled by the Mahommedans, have yielded to the successive dynasties and conquerors of Orissa almost the whole of the revenues derived from the province.
The Mahommedans are chiefly the descendants of the Pathans who took refuge in Orissa after the subversion of their kingdom in Bengal by the Moguls in the 16th century.
The Mahommedans exercise it freely, and it is not unknown among the Buddhists.
The founder of the present ruling family was Anand Rao Punwar, a descendant of the great Paramara clan of Rajputs who from the 9th to the 13th century, when they were driven out by the Mahommedans, had ruled over Malwa from their capital at Dhar.
The Normans, like the Arabs, were not numerically strong; the rule of both, in Sicily as well as Malta, was based on a recognition of municipal institutions under local officials; the Normans, however, exterminated the Mahommedans.
Those Mahommedans who retained their religion under Christian rulers were known as Mudejars, a word of Arabic origin which has been interpreted as meaning "those who remained" or "were left."
By the terms of the capitulation of the city freedom of worship was secured to the Mahommedans.
A rebellion ensued, and the Mahommedans were suppressed.
The last remains of it were crushed in Valencia, where the Mahommedans were furiously attacked by the Christian peasantry during the great agrarian revolt known as the Germania, 1520-1521.
As they were dependent on the protection of the landlords, the Mahommedans were docile tenants, and their competition weighed heavily on the Christians.
Besides coffee there is a large trade in durra, the kat plant (used by the Mahommedans as a drug), ghee, cattle, mules and camels, skins and hides, ivory and gums. The import trade is largely in cotton goods, but every kind of merchandise is included.
The Harrari are Mahommedans of the Shafa'i or Persian sect, and they employ the solar year and the Persian calendar.
The proportion, of Mahommedans among the population is very large.
In 1901 the population was 231,485, of whom the great majority were Mahommedans.
Mwanga now determined to rid himself of Christians and Mahommedans alike by inducing them to proceed to an island in the lake, where he meant to leave them to starve.
The Mahommedans now formed a plot to oust the Christians, and treacherously massacred a number of their chiefs and then defeated their unprepared adherents.
Christians, before the arrival of Peters, had again engaged the Mahommedans and driven them to the frontier of Unyoro, where King Kabarega gave them an asylum and aid.
In April Lugard, hoping to achieve better results away from the capital, led the combined factions against the Mahommedans, then raiding the frontier, whom he defeated.
The Mahommedans had all this time refrained from attacking the capital as had been expected.
Wilson, however, had already disarmed the troops in Kampala, who remained loyal, as also did Mbogo, the ex-king of the Baganda Mahommedans.
It appeared probable that if they reached that point the Sudanese garrisons in Unyoro would revolt as well as the Baganda Mahommedans, and the last hope of the Europeans would be lost.
The conservatives refused to ratify the recess, which was not published, but the Protestant states declared that they would accept the emperor's word of honour, and furnished him with troops for repelling the Mahommedans.
Balaam has attracted much interest, alike from Jews, Christians and Mahommedans.
The Mahommedans, also, have various fables concerning Balaam.
The popes took the direction of the matter into their own hands towards the end of the 11th century as they realized the necessity of promoting peace among Christians in order to unite them successfully in the crusades against the Mahommedans; and the first decree of the Council of Clermont (1095), at which Urban II.
The title of Khan Bahadur is conferred by the British government on Mahommedans and also on Parsis.
The inhabitants of the hilly tract consist to a large extent of Nepali immigrants and of aboriginal highland races; in the tarai the people are chiefly Hindus and Mahommedans.
It is still used in the service of the synagogue, and the Mahommedans not only add it after reciting the first Sura of the Koran, but also when writing letters, &c., and repeat it three times, of ten with the word Qimtir, as a kind of talisman.
The population, of Malay race and Mahommedans in religion, is about 8000.
While the pure-blooded Malays of the Peninsula are Mahommedans, the Siamese and Lao profess a form of Buddhism which is tinged by Cingalese and Burmese influences, and, especially in the more remote country districts, by the spirit-worship which is characteristic of the imaginative and timid Ka and other hill peoples of Indo-China.
A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.
A revolt in 1829 under Mahommed Ali Khan and Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir, was more successful, and resulted in the concession of several important trade privileges to the Mahommedans of the district of Alty Shahr (the " six cities "), as it was then named.
The great Tungani (Dungani) revolt, or insurrection of the Chinese Mahommedans, which broke out in 1862 in Kansuh, spread rapidly to Dzungaria and through the line of towns in the Tarim basin.
The same custom prevails among Mahommedans.
For many years Mahommedans have been numerous in the city and neighbourhood; and in 1855 a Mahommedan rising occurred.
The Jews, who enjoyed religious freedom under the Mahommedans, believed that the success of the Spaniards would but lead to their own persecution.
The Mahommedans, who number nearly eight-ninths of the population, are not, however, " citizens " but " subjects," and consequently have not the vote.
The number of Mahommedans who avail themselves of this rule is very small; naturalizations do not exceed an average of thirty persons a year.
For certain specified objects, financial and municipal, Mahommedans are, however, permitted to exercise the franchise.
In those of the first kind, modelled on the French communes, the Mahommedans possess the municipal franchise.
The unit among the Mahommedans is the douar, a tribal division administered by a cadi.
Native courts decide suits between Mahommedans.
In 1883 a law was passed for the reorganization of the systems in force, and primary instruction was made compulsory for Europeans and Jews, whilst in the case of Mahommedans discretion in the establishment of schools was vested in the governorgeneral.
Meanwhile the district of Khiva, previously subject to Bokhara, was made an independent khanate by Abdul-Gazi Bahadur Khan; and in the reign of Subhankuli, who ascended the throne in 1680, the political power of Bokhara was still further lessened, though it continued to enjoy the unbounded respect of the Sunnite Mahommedans.
Nearly all travellers in the north of Africa mention the Hardhon of the Arabs (Agama stellio), which is extremely common, and has drawn upon itself the hatred of the Mahommedans by its habit of nodding its head, which they interpret as a mockery of their own movements whilst engaged in prayer.
Even after the conquests of Islam the Manichaean Church continued to maintain itself, indeed it seems to have become still more widely diffused by the victorious campaigns of the Mahommedans, and it frequently gained secret adherents among the latter themselves.
It Is Therefore So Obviously Ill Adapted To The Computation Of Time, That, Excepting The Modern Jews And Mahommedans, Almost All Nations Who Have Regulated Their Months By The Moon Have Employed Some Method Of Intercalation By Means Of Which The Beginning Of The Year Is Retained At Nearly The Same Fixed Place In The Seasons.
He had made his family the recognized leaders of the Mahommedans of Arab and native Spanish descent against the Berber element, whose chief was the king of Granada.
These incessant wars weakened the Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little states.
The majority are Mahommedans.
The prevailing religion is Hinduism, 84% of the people being Hindus and only 6% Mahommedans.
How it came by this name has long been a matter of discussion, for it is certain that this valuable animal was introduced to Europe from the New World, and in its introduction had nothing to do with Turkey or with Turks, even in the old and extended sense in which that term was applied to all Mahommedans.
Besides these matters which concerned Hinduism there was the problem of converting sixty million Mahommedans.
In Java the government has favoured Mahommedans (there is active intercourse between the island and Mecca), but there are some 25,000 Christians and a training school and seminary at Depok near Batavia.
Direct work among Mahommedans is done, though with small result, by the North Africa Mission (non-denominational) and the Church Missionary Society.
There are a few Mahommedans in Ashanti, most of them traders from other countries, and the Basel and Wesleyan missionaries have obtained some converts to Christianity; but the great bulk of the people are spirit-worshippers.
It consists of the European station, with court house and quarters for the civil officers; the military police post, the headquarters of the Lashio battalion of military police; the native station, in which the various nationalities, Shans, Burmans, Hindus and Mahommedans, are divided into separate quarters, with reserves for government servants and for the temporary residences of the five sawbwas of the northern Shan States; and a bazaar.
Ultimately it was returned to its former owners, but the Mahommedans considered it desecrated, and it has never since been used as a place of worship. Allahabad (Illahabad) was the name given to the city when Akbar built the great fort.
After Mecca and Medina Kairawan is the most sacred city in the eyes of the Mahommedans of Africa, and constant pilgrimages are made to its shrines.
In 1739 the Mahommedans finally yielded to the demand of the Mahrattas for a fourth of the revenue, and in 1760 the Nizam of the Deccan ceded Burhanpur to the peshwa, who in 1778 transferred it to Sindhia.
The work was, however, more difficult than had been anticipated; the Mahommedans offered a strenuous resistance; military operations were attended with great difficulty in the mountainous country; 200,000 men were required, and they did not succeed in crushing the resistance till after some months of obstinate fighting.
After the complete conquest of the island, while the mere slaves had turned Mahommedans, there is nothing more heard of tributary districts.
An unbiased European can, no doubt, see many things at a glance more clearly than a good Moslem who is under the influence of religious prejudice; but we should still be helpless without the exegetical literature of the Mahommedans.
This dogma, which was doubtless due to the influence of the Christian doctrine of the eternal Word of God, has been accepted by almost all Mahommedans since the beginning of the 3rd century.
Religion.The great majority of the inhabitants are Mahommedans.
The Mahommedans are Sunnites, professing the creed commonly termed orthodox, and are principally of the persuasion of the Shafiis, whose celebrated founder, the imam ash-Shafii, is buried in the great southern cemetery of Cairo.
Not improbably they spoke a dialect (or dialects) akin to Arabic or Aramaic. 5 According to the Mahommedans, Ishmael, who is recognized as their ancestor, lies buried with his mother in the Kaaba in Mecca.
Missionary work, carried on in the northern peninsula of Halmahera since 1866, has been fairly successful among the heathen natives, but less so among the Mahommedans, who have often incited the others against the missionaries and their converts.
The Hanifite rite is official in the Turkish Empire, and is followed in all government offices whenever a decision still depends on the sacred law, as well as by all Mahommedans of Turkish race.
The Bulgarian Mahommedans, or Pomaks, who inhabit the valleys of Rhodope and certain districts in northern Bulgaria, are numerically insignificant; the Greek followers of Islam are almost confined to Crete.
They have long been devout Mahommedans, and mosques and schools exist in almost all their towns.
He protected the Mahommedans among his subjects and struck coins with inscriptions in Arabic letters.
They are Mahommedans and distinct in many other respects from the Hindu Balinese, who vanquished but could not convert them.
The whole group of states he calls Tukhara, by which name in the form Tokharistan, or by that of Haiathalah, the country continued for centuries to be known to the Mahommedans.
The population is said to be i,000,000, of whom 50,000 are Mahommedans.
They are fanatical Mahommedans, regarding their places of worship as so sacred that the mere approach of a Jew or a Christian is forbidden.
The great fame of George, who is reverenced alike by Eastern and Western Christendom and by Mahommedans, is due to many causes.
Mahommedans are allowed four.
In 1450 it had a raja of its own; but in 1501 the fort of Dholpur was taken by the Mahommedans under Sikandar Lodi and in 1504 was transferred to a Mussulman governor.
The Berbers, though Mahommedans, do not often observe the prescribed ablutions; they break their fast at Ramadan; and eat wild boar's flesh and drink fig brandy.
The bewildering diversity of religious beliefs collected under the name of Hinduism has no counterpart amongst the Mahommedans, who are limited as to their main tenets by the teaching of a single book, the Koran.
The Mahommedans of India may be divided into two classes, pure Mahommedans from the Mogul and Pathan conquering races, and Mahommedan converts, who differ very little from the surrounding Hindu population from which they originally sprang.
Here, again, the Mahommedans are not strongly distinguished from their Hindu brethren.
It appears that the Mahommedans generally tend to increase at a faster rate than the Hindus.
The only ex-officio additional member is the lieutenant-governor of the province in which the legislative council may happen to meet; nominated members number 35, of whom not more than 28 may be officials; while 25 are elected, directly or indirectly, with special representation for Mahommedans and landholders.
The zamindar himself is a creation of the Mahommedans, unknown to the early Hindu system.
Sind is the only province of India where the potter's craft is pursued with any regard to artistic considerations; and there the industry is said to have been introduced by the Mahommedans.
In the r Ith century, only outlying states, such as Kashmir and Orissa, remained faithful; and before the Mahommedans fairly came upon the scene Buddhism as a popular faith had disappeared from India.
To Mahommedans Mahmud is known, not only as a champion of the faith, but as a munificent patron of literature.
The name of nawdb, corrupted by Europeans into " nabob," appears to be an invention of the Moguls to express delegated authority, and as such it is the highest title conferred upon Mahommedans at the present day, as maharaja is the highest title conferred upon Hindus.
The victory of Panipat, won by Ahmad Shah Durani over the united Mahratta confederacy in 1761, gave the Mahommedans one more chance of rule.
During the whole of the 16th century the Portuguese disputed with the Mahommedans the supremacy of the Indian seas, and the antagonism between Christianity and Islam became gradually more intense, until the Portuguese power assumed a purely religious aspect.
A force of 2000 sepoys was cut to pieces at Patna, and about 200 Englishmen in various parts of the province fell into the hands of the Mahommedans, and were subsequently massacred.
At one time it seemed probable that the Mahratta confederacy would expel the Mahommedans even from northern India; but the decisive battle of Panipat, won by the Afghans in 1761, gave a respite to the Delhi empire.
They provided (inter alia) for a non-official majority in all of the provincial councils, but not in that of the governor-general; for an elaborate system of election of members by organized constituencies; for nomination where direct election is not appropriate; and for the separate representation of Mahommedans and other special interests.
The population of India, of which the main divisions are religious, falls naturally into four groups, (I) Mahommedans, (2) Hindus, (3) Sikhs, (4) Parsees.
The wearing of whiskers while shaving the chin was a Mogul fashion of the 17th and 18th centuries and is now seldom seen except among Deccani Mahommedans.
In the Shahpur and other districts, however, where Mahommedans have followed Hindu customs, Moslem women wear the majla, a cloth about 3 yds.
When Hindus wear caps or topis they resemble those worn by Mahommedans, but they never wear the fez, tarbush or irani topi.
Hindus wear the angharkha or anga as Mahommedans do, but whereas theMahommedan has the opening on the left the Hindu wears it on the right.
Shoes are called juta, juti or jute by Mahommedans, and jore or zore by Hindus.
The Roman Catholic scholars number 67.72%; the Protestants 3.80%; Mahommedans 8.37%; and Hindus and others 20.11%.
It now consists of 48 members, of whom 28 are nominated, and the remainder are elected by local bodies, landholders, Mahommedans, &c. In Agra the chartered high court sitting at Allahabad, and in Oudh the court of the judicial commissioner, sitting at Lucknow, have final jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, subject to appeal to the privy council.
Out of a total population in 1901 of 47,691,782 no fewer than 40,691,818, or over 85% were Hindus, and 6,731,034 or 14% Mahommedans.
Mahommedans who do not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Ottoman sultan, such as the Persians and Moors, look to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Moslems on unbelievers since the early days of Mahommedanism.
The constabulary numbers some 600 men and consists of a mixed force of Sikhs, Pathans, Punjabi Mahommedans, Dyaks and Malays, officered by a few Europeans.
The Chinese have their joss-houses and the Mahommedans a few small mosques, but the vast majority of the native inhabitants are pagans who have no buildings set apart for religious purposes.
The actual proportion of the total population of India (294 millions) included under the name of "Hindus" has been computed in the census report for 1901 at something like 70% (206 millions); the remaining 30% being made up partly of the followers of foreign creeds, such as Mahommedans, Parsees, Christians and Jews, partly of the votaries of indigenous forms of belief which have at various times separated from the main stock, and developed into independent systems, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism; and partly of isolated hill and jungle tribes, such as the Santals, Bhils (Bhilla) and Kols, whose crude animistic tendencies have hitherto kept them, either wholly or for the most part, outside the pale of the Brahmanical community.
Just as this festival was, and continues to be, attended by people from all parts of India, without distinction of caste or sex, so also were all classes, even Mahommedans, admitted by Chaitanya as members of his sect.
There are a number of mosques in the town, and the Mahommedans are the dominant power, but the Yoruba, who constitute the bulk of the people, are pagans.
It was first invaded by the Mahommedans in 1471; in 1541 they conquered Kondapalli, and nine years later they extended their conquests over all Guntur and the districts of Masulipatam.
The Mahommedans are chiefly the descendants of Yusafzai Afghans, called the Rohilla Pathans, who settled in the country about the year 1720.
Both before and after that year, however, the Bareilly Mahommedans have distinguished themselves by fanatical tumults against the Hindus.
The Marwaris hold practically all the trade of Central India, with the exception of the Bora class of Mahommedans.
Akbar (1542-1605) gathered Brahmans and Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians and Mahommedans at his court, and endeavoured to get translations of their scriptures.
The total population of Assam, according to the census of 1901, was 6,126,343, of whom 3,4 2 9, 0 99 were Hindus, 1,581,317 Mahommedans and 1, 06 8,334 Animists.
Thus terminated the last expedition against Assam by the Mahommedans, whose fortunes in this country were never prosperous.
The Indian army is recruited from Mahommedans and Hindus of various tribes and sects, and with some exceptions (chiefly in the Madras infantry) companies, sometimes regiments, are composed exclusively of men of one class.
During the Crusades it was alternately in the possession of the Franks and the Mahommedans, but finally fell into the hands of the latter in 1291.
ReligionAbout 9,000,000 of the population are Mahommedans of the Shiah faith, and 800,000 or 900,000, principally Kurds in north-western Persia, are said to belong to the other great branch of Islam, the Sunni, which differs from the former in religious doctrine and historical belief, and is the state religion of the Turkish Empire and other Mahommedan countries.
There was no actual religious war; all sectarian distinction had been disavowed; the contest was between vigorous Mahommedans and effete Mabommedans.
The inhabitants are of Malay race and Mahommedans in religion.
The rest are natives, in Bombay chiefly Mahommedans.
There are some thousands of Mahommedans in the Cape (chiefly Malays) and larger numbers in Natal, where there is also a large Hindu population.
By the time of Constantine the Great it seems to have been Christianized, and not long after it was the seat of an extensive bishopric. It was one of the first cities of Syria to be subjected to the Mahommedans, and it successfully resisted all the attempts of the Crusaders to wrest it from their hands.
The total population is estimated at ioo,000, including 12,000 Christians and 16,000 Mahommedans.
Great loss was necessarily inflicted on native traders by the monopolist system, which pressed most hardly on the Mahommedans, who had been the chief carriers in Indian waters.
Albuquerque was almost the only Portuguese statesman who strove to deal justly with both Hindus and Mahommedans, to respect native customs, and to establish friendly relations with the great powers of the East.
The Patriarchate of Antioch has undergone most changes in extent of jurisdiction, arising from the transfer of sees to Jerusalem, from the progress of the schismatic churches of the East and from the conquests of the Mahommedans.
The population of Delhi according to the census of 1901 was 208, 575, of whom 88,460 were Mahommedans and 114,417 were Hindus.
Hindus were soon afterwards readmitted, but for some time Mahommedans were rigorously excluded.
To a large extent he may have owed his reputation to the victories over the Mahommedans, with which he began the period of the great reconquest.
The Rohillas were never a nation, but consisted of a small body of Mahommedans, who had imposed an alien rule upon a million Hindus; and one of their chiefs was left in possession of a tract which now forms the state of Rampur.
They are Mahommedans; polygamy is practised only by the wealthier classes and is a waning institution.
The Bashkirs who live between the Kama, Ural and Volga are possibly of Finnish origin, but now speak a Tatar language and have become Mahommedans.
Out of the total population of town and suburbs in 1901, 615,000 were Hindus, 286,000 Mahommedans and 38,000 Christians.
The Mahommedans retained possession of Calcutta for about seven months, and during this brief period the name of the town was changed in official documents to Alinagar.
The English received £ 50o,000, the Hindus and Mahommedans £200,000, and the Armenians £70,000.
They are Mahommedans, and although Arab influence has declined, their nobles still wear the Moslem flowing robe and turban (though the women go unveiled), and they use Arabic script.
But half a million of these people being Mahommedans, and refusing to submit to the yoke of Christian Russia, emigrated into Turkish territory List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes, names and dates of mountaineers who have climbed them.
The Kirghiz are Sunni Mahommedans by faith, but amongst them there are curious survivals of an ancient ritual of which the origin is to be traced to those Nestorian Christian Evidences communities of Central Asia which existed in the of the middle ages.
The Christian Abyssinians usually go barehead and barefoot, in contrast to the Mahommedans, who wear turbans and leather sandals.
Their expulsion from Arabia, followed by the conquest of Egypt by the Mahommedans in the middle of the 7th century, changed this state of affairs, and the continued advances of the followers of the Prophet at length cut them off from almost every means of communication with the civilized world; so that, as Gibbon says, "encompassed by the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for near a thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they were forgotten."
Covilham remained in the country, but in 1507 an Armenian named Matthew was sent by the negus to the king of Portugal to request his aid against the Mahommedans.
Between 1528 and 1540 armies of Mahommedans, under the renowned general Mahommed Gran (or Granye, probably a Somali or a Galla), entered Abyssinia from the low country to the south-east, and overran the kingdom, obliging the emperor to take refuge in the mountain fastnesses.
The introduction The of the Minie rifle, with its greased cartridges, was accompanied by no consideration of the religious prejudices of the Bengal sepoys, to whom, whether Hindus or Mahommedans, the fat of cows and pigs was anathema.
The total population of the islands is about 9500, of which some 7000 are descendants of the natives introduced as slaves from neighbouring islands, and are Christians or Mahommedans.
The Mahommedans number some 9, 000,000 in Bengal, but the great bulk of their numbers was transferred to Eastern Bengal and Assam.
Under the Mahommedans a pestilence turned the capital into a silent wilderness, never again to be re-peopled.
The Faraizis or Puritan sect of Mahommedans are exceedingly numerous in the district.
It was invaded by the Arabs as early as the thirty-fifth year of the Hegira, but it was long before the Mahommedans effected any lasting settlement.
For in Palermo under the Norman kings Christians of both rites, Mahommedans and Jews were all allowed to flourish after their several fashions.
They use the Macassar language, are for the most part nominally Mahommedans (though many heathen customs survive), and support themselves by agriculture, fishing, seafaring, trade, the preparation of salt (on the south coast) and weaving.
It contains the most popular place of pilgrimage in Oudh, the tomb of Masaud, a champion of Islam, slain in battle by the confederate Rajputs in 1033, which is resorted to by Mahommedans and Hindus alike.
Masaud was defeated and slain by the nobles of Bahraich in 1033, and the Mahommedans did not establish their authority over the country till the middle of the 13th century.
Among the Mahommedans, the month Ramadan, in which the first part of the Koran is said to have been received, is by command of the prophet observed as a fast with extraordinary rigour.
The kitchen gardens of the Mahommedans are, as a rule, admirably kept.
They are Mahommedans, but have adopted Chinese manners of life.
During the following century the Mahommedans under Kotaiba ibn Moslim, after several excursions into West Turkestan, invaded (712-13) East Turkestan, penetrating as far as Turfan and even China.
Besides Burmese there are Zerbadis (the offspring of a Mahommedan with a Burman wife), Mahommedans, Hindus, Jews, Chinese, Shans and Manipuris (called Kathe), Kachins and Palaungs.
His worst enemies were always his fellow Mahommedans.
When the undoubted prosperity of his dominions is quoted as an example of successful Mahommedan rule, it is well to remember that he administered well not by means of but in spite of Mahommedans.
Liberty of worship is accorded to Roman Catholics, Jews, Mahommedans and certain Protestant communities.
The Mahommedans (about 3000 Turks and 11,000 gipsies) are the largest religious body apart from the national Church.
Although some of the coast peoples are nominally Mahommedans, and some few converts to Christianity have been made, the vast majority of Papuans remain pagan.
Fully four-fifths of the natives are Mahommedans.
There is a privately supported school for Mahommedans at Bathurst.
Only the want of ships had prevented the Mahommedans from mastering the town, and crossing the straits, and now this deficiency was supplied by the Christians themselves.
The Christian enemies of the Mahommedans were for long weak and no less Christian anarchical than.
On the upper frcntier, which is now Aragon, the Visigoth Beni-Casi ruled, doing homage and paying tribute intermittently, supported by a loyal population of native Mahommedans, whose Christian or nominally Christian fathers had been their followers before the conquest.
When he had united his kingdom, he took the field against the Mahommedans; and the period of the great reconquest began.
The prevalence of predial slavery in Aragon and Valencia can be largely explained by the number of Mudjares, that is Mahommedans living under Christian rule, and of Moriscoes converted Mohammedans.
The Jews and the Mahommedans formed a The Jews very large part of his subjects.
In the majority of cases the conversion had occurred so long ago that the memory of the time when they were Mahommedans was lost, and multitudes of the children of Mudjares remained.
The first duties of the Inquisition were to deal with the converted Jews and Mahommedans, respectively known as Marranos and Moriscoes, and with those who still professed their religions.
The latter were dealt with by expulsion, which in the case of the Jews was enforced in 1492, and in the case of the subject Mahommedans or Mudjares in 1502.
The converted Jews and Mahommedans presented greater difficulties to the Inquisition.
From the 9th century onwards Spain was slowly recaptured from the Mahommedans, and the Latin spoken by the Christians who had taken refuge on the slopes of the Pyrenees was gradually carried back to the centre and ultimately to the south of the Peninsula, whence it had been driven by the Arab invasion.
Jurisdiction in all legal matters as regards personal status of Mahommedans is administered by a grand cadi and a staff of subordinate cadis.
Dwelling among the Hausa were a number of Fula, mostly herdsmen, and these were devout Mahommedans.
This sheik established himself at Sokoto, and with other titles assumed that of Sarikin Muslimin (king of the Mahommedans).
As such he became the recognized spiritual head of all the Mahommedans of west central Sudan, a headship which his successors retained unimpaired, even after the loss of their temporal position to the British in 1903.
The Hindu kingdom of Menjapahit was destroyed by the Mahommedans in 1478, and Brunei is mentioned in the history of Java as one of the countries conquered by Adaya Mingrat, the general of Angka Wijaya.
Contemporary Mahommedans did the same, for it is an error to suppose that this religion was from the first hostile to profane art.
Although at times he persecuted heretics with great cruelty, he tolerated Mahommedans and Jews, and both acts appear rather to have been the outcome of political considerations than of religious belief.
The aboriginal tribe of Mers are divided between Hindus and Mahommedans.
Vice-Consul Fitzmaurice said that before December 1895 it was close on 65,000, of whom about 20,000 were Armenian, 3000 or 4000 Jacobites, Syrian-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Maronites and Jews, and the remaining 40,000 Turkish, Kurdian and Arab Mahommedans.
Though they call themselves Mahommedans, their religion is largely mingled with pagan superstitions; they worship animals, and a certain divinity called Karaeng Love, who has power over their fortune and health.
All the Moorish dominions in Spain were lost in the next few years, partly by the Christian conquest of Andalusia, and partly by the revolt of the Mahommedans of Granada, who put themselves under the protection of the Christian kings and became their vassals.
About two centuries afterwards, in the course of the struggle between the Sikhs and the Mahommedans, Ahmad Shah Durani routed the Sikhs at the great battle of Panipat, and on his homeward march he destroyed the town of Amritsar, blew up the temple with gunpowder, filled in the sacred tank with mud, and defiled the holy place by the slaughter of cows.
They possessed in Cyprus a kingdom, in which they had vindicated for themselves a stronger hold over their feudatories than the kings of Jerusalem had ever enjoyed, and in which trading centres like Famagusta flourished vigorously; and they used the resources of their kingdom, in conjunction with the Hospitallers of Rhodes, to check the progress of the Mahommedans.
Like the Cretan Moslems and the Bulgarian Pomaks, the Albanian Mahommedans retain many Christian traditions and customs; it is said that many thousands of them secretly adhere to their original faith.
It is usually accompanied by the use of the Arabic alphabet, and in the languages of Moslem nations (notably Turkish, Persian, Hindustani and Malay) a large proportion of the vocabulary is borrowed from Arabic. Hindi and Hindustani, two forms of the same language as spoken by Hindus and Mahommedans respectively, are a curious example of how deeply religion may affect culture.
In 616 Syria was subjugated for a brief period by the Persian Choroes II.; from 622 till 628 it was again Byzantine; 636 and the immediately following years saw its conquest by the Mahommedans (see Caliphate).
The British government did its best to help the Porte to evolve a compromise on the questions immediately at issue, and in March 1852 a firman was issued, which to Protestants and Mahommedans might well seem to have embodied a reasonable settlement.
The Mahommedans in Cutch are of the same degenerate class as those usually found in the western parts of India.
The Indian Mussulmans indeed were rapidly degenerating into a mere sect of Hindus before the Wahabi revival, and the more recent political propaganda in support of the false caliphate of the sultans of Turkey; and we therefore find the religious use of incense among them more general than among the Mahommedans of any other country.
Something of the old enthusiasm seems to have passed to the inhabitants of Chorum, whom most travellers have found bigoted and fanatical Mahommedans (see J.G.C.Anderson, Studia Pontica, pp. 6 ff.).
The amir Abdur Rahman died on the 1st of October 1901; and two days later his eldest son, Habibullah, formally announced his accession to the rulership. He was recognized with acclamation by the army, by the religious bodies, by the principal tribal chiefs and by all classes of the people as their lawful sovereign; while a deputation of Indian Mahommedans was despatched to Kabul from India to convey the condolences and congratulations of the viceroy.
The bewildering diversity of religious beliefs collected under the name of Hinduism has no counterpart amongst the Mahommedans (see Mahommedan Religion), who are limited as to their main tenets by the teaching of a single book, the Koran.
The Mahommedans number over 30,000, but the majority of the Indian coolies are Hindus.
The Roman Catholic missionaries have about 3000 adherents; the Church of England is confined to the Europeans and kanakas in the towns; the Indian coolies are divided between Mahommedans and Hindus.