Mahommed in fact represented a revolt against the anthropomorphism of commonplace Mahommedan orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law.
From Edessa Baldwin conducted continual forays against the Mahommedan princes; and in the great foray of 1104, in which he was joined by Bohemund, he was defeated and captured at Balich.
had much of the churchmanship of Godfrey and Baldwin I.; but he appears most decidedly as an incessant warrior, under whom the Latin domination in the East stretched, as Ibn al-Athir writes, in a long line from Mardin in the North to el-Arish on the Red Sea - a line only broken by the Mahommedan powers of Aleppo, Hamah, Horns and Damascus.
From the 4th century down to the time of the Mahommedan invasion several ecclesiastical buildings were erected on the spot, but of these no distinct traces remain.
CADI (gddi), a judge in a malikama or Mahommedan ecclesiastical court, in which decisions are rendered on the basis of the canon law of Islam (shari `a).
After a while he found it necessary to fly from the Mahommedan court and join the main body of the English at Falta.
He founded the Madrasa or college for Mahommedan education at Calcutta, primarily out of his own funds; and he projected the foundation of an Indian institute in England.
The chief, whose title is nawab, is a Mahommedan, of Afghan descent.
This work is in its design apologetic, and is meant to bring within the range of Christian thought all that is of value in Mahommedan science.
Its long subjection to Turkey has left little trace of antiquity, and the most striking features in the general view are the minarets of the disused mosques (only four are now in use) and the Mahommedan burying-grounds.
In Algeria the Mahommedan religion received similar recognition.
The " castle of Istakhr " played a conspicuous part several times during the Mahommedan period as a strong fortress.
B.) 1 Mahommedan itinerant chapmen, from the Volga.
All of these states are under Rajput rulers, except Tonk, which is Mahommedan, and Bharatpur and Dholpur, which are Jat.
The Andaman colony obtained a tragical notoriety from the murder of the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, by a Mahommedan convict, when on a visit to the settlement on the 8th of February 1872.
He entered King's College, London, in 1858, and in 1861 was appointed professor of Arabic and Mahommedan law.
The spiritual courts in the East have permanently acquired jurisdiction in the matrimonial causes of baptized persons; the Mahommedan governments allowing to Christians a personal law of their own.
Amongst his contemporaries were Istakhri, who travelled through all the Mahommedan countries and wrote his Book of Climates in 950, and Ibn Haukal, whose Book of Roads and Kingdoms, based on the work of Istakhri, was written in 976.
He went to Egypt and Syria, and for the sake of visiting the holy cities became a Mahommedan.
It was not until 1526 that the embassy was dismissed; and not many years afterwards the negus entreated the help of the Portuguese against Mahommedan invaders, and the viceroy sent an expeditionary force, commanded by his brother Cristoforo da Gama, with 450 musketeers.
He stayed there two years, and might have entered the service of the viceroy if he would have professed himself, as a few of his friends did, a Mahommedan.
Year by year the influence of the Mahommedan tribes on the north leads to the cutting down of the forest, the extension of both planting and pasture and the introduction of cattle and even horses.
They adopted the Mahommedan religion and founded an empire which in the 17th and 18th centuries ruled over a large part of the eastern Sudan.
The Mahommedan religion occurs among the coastal population.
At Deir el Bahri we see that the animal had its throat cut in Mahommedan fashion; it lay on its side, the legs tied together; the heart was taken out, then the liver; the burnt sacrifice was hardly known.
Putting into Tyre he was able to save the city from the deluge of Mahommedan conquest which followed Saladin's victory at Hittin.
Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
Again and again these ordinances were repeated in subsequent ages, and intolerance for infidels is still a distinct feature of Mahommedan law.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.
In 1907 there were 547 primary schools (527 Christian and 20 Mahommedan), and 31 secondary schools.
The elections held under the new system proved a failure, the Christians refusing to go to the polls, and for the next five years Crete was governed absolutely by a succession of Mahommedan Valis.
WAZIR, or Vizier (Arabic wazir), a minister, usually the principal minister under a Mahommedan ruler.
In the age succeeding the Mahommedan conquest the exilarch was noted for the stately retinue that accompanied him, the luxurious banquets given at his abode, and the courtly etiquette that prevailed there.
Even the most licentious of these have been fitted by Mahommedan theologians with a mystical interpretation.
Bhopal is the principal Mussulman state in central India, ranking next to Hyderabad among the Mahommedan states of India.
They are written from left to right, exception being made of Urdu or Hindostani, the mixed language of the Mahommedan conquerors of northern India, the character used for writing which is the Persian.
West of the Sutlej the population of Asia may be said to be wholly Mahommedan with the exception of certain relatively small areas in Asia Minor and Syria, where Christians predominate.
Apart from European conquests, the internal history of Asia in the last 2000 years is the result of the interaction of four main influences: (a) Chinese, (b) Indian, (c) Mahommedan, (d) Central Asian.
But after Harsha Hindu history is lost in a maze of small and transitory states, incapable of resisting the ever advancing Mahommedan peril.
Indian history until Mahommedan times is marked by the unusual prominence of religious ideas, and is a record of intellectual development rather than of political events.
During the greater part of the Mahommedan period Persia has been ruled by troubled and short-lived dynasties.
Mahommedan art is also largely architectural and has affected Literature, art, science.
The whole of the north of Africa from Egypt to Morocco has been mahommedanized, and Mahommedan influence is general and fairly strong from Timbuktu to Lake Chad and Wadai.
The Hausa system of government and taxation was adopted by the Fula when in the early part of the 19th century that Mahommedan people overran the Hausa states.
The Mahrattas have always been a separate nation or people, and still regard themselves as such, though nowadays they are almost all under British or Mahommedan jurisdiction; that is, they belong either to British India or to the nizam's dominions.
The range of the Western Ghats enabled the Mahrattas to rise against their Mahommedan conquerors, to reassert their Hindu nationality against the whole power of the Mogul Empire, and to establish in its place an empire of their own.
It is often stated that in India British conquest or annexation succeeded Mahommedan rule; and to a considerable extent this was the case.
They submitted to several Mahommedan kings under the changing circumstances of those times.
It was against the Mahommedan king of Bijapur in the Deccan that Sivaji, the hero of Mahratta history, first rebelled in 1657.
Its culminating point was reached about 1750, or about a century after Sivaji first rebelled against his Mahommedan sovereign.
As the Mogul Empire broke up, some separate Mahommedan powers rose upon its ruins.
The other public buildings include railway works, places of worship (Protestant, Roman Catholic, Mahommedan and Hindu) and schools, an Indian bazaar, a general hospital and waterworks - the water being obtained from springs 13 m.
In consolidating his empire and subduing contending factions he was ably assisted by Nizam ul-Mulk, his vizier, one of the most eminent statesmen in early Mahommedan history.
The principal Mahommedan public buildings, erected by subsequent governors and now in ruins, are the Katra and the Lal-bagh palace - the former built by Sultan Mahommed Shuja in 1645, in front of the chauk or market place.
Northern Nigeria is the seat of a very large native cotton industry, to supply the demand for cotton robes for the Mahommedan races inhabiting the country.
For a thousand years, from the Hegira in 622 to the siege of Vienna in 1683, the peril of a Mahommedan conquest of Europe was almost continually present.
- Within fifteen years of the Hegira Jerusalem fell before the arms of Omar (637), and it continued to remain in the hands of Mahommedan rulers till the end of the First Crusade.
In the centre of the Mediterranean the fight between Christian and Mahommedan had been long, but was finally inclining in favour of the Christian.
But while the Christians of the West were thus winning fresh ground from the Mahommedans, in the course of the 11th century, the East Roman empire had now to bear the brunt of a Mahommedan revival under the Seljuksa revival which, while it crushed for a time the Greeks, only acted as a new incentive to the Latins to carry their arms to the East.
On the Western side, and among the crusaders themselves, there were two factors of importance, already mentioned above - the aims of the adventurer prince, and the interests of the Italian merchant; while on the Eastern side there are again two - the policy of the Greeks, and the condition of the Mahommedan East.
It had to meet - or perhaps it would be more true to say, it brought upon itself - the hostility of strong Mahommedan powers in the vicinity.
The land was richer in the north: it was protected by its connexion with Cyprus and Armenia: it was more remote from Egypt - the basis of Mahommedan power from the reign of Saladin onwards.
During this process of growth the kingdom stood in relation to two sects of powers - the three Frankish principalities in northern Syria, and the Mahommedan powers both of the Euphrates and the Nile - whose action affected its growth and character.
Meanwhile the principality of Antioch, ruled by Tancred, after the departure of Bohemund (1104-1112), and then by Roger his kinsman (1112-1119), was, during the reign of Baldwin I., busily engaged in disputes both with its Christian neighbours at Edessa and Tripoli, and with the Mahommedan princes of Mardin and Mosul.
The Latin power thus established and organized in the East had to face in the north a number of Mahommedan amirs, in the south the caliph of Egypt.
Before the accession of Zengi, there had been constant fighting, which had led, however, to no definite result, between the various Mahommedan princes and the Franks of northern Syria.
The union of Mardin and Aleppo under the sway of these two amirs, connecting as it did Mesopotamia with Syria, marks an important stage in the revival of Mahommedan power (Stevenson, Crusades in the East, p. 109).
He thinks that his principal aim was simply the formation of a compact Mahommedan state, which was, indeed, in the issue destined to be the instrument of the jihad,.
Regulated by their mother-town, both in their trade and their government, these Italian quarters outlasted the collapse of the kingdom, and continued to exist under Mahommedan rulers.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
in lieu of personal participation in crusades, might help; the fatal policy of razzias against the neighbouring Mahommedan powers might procure temporary resources; but what was really necessary was a wide measure of native taxation, such as was once, and once only, attempted in 1183.
We cannot be certain, indeed, how far the Frankish lords oppressed their Syrian tenants: the stories of such oppression have been discredited; while if we may trust the evidence of a Mahommedan traveller, Ibn Jubair, the lot of the Mahommedan who lived on Frankish manors was better than it had been under their native lords.'
The fingers of the clock had been pushed back; once more things were as they had been at the time of the First Crusade; once more the West must arm itself for the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem - but now it must face a united Mahommedan world, where in 1096 it had found political and religious dissension, and it must attempt its vastly heavier task without the morning freshness of a new religious impulse, and with something of the weariness of a hundred years of struggle upon its shoulders.
It is Egypt therefore - to which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and the commerce of the Indian Ocean) - it is Egypt which is henceforth the normal goal of the Crusades.
Alone of all Crusades (though the Fourth Crusade offers some analogy) it was not blessed but cursed by the papacy: alone of all the Crusades it was conducted without a single act of hostility against the Mahommedan.
The plan of an international fleet to coerce the Mahommedan is even to this day ineffective; but the Hospitallers, who acquired a new basis by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310, used their fleet to enforce a partial and, on the whole, ineffective blockade of the coast of the Levant.
They ended, not in the occupation of the East by the Christian West, but in the conquest of the West by the Mahommedan East.
But a Mahommedan reaction came, thanks in large measure to the zeal of Timur; and central Asia was lost to Christianity.
He knew Greek and Arabic; and he was well acquainted with the affairs of Constantinople, to which he went at least twice on political business, and with the history of the Mahommedan powers, on which he had written a work (now lost) at the command of Amalric. It was Amalric also who set him to write the history of the Crusades which we still possess (in twenty-two books, with a fragment of a twentythird) - the Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
His history of the Atabegs was written about 1200, and it presents in a light favourable to Zengi and Nureddin, but unfavourable to Saladin (who thrust Nureddin's descendants aside), the history of the great Mahommedan power which finally crushed the kingdom of J erusalem.'
On points of chronology, and on the relations between the crusaders and their Mahommedan neighbours, W.
Lestrange's Palestine under the Moslem, and to Stanley Lane-Poole's Life of Saladin and his Mahommedan Dynasties (the latter a valuable work of reference).
To the north of Aleppo and Antioch live remnants of pre-Aramaean stocks, mixed with many half-settled and settled Turkomans (Yuruks, Avshars, &c.) who came in before the Mahommedan era, and here and there colonies of recently imported Circassians.
The bulk of the population is Mahommedan; the Bedouins have not much religion of any kind, but they profess Islam.
During the struggles of the Mahommedan dynasties for the possession of Syria the country still enjoyed a considerable degree of prosperity.
Under Moktadir, and his successorsMoutamin and Mostain, the Cid remained for nearly eight years, fighting their battles against Mahommedan and Christian, when not engaged upon his own, and being admitted almost to a share of their royal authority.
Many of these tribes have retained their pristine paganism, but many others it is certain have adopted the Mahommedan religion and have been assimilated by the subsequent and stronger wave of Sumatran immigrants.
a Mahommedan, as synonymous Religion expressions.
Compared with other Mahommedan peoples, the Malays are not fanatical, though occasionally an outbreak against those of a different creed is glorified by them into a holy war.
With the Mahommedan conquest the Perso-Arabic alphabet was introduced among the Malays; it has continued ever since to be in use for literary, religious and business purposes.
FAKIR (from Arabic faqir, " poor"), a term equivalent to Dervish or Mahommedan religious mendicant, but which has come to be specially applied to the Hindu devotees and ascetics of India.
Mailer's curious Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris, 1898), in which the author tries to establish a Mahommedan origin for many of the ideas adopted by the saint.
Mahommedan religion, consisting generally of a large open court (sahn) surrounded by arcades (liwan), with a fountain (mida-a) in the centre of the court, for the ablutions necessary before prayer.
in height, its summit being decorated with stalactite vaults, one of the grandest features in Mahommedan architecture, only equalled by the magnificent portals of the mosques in India.
They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.
There is however one feature which throughout the Mahommedan mosques in India is always found, viz.
The climax of Mahommedan work in India is reached in that of the Mogul emperors at Agra, Delhi and Fatehpur-Sikri, in which there is a very close resemblance in design to the mosques of Syria, Egypt, and Persia; the four-centred arch, which is in the Mogul style, finds general acceptance, and was probably derived from Persian sources.
This ancient civilization is supposed to have been swept away by Mahommedan conquerors; before that event the people, in the opinion of several travellers, professed a degraded form of Christianity, which they had acquired from their Abyssinian neighbours.
MOPLAH (Malayalam mappila), a fanatical Mahommedan sect found in Malabar.
The slavery of the Mahommedan East is usually not the slavery of the field but of the household.
It is the principal Mahommedan state in the Punjab, ranking second only to Patiala.
The chief, whose title is nawab, is a Mahommedan of the Daudputra family from Sind, and claims descent from Abbas, uncle of the Prophet.
The mainstay of the Ottoman dynasty is the Asiatic portion of the empire, where the Mahommedan religion is absolutely predominant, and where the naturally vigorous and robust Turki race forms in Asia Minor a compact mass of many millions, far outnumbering any other single ethnical element and probably equalling all taken collectively.
In the European provinces about two-thirds of the population are Christian and one-third Mahommedan.
Fraser, The Short Cut to India (London, 1909); with the books cited under Turks and in articles on the separate divisions of the empire and on Mahommedan law, institutions and religion.
for himself and his successors (see Egypt: History; Mahommedan Period).
On that day Aga Hussein Pasha was appointed " Seraskier (commandant) of the victorious Mahommedan troops "; at first only two divisions were established, quartered respectidely at Constantinople and Scutari.
As in all Mahommedan cities, the mosques are conspicuous objects.
In 1856 he accepted the direction of the schools of the East, and was thus for the first time brought into contact with the Mahommedan world.
It is certain, indeed, that they still retain many Mahommedan customs. They take oaths equally on the Koran or on the Shastras; they employ.
Mussulman books; they eat from their hands; the rao, when he appears in public, alternately worships God in a Hindu pagoda and a Mahommedan mosque; and he fits out annually at Mandvi a ship for the conveyance of pilgrims to Mecca, who are maintained during the voyage chiefly by the liberality of the prince.
Jugjevan, a Brahman, the late minister of Fateh Mahommed, also received a considerable share of influence; and the hatred of these two factions was embittered by religious animosities, the one being Hindu and the other Mahommedan.
The deceased rao had declared himself a Mahommedan, and his adherents were preparing to inter his body in a magnificent tomb, when the Jarejas and other Hindus seized the corpse and consigned it to the flames, according to Hindu custom.
He maintained that the future of European Turkey was in the hands of the Christian population, and that it would have been wiser for England to ally herself with them rather than with the doomed and decaying Mahommedan power.
You may keep Turkey on the map of Europe, you may call the country by the name of Turkey if you like, but do not think you can keep up the Mahommedan rule in the country."
The last is a philosophy of naturalism in the form of a conversation between seven learned men - a Jew, a Mahommedan, a Lutheran, a Zwinglian, a Roman Catholic, an Epicurean and a Theist.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
Apparently this state of things lasted till after the Mahommedan conquest, for Barhebraeus 1 tells us that it was the caliph Walid I.
From Christian writers we learn that Harran continued to be a seat of pagan worship and culture down to and even later than the Mahommedan era.
With Mahommedan peoples it is sufficient for a woman to cover her face; the Chinese women would think it extremely indecent to show their artificially compressed feet, and it is even improper to mention them to a woman; in Sumatra and Celebes the wild tribes consider the exposure of the knee immodest; in central Asia the finger-tips, and in Samoa the navel are similarly regarded.
in 1215 was intended to prevent Jews from being mistaken for Christians, and similarly in Mahommedan lands they were compelled to wear some distinctive indication of their sect.
inorabito), in Mahommedan religion a hermit or devotee.
The rise of the Mahommedan Empire, which influenced Europe so deeply both politically and intellectually, made its mark also in the history of medicine.
After the Mahommedan conquests became consolidated, and learning began to flourish, schools of medicine, often connected with hospitals and schools of pharmacy, arose in all the chief seats of Moslem power.
In Mahommedan Spain he was lees regarded, but in Europe his works even eclipsed and superseded those of Hippocrates and Galen.
The abir and aggir butis made at the Mahommedan city of Bijapur in the Mahratta country are celebrated all over western India.
It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught.
It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
He taught that there was one God; but that God was neither Allah nor Ram, but simply God; neither the special god of the Mahommedan, nor of the Hindu, but the God of the universe, of all mankind and of all religions.
Hitherto they had been merely an insignificant religious sect; now, stimulated by persecution, they became a militant and political power, inimical to the Mahommedan rulers of the country.
He felt the necessity for a larger following and a stronger organization, and following the example of his Mahommedan enemies used his religion as the basis of political power.
In Austria there are Roman Catholic, Greek Church, Jewish and Mahommedan chaplains.
At this city four brethren of his order, three of them Italians and the fourth a Georgian, had shortly before met death at the hands of the Mahommedan governor.
Its importance, however, dates from the time of Rao Surjan, who succeeded to the chieftainship in 1554 and by throwing in his lot with the Mahommedan emperors of Delhi (1569) received a considerable accession of territory.
There exists, however, in a single MS. in Italian a longish gospel with this title, written from a Mahommedan standpoint, but probably embodying materials partly Gnostic in character and origin.
Until the Egyptian invasion in 1814 the Sharifs of Mecca were the recognized rulers of Hejaz, and though the Turks have attempted to suppress their importance, the Sharif still executes justice according to the Mahommedan law in the holy cities, though, nominally, as a Turkish official.
Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."
aane-Poole, The Mahommedan Dynasties, pp. 87-103 (Westminster, 1894).
His attacks on the pilgrim caravans, begun in 1783 and constantly repeated, startled the Mahommedan world,' and compelled the attention of the sultan, as the nominal protector of the faithful.
It already, however, bore within it the germ of decay; the accumulation of treasure in the capital had led to a corruption of the simple manners of the earlier times; the exhaustion of the tribes through the heavy blood tax had roused discontent among them; the plundering of the holy places, the attacks on the pilgrim caravans under the escort of Turkish soldiers, and finally, in 1810, the desecration of the tomb of Mahomet and the removal of its costly treasures, raised a cry of dismay throughout the Mahommedan world, and made it clear even to the Turkish sultan that unless the Wahhabi power were crushed his claims to the caliphate were at an end.
Terms of peace were made, but on the retirement of the Egyptians Abdallah refused to carry out the conditions agreed on, which 'For further details of this period, see Egypt: History, " Mahommedan Period," § 8.
822), whose works, though now lost, are often cited; and Saif ibn `Omar at-Tamimi, whose book on the revolt of the tribes under Abu-Bekr and on the Mahommedan conquests was much used by Tabari.
In 608 Magian influence was so strong in Persia that the Christians were persecuted and the office of catholicus was vacant for 20 years, being filled again by Jesu-Jabus, during whose patriarchate the Mahommedan invasion overran Persia.
Biruni, a Mahommedan writer, who lived at Khiva c. A.D.
Mongolian invasions and Mahommedan tyranny have, of course, long since swept away all traces of many of these.
HOURI, the term for a beautiful virgin who awaits the devout Mahommedan in Paradise.
Muttra has suffered more from Mahommedan plunder than most towns of northern India.
The khakan and his chieftains were captured and compelled to embrace Islam (737), and till the decay of the Mahommedan empire Khazaria with all the other countries of the Caucasus paid an annual tribute of children and of corn (737861).
In the interval between the decline of the Mahommedan empire and the rise of Russia the Khazars reached the zenith of their power.
At a very early age, and throughout his whole life, he manifested profound religious feeling, perhaps instilled into him in the course of his education under some of the strictest Mahommedan doctors.
The principal mosque of the town is a church of the crusaders converted to Mahommedan worship. Towards the end of the 18th century it was the headquarters of the turbulent sheikh Kasim el-Ahmad.
The Hindu and Mahommedan communities had been practically untouched.
Under Mahommedan rule it has gradually decayed.
It was the principal centre of the great Mahommedan rebellion, which lasted sixteen years and was suppressed in 1872.
The Aga Khan reciprocated the British commander's confidence and friendship by giving repeated proofs of his devotion and attachment to the British government, and when he finally settled down in India, his position as the leader of the large Ismailiah section of Mahommedan British subjects was recognized by the government, and the title of His Highness was conferred on him, with a large pension.
The Falashas are an industrious people, living for the most part in villages of their own, or, if they settle in a Christian or Mahommedan town, occupying a separate quarter.
It afterwards formed a part of the Mahommedan kingdom of Gaur, and was subsequently subjugated by Akbar, who declared it to be a part of the Delhi empire.
Sir Sayad Ahmad Khan, K.C.S.I., who died in 1898, founded in 1864 the Aligarh Institute and Scientific Society for the translation into the vernacular of western literature; and afterwards the Mahommedan Anglo-Oriental college, under English professors, with an English school attached.
The religion and laws of the country are Mahommedan, though the precepts of that faith are not very rigorously observed.
Though they themselves trace their origin to seven Mahommedan tribes, Hindus appear to have been associated with them at an early period; at any rate, their religious creed and practices as stanch worshippers of Kali (Devi, Durga), the Hindu goddess of destruction, had certainly no flavour of Islam in them.
Both the fractions into which they were divided by the Nerbudda river laid claim to antiquity: while the northern, however, did not trace their origin further back than the period of the early Mahommedan kings of Delhi, the southern fraction not only claimed an earlier and purer descent, but adhered also with greater strictness to the rules of their profession.
During these two years he was successful in maintaining his ground, both against the Mahommedan powers by which he was surrounded, and from which he won Samosata and Seruj (Sarorgia), and against a conspiracy of his own subjects in 1098.
In the north he had to compose the dissensions of the Christian princes in Tripoli, Antioch and Edessa (1109-1110), and to help them to maintain their ground against the Mahommedan princes of N.E.
The work was to have been in four parts - (i) Syrian and allied MSS., orthodox, Nestorian and Jacobite; (2) Arabian MSS., Christian and Mahommedan; (3) Coptic, Aethiopic, Persian and Turkish MSS.; and (4) Syrian and Arabian MSS.
The state includes the ruins of Mandu, or Mandogarh, the Mahommedan capital of Malwa.
It is picturesquely situated among lakes and trees surrounded by barren hills, and possesses, besides its old walls, many interesting buildings, Hindu and Mahommedan, some of them containing records of a great historical importance.
At the close of the century Dilawar Khan, the builder of the Lat Masjid, who had been appointed governor in 1399, practically established his independence, his son Hoshang Shah being the first Mahommedan king of Malwa.
Many fanciful legends about Abraham founded on Biblical accounts or spun out of the fancy are to be found in Josephus, and in post-Biblical and Mahommedan literature; for these, reference may be made to Beer, Leben Abrahams (1859); Gri nbaum, Neue Beitrdge z.
The great siege of Malta which made the island and its knights famous, and checked the advance of Mahommedan power in southern and western Europe, began in May 1565.
The Mahommedan forces were estimated from 29,000 to 38,500.
His zeal prompted him to undertake an embassy to the king of Ethiopia, in order to stimulate him against the converts whom he had taken under his protection, but he returned a convert to the Mahommedan faith and joined the fugitive prophet at Medina.
Egypt, History, Mahommedan Period.
The era in use among the Turks, Arabs and other Mahommedan nations is that of the Hegira or Hejra, the flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 622 A.D.
The Mahommedan writer Alberuni states that in former times the kings of the Hindus (among whom he mentions Kanik or Kanishka) were Turks by race, and this may represent a native tradition as to the affinities of the Yue-Chi.
Christendom would welcome gladly the intelligence of a counterpoise arising so unexpectedly to the Mahommedan power; while the statements of the letter itself combined a reference to and corroboration of all the romantic figments concerning Asia which already fed the curiosity of Europe, which figured in the world-maps, and filled that fabulous history of Alexander which for nearly a thousand years supplanted the real history of the Macedonian throughout Europe and western Asia.
The Mahommedan legends regarding him are curious, but trifling.
In Peking there are said to be as many as 20,000 Mahommedan families, and in Pao-ting Fu, the capital of the province, there are about 1000 followers of the prophet.
Their privileges were restricted, Mahommedan Albanians were introduced into the armatoliks, and towards the end of the 18th century their numbers were seriously reduced.
On the occasion of a Mahommedan invasion in 1732, Chhatar Sal asked and obtained the assistance of the Mahratta Peshwa, whom he adopted as his son, giving him a third of his dominions.
(Among the councillors returned at the election of 1904 was Dr Abdurrahman, a Mahommedan and a graduate of Edinburgh, this being, it is believed, the first instance of the election of a man of colour to any European representative body in South Africa.) The municipality owns the water and lighting services.
Early in January Mwanga escaped from the Germans, and, declaring himself a Mahommedan, reached Buddu with a large force, which Major Macdonald defeated with the aid of the Baganda army.
Meanwhile the Sudanese at Luba's (numbering 600, with 200 Mahommedan Baganda) escaped, proceeded up the east bank of the Nile and crossed the river, making their way to Mruli.
On the west coasts Mahommedan teaching has also some civilizing effect.
If we date its rise from the 4th century B.C., at the time of the fall of Greece and the foundation of the GraecoMacedonian empire, we must look for its final dissolution in the 7th century of the Christian era, at the time of the fall of Alexandria and the rise of the Mahommedan power.
AMIR, or AMEER (an Arabic word meaning "commander," from the root amr, " commanding"), a title common in the Mahommedan East.
KHAN (from the Turki, hence Persian and Arabic Khan), a title of respect in Mahommedan countries.
After the Portuguese conquest of Malacca (1511), the expelled Mahommedan dynasty took up its residence on Bintang, where it long fostered piracy.
North-east of the Palais de Justice, which like the Sadiki College is built in the Moorish style, rises the great dome, surrounded by smaller cupolas, of the largest mosque in the city, that named after Sidi Mahrez, a renowned saint of the 5th century of the Mahommedan era, whose tomb makes it a sancutary for debtors.
Devout Moslems became alarmed at the tendencies of the Committee; at the free-thinking professions of members and their general rejection of the Prophet; still more at the innovations advocated in Turkish customs and in the Mahommedan faith.
The Mahommedan Union was formed to oppose the Committee and its dangerous projects, and declaring that Islam was in danger, the Union became active early in April 1909.
The counterrevolution was chiefly the outcome of religious zeal played upon by the Mahommedan Union.
The troops in the capital were won over (the same troops who had effected the revolution of the previous year), and on April 1 2 they demanded that the constitution should be subject to Mahommedan sacred law, and great demonstrations, attended by fighting, taking place against the Government.
In Arabia were the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, governed by the Sherif of Mecca, a dignitary and ruler of great influence in the Mahommedan world.
With the exception of what the South-Arabian Hamdani relates of his own observation or from authentic tradition, the Mahommedan Arabic accounts of South Arabia and Sabaea are of little worth.
On Jewish and Mahommedan legends, see Jewish Cyclopaedia, " Adam."
2 For Mahommedan stories of Solomon, the hoopoe and the queen of Sheba, see the Koran, Sur.
It embraces the Hindu and Mahommedan periods, and is still a work of high authority.
An outbreak of Mahommedan fanaticism in Sumatra also gave much trouble.
Nevertheless the Latin element began to prevail with the Lombards and other Italians who flocked into the island in the wake of the conquest, and the conquest of Sicily was decisive in the steady decline from this time of Mahommedan power in the western Mediterranean.
The foundation of the Mongolian empire in the beginning of the 13th century did not disturb the position of the Nestorian church; but the revival of the Mahommedan power, which was coincident with the downfall of the Mongolian empire, was pregnant with disaster for her.
But a distinction of grades of holiness gained by ascetic life has never been entirely foreign to the Eastern mind, and in the popular faith of Mahommedan peoples something very like priesthood has crept in by this channel.
To this disturbing cause was added another in 1861 by the spread of the Mahommedan rebellion in Yun-nan into some of the south-western districts of the province.
Like all other cities of Central Asia, it has changed hands repeatedly, and was from 1864-1877 the seat of government of the Amir Yakub Beg, surnamed the Atalik Ghazi, who established and for a brief period ruled with remarkable success a Mahommedan state comprising the chief cities of the Tarim basin from Turfan round along the skirt of the mountains to Khotan.
But although the Mahommedan religion from the very commencement sustained checks, it nevertheless made its weight felt upon the independent states of Turkestan to the north and east, and thus acquired a steadily growing influence.
His invasion gave a decided check to the progress of the Mahommedan creed, but on his death, and during the rule of the Jagatai Khans, who became converts to that faith, it began to reassert its ascendancy.
This monarch despatched an embassy to Peking to demand the restitution of the Mahommedan states of Central Asia, but the embassy was not well received, and Ahmed Shah was too much engaged with the Sikhs to attempt to enforce his demands by arms. The Chinese continued to hold Kashgar, with sundry interruptions from Mahommedan revolts - one of the most serious occurring in 1827, when the territory was invaded and the city taken by Jahanghir Khoja; Chang-lung, however, the Chinese general of Ili, recovered possession of Kashgar and the other revolted cities in 1828.
The Tungani troops in Yarkand rose, and (Toth of August 1863)massacred some seven thousand Chinese, while the inhabitants of Kashgar, rising in their turn against their masters, invoked the aid of Sadik Beg, a Kirghiz chief, who was reinforced by Buzurg Khan, the heir of Jahanghir, and Yakub Beg, his general, these being despatched at Sadik's request by the ruler of Khokand to raise what troops they could to aid his Mahommedan friends in Kashgar.
This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore.
For many years Mahommedans have been numerous in the city and neighbourhood; and in 1855 a Mahommedan rising occurred.
the urban community; (c) the Mahommedan population.
The prefect of each department is assisted by a general council, consisting of members elected by the citizens and of nominated representatives of the Mahommedan population.
The system of education is complicated by the co-existence of Mahommedan and Christian communities.
Purely Mahommedan higher schools exist at Algiers, Tlemcen and Constantine.
The population is mainly Mahommedan, and there are only two Buddhist pagodas.
(See MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS.)
In the early centuries of Mahommedan rule Sogdiana was one of the most celebrated and flourishing districts of central Asia.
There is a small Mahommedan colony.
MUSLIM IBN AL-Hajjaj, the Imam, the author of one of the two books of Mahommedan tradition called Sahih, "sound," was born at Nishapur at some uncertain date after A.D.
Native dynasties ruled from 735 to the 15th century, when the region was conquered by the Turks and became Mahommedan.
He reduced the one, received the submission of the other, and carried back great stores of plunder., Three years later he went into India again, marching over nearly the same ground, to the support, this time, of the raja of Kanauj,, who, having made friendship with the Mahommedan invader on his last visit, had been attacked by the raja of Kalinjar.
Bohemund was the first to get into position before Antioch (October 1097), and he took a great part in the siege, beating off the Mahommedan attempts at relief from the east, and connecting the besiegers on the west with the port of St Simeon and the Italian ships which lay there.
But he had to face two great forces - the East Roman empire, which claimed the whole of his territories and was supported in its claim by Raymund of Toulouse, and the strong Mahommedan principalities in the north-east of Syria.
Ransomed in 1103 by the generosity of an Armenian prince, Bohemund made it his first object to attack the neighbouring Mahommedan powers in order to gain supplies.
The opportunity of Saladin lay therefore in the fact that his lifetime covers the period when there was a conscious demand for political union in the defence of the Mahommedan faith.
The Mahommedan religion was thus united against Christianity.
The union of the Mahommedan East had beyond question dealt the death-blow to the Latin kingdom.
In many ways he was a typical Mahommedan, fiercely hostile towards unbelievers - "Let us purge the air of the air they breathe" was his aim for the demons of the Cross, - intensely devout and regular in prayers and fasting.
Above all he typifies the Mahommedan's utter selfsurrender to a sacred cause.
The first Mahommedan appointed to the Council of India and the first appointed to the Privy Council were both Sayads.
As Turkish interests demanded the isolation of the Oriental Christians from their western brethren, and as the orthodox Greek nationalists feared Latinization more than Mahommedan rule, a patriarch hostile to the union was chosen, and a synod of Constantinople in 1472 formally rejected the decisions of Florence.
(see Turkey: History, and Egypt: History, Mahommedan period).
- According to the Mahommedan tradition, which is more trustworthy than the account contained in these Acta, Mani was a high-born Persian of Ecbatana.
Mani himself composed a large number of works and epistles, which were in great part still known to the Mahommedan historians, but are now mostly lost.
The Christian and Mahommedan historians could learn little of the Manichaean mysteries and "sacraments," and hence the former charged them with obscene rites and abominable usages.
Of these the Mahommedan, though of comparatively late date, are distinguished by the excellent manner in which they have been transmitted to us, as well as by their impartiality.
The consequence of all these changes of dynasty was that Ahmedabad became the meeting-place of Hindu, Mahommedan and Jain architecture.
The Mahommedan Era, Or Era Of The Hegira, Used In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &C., Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mahomet From Mecca To Medina, I.E.
Or If Y Denote The Number Of The Mahommedan Year, And R (Iiy 14H / 30 R' The Year Is Intercalary When R < 1 1.
For Any Other Date Of The Mahommedan Year It Is Only Requisite To Know The Names Of The Consecutive Months, And The Number Of Days In Each; These Are Shaaban.
The Following Table, Taken From Woolhouse'S Measures, Weights And Moneys Of All Nations, Shows The Dates Of Commencement Of Mahommedan Years From 1845 Up To 2047, Or From The 43Rd To The 49Th Cycle Inclusive, Which Form The Whole Of The Seventh Period Of Seven Cycles.
- Mahommedan Years.
[[Table Xl]] - Principal Days of the Mahommedan Calendar.
It is their merit from a Mahommedan point of view to have re-established the power of orthodox Islam and delivered the Moslem world from the subversive influence of the ultra-Shiite tenets, which constituted a serious danger to the duration of Islam itself.
But, friends or foes, the Ghuzz became a serious danger to the adjoining Mahommedan provinces from their predatory habits and continual raids, and the more so as they were very numerous.
After this victory the three princes Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal separated in different directions and conquered the Mahommedan provinces east of the Tigris; the last named, after conquering Hamadan and the province of Jebel (Irak i Ajami), penetrated as early as 1048, with fresh Ghuzz troops, into Armenia and reached Manzikert, Erzerutn and Trebizond.
The conquest involved Suleiman in war with the neighbouring Mahommedan princes, and he met his death soon afterwards (1086), near Shaizar, in a battle against Tutush.
This crime is regarded by Oriental authors as the reason of the premature death of the sultan (in 1204); but it is more probable that he was murdered because he displeased the Mahommedan clergy, who accused him of atheism.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.