Mahommed sentence example

mahommed
  • It originated with Mahommed ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribe of the Atlas.
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  • Mahommed in fact represented a revolt against the anthropomorphism of commonplace Mahommedan orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law.
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  • In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
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  • Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, the heir-apparent, was born on the 10th of February 1899.
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  • So great was the strength of the fortifications that Mahommed II.
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  • The monastery also possesses the firman of Mahommed II.
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  • In 1478 Kroia, which the Venetians had occupied after Scanderbeg's death, surrendered to Mahommed II., and in 1479 Scutari, after a memorable defence by the Venetians and their Montenegrin allies, was reduced by blockade.
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  • Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.
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  • Death was the penalty for the least offence, and no past services - as Koes Mahommed was to find to his cost - were admitted in extenuation.
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  • It was under the name of al-mandi that Mokhtar proclaimed `Ali's son Mahommed as the opponent of the caliph Abdalmalik, and, according to Shahrastani, the doctrine of the mandi, the hidden deliverer who is one day to appear and fill the oppressed world with righteousness, first arose in connexion with a belief that this Mahommed had not died but lived concealed at Mount Radwa, near Mecca, guarded by a lion and a panther.
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  • The hidden imam of the common Shiites is, however, the twelfth imam, Mahommed Abu`l-Qasim, who disappeared mysteriously in 879.
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  • Another great historical movement, headed by a leader who proclaimed himself the mandi (Mahommed ibn Abdallah ibn Tumart), was that of the Almohades.
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  • In 1881 Mahommed Ahmed ibn Seyyid Abdullah, a Dongolese, proclaimed himself al-mandi and founded in the eastern Sudan the short-lived empire overthrown by an AngloEgyptian force at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.
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  • Concurrently with the claim of Mahommed Ahmed to be the mandi the same title was claimed by, or for, the head of the Senussites, a confraternity powerful in many regions of North Africa.
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  • Possibly, as its form suggests, it is based on the imperial crown and symbolized at the outsgt the quasi - sovereignty over the rayah population which Mahommed II.
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  • Bhopal state was founded in 1723 by Dost Mahommed Khan, an Afghan adventurer.
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  • The site is now covered with valonia oaks, and has been much plundered, e.g by Mahommed IV., who took columns to adorn his new Valideh mosque in Stambul; but the circuit of the old walls can be traced, and in several places they are fairly well preserved.
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  • On hearing of the death of the poet Dakiki, he conceived the ambitious design of himself carrying out the work which the latter had only just commenced; and, although he had not then any introduction to the court, he contrived, thanks to one of his friends, Mahommed Lashkari, to procure a copy of the Dihkan Danishwer's collection, and at the age of thirty-six commenced his great undertaking.
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  • He stood on friendly terms with Mahommed I., but was again besieged in his capital by Murad II.
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  • He assumed the name of Mahommed when he embraced the Mussulman faith; and on account of his military prowess he obtained the surname Alp Arslan, which signifies "a valiant lion."
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  • The principal Mahommedan public buildings, erected by subsequent governors and now in ruins, are the Katra and the Lal-bagh palace - the former built by Sultan Mahommed Shuja in 1645, in front of the chauk or market place.
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  • Here the last Crusade ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1 453, Mahommed II., the successor of Murad, captured Constantinople.
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  • The Acciajuoli dynasty lasted till June 1458, when the Acropolis after a stubborn resistance was taken by the Turks under Omar, the general of the sultan Mahommed II., who had occupied the lower city in 1456.
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  • 1193 was conquered by Mahommed of Ghor.
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  • Her son, Mahommed, commonly called Baha-uddin Walad, was famous for his learning and piety, but being afraid of the sultan's jealousy, he emigrated to Asia Minor in 1212.
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  • - Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.
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  • This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
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  • Like Mahommed after him he often speaks of his conversations with God and the archangels.
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  • According to the story of Hicks's cook, one of the survivors, the general was the last officer to fall, pierced by the spear of the khalifa Mahommed Sherif.
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  • It has a magnificent palace, which is visible from far across the Bikanir desert; it was built in 1882 by Nawab Sadik Mahommed Khan.
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  • Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
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  • In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
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  • Some years of strife followed between the sons of Bayezid, in which three of them fell; Mussa, seizing Adrianople, laid siege to Constantinople, and Manuel Palaeologus, the emperor, appealed for aid to Mahommed, the other son, who had established himself at Brusa.
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  • In 1413 Mahommed defeated Mussa, and thus remained sole heir to Bayezid's throne; in seven or eight years he succeeded Mahom- in regaining all the territories over which his father med 1., had ruled, whereas Timur's empire fell to pieces 1413-1421.
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  • Two years after his accession Mahommed overcame a rebellion of the prince of Karamania and recaptured his stronghold Konia (1416), and then, turning northwards, forced Mircea, voivode of Walachia, who in the dispute as to the succession had supported Prince Mussa, to pay tribute.
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  • The honour was declined, and Mahommed took a bride from the house of Zulfikar.
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  • On the 12th of July 1444 a ten years' peace was signed with Hungary, whereby Walachia was placed under the suzerainty of that country; and, wearied by constant warfare and afflicted by the death of his eldest son, Prince Ala-ud-din, Murad abdicated in favour of his son Mahommed, then only fourteen years of age, and retired to Magnesia (1444).
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  • Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.
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  • Mahommed now endeavoured to strike a blow at Rhodes, the stronghold of the Knights of St John, preparatory to carrying out his long-cherished plan of conquering Italy.
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  • Many educational and benevolent foundations were endowed by him, and it is to Mahommed II.
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  • While preparing an expedition against Rhodes to avenge the repulse sustained forty years before by Mahommed II., the sultan died at Orashkeui, near Adrianople, at the spot where he had attacked his father's troops.
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  • Belgrade was besieged and captured, a conquest which Mahommed II.
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  • When the sultan discovered that Martinuzzi, who was all-powerful in Transylvania, had actually arranged to hand over the country to Ferdinand, he threw the Austrian ambassador into prison, and in September 1551 sent an army, 80,000 strong, under Mahommed Sokolli over the Danube.
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  • The new emperor attacked Tokaj, which was in Turkish possession; the tribute had been allowed again to fall into arrears; and to all this was added that Mahommed Sokolli, the new grand vizier (1565), pressed for new war to wipe out the disgrace of the failure of the Ottoman attack on Malta (May-September 1565).
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  • As established by Mahommed II., the officials of the state were divided into four classes: (I) administrative; (2) ecclesiastical; (3) secretarial and (4) military.
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  • Known in history as the " Sot," he had allowed his able grand vizier Mahommed Sokolli to rule the country.
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  • The new sultan, Mahommed III., Murad's son, succeeded to the throne at a moment when the Turkish arms were suffering reverses in Hungary and in the revolted Danubian provinces; Mahom- the Janissaries, too, were ill-content and mutinous, med IJI., and to put an end to their murmurings Mahommed 1595-4603.
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  • The anarchy and misgovernment of Turkey now reached such a pitch that Ibrahim was dethroned and murdered, and Mahom- his son Mahommed IV.
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  • In 1656 Mahommed Kuprili became grand vizier, and by dint of firmness and resolution repaired the falling fortunes of the country.
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  • The Turks succeeded in surrounding Peter the Great near the Pruth, and his army was menaced with total destruction, when the Turkish commander, the grand vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha, was induced by the presents and entreaties of the empress Catherine to sign the preliminary treaty of the Pruth (July 21, 1711), granting terms of peace far more favourable than were justified by the situation of the Russians.
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  • In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.
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  • Sheikhi of Kermiyan, a contemporary of Mahommed I.and Murad II., wrote a lengthy and still esteemed mesnevi on the ancient Persian romance of Khusrev and Shirin; and about the same time Yaziji-oghlu gave to the world a long versified history of the Prophet, the Muha.mmediya.
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  • Afewyearsafter Constantinople passed into the hands of the Ottomans, some ghazels, the work of the contemporary Tatar prince, Mir `Ali Shir, who under the nom de plume of Nevayi wrote much that shows true talent and poetic feeling, found their way to the Ottoman capital, where they were seen and copied by Ahmed Pasha, one of the viziers of Mahommed II.
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  • Evliya, who died during the reign of Mahommed IV., is noted for the record which he has left of his travels in different countries.
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  • Here are buried the seventh and ninth of the successors of Ali, recognized by Shi`as, namely Musa Ibn Ja`far el-Kazim, and his grandson, Mahommed Ibn Ali el-Jawad.
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  • The latter prince was dethroned, and, being in a state of mental derangement, was during his lifetime confined by Fateh Mahommed, a native of Sind, who continued, with a short interval (in which the party of the legal heir, Bhaiji Bawa, gained the ascendancy), to rule the country until his death in 1813.
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  • It was in the reign of Fateh Mahommed that a communication first took place with the British government.
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  • But the gulf continued notwithstanding to swarm with pirates, who were openly encouraged or connived at by the son of Hansraj, who had succeeded his father, as well as by Fateh Mahommed.
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  • Jugjevan, a Brahman, the late minister of Fateh Mahommed, also received a considerable share of influence; and the hatred of these two factions was embittered by religious animosities, the one being Hindu and the other Mahommedan.
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  • He wrote a history, in ten books, of the period from 1298-1463, describing the fall of the Greek empire and the rise of the Ottoman Turks, which forms the centre of the narrative, down to the conquest of the Venetians and Mathias, king of Hungary, by Mahommed II.
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  • 29 a empire had been raised again from its ruins by Mahommed I.
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  • At that critical hour it was at his own expense that Hunyadi fortified Belgrade, now the sole obstacle between Hungary and destruction, with the sole assistance of the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Capistrano, equipped the fleet and the army which relieved the beleaguered fortress and overthrew Mahommed II.
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  • But in the autumn of 1656 a great statesman, Mahommed Kuprili, obtained the supreme control of affairs at Constantinople, and all Europe instantly felt the pressure of the Turk once more.
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  • The first mention of the word is to be found in the title Ety= of a work by Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi (Hovarezmi), who flourished about the beginning of the 9th century.
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  • The first notable Arabian mathematician was Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi, who flourished in the reign of Mamun.
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  • The last of these kings was Shah Mahommed, who died in the middle of the 15th century, leaving only his married daughters to represent the royal line.
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  • When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the hands of another Usbeg, Mahommed Amir Khan.
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  • In 1867 he was expelled by Abdur Rahman and replaced by Mir Mahommed Shah, and other representatives of the same family.
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  • (1447-1512), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mahommed II., whom he succeeded in 1481, but only after gaining over the janissaries by a large donative, which henceforth became for centuries the invariable prerogative of that undisciplined body on the accession of a new sultan.
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  • Omdurman, then an insignificant village, was chosen in 1884 by the Mandi Mahommed Ahmed as his capital and so continued after the fall of Khartum in January 1885.
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  • The amir Mahommed Ibn Rashid used to send down about one hundred young horses yearly.
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  • Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.
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  • Mahommed, the third son of the amir Abdallah, was at the time absent .; with a view of getting his uncle into his power, Bandar invited him to return to Hail, and on his arrival went out to meet him accompanied by Hamud, son of Obed, and a small following.
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  • Warned by a hurried sign by Hamud that his life was in danger, Mahommed at once attacked Bandar, stabbed him and took possession of the citadel; a general massacre of all members of the house of Ibn Rashid followed, and next day Mahommed appeared with his cousin Hamud in the market-place of Hail, and announced his assumption of the amirship. A strong and capable ruler, he soon established his authority over all northern and western Nejd, and in 1872 the opportunity arrived for his intervention in the east.
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  • In that year Abdallah, who had succeeded Fesal in Riad in 1867, was deposed, but with the assistance of Mahommed was reinstated; two years later, however, he was again deposed and forced to seek refuge at Hail, from which place he appealed for assistance to the Turkish authorities at Bagdad.
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  • This victory placed the whole of northern and central Arabia under the supremacy of Mahommed Ibn Rashid, which he held undisputed during the rest of his life.
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  • The scale of the operations may be judged from the fact that the total number of troops mobilized up to the beginning of July 1905 amounted to 126 battalions, 8 squadrons and 15 batteries; the rebel leader Mahommed Yahiya had at this time a following of 50,000.
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  • His original name, Mahommed, was changed by his father, with whom he was a favourite, into Aurangzeb, meaning ornament of the throne, and at a later time he assumed the additional titles of Mohi-eddin, reviver of religion, and Alam-gir, conqueror of the world.
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  • Shuja, who had been a second time defeated near Allahabad, was attacked by the imperial forces under Mir Jumla and Mahommed, Aurangzeb's eldest son, who, however, deserted and joined his uncle.
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  • Shuja was defeated and fled to Arakan, where he perished; Mahommed was captured, thrown into the fortress of Gwalior, and died after seven years' confinement.
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  • The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.
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  • In 1472 it was annexed to the Osmanli empire by Mahommed II.
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  • Mahommed Kuprili (c. 1586-1661) was the grandson of an Albanian who had settled at Kupri in Asia Minor.
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  • Zade Mustafa Kuprili (1637-1691), surnamed Fazil, Son of Mahommed Kuprili, became grand vizier to Suleiman II.
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  • Hussein Kuprili (surnamed Amuja-Zade) was the son of Hassan, a younger brother of Mahommed Kuprili.
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  • On a small hill to the north of the town stands the fort, a conspicuous pile of red sandstone, said to have been built by Mahommed ben Tughlak of Delhi in the 1 4 th century.
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  • It is held indeed in high veneration by all classes, and the famous Dost Mahommed Khan is himself buried at the foot of the tomb of the saint.
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  • Abubekr's successor was Mahommed III., Ahmed ibn Ibrahim el-Ghazi (1507-1543), surnamed Gran (Granye), the left-handed.
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  • Bukhari [[[Mahommed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid Abdullah|Mahommed ibn]] Isma`il al-Bukhari] (810-872), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (hadith) from Mahomet, was born at Bokhara (Bukhdra), of an Iranian family, in A.H.
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  • The conditions were, however, not observed and Harun, learning that 'Abbasa had borne a son, caused Ja`far suddenly to be arrested and beheaded, and the rest of the family except Mahommed, Yahya's brother, to be imprisoned and deprived of their property.
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  • In the west Khurshid's lieutenant, Omar Vrioni (a Mussulman Greek of the race of the Palaeologi), had inflicted a series of defeats on the insurgents, recaptured Levadia, and on the 30th of June relieved the Acropolis; but the rout of the troops which Mahommed Pasha was bringing to his aid by the Greeks in the defile of Mount Oeta, and the news of the fall of Tripolitsa, forced him to retreat, and the campaign of 1821 ended with the retirement of the Turks into Thessaly.
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  • A revolt in 1829 under Mahommed Ali Khan and Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir, was more successful, and resulted in the concession of several important trade privileges to the Mahommedans of the district of Alty Shahr (the " six cities "), as it was then named.
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  • After having been held by Mongols, Tatars and Turkomans, it was added to the Osmanli empire by Mahommed II.
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  • At the end of the 18th century Baba Mahommed tried in vain to batter down the tomb with artillery.
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  • (1589-1617), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mahommed III., whom he succeeded in 1603, being the first Ottoman sultan who reached the throne before attaining his majority.
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  • In 1216 Bokhara was again subdued by Mahommed Shah Khwarizm, but his conquest was wrested from him by Jenghiz Khan in 1220.
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  • In Doi I Mahmud, after a short campaign against the Afghans under Mahommed ibn Stir in the hill country of Ghur, marched again into the Punjab.
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  • His passage of the river and upward march along the left bank, the reinforcement he provided for his grandson Pir Mahommed (who was invested in Multan), the capture of towns or villages accompanied, it might be, with destruction of the houses and the massacre of the inhabitants, the battle before Delhi and the easy victory, the triumphal entry into the doomed city, with its outcome of horrors-all these circumstances belong to the annals of India.
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  • At length in 1470, after a valiant defence, this well-fortified city was wrested from them by Mahommed II., and the whole island fell into the hands of the Turks.
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  • In 1580 Sinan commanded the army against Persia and was appointed grand vizier, but was disgraced and exiled in the following year, owing to the rout of his lieutenant Mahommed Pasha, at Gori, in an attempt to provision the Turkish garrison of Tiflis.
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  • In spite of his victories he was again deposed in February 1595, shortly after the accession of Mahommed III., and banished to Malghara; but in August was in power again and on the march to Wallachia.
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  • The death of his successor, Lala Mahommed, three days later, was looked on as a sign from heaven, and Sinan became grand vizier for the fifth time.
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  • Another Sinan Pasha was governor of Anatolia at the time of Mahommed II.'s death in 1481.
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  • Like his brother Mahommed (1104-1118), who successfully rebelled against him, his most dangerous enemies were the Ismailites, who had succeeded in taking the fortress of Alamut (north of Kazvin) and become a formidable political power by the organization of bands of fedais, who were always ready, even at the sacrifice of their own lives, to murder any one whom they were commanded to slay.
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  • Mahommed had been successful by the aid of his brother Sinjar, who from the year 1097 held the province of Khorasan with the capital Merv.
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  • After the death of Mahommed, Sinjar became the real head of the family, though Irak acknowledged Mahmud, the son of Mahommed.
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  • Other expeditions were undertaken by him against Khwarizm and Turkestan; the government of the former had been given by Barkiyaroq to Mahommed b.
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  • 1131); Toghrul, son of Mahommed, proclaimed by Sinjar (d.
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  • The sultan Mahommed, however, set at liberty his eldest son Malik Shah, who reigned for some time, until he was treacherously murdered (it is not quite certain by whom), being succeeded by his brother Masud, who established himself at Konia (Iconium), from that time the residence of the Seljuks of Ram.
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  • The founder of the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in 1023.
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  • His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim Abenebet - who reigned by the title of El Motamid - was the third and last of the Abbadides.
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  • It contains the tomb of Mahommed Ghaus, erected during the early part of Akbar's reign.
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  • In 1196 Gwalior was captured by Mahommed Ghori; it then passed into the hands of several chiefs until in 1559 Akbar gained possession of it, and made it a state prison for captives of rank.
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  • In the 15th and 16th centuries it suffered frequently from the invasions of Tatars, Moldavians and Turks; and in 1672 the hetman of the Cossacks, Doroshenko, assisted by Sultan Mahommed IV.
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  • He enjoyed a salary for defending the policy of Lord North's government, and held the lucrative post of London agent to Mahommed Ali, nabob of Arcot.
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  • Not far from the town, by the banks of the river Makhazan, is the site of the battle fought in 1578 between Dom Sebastian, king of Portugal, and the Moors under Abd el Malek, in which the Moors were victorious, though both kings perished, as well as the deposed Mahommed XI., who had called in the Portuguese to his aid against Abd el Malek.
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  • In the early part of the 18th century, however, the Rohilla Pathans established their independence in the country called by them Rohilkhand; and about 1748 the Rohilla chief Ali Mahommed made his first annexations in Bijnor, the rest of which soon fell under the Rohilla domination.
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  • The northern districts were granted by Ali Mahommed to Najib Khan, who gradually extended his influence west of the Ganges and at Delhi, receiving the title of Najib-ud-daula and becoming paymaster of the royal forces.
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  • The name appears to have been derived from the Yussuf ben-Serragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mahommed VII., who did that sovereign good service in his struggles to retain the crown of which he was three times deprived.
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  • In the 15th century it was held by Scanderbeg and by the Venetians, but Mahommed II.
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  • Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din, born 1857; Princess Saliha, wife of Kurd Ismail Pasha; Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid, born 1869; Prince Seif-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine, wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899.
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  • Among the more possible explanations is that the name is derived from that of Mahommed ibn Nusair, who was an Isma`ilite follower of the eleventh imam of the Shiites at the end of the 9th century.
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  • In 1821 Kordofan was conquered by Mahommed Bey the defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt.
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  • It remained under Egyptian rule till 1882 when Mahommed Ahmed, the mandi, raised the country to revolt.
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  • Mahmud was reinstated by Fateh Khan, whom he appointed his vizier, and whose nephews, Dost Mahommed Khan and Kohn dil Khan, he placed respectively in the governments of Kabul and Kandahar.
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  • While Dost Mahommed held Kabul, Kandahar became temporarily a sort of independent chiefship under two or three of his brothers.
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  • Dost Mahommed was defeated near Kabul, and after surrender to the British force, was deported into Hindustan.
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  • In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.
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  • Although in 1519 he was obliged to buy off the khan of the Crimea, Mahommed Girai, under the very walls of Moscow, towards the end of his reign he established the Russian influence on the Volga, and in 1530 placed the pretender Elanyei on the throne of Kazan.
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  • From Panormus the amir or lord of Sicily, Mahommed ibn Abdallah, sent forth his plunderers throughout Sicily and even into southern Italy.
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  • Mahommed bTughj al-Ikshid, 321 (933).
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  • The following years witnessed serious troubles in Syria caused by the Carmathians, which called for the intervention of the caliph, who at last succeeded in defeating these fanatics; the officer Mahommed b.
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  • Fostat was taken by Mahommed b.
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  • After a struggle between various pretenders to the viceroyalty, in which some pitched battles were fought, Mahommed b.
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  • Mahommed al~ulaibI, while owing to the disputes between the Turkish generals who claimed supremacy at Bagdad, Mostanlirs name was mentioned in public prayer at that metropolis on the 12th of January 1058, when a Turkish adventurer BassIri was for a time in power.
    0
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  • The viziers offices were given to one of the caliphs creatures, Mahommed b.
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  • On the death of al-Aziz on the 29tb of November 1198 in consequence of a hunting accident, his infant son Mahommed was raised to the throne with the title Malik al-Man~ur Nd~ir al-din, and his uncle al-Aftjal sent for from Sarkhad to take the post of regent or Atgbeg.
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  • He followed the plan of dividing his empire between his sons, the eldest Mahommed, called Malik al-Kdmil, being his viceroy in Egypt, while al-Muazzam Isa governed Syria, al-Ashraf Musa his eastern and al-Malik al-Aubad Ayyub his northern possessions His attitude towards the Franks was at the first peaceful, but later in his reign he was compelled to adopt more strenuous measures.
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  • His reign was marked by friendly relations with the Ottoman sultan Mahommed II., whose capture of Constantinople (1453) was the cause of great rejoicings in Egypt, but also by violent excesses on the part of the Mamelukes, who dictated the sultans policy.
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  • As the consequence of a palace intrigue, which Kait Bey was too old to quell, on the 7th of August 1496, a day before his death, his son Mahommed was proclaimed sultan.
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  • They were defeated by the governor Mahommed Pasha, who on the 5th of February 1610 entered Cairo in triumph, executed the ringleaders, and banished many others to Yemen.
    0
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  • A great financial reform was now effected by Mahommed Pasha, who readjusted the burdens imposed on the different communities of Egypt in accordance with their means.
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  • Resuming his office he raised eighteen of his friends to the rank of bey, among them Ibrhim and Murd, who were afterwards at the head of affairs, as well as Mahommed Abul-Dhahab, who was closely connected with the rest of All Beys career.
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  • Mahommed Khosrev was the first Turkish governor of Egypt after the expulsion of the French.
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  • In March 1803 the British evacuated Alexandria, and Mahommed Bey al-AlfI accompanied them to England to consult respecting the means to be adopted for restoring the former power of the Mamelukes, who meanwhile took Minia and interrupted communication between Upper and Lower Egypt.
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  • On the following day Mahommed Khosrev made good his escape, with his women and servants and his regular troops, and fled to Damietta by the river.
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  • The death of Ali Pasha produced only temporary tranquillity; in a few days (February 12, 1804) the return of Mahommed Bey al-AlIT (called the Great) from England was the signal for fresh disturbances, which, by splitting the Mamelukes into two parties, accelerated their final overthrow.
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  • The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
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  • Mahommed Bey, the defterdgr, with another force of about the same strength, was then sent by Mehemet Ali against Kordofan with a like result, but not without a hard-fought engagement.
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  • As a compromise Mukhtar Pasha suggested as the frontier a line drawn direct from Raf a to Ras Mahommed (the most southern point of the Sinai peninsula), which would have left the whole of the gulf of Akaba in Turkish territory.
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  • In other words th claim of the Porte was, to quote Lord Cromer: to carry the Turkish frontier and strategical railways to Suez on the banks of the canal; or that if the Ras Mahommed line were adopted, the Turkish frontier would be advanced to the neighborhood of Nekhl, i.e.
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  • A leader appeared in the person of Mahommed Ahmed, born in 1848, who had taken up his abode on Abba Island, and, acquiring great reputation for sanctity, had actively fomented insurrection.
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  • In August 1881 a small force sent by Raouf Pasha to arrest Mahommed Abmed was destroyed, and the latter, proclaiming himself the mahdi, stood forth as the champion of revolt.
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  • On the night of the 6th of May a combined movement was made from Suakin and Otao, which resulted in the surprise and break-up of a force of the enemy under Mahommed Sardun, and the capture of a large number of sheep and goats.
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  • The mahdi, Mahommed Ahmed, died at Omdurman on the 22nd of June 1885.
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  • The Abyssinian Frontier.On the Abyssinian frontier Ras Adal was in command of a considerable force of Abyssinians early in 1886, and in June of that year he invaded Gallabat and defeated the dervishes on the plain of Madana; the dervish amir Mahommed Wad Ardal was killed and his camp captured.
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  • Nizam-uddin Abu Mahommed Ilyas bin Yusuf, Persian poet, was born 535 A.H.
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  • Khosrau and Shirin was inscribed to the reigning atabeg of Azerbaijan, Abu Ja`far Mahommed Pahlavan, and his brother Kizil Arslan, who, soon after his accession to the throne in 582 A.H., showed his gratitude to the poet by summoning him to his court, loading him with honours, and bestowing upon him the revenue of two villages, Hamd and Nijan.
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  • In the middle of the 18th century, during the war between the rival claimants to the throne of the Carnatic, Mahommed Ali and Chanda Sahib, the English supported the claims of the former and the French those of the latter.
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  • Shortly after this, being deeply affected by the death of his eldest son Prince Ala-ud-din, he abdicated in favour of Mahommed, his second son, then fourteen years of age.
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  • The period of decadence was marked in the latter half of the 18th century by the formation of practically independent pashaliks or fiefs, such as those of Scutari under Mahommed of Bushat, Iannina under Ali of Tepelen, and Viden under Pasvan-oglu.
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  • On the accession of his uncle Abd-ul-Aziz, Prince Mahommed Murad Effendi - as he was then called - was deprived of all share in public affairs and imprisoned, owing to his opposition to the sultan's plan for altering the order of succession.
    0
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  • Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed b.
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  • He had, however, incurred punishment for refusing to obey a command of his master, Mahommed Bey.
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  • After five years Mahommed Bey died and el-Jazzar returned to Egypt.
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  • Dennie with a small force routed Dost Mahommed Khan, accompanied by a number of Uzbeg chiefs.
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  • Any one has the right to appeal to the amir for trial, and the great amirs, Dost Mahommed and Abdur Rahman, were accessible at all times to the petitions of their subjects.
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  • Only nine years after Mahommed's announcement of his mission they heard of the new prophet, and sent to Medina a deputation headed by a wise and holy man called Kais, to make inquiry.
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  • As Mahommed Usbeg Khan, the eponymus of the medley of Tatar tribes called Usbegs, reigned in the 14th century A.D., this gives some possible light on the value of these so-called traditions.
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  • His nephew, Shahabuddin Mahommed, repeatedly invaded India, conquering as far as Benares.
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  • Herat remained thus till Kamran's death (1842), and after that was held by his able and wicked minister Yar Mahommed.
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  • The rest of the country was divided among the Barakzais - Dost Mahommed, the ablest, getting Kabul.
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  • Dost Mahommed, finding his troops deserting, passed the Hindu Kush, and Shah Shuja entered the capital (August 7).
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  • Dost Mahommed surrendered (November 3, 1840) and was sent to India, where he was honourably treated.
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  • Dost Mahommed now became the British ally, but on his death in 1863 the kingdom fell back into civil war, until his son, Shere Ali, had won his way to undisputed rulership in 1868.
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  • Abdur Rahman, the son of the late amir Shere Ali's elder brother, had fought against Shere Ali in the war for succession to Dost Mahommed, had been driven beyond the Oxus, and had lived for ten years in exile with the Russians.
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  • Ala-ud-din had two nephews, Ghiyas-ud-din and Muiz-ud-din, the latter of whom, also called Shahab-ud-din by Mussulman chroniclers, and generally known in history as Mahommed Ghori, is the second of the great Mahommedan conquerors of India.
    0
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  • Mahommed Ghori achieved his object by playing off the rival kings against each other.
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  • But Mahommed Ghori never settled permanently in India.
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  • Mahommed Ghori died in 1206, being assassinated by some Ghakkar tribesmen while sleeping in his tent by the bank of the Indus; on his death both Ghor and Ghazni drop out of history, and Delhi first appears as the Mahommedan capital of India.
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  • On the death of Mahommed Ghori, Kutb-ud-din at once laid aside the title of viceroy, and proclaimed himself sultan of Delhi.
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  • Mahommed was succeeded by his cousin Feroz, who likewise was not content without a new capital, which he placed a few miles north of Delhi, and called after his own name.
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  • The independence of the Afghan kings - of Bengal is generally dated from 1336, when Mahommed Tughlak was yet on the throne.
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  • This candidate was Mahommed Ali, afterwards known in history as Wala-jah.
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  • On the whole, British influence predominated in the Carnatic, and their candidate, Mahommed Ali, maintained his position at Arcot.
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  • In 1837, when the curtain rises upon the drama of British interference in Afghanistan, the usurper, Dost Mahommed Barakzai, was firmly established at Kabul.
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  • The latter was unable to satisfy the demands of Dost Mahommed in the matter of Peshawar, and returned to India unsuccessful.
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  • Macnaghten was treacherously murdered at an interview with the Afghan chief, Akbar Khan, eldest son of Dost Mahommed.
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  • The great bazar at Kabul was blown up with gunpowder to fix a stigma upon the city; the prisoners were recovered; and all marched back to India, leaving Dost Mahommed to take undisputed possession of his throne.
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  • Multan had previously fallen; and the Afghan horse under Dost Mahommed, who had forgotten their hereditary antipathy to the Sikhs in their greater hatred of the British name, were chased back with ignominy to their native hills.
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  • Abdur Rahman Khan, the eldest male representative of the stock of Dost Mahommed, was then recognized as amir of Kabul.
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  • The Mogul court of Delhi, especially during the reign of Mahommed Shah, nicknamed Rangila or the " dandy," greatly influenced change in these matters.
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  • About the same time the constitutional party rose against Ali's vicegerent Mahommed, son of Abu Bekr, who had been the leader of the murderous attack on Othman.
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  • Mahommed was beaten, taken in his flight, and, according to some reports, sewn in the skin of an ass and burned.
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  • He claimed that he was commissioned by Ali's son, Mahommed ibn al-Hanafiya, who after the death of Hosain was recognized by the Shiites as their Mandi.
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  • A vague message from Mahommed, that it was the duty of every good Moslem to take part with the family of the Prophet, was interpreted in favour of Mokhtar, and thenceforward all the Shiites, among them the powerful Ibrahim, son of Ali's right hand Malik Ashtar, followed him blindly as their chief.
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  • Hajjaj, afraid lest his communications with Syria should be cut off, pitched his camp at Dair Qorra, eighteen miles west from Kufa towards the desert, where Mahommed, the brother of the caliph, and Abdallah, his son, brought him fresh troops.
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  • The operations in Asia Minor and Armenia were entrusted to Mahommed b.
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  • The governors of Medina and Mecca were dismissed; Mahommed b.
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  • Suleiman was kind towards the Alids and was visited by several of them, amongst others by Abu Hashim, the son of Mahommed b.
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  • 'Abbas, which resided at Homaima, a place situated in the vicinity of 'Amman, and died there, after having imparted to Mahommed b.
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  • The Berbers rose in revolt, slaughtered the unfortunate governor, and put in his place the former governor Mahommed b.
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  • The caliph at first ratified this choice, but soon after dismissed Mahommed from his post, and replaced him by Bishr b.
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  • Mahommed (afterwards caliph), governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan (Adherbaijan), succeeded in repelling the Khazars, imposing peace on the petty princes of the eastern Caucasus, and consolidating the Arab power in that quarter.
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  • On the news of the murder of the caliph, the citizens of Horns (Emesa) put at their head Abu Mahommed as-Sofiani, a grandson of Yazid I., and marched against Damascus.
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  • Abu Mahommed was taken prisoner and shut up with several of his brethren and cousins in the Khadra, the old palace of Moawiya, together with the two sons of Walid II.
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  • Only Abu Mahommed as-Sofiani escaped the murderers.
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  • The other party, that of the ultra-Shiites, named Hashimiya after Abu Hashim the son of Mahommed b.
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  • After the death of Hosain, they chose for their Imam Mahommed b.
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  • This Mahommed, the father of the two first Abbasid caliphs, was a man of unusual ability and great ambition.
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  • But he was a son of Mahommed b.
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  • The party of independence thus triumphed, but in the year 144 (761) Mahommed b.
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  • In the last days of the Omayyads, the Shiites had chosen as caliph, Mahommed b.
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  • Obaidallah governor of Medina, with orders to lay hands on Mahommed and his brother Ibrahim, who, warned betimes, took refuge in flight.
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  • On the same day Mahommed was to raise the standard of revolt in Medina, Ibrahim in Basra.
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  • 762 Mahommed took Medina and had himself proclaimed caliph.
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  • Musa, received orders to march against him, entered Arabia, and captured Medina, which, fortified by Mahommed by the same means as the Prophet had employed against the besieging Meccans, could not hold out against the well-trained Khorasanians.
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  • Mahommed was defeated and slain.
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  • When on the point of death, Mahommed gave the famous sword of the Prophet called Dhu`l-Figar to a merchant to whom he owed 400 dinars.
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  • The greater part of his troops were in Rei with his son al-Mandi, who had conquered Tabaristan, in Africa, with Mahommed b.
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  • He had just made choice of the admirable site of the old market-town of Bagdad when the tidings came of the rising of Mahommed in Medina.
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  • The latter having vainly tried to compel `Isa to renounce his right of succession, in favour of Mansur's son Mahommed al-Mandi, produced false witnesses who swore that he had done so.
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  • However unwillingly, `Isa was obliged at last to yield, but it was understood that, in case of Mahommed's death, the succession should return to `Isa.
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  • A son of Mahommed the Alid had escaped to India, where, 1 This Hashimiya near Kufa is not to be confused with that founded by Abul-Abbas near Anbar.
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  • He seems to have cherished the ideal that this son, called Mahommed b.
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  • - As soon as Mansur was dead, Rabi`, his client and chamberlain, induced all the princes and generals who accompanied the caliph, to take the oath of allegiance to his son Mahommed al-Mandi, who was then at Bagdad.
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  • Abdallah, another brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, who had taken refuge in the land of Dailam on the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea, succeeded in forming a powerful party, and publicly claimed the Caliphate.
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  • Having determined to fix the order of succession in so formal a manner as to take away all pretext for future contentions, he executed a deed by which he appointed his eldest son Mahommed his immediate heir, and after him the second, Abdallah, and after Abdallah the third, Qasim.
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  • Mahommed received the surname of al-Amin (" the Sure"), Abdallah that of al-Ma`mun (" he in whom men trust"), and Qasim that of al-Mo`tamin billah (" he who trusts in God").
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  • The only Barmecide who remained unmolested with his family was Mahommed the brother of Yahya, who had been the chamberlain of the caliph till 795, when Fadl b.
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  • Sahl was defeated, and Abu`l-Saraya, no longer content to play a second part, poisoned his chief, Ibn Tabataba, and put in his place another of the family of Ali, Mahommed b.
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  • Mahommed, whom, on account of his extreme youth, he hoped to govern at his will.
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  • Mahommed fled to Mesopotamia, but were made prisoners.
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  • - His son Wathiq, who succeeded, though not in the least to be compared with Mamun, had yet in common with him a thirst for knowledge - perhaps curiosity would be a more appropriate term - which prompted him, as soon as he became caliph, to send the famous astronomer Mahommed b.
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  • - As Wathiq had appointed no successor the vizier Mahommed Zayyat had cast his eye on his son Mahommed, who was still a child, but the generals Wasif and Itakh, seconded by the upper cadi Ibn abi Da`ud, refused their consent, and offered the supreme power to Wathiq's brother Ja`far, who at his installation adopted the name of al-Motawakkil `ala 'llah (" he who trusts in God").
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  • His son Mahommed was put in his place till 851, when all the members of the family were arrested.
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  • The caliph sent against them Mahommed al-Qommi, who subdued them in 856 and brought their king Ali Baba to Samarra before Motawakkil, on condition that he should be restored to his kingdom.
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  • The great power long wielded by the Tahirids, not only in the eastern provinces, but also at Bagdad itself, had been gradually diminishing, and came to an end in the year 873, when Ya`qub the Saffarid occupied Nishapur and imprisoned Mahommed b.
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  • Mahommed, who called himself a descendant of Ali.
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  • Moktafi led his troops in person, and his general, Mahommed b.
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  • Mahommed al-Naushari was made governor in their stead (905) .
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  • After the death of Barkiyaroq in November 1104, his brother Mahommed reigned till April 1118.
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  • Another scion of the Abbasid family, Mahommed, a greatgrandson of the caliph Mostansir, found at a later period a refuge in India, where the sultan of Delhi received him with the greatest respect, named him Makhdumzadeh, "the Master's son," and treated him as a prince.
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  • It seems that this Mahommed, or his son, emigrated later to Sumatra, where in the old Samara the graves of their descendants have been lately discovered.
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  • Distrusting the attitude of the Amir Dost Mahommed towards Russia, Lord Auckland in 1839 attempted to restore Shah Shuja to the throne against the wishes of the Afghan people.
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  • He left this retreat on the 5th of April 1842, and was immediately killed by the adherents of Dost Mahommed and his son Akbar Khan.
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  • Mahommed Ahmad (the Sudanese mandi) proclaimed a jihad in 1882.
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  • He next travelled into Kipchak (the Mongol khanate of Russia), and joined the camp of the reigning khan Mahommed Uzbeg, from whom the great and heterogeneous Uzbeg race is perhaps named.
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  • From Sind, which he traversed to the sea and back again, he proceeded to Multan, and eventually, on the invitation of Mahommed Tughlak, the reigning sovereign, to Delhi.
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  • On the death of Timur Osmanli supremacy was re-established after a prolonged struggle, which ended with the annexation by Mahommed II.
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  • He was successful in securing a semi-independence for Lesbos until 1462, when it was taken and annexed to Turkey by Sultan Mahommed II.
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  • The fortress, constructed in 1789, successfully withstood a siege by Aga Mahommed of Persia in 1795, but was constrained to surrender two years afterwards.
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  • The bey Mahommed took possession of Oran in March 1792, and made it his residence instead of Mascara.
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  • His name was Mirza Mahommed, and he succeeded his grandfather Aliverdi Khan as nawab of Bengal on the 9th of April 1756.
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  • By a rescript dated February 2, 1907, Mahommed Ali Shah confirmed the ordinance of the 3oth of December, and on the 8th of October 1907 he signed the final revised constitution, and took the oath which it prescribes on the 12th of November in the presence of the national council.
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  • On the death of the last the empire was distracted by civil war between his sons Barkiyaroq, Mahommed arid Sinjar, with the result that, although the Seljuks of the direct line maintained nominal supremacy till the death of Sinjar (i15~), other branches of the family established themselves in various parts of the empireSyria, Rum (Asia Minor),
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  • Then Uasan Kuchuk set up one Sati-beg, Abu Saids daughter, and wife successively of Chupan, Arfa Khan and one Suleiman, the last of whom was khan from 1339 to 1343; in the same time I~Iasan Buzurg set up successively Mahommed, Tugha-Timur and JahanTimur.
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  • Walads sons Mahmud, Owais and Mahommed, and Uosain, grandson of Sultan Ahmad, successively occupied the throne.
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  • His son Mobariz ud-din Mahommed, who followed him in 1313, became governor in Fars under Abu Said, in Kerman in 1340, and subsequently made himself independent at Fars and Shiraz (1353) and in Isfahan.
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  • There were Timurid governors of Fars under Shah Rukh, Pir Mahommed (1405-1409), Iskendar (140914,4), Ibrahim (1415-1434) and Abdallah (1434); in other parts of Persia many of the Timurid family held governorships of greater or less importance.
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  • His claim to succession had been put aside by Timur in favor of Pir Mahommed, the son of a deceased son, but KhaliI Shah, a son of the discarded prince, won the day.
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  • He was succeeded by his eldest brother, Mahommed Mirza, otherwise Mahommed called Mahommed Khudabanda, whose claim to Khuda- sovereignty had been originally put aside on the banda.
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  • Taking advantage of the weakness of his ancient enemy in the days of the poor voluptuary Mahommed III., he began rapidly to recover the provinces which Persia had lost in preceding reigns, and continued to reap his advantages in succeeding campaigns under Ahmed I., until under Othman II.
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  • The Persian monarch, not sorry perhaps to find i plausible pretext for encroachment in a quarter so full of promisi to booty-seeking soldiers, pursued some of the fugitives througi Ghazni to Kabul, which city was then under the immediati control of Na~r Khan, governor of eastern Afghanistan, fo Mahommed Shah of Delhi.
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  • Sind was certainly included in the cession to him by Mahommed Shah of all the territories westward of the river Attok, but only that portion of it, such as Thattah (Tatta), situated on the right bank of the Indus.
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  • Said Mahommed, son of Mirza Daud, a chief mullah at Meshed, whose mother was the reputed daughter of Suleiman, declared himself king, and imprisoned and blinded Shah Rukh.
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  • At the same time he proclaimed ~bu l-Fatl~ Khan, second son of the deceased monarch, and his brother Mahommed All, joint-successors to the throne.
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  • Aga Mahommed, son of Mahommed Ilasan, the Kajar chief of Astarabad, a prisoner at large in Shiraz, was in the environs of that city awaiting intelligence of the old kings decease, and, hearing it, instantly escaped to Mazandaran, there to gather his tribesmen together and compete for the crown of Persia.
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  • From this period up to the accession of Aga Mahommed Khan the summarized history of Markham will supply the principal facts required.
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  • Ali Murad reigned over Persia until 1785, and carried on a successful war with Aga Mahommed in Mazandaran, defeating him in several engagements, and occupying Teheran a,nd Sari.
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  • Lutf All Khan bad not been many months on the throne when Aga Mahommed advanced to attack him, and invested the city of Shiraz, but retreated soon afterwards to Teheran, which he had made the capital of his dominions.
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  • But Hajji Ibrahim had been intriguing against his sovereign, to whose family he owed everything, not only with his officers and soldiers but also with Aga Mahommed, the chief of the Kajars, and arch-enemy of the Zends.
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  • Aga Mahommed then advanced in person against his rival.
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  • The Kajars were completely routed and thrown into confusion; but Aga Mahommed, with extraordinary presence of mind, remained in his tent, and at the first appearance of dawn his muezzin, or public crier, was ordered to call the faithful to morning prayer as usual.
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    0
  • Astonished at this, the few Zend cavaliers, thinking that the wholy army of Kajars had returned, fled with precipitation leaving the field in possession of Aga Mahommed.
    0
    0
  • Aga Mahommed besieged it with a large army in 1795, and, after a stout resistance, the gates were opened through treachery.
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  • Furious at the escape of his rival, the savage conqueror ordered a general massacre; 20,000 women and children were sold into slavery, and 70,000 eyes of the inhabitants of Kermn were brought to Aga Mahommed on a platter.
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  • Every member of his family and every friend was ordered to be massacred by Aga Mahommed; and the successful miscreant thus founded the dynasty of the Kajars at the price of all the best and noblest blood of Iran.
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  • Kajar Dynasty.Aga Mahommed was undoubtedly one of the most cruel and vindictive despots that ever disgraced a throne.
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    0
  • Aga Mahommed, learning the particulars, visited the spot,~ expressed great pleasure at the work done, ~
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  • He calls Aga Mahommed chief of Mazandaran, as also of Astarabad and some districts situate in Khurasan, and describes his tribe the Kajar, to be, like the Indian Rajput, usually devoted to the profession of arms. Whatever hold his father may have had on Gilan, it is certain that this province was not then in the sons possession, for his brother, Jiafir Kuli, governor of Baifrush (Balfroosh), had made a recent incursion into it and driven Hidaiyat Khan, its ruler, from Resht to Enzeli, and Aga Mahommed was himself meditating another attack on the same quarter.
    0
    0
  • Aga Mahommed now demanded that Heraclius should return to his position of tributary and vassal to Persia, and, as his demand was rejected, prepared for war.
    0
    0
  • Aga Mahommed determined to restore the whole province to Persia, and, after a brief residence in Teheran on his return from the Georgian expedition, he set out for Meshed.
    0
    0
  • Aga Mahommed had now fairly established his capital at Teheran.
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  • The re-invasion by Russia of Aga of the provinces and districts he had recently Mahommed.
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  • Aga Mahommed had now arrived at the close of his career.
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  • Aga Mahommed had made up his mind that he should be succeeded by his nephew Fath Ali Shah, son of his full brother, Hosain Kuli Khan, governor of Fars.
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  • Another adversary presented himself in the person of Nadir Mirza, son of Shah Rukh, who, when Aga Mahommed appeared before Meshed, had taken refuge with the Afghans.
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  • Now that the narrative of Persian kings has been brought up to the period of the consolidation of the Kajar dynasty and commencement of the 19th century, there remains but to summarize the principal events in the reigns of Fath Ali Shah and his immediate successors, Mahommed Shah and Nasru d-Din Shah.
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  • Hearing that a Russian force of some 9000 men was concentrated at Tiflis, Mahommed Mirza, son of the crown prince, advanced to meet them on the banks of the Zezam.
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  • 1804 and 1805, to allow the Russians to Turke make free use of the south-eastern coasts of the Black Sea, to facilitate operations against the shahs troops; and there had been a passage of arms betweenthe kings eldest son, Mahommed Au Mirza, and Suleiman Pasha, son-in-law of the governor-generat of Bagdad, which is locally credited as a battle won by the former.
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  • He was defeated by Mahommed Ali Mirza, then prince-governor of Kermanshah, who drove his adversary back towards his capital and advanced to its immediate environs.
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  • Some eight or nine years afterwards Abbas Mirza, when at the head of his army in Meshed, invited Var Mahommed Khan of Herat to discuss a settlement of differences between the two governments.
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  • Agreeably to the Persian custom, asserted by his predecessors, of nominating the heir-apparent from the sons of the sovereign without restriction to seniority, he had passed over the eldest, Mahommed Ali, in favor of a junior, Abbas; but, as the nominee died in the lifetime of his father, the old king had proclaimed Mahommed Mirza, the son of Abbas, and his own grandson, to be his successor.
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  • Mahommed Shah was twenty-eight years old when he came to the throne in 1834.
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  • Owing to the steps taken by the British envoy, Sir John Campbell, assisted by Colonel Bethune, at the head of a considerable force, supplied with artiller the opposition of the first was neutralized, and Mahommed Sha entering Teheran on the 2nd of January, was proclaimed king on the 31st of the same month.
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  • Markham, however, states that both Ali Mirza and Hasan Ali were allowed to retire with a small pension, and that no atrocities stained the beginning of the reign of Mahommed Shah.
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  • Colonel Stoddarts refusal to allow any but British mediators to decide the pending dispute won the day; and that officer was able to report that on the 9th of September Mahommed Shah had mounted his horse and gone from before the walls of the beleaguered city.
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  • The siege of Herat, which lasted for nearly ten months, was the great event in the reign of Mahommed Shah.
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  • Before closing the reign of Mahommed Shah note should be taken of a prohibition to import African slaves into Persia, and a commercial treaty with Englandrecorded by Watson as gratifying achievements of the period by British diplomatists.
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  • While revolution prevailed in the city, robbery was rife in the province of Yezd; and from Kazvin the son of Au Mirza otherwise called the zulus-sultan, the prince-governor of Teheran, who disputed the succession of Mahommed Shah, came forth to contest the crown with his cousin, the heir-apparent.
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  • It has been stated that the asafu d-daula was a competitor with Hajji Mirza Aghasi for the post of premier in the cabinet of Mahommed Shah, that he was afterwards, in the same reign, exiled for rising in.
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  • In the article on BABYIsM, the facts as to the life of the l3ab, Mirza Ali Mahommed of Shiraz, and the progress of the Babiist movement, are separately noticed.
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  • He was the son of a cook 0f Bahram Mirza, Mahommed Shahs brother, and he had filled high and important offices of state and amassed much wealth when he was 1~ih1 of made by the young shah Nasru d-Din, on his accession, MirzaTakl.
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  • As to Afghanistan, the vizier Yar Mahommed had in 1842, when the British troops were perishing in the passes, or otherwise in the midst of dangers, caused Kamran to be suffocated in his prison.
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  • Since that event he had himself reigned supreme in Herat, and, dying in 1851, was succeeded by his son Said Mahommed.
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  • In September 1855 Mahommed Yusuf Saduzai seized upon Herat, putting Said Mahommed to death with some of his followers who were supposed accomplices in the murder of his uncle Kamran.
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  • About this time Kohan Dil Khan, one of the chiefs of Kandahar, died, and Dost Mahommed of Kabul annexed the city to his territory.
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  • In November 1889 Malcolm Khan, Nizam-ul-Mulk, who had been Persian representative to the court of Great Britain since October 1872, was recalled, and Mirza Mahommed ~Ali Khan, consulgeneral at Tiflis, was appointed in his stead, arriving in London the following March.
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  • Mahommed Ali consented, but withdrew from Teheran; and on his departure the royal bodyguard of so-called Cossacks Persian soldiers officered by Russians in the shahs serviceat once came into conflict with the Nationalists.
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  • This was interpreted as an act of abdication; on the same day the national council met, and chose Mahommed Alis son, Sultan Ahmad Mirza, aged thirteen, as his successor.
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  • (193 All), according to the oldest biographical writer of Persia, Mahommed AufI, the Earliest first real poem in modern Persian, in honor of the Modern AbbSsid prince Mamttn, HSrOn al-Rashids son, who Persian had himself a strong predilection for Persia, his Poet.
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  • The most accomplished minstrels of his time were Mlnst,aels Mahommed FarklSdi (or FarSlSwI); Abfl l-Abbks of 10th of BokhSrg, a writer of very tender verses; Abu Century.
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  • Models of the former class are the various Iskandarndmas, or Books of Alexander the Great, the oldest and most original of which is that of Nizaml of Ganja, the modern Elizavetpol (completed about 1202; 599 A.H.); the latter begins with the Kitab-i-Samak lyar, a novel in three volumes (about 1189; 585 A.H.), and reaches its climax in the Bstan-i-Khayal, or Garden of Imagination, a prose romance of fifteen large volumes, by Mahommed Tal~l Khayal, written between 1742 and 1756 (1155 and 1169 A.H.).
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  • Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by IIasanI Shabistarl Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn 1-Iusams Khawartzama (1427; 830 A.11.), of the deeds of All; Badhils ~Iamla-i-Jjaidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.H.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Ka~ims Fara~~inama-i-Fa4ima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomets daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of ~Iatim Tai, the famous model of liberality and generosity in preIslamitic times; of Am-Zr ~Iamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu~jizat-i-Ms?sa~wi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by MuIn-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.I-L).
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  • This favorite story was treated again by FasihI JurjanI (5th century of the Hegira), and by many modern poets as Damiri, who died under the ~afawI shah Mahommed (1577 1586; 985994 A.H.), Nmi, the historiographer of the Zand dynasty, and Uosain of Shiraz under Fatl~ All Shah, the last two flourishing towards the beginning of the present century.
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  • In 1453, after the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, Mahommed II., finding that the patriarchal chair had been vacant for some time, resolved to elect some one to the office, and the choice fell on Gennadius.
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  • He was succeeded by his eldest son, Haji Mahommed Khan, who abandoned himself to the most tyrannical and licentious way of life and alienated his subjects by oppressive taxation.
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  • Subsequent inquiries have, however, proved that the treachery towards the British was not on the part of Mehrab Khan, but on that of his vizier, Mahommed Hussein, and certain chiefs with whom he was in league, and at whose instigation the British convoys were plundered in their passage through Kach Gandava and in the Bolan Pass.
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  • When Mahommed ibn `Abdallah, the 'Alid, rose in A.D.
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  • Of these Dost Mahommed received for his share Ghazni, to which in 1826 he added Kabul, the richest of the Afghan provinces.
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  • He was defeated by Dost Mahommed under the walls of Kandahar, but Ranjit Singh seized.
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  • Dost Mahommed was enjoined to abandon the attempt to recover Peshawar, and to place his foreign policy under British guidance.
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  • Shah Shuja was proclaimed amir, and entered Kabul on the 7th of August, while Dost Mahommed sought refuge in the wilds of the Hindu Kush.
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  • On his return from Hindustan Dost Mahommed was received in triumph at Kabul, and set himself to re-establish his authority on a firm basis.
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  • On the 30th of March 1855 Dost Mahommed reversed his former policy by concluding an offensive and defensive alliance with the British government.
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  • During the Indian Mutiny Dost Mahommed punctiliously refrained from assisting the insurgents.
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  • A dethroned sultan of Morocco, named Mulai Ahmad (Mahommed XI.), offered to acknowledge Portuguese suzerainty if he were restored to the throne by Portuguese arms, and Sebastian eagerly accepted these terms. The flower of his army was in Asia and his treasury was empty; but he contrived to extort funds from the " New Christians," and collected a force of some 18,000 men, chiefly untrained lads, wornout veterans, and foreign free-lances.
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  • In 1191 came the invasion of Mahommed of Ghor.
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  • Defeated on this occasion, Mahommed returned two years later, overthrew the Hindus, and captured and put to death Prithwi-raja.
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  • Delhi became henceforth the capital of the Mahommedan Indian empire, Kutb-ud-din (the general and slave of Mahommed of Ghor) being left in command.
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  • Ghias-uddin was succeeded by his son Mahommed b.
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  • He was succeeded by Mahommed Shah, in whose reign the Mahratta forces first made their appearance before the gates of Delhi, in 1736.
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  • The Gol Gunbaz, or tomb of Sultan Mahommed Adil Shah, which was built 1626-1656, is one of the most interesting buildings in the world.
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  • 1626) maintained the prosperity of the state; but under his successor, Mahommed Adil Shah (d.
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  • On the death of Mahommed the succession passed to Ali Adil Shah II., and on his death in 1672 to his infant son, Sikandar Adil Shah, the last of the race.
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  • The kingdom had been for some time rapidly falling to ruin, and in 1686 the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb, who as Shah Jahan's general had unsuccessfully besieged the city under Mahommed Adil Shah, took Bijapur and annexed the kingdom to the Delhi empire.
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  • It was occupied by Frederick Barbarossa in 1190; in 1466 it was captured by Mahommed II., and in 1486 by Bayezid II.
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  • (Sultan Mahommed Shah), only son of the foregoing, succeeded him on his death in 1885, and became the head of the family and its devotees.
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  • (1637-1736), sultan of Turkey, son of Mahommed IV., succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II.
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  • Forced against his will into war with Russia, he came nearer than any Turkish sovereign before or since to breaking the power of his northern rival, whom his Grand Vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha succeeded in completely surrounding near the Pruth (1711).
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  • Between 1528 and 1540 armies of Mahommedans, under the renowned general Mahommed Gran (or Granye, probably a Somali or a Galla), entered Abyssinia from the low country to the south-east, and overran the kingdom, obliging the emperor to take refuge in the mountain fastnesses.
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  • On the 21st of February 1543, however, Mahommed Granye was shot in an engagement and his forces totally routed.
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  • (26) In 1899 the rebellion of the so-called "mad" mullah (Hajji Mahommed Abdullah) began on the borders of British Somaliland.
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  • In 1850 Mahommed Akram Khan, Barakzai, captured Balkh, and from that time it remained under Afghan rule.
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  • Until the end of the 12th century Hindu princes governed in a number of petty principalities, till, in 1199, Mahommed Bakhtiyar Khilji was appointed to lead the first Mussulman invasion into Bengal.
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  • A younger line of the original house, after the establishment of the Latins at Constantinople in 1204, secured possession of a fragment of the empire in Asia Minor, and founded the empire of Trebizond, which lasted till 1461, when David Comnenus, the last emperor, was deposed by Mahommed II.
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  • Ethnically and historically Afghan Turkestan is more connected with Bokhara than with Kabul, of which government it has been a dependency only since the time of Dost Mahommed.
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  • At the beginning of the 19th century they belonged to Bokhara; but under the great amir Dost Mahommed the Afghans recovered Balkh and Tashkurgan in 1850, Akcha and the four western khanates in 1855, and Kunduz in 1859.
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  • In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed Mirza, succeeded Feth Ali as shah.
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  • A few years later it seems to have been in the possession of the Walachian prince Mircea, but after his defeat by Mahommed I.
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  • Mahommed Ghori also invaded Gujarat, and left a garrison in its capital.
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  • A Russian envoy was sent to Kabul, where Shere Ali, who had succeeded his father Ddst Mahommed in 1863, was amir; and the British-government, alarmed at this new embarrassment, decided on sending a mission to the Afghan capital.
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  • Next in rank, and equally supporting the throne of the Almighty, are four Ministering Spirits, the Soul, the Word, the Right Wing and the Left Wing, who, in Hakim's time, were embodied respectively in Ismael Darazi, Mahommed ibn Wahab, Selama ibn Abd alWahal and Baha ud-Din; and beneath these again are spiritual agents of various ranks.
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  • The propagation of the faith in accordance with Hamza's initiation was undertaken by Ismael ibn Mahommed Tamimi, Mahommed ibn Wahab, Abul-Khair Selama ibn Abd al-Wahal ibn Samurri, and Moktana Baha ud-Din, the last of whom became known by his writings from Constantinople to the borders of India.
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  • The 1st hill is distinguished by the Seraglio, St Sophia and the Hippodrome; the 2nd by the column of Constantine and the mosque Nuri-Osmanieh; the 3rd by the war office, the Seraskereate Tower and the mosque of Sultan Suleiman; the 4th by the mosque of Sultan Mahommed II., the Conqueror; the 5th by the mosque of Sultan Selim; the 6th by Tekfour Serai and the quarter of Egri Kapu; the 7th by Avret Tash and the quarter of Psamatia.
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  • (3) The gate of St Romanus (Top Kapusi), by which, in 1453, Sultan Mahommed entered Constantinople after the fall of the city into Turkish hands.
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  • A column in honour of the emperor Marcian still stands in the valley of the Lycus, below the mosque of Sultan Mahommed the Conqueror.
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  • The most remarkable mosques are the following: - The mosque of Sultan Mahommed the Conqueror, built on the site of the church of the Holy Apostles, in 1459, but rebuilt in 1768 owing to injuries due to an earthquake; the mosques of Sultan Selim, of the Shah Zadeh, of Sultan Suleiman and of Rustem Pasha - all works of the 16th century, the best period of Turkish architecture; the mosque of Sultan Bayezid II.
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  • His father, Mahommed, was murdered by a brother Motarrif by order of Abdallah.
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  • The town remained till late Byzantine times the toll station of the Hellespont, its importance being transferred to the Dardanelles, after the building of the "Old Castles" by Sultan Mahommed II.
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  • But no one in Europe moved a finger to help Servia, and Sultan Mahommed II.
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  • (1641-1691), sultan of Turkey, was a son of Sultan Ibrahim, and succeeded his brother Mahommed IV.
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  • At the time of the Afghan invasion of Mir Mahmud (1722), Malik Mahommed Kaiani was the resident ruler in Seistan, and by league with the invader or other intrigue he secured for himself that particular principality and a great part of Khorasan also.
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  • (822852), who spent his life listening to a favorite and highly accomplished Persian tenor and in the company of dancing girls, and under Mahommed I.
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  • The rule went to the sultana, and her trusted agent Ibn AbI Amir Mahommed ben Abdallahan Arab of noble descent, who in his early life was a scribe, and who rose by making himself useful first to the ministers and to the favorite wife.
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  • This army was commanded by Mahommed Bey, the Defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali.
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  • Mahommed Ahmed became at once the leader and the agent of the Baggara.
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  • Mahommed Ahmed had, in accordance with the traditions which required the Mandi to have four khalif as (lieutenants), nominated, besides Abdullah, Ali wad Helu, a sheikh of the Degheim and Kenana Arabs, and Mahommed esh Sherif, his son-in-law, as khalifas.
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  • His father was a fiki or religious teacher, and Mahommed Ahmed devoted himself early to religious studies.
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  • He first acquired fame by a quarrel with the head of the brotherhood which he had joined, Mahommed asserting that his master condoned transgression of the divine law.
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  • Abu Saud's mission failed, and Mahommed Ahmed no longer hesitated to call himself al-Mandi al Montasir, "The Expected Guide."
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  • When he announced his divine mission Mahommed Ahmed adopted the Shi'ite traditions concerning the mandi, and thus put himself in opposition to the sultan of Turkey as the only true commander of the faithful.
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  • It was known as the Band i Kaisar (the Caesar's Dike), but after having been repaired by Mahommed Ali Mirza, a son of Fath Ali Shah, in the early part of the 19th century, it was called Band i Shahzadeh, or Prince's Dike.
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  • The sultan Mahommed Jomal-ul-alam, born in 1889, succeeded his father in May 1906.
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  • This stone tablet now stands on the tomb of Sultan Mahommed Jemal-ul-Alam at the foot of Panggal hill, in the city of Brunei.
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  • He assumed the name of Mahommed on his conversion to Islam, which was brought about during a visit to the Malay peninsula.
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  • Sultan Mahommed's only child was a daughter.
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  • His brother Akhmed married the daughter of Ong Chum Ping, a Chinese officer said to have been sent by his emperor to obtain a jewel from Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo,and was the successor of Sultan Mahommed in the sovereignty of Brunei.
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  • Meanwhile the Turkish question had again become acute, and it was plain, after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, that Mahommed II.
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  • Mahommed thereupon raised the siege and returned to Constantinople, and the independence of Hungary was secured for another seventy years.
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  • It has a medieval castle, built in 1470 by Sultan Mahommed II., to facilitate the incursion of the Turks into Slavonia, which lies on the left bank of the river.
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  • The fact that justice and firmness were succeeded by injustice and weakness tended naturally to the outbreak of revolt, and unfortunately there was a leader ready to head a rebellion - one Mahommed Ahmed, already known for some years as a holy man, who was insulted by an Egyptian official, and retiring with some followers to the island of Abba on the White Nile, proclaimed himself as the mandi, a successor of the prophet.
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  • The imports are largely cotton goods, provisions, timber and cement; the exports gum, raw cotton, ivory, sesame, durra, senna, coffee (from Abyssinia), goat skins, &c. Forty miles north of Port Sudan is Mahommed Gul, the port for the mines of Gebet, worked by an English company.
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  • In 1212 Mahommed III., "En-Nasir" (1199-1214), the successor of El Mansur, was utterly defeated by the allied five Christian princes of Spain, Navarre and Portugal, at Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena.
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  • The empire thus founded continued to exist until 1461, when the city was taken by Mahommed II.
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  • At the time of Mahommed's death his eldest son Murad was at Amasia; and, as the troops had lately shown signs of insubordination, it was deemed advisable to conceal the news of the sultan's death and to send a part of the army across to Asia.
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  • Garrisoned only by 1500 Venetians, the city was carried by storm (March I, 1428); the merciful precedent set by Mahommed I.
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  • Until the reign of Mahommed the Conqueror the sultan presided in person; but a rough Anatolian peasant penetrating one day to the council and exclaiming, " Which of you might be the sultan?
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  • In 1742 Mahommed Ibn Salad, sheik of Deraiya, accepted his doctrines, and enforced them by his sword with such effect that before his death in 1765 the whole of eastern Nejd and El Hasa was converted to the faith of Abdul Wahhab, and accepted the political supremacy of Ibn Saud.
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  • Others attribute it to religious fanaticism, or to the result of some barbaric invasion, such as Axum may have repeatedly endured before it was sacked by Mahommed Gran, sultan of Harrar, about 1535.
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  • Caussin de Perceval published (1828) a useful Grammaire arabe vulgaire, which passed through several editions (4th ed., 1858), and edited and enlarged Elie Bocthor's 1 Dictionnaire francais-arabe (2 vols., 1828; 3rd ed., 1864); but his great reputation rests almost entirely on one book, the Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant l'Islamisme, pendant l'epoque de Mahomet (3 vols., 1847-1849), in which the native traditions as to the early history of the Arabs, down to the death of Mahommed and the complete subjection of all the tribes to Islam, are brought together with wonderful industry and set forth with much learning and lucidity.
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  • The pasha, and through him the sultan, endeavoured on several occasions either to ensnare them or to beguile them into submission; but these efforts failing, Mahommed Khosrev took the field, and a Turkish detachment 7000 strong was despatched against them to Damanhur, whither they had descended from Upper Egypt, and was defeated by a small force under al-Alfi; or, as Mengin says, by 800 men commanded by al-BardIsI, when.
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  • It speedily ended with his son, also called Khusru, whom Mahommed Ghori, the relentless enemy of the Ghaznivide house, carried away into captivity in 1186.
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  • Kandahar surrendered, Ghazni was taken by storm, Dost Mahommed fled across the Hindu Kush, and Shah Shuja was triumphantly led into the Bala Hissar at Kabul in August 1839.
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  • Not unnaturally, the Alids in Medina were indignant at being supplanted by the Abbasids, and Mansur's chief concern was to get Mahommed into his power.
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  • Abdallah, a brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, the rivals of Mansur, succeeded in escaping, and fled to Egypt, whence by the help of the postmaster, himself a secret partisan of the Shiites, he passed into West Africa, where at a later period his son founded the Idrisite dynasty in Fez (see Morocco).
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  • Mahommed was a singular character, full of pretence at least to many accomplishments and virtues, the founder of public charities, and a profuse patron of scholars, but a parricide, a fratricide, and as madly capricious, bloodthirsty and unjust as Caligula.
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