It originated with Mahommed ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribe of the Atlas.
Mahommed in fact represented a revolt against the anthropomorphism of commonplace Mahommedan orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law.
In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, the heir-apparent, was born on the 10th of February 1899.
So great was the strength of the fortifications that Mahommed II.
The monastery also possesses the firman of Mahommed II.
In 1478 Kroia, which the Venetians had occupied after Scanderbeg's death, surrendered to Mahommed II., and in 1479 Scutari, after a memorable defence by the Venetians and their Montenegrin allies, was reduced by blockade.
Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.
Death was the penalty for the least offence, and no past services - as Koes Mahommed was to find to his cost - were admitted in extenuation.
The committee, restored by the Salonica troops, now decided on Abdul-Hamid's deposition, and on the 27th of April his brother Reshid Effendi was proclaimed sultan as Mahommed V.
On the death of Mahommed II.
1896), grandfather of Shah Mahommed Ali (1907).
It was under the name of al-mandi that Mokhtar proclaimed `Ali's son Mahommed as the opponent of the caliph Abdalmalik, and, according to Shahrastani, the doctrine of the mandi, the hidden deliverer who is one day to appear and fill the oppressed world with righteousness, first arose in connexion with a belief that this Mahommed had not died but lived concealed at Mount Radwa, near Mecca, guarded by a lion and a panther.
The hidden imam of the common Shiites is, however, the twelfth imam, Mahommed Abu`l-Qasim, who disappeared mysteriously in 879.
Another great historical movement, headed by a leader who proclaimed himself the mandi (Mahommed ibn Abdallah ibn Tumart), was that of the Almohades.
In 1881 Mahommed Ahmed ibn Seyyid Abdullah, a Dongolese, proclaimed himself al-mandi and founded in the eastern Sudan the short-lived empire overthrown by an AngloEgyptian force at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.
Concurrently with the claim of Mahommed Ahmed to be the mandi the same title was claimed by, or for, the head of the Senussites, a confraternity powerful in many regions of North Africa.
In 1292 the Moors under Mahommed II.
Possibly, as its form suggests, it is based on the imperial crown and symbolized at the outsgt the quasi - sovereignty over the rayah population which Mahommed II.
Bhopal state was founded in 1723 by Dost Mahommed Khan, an Afghan adventurer.
The site is now covered with valonia oaks, and has been much plundered, e.g by Mahommed IV., who took columns to adorn his new Valideh mosque in Stambul; but the circuit of the old walls can be traced, and in several places they are fairly well preserved.
On hearing of the death of the poet Dakiki, he conceived the ambitious design of himself carrying out the work which the latter had only just commenced; and, although he had not then any introduction to the court, he contrived, thanks to one of his friends, Mahommed Lashkari, to procure a copy of the Dihkan Danishwer's collection, and at the age of thirty-six commenced his great undertaking.
He stood on friendly terms with Mahommed I., but was again besieged in his capital by Murad II.
in diameter, and by a dome over each of the arms. The plan is derived from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, now covered by the mosque of Mahommed II., and bears a strong resemblance to the plan of St Front at Perigueux in France (I 120).
ALP ARSLAN, or [[Axan, Mahommed Ben Da'Ud]] (1029-1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty, was born in the year A.D.
He assumed the name of Mahommed when he embraced the Mussulman faith; and on account of his military prowess he obtained the surname Alp Arslan, which signifies "a valiant lion."
The principal Mahommedan public buildings, erected by subsequent governors and now in ruins, are the Katra and the Lal-bagh palace - the former built by Sultan Mahommed Shuja in 1645, in front of the chauk or market place.
2 Maudud (the brother of the sultan Mahommed) may be regarded as the first to begin the jihad, or counter-crusade, and his attack expedition of 1113, which carried him so far into the heart of Palestine, may be considered as the first act of the jihad (Stevenson, op. cit.
Here the last Crusade ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1 453, Mahommed II., the successor of Murad, captured Constantinople.
IBN KHALDUN [Abu Zaid ibn Mahommed ibn Mahommed ibn Khaldun] (1332-1406), Arabic historian, was born at Tunis.
The Acciajuoli dynasty lasted till June 1458, when the Acropolis after a stubborn resistance was taken by the Turks under Omar, the general of the sultan Mahommed II., who had occupied the lower city in 1456.
1193 was conquered by Mahommed of Ghor.
Her son, Mahommed, commonly called Baha-uddin Walad, was famous for his learning and piety, but being afraid of the sultan's jealousy, he emigrated to Asia Minor in 1212.
- Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.
1652-1697), " a religious maiden," visited Smyrna, the Morea and the court of Mahommed IV.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
Here Mahommed b.
Like Mahommed after him he often speaks of his conversations with God and the archangels.
According to the story of Hicks's cook, one of the survivors, the general was the last officer to fall, pierced by the spear of the khalifa Mahommed Sherif.
It has a magnificent palace, which is visible from far across the Bikanir desert; it was built in 1882 by Nawab Sadik Mahommed Khan.
A reactionary movement started in April 1909 was promptly suppressed by the Young Turks through the military occupation of Constantinople by Shevket Pasha and the dethronement of Abd-ul-Hamid, who was succeeded by his younger brother Reshad Effendi under the title of Mahommed V.
Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
Some years of strife followed between the sons of Bayezid, in which three of them fell; Mussa, seizing Adrianople, laid siege to Constantinople, and Manuel Palaeologus, the emperor, appealed for aid to Mahommed, the other son, who had established himself at Brusa.
In 1413 Mahommed defeated Mussa, and thus remained sole heir to Bayezid's throne; in seven or eight years he succeeded Mahom- in regaining all the territories over which his father med 1., had ruled, whereas Timur's empire fell to pieces 1413-1421.
Two years after his accession Mahommed overcame a rebellion of the prince of Karamania and recaptured his stronghold Konia (1416), and then, turning northwards, forced Mircea, voivode of Walachia, who in the dispute as to the succession had supported Prince Mussa, to pay tribute.
The honour was declined, and Mahommed took a bride from the house of Zulfikar.
On the 12th of July 1444 a ten years' peace was signed with Hungary, whereby Walachia was placed under the suzerainty of that country; and, wearied by constant warfare and afflicted by the death of his eldest son, Prince Ala-ud-din, Murad abdicated in favour of his son Mahommed, then only fourteen years of age, and retired to Magnesia (1444).
Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.
Mahommed now endeavoured to strike a blow at Rhodes, the stronghold of the Knights of St John, preparatory to carrying out his long-cherished plan of conquering Italy.
Many educational and benevolent foundations were endowed by him, and it is to Mahommed II.
While preparing an expedition against Rhodes to avenge the repulse sustained forty years before by Mahommed II., the sultan died at Orashkeui, near Adrianople, at the spot where he had attacked his father's troops.
Belgrade was besieged and captured, a conquest which Mahommed II.
When the sultan discovered that Martinuzzi, who was all-powerful in Transylvania, had actually arranged to hand over the country to Ferdinand, he threw the Austrian ambassador into prison, and in September 1551 sent an army, 80,000 strong, under Mahommed Sokolli over the Danube.
The new emperor attacked Tokaj, which was in Turkish possession; the tribute had been allowed again to fall into arrears; and to all this was added that Mahommed Sokolli, the new grand vizier (1565), pressed for new war to wipe out the disgrace of the failure of the Ottoman attack on Malta (May-September 1565).
As established by Mahommed II., the officials of the state were divided into four classes: (I) administrative; (2) ecclesiastical; (3) secretarial and (4) military.
Known in history as the " Sot," he had allowed his able grand vizier Mahommed Sokolli to rule the country.
The new sultan, Mahommed III., Murad's son, succeeded to the throne at a moment when the Turkish arms were suffering reverses in Hungary and in the revolted Danubian provinces; Mahom- the Janissaries, too, were ill-content and mutinous, med IJI., and to put an end to their murmurings Mahommed 1595-4603.
In the midst of this crisis, on the 22nd of December 1603, Sultan Mahommed III.
and Mahommed III.
The anarchy and misgovernment of Turkey now reached such a pitch that Ibrahim was dethroned and murdered, and Mahom- his son Mahommed IV.
In 1656 Mahommed Kuprili became grand vizier, and by dint of firmness and resolution repaired the falling fortunes of the country.
The Turks succeeded in surrounding Peter the Great near the Pruth, and his army was menaced with total destruction, when the Turkish commander, the grand vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha, was induced by the presents and entreaties of the empress Catherine to sign the preliminary treaty of the Pruth (July 21, 1711), granting terms of peace far more favourable than were justified by the situation of the Russians.
In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.
3, 1844) as his successor, with the style of Mahommed V.
Sheikhi of Kermiyan, a contemporary of Mahommed I.and Murad II., wrote a lengthy and still esteemed mesnevi on the ancient Persian romance of Khusrev and Shirin; and about the same time Yaziji-oghlu gave to the world a long versified history of the Prophet, the Muha.mmediya.
Afewyearsafter Constantinople passed into the hands of the Ottomans, some ghazels, the work of the contemporary Tatar prince, Mir `Ali Shir, who under the nom de plume of Nevayi wrote much that shows true talent and poetic feeling, found their way to the Ottoman capital, where they were seen and copied by Ahmed Pasha, one of the viziers of Mahommed II.
Like most of his house, Mahommed II.
1712), who flourished under Ibrahim and Mahommed IV., calls for a little more attention.
Evliya, who died during the reign of Mahommed IV., is noted for the record which he has left of his travels in different countries.
Here are buried the seventh and ninth of the successors of Ali, recognized by Shi`as, namely Musa Ibn Ja`far el-Kazim, and his grandson, Mahommed Ibn Ali el-Jawad.
The latter prince was dethroned, and, being in a state of mental derangement, was during his lifetime confined by Fateh Mahommed, a native of Sind, who continued, with a short interval (in which the party of the legal heir, Bhaiji Bawa, gained the ascendancy), to rule the country until his death in 1813.
It was in the reign of Fateh Mahommed that a communication first took place with the British government.
But the gulf continued notwithstanding to swarm with pirates, who were openly encouraged or connived at by the son of Hansraj, who had succeeded his father, as well as by Fateh Mahommed.
Jugjevan, a Brahman, the late minister of Fateh Mahommed, also received a considerable share of influence; and the hatred of these two factions was embittered by religious animosities, the one being Hindu and the other Mahommedan.
He wrote a history, in ten books, of the period from 1298-1463, describing the fall of the Greek empire and the rise of the Ottoman Turks, which forms the centre of the narrative, down to the conquest of the Venetians and Mathias, king of Hungary, by Mahommed II.
29 a empire had been raised again from its ruins by Mahommed I.
At that critical hour it was at his own expense that Hunyadi fortified Belgrade, now the sole obstacle between Hungary and destruction, with the sole assistance of the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Capistrano, equipped the fleet and the army which relieved the beleaguered fortress and overthrew Mahommed II.
But in the autumn of 1656 a great statesman, Mahommed Kuprili, obtained the supreme control of affairs at Constantinople, and all Europe instantly felt the pressure of the Turk once more.
On the death of Mahommed Kuprili (Oct.
al-jebr wa'l-mugabala, transposition and removal (of terms of an equation), the name of a treatise by Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi), a branch of mathematics which may be defined as the generalization and extension of arithmetic.
The first mention of the word is to be found in the title Ety= of a work by Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi (Hovarezmi), who flourished about the beginning of the 9th century.
The first notable Arabian mathematician was Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi, who flourished in the reign of Mamun.
The last of these kings was Shah Mahommed, who died in the middle of the 15th century, leaving only his married daughters to represent the royal line.
When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the hands of another Usbeg, Mahommed Amir Khan.
In 1867 he was expelled by Abdur Rahman and replaced by Mir Mahommed Shah, and other representatives of the same family.
(1447-1512), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mahommed II., whom he succeeded in 1481, but only after gaining over the janissaries by a large donative, which henceforth became for centuries the invariable prerogative of that undisciplined body on the accession of a new sultan.
Omdurman, then an insignificant village, was chosen in 1884 by the Mandi Mahommed Ahmed as his capital and so continued after the fall of Khartum in January 1885.
IBN TUFAIL, or ToFAIL [Abu Bakr Mahommed ibn `Abd-ulMalik ibn Tufail ul-Qaisi] (d.
One other traveller visited Hail during the lifetime of the amir Mahommed - Baron E.
The amir Mahommed Ibn Rashid used to send down about one hundred young horses yearly.
Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.
Mahommed, the third son of the amir Abdallah, was at the time absent .; with a view of getting his uncle into his power, Bandar invited him to return to Hail, and on his arrival went out to meet him accompanied by Hamud, son of Obed, and a small following.
Warned by a hurried sign by Hamud that his life was in danger, Mahommed at once attacked Bandar, stabbed him and took possession of the citadel; a general massacre of all members of the house of Ibn Rashid followed, and next day Mahommed appeared with his cousin Hamud in the market-place of Hail, and announced his assumption of the amirship. A strong and capable ruler, he soon established his authority over all northern and western Nejd, and in 1872 the opportunity arrived for his intervention in the east.
In that year Abdallah, who had succeeded Fesal in Riad in 1867, was deposed, but with the assistance of Mahommed was reinstated; two years later, however, he was again deposed and forced to seek refuge at Hail, from which place he appealed for assistance to the Turkish authorities at Bagdad.
This victory placed the whole of northern and central Arabia under the supremacy of Mahommed Ibn Rashid, which he held undisputed during the rest of his life.
The scale of the operations may be judged from the fact that the total number of troops mobilized up to the beginning of July 1905 amounted to 126 battalions, 8 squadrons and 15 batteries; the rebel leader Mahommed Yahiya had at this time a following of 50,000.
His original name, Mahommed, was changed by his father, with whom he was a favourite, into Aurangzeb, meaning ornament of the throne, and at a later time he assumed the additional titles of Mohi-eddin, reviver of religion, and Alam-gir, conqueror of the world.
Shuja, who had been a second time defeated near Allahabad, was attacked by the imperial forces under Mir Jumla and Mahommed, Aurangzeb's eldest son, who, however, deserted and joined his uncle.
Shuja was defeated and fled to Arakan, where he perished; Mahommed was captured, thrown into the fortress of Gwalior, and died after seven years' confinement.
Al-Masan, the son of Mahommed, sought help from the emperor, and was restored in 1535 as a Spanish vassal, by a force which Charles V.
The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.
SHERE ALI KHAN (1825-1879), Amir of Afghanistan, was born in 1825, one of the younger sons of the amir Dost Mahommed, whom he succeeded in 1863.
In 1472 it was annexed to the Osmanli empire by Mahommed II.
Mahommed Kuprili (c. 1586-1661) was the grandson of an Albanian who had settled at Kupri in Asia Minor.
Zade Mustafa Kuprili (1637-1691), surnamed Fazil, Son of Mahommed Kuprili, became grand vizier to Suleiman II.
Hussein Kuprili (surnamed Amuja-Zade) was the son of Hassan, a younger brother of Mahommed Kuprili.
On a small hill to the north of the town stands the fort, a conspicuous pile of red sandstone, said to have been built by Mahommed ben Tughlak of Delhi in the 1 4 th century.
It is held indeed in high veneration by all classes, and the famous Dost Mahommed Khan is himself buried at the foot of the tomb of the saint.
Abubekr's successor was Mahommed III., Ahmed ibn Ibrahim el-Ghazi (1507-1543), surnamed Gran (Granye), the left-handed.
When the Turks under Sultan Mahommed II.
Bukhari [[[Mahommed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid Abdullah|Mahommed ibn]] Isma`il al-Bukhari] (810-872), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (hadith) from Mahomet, was born at Bokhara (Bukhdra), of an Iranian family, in A.H.
by the genius of the all-powerful grand vizier Mahommed Sokolli.
The conditions were, however, not observed and Harun, learning that 'Abbasa had borne a son, caused Ja`far suddenly to be arrested and beheaded, and the rest of the family except Mahommed, Yahya's brother, to be imprisoned and deprived of their property.
Mirza Mahommed Ben Shah Rok Ulugh Beg >>
In the west Khurshid's lieutenant, Omar Vrioni (a Mussulman Greek of the race of the Palaeologi), had inflicted a series of defeats on the insurgents, recaptured Levadia, and on the 30th of June relieved the Acropolis; but the rout of the troops which Mahommed Pasha was bringing to his aid by the Greeks in the defile of Mount Oeta, and the news of the fall of Tripolitsa, forced him to retreat, and the campaign of 1821 ended with the retirement of the Turks into Thessaly.
A revolt in 1829 under Mahommed Ali Khan and Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir, was more successful, and resulted in the concession of several important trade privileges to the Mahommedans of the district of Alty Shahr (the " six cities "), as it was then named.
Wheeler, F.R.G.S., The Amir Abdur Rahman (London, 1895); The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., edited by Mir Munshi, Sultan Mahommed Khan (2 vols., London, 1900); At the Court of the Amir, by J.
After having been held by Mongols, Tatars and Turkomans, it was added to the Osmanli empire by Mahommed II.
At the end of the 18th century Baba Mahommed tried in vain to batter down the tomb with artillery.
(1589-1617), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mahommed III., whom he succeeded in 1603, being the first Ottoman sultan who reached the throne before attaining his majority.
In 1216 Bokhara was again subdued by Mahommed Shah Khwarizm, but his conquest was wrested from him by Jenghiz Khan in 1220.
away, is a level plain, which in 1835 (February 28) was the scene of a battle in which the army (2000 men, 16 guns) of Mahommed Shah, commanded by Sir H.
In Doi I Mahmud, after a short campaign against the Afghans under Mahommed ibn Stir in the hill country of Ghur, marched again into the Punjab.
His passage of the river and upward march along the left bank, the reinforcement he provided for his grandson Pir Mahommed (who was invested in Multan), the capture of towns or villages accompanied, it might be, with destruction of the houses and the massacre of the inhabitants, the battle before Delhi and the easy victory, the triumphal entry into the doomed city, with its outcome of horrors-all these circumstances belong to the annals of India.
At length in 1470, after a valiant defence, this well-fortified city was wrested from them by Mahommed II., and the whole island fell into the hands of the Turks.
In 1580 Sinan commanded the army against Persia and was appointed grand vizier, but was disgraced and exiled in the following year, owing to the rout of his lieutenant Mahommed Pasha, at Gori, in an attempt to provision the Turkish garrison of Tiflis.
In spite of his victories he was again deposed in February 1595, shortly after the accession of Mahommed III., and banished to Malghara; but in August was in power again and on the march to Wallachia.
The death of his successor, Lala Mahommed, three days later, was looked on as a sign from heaven, and Sinan became grand vizier for the fifth time.
Another Sinan Pasha was governor of Anatolia at the time of Mahommed II.'s death in 1481.
Like his brother Mahommed (1104-1118), who successfully rebelled against him, his most dangerous enemies were the Ismailites, who had succeeded in taking the fortress of Alamut (north of Kazvin) and become a formidable political power by the organization of bands of fedais, who were always ready, even at the sacrifice of their own lives, to murder any one whom they were commanded to slay.
Mahommed had been successful by the aid of his brother Sinjar, who from the year 1097 held the province of Khorasan with the capital Merv.
After the death of Mahommed, Sinjar became the real head of the family, though Irak acknowledged Mahmud, the son of Mahommed.
Other expeditions were undertaken by him against Khwarizm and Turkestan; the government of the former had been given by Barkiyaroq to Mahommed b.
1131); Toghrul, son of Mahommed, proclaimed by Sinjar (d.
1175); and Toghrul, son of Arslan, killed in 1194 by Inanej, son of his atabeg, Mahommed, who was in confederation with the Khwarizm shah of the epoch, Takash.
He died probably in i t06, and was succeeded by his son Mahommed (d.
The sultan Mahommed, however, set at liberty his eldest son Malik Shah, who reigned for some time, until he was treacherously murdered (it is not quite certain by whom), being succeeded by his brother Masud, who established himself at Konia (Iconium), from that time the residence of the Seljuks of Ram.
The founder of the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in 1023.
His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim Abenebet - who reigned by the title of El Motamid - was the third and last of the Abbadides.
MAHOMMED KASIM FERISHTA (c. 1570 - c. 1611), Persian historian, was born at Astrabad, on the shores of the Caspian Sea.
It contains the tomb of Mahommed Ghaus, erected during the early part of Akbar's reign.
In 1196 Gwalior was captured by Mahommed Ghori; it then passed into the hands of several chiefs until in 1559 Akbar gained possession of it, and made it a state prison for captives of rank.
In the 15th and 16th centuries it suffered frequently from the invasions of Tatars, Moldavians and Turks; and in 1672 the hetman of the Cossacks, Doroshenko, assisted by Sultan Mahommed IV.
He enjoyed a salary for defending the policy of Lord North's government, and held the lucrative post of London agent to Mahommed Ali, nabob of Arcot.
Not far from the town, by the banks of the river Makhazan, is the site of the battle fought in 1578 between Dom Sebastian, king of Portugal, and the Moors under Abd el Malek, in which the Moors were victorious, though both kings perished, as well as the deposed Mahommed XI., who had called in the Portuguese to his aid against Abd el Malek.
In the early part of the 18th century, however, the Rohilla Pathans established their independence in the country called by them Rohilkhand; and about 1748 the Rohilla chief Ali Mahommed made his first annexations in Bijnor, the rest of which soon fell under the Rohilla domination.
The northern districts were granted by Ali Mahommed to Najib Khan, who gradually extended his influence west of the Ganges and at Delhi, receiving the title of Najib-ud-daula and becoming paymaster of the royal forces.
The name appears to have been derived from the Yussuf ben-Serragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mahommed VII., who did that sovereign good service in his struggles to retain the crown of which he was three times deprived.
IBN HAZM [Abu Mahommed `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Hazm] (994-1064), Moslem theologian, was born in a suburb of Cordova.
In the 15th century it was held by Scanderbeg and by the Venetians, but Mahommed II.
Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din, born 1857; Princess Saliha, wife of Kurd Ismail Pasha; Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid, born 1869; Prince Seif-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine, wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899.
Among the more possible explanations is that the name is derived from that of Mahommed ibn Nusair, who was an Isma`ilite follower of the eleventh imam of the Shiites at the end of the 9th century.
In 1821 Kordofan was conquered by Mahommed Bey the defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt.
It remained under Egyptian rule till 1882 when Mahommed Ahmed, the mandi, raised the country to revolt.
Mahmud was reinstated by Fateh Khan, whom he appointed his vizier, and whose nephews, Dost Mahommed Khan and Kohn dil Khan, he placed respectively in the governments of Kabul and Kandahar.
While Dost Mahommed held Kabul, Kandahar became temporarily a sort of independent chiefship under two or three of his brothers.
Dost Mahommed was defeated near Kabul, and after surrender to the British force, was deported into Hindustan.
In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.
Fortunately for the country, an able grand vizier, Mahommed Sokolli, was at the head of affairs, and two years after Selim's accession succeeded in concluding at Constantinople an honourable treaty with the emperor Maximilian II., whereby the emperor agreed to pay to Turkey an annual "present" of 30,000 ducats (Feb.
Although in 1519 he was obliged to buy off the khan of the Crimea, Mahommed Girai, under the very walls of Moscow, towards the end of his reign he established the Russian influence on the Volga, and in 1530 placed the pretender Elanyei on the throne of Kazan.
From Panormus the amir or lord of Sicily, Mahommed ibn Abdallah, sent forth his plunderers throughout Sicily and even into southern Italy.
IBN HISHAM [Abu Mahommed `Abdulmalik ibn Hisham ibn Ayyub ul-Himyari] (d.
Mahommed al-Jumahi, 161162 (778).
Abu Nasr Mahommed b.
Mahommed al-Naushani, 292 (905).
Mahommed bTughj al-Ikshid, 321 (933).
Adid bC Mahommed Abdallah], 555567 (I 160-f 171).
Malik al-MansCr Mahommed, 595596 (1198-1199).
Malik AL-KAMIL Mahommed, 615635 (1218f 238).
The following years witnessed serious troubles in Syria caused by the Carmathians, which called for the intervention of the caliph, who at last succeeded in defeating these fanatics; the officer Mahommed b.
Fostat was taken by Mahommed b.
After a struggle between various pretenders to the viceroyalty, in which some pitched battles were fought, Mahommed b.
It is observable that some of those with which ~nkim is credited are also ascribed to Ibn Talfln and the IkshId (Mahommed b.
Mahommed al~ulaibI, while owing to the disputes between the Turkish generals who claimed supremacy at Bagdad, Mostanlirs name was mentioned in public prayer at that metropolis on the 12th of January 1058, when a Turkish adventurer BassIri was for a time in power.
The viziers offices were given to one of the caliphs creatures, Mahommed b.
On the death of al-Aziz on the 29tb of November 1198 in consequence of a hunting accident, his infant son Mahommed was raised to the throne with the title Malik al-Man~ur Nd~ir al-din, and his uncle al-Aftjal sent for from Sarkhad to take the post of regent or Atgbeg.
He followed the plan of dividing his empire between his sons, the eldest Mahommed, called Malik al-Kdmil, being his viceroy in Egypt, while al-Muazzam Isa governed Syria, al-Ashraf Musa his eastern and al-Malik al-Aubad Ayyub his northern possessions His attitude towards the Franks was at the first peaceful, but later in his reign he was compelled to adopt more strenuous measures.
His reign was marked by friendly relations with the Ottoman sultan Mahommed II., whose capture of Constantinople (1453) was the cause of great rejoicings in Egypt, but also by violent excesses on the part of the Mamelukes, who dictated the sultans policy.
As the consequence of a palace intrigue, which Kait Bey was too old to quell, on the 7th of August 1496, a day before his death, his son Mahommed was proclaimed sultan.
They were defeated by the governor Mahommed Pasha, who on the 5th of February 1610 entered Cairo in triumph, executed the ringleaders, and banished many others to Yemen.
A great financial reform was now effected by Mahommed Pasha, who readjusted the burdens imposed on the different communities of Egypt in accordance with their means.
Resuming his office he raised eighteen of his friends to the rank of bey, among them Ibrhim and Murd, who were afterwards at the head of affairs, as well as Mahommed Abul-Dhahab, who was closely connected with the rest of All Beys career.
347; Mahommed b.
420; Mahommed b.
629; Mahommed b.
703; Mahommed b.
after 928; Mahommed b.
412; Sanajt al-daub (Mahommed b.
608, author of the Shadow-play; and al-Busiri (Mahommed b.
Mahommed Khosrev was the first Turkish governor of Egypt after the expulsion of the French.
In March 1803 the British evacuated Alexandria, and Mahommed Bey al-AlfI accompanied them to England to consult respecting the means to be adopted for restoring the former power of the Mamelukes, who meanwhile took Minia and interrupted communication between Upper and Lower Egypt.
On the following day Mahommed Khosrev made good his escape, with his women and servants and his regular troops, and fled to Damietta by the river.
The death of Ali Pasha produced only temporary tranquillity; in a few days (February 12, 1804) the return of Mahommed Bey al-AlIT (called the Great) from England was the signal for fresh disturbances, which, by splitting the Mamelukes into two parties, accelerated their final overthrow.
The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
Mahommed Bey, the defterdgr, with another force of about the same strength, was then sent by Mehemet Ali against Kordofan with a like result, but not without a hard-fought engagement.
As a compromise Mukhtar Pasha suggested as the frontier a line drawn direct from Raf a to Ras Mahommed (the most southern point of the Sinai peninsula), which would have left the whole of the gulf of Akaba in Turkish territory.
In other words th claim of the Porte was, to quote Lord Cromer: to carry the Turkish frontier and strategical railways to Suez on the banks of the canal; or that if the Ras Mahommed line were adopted, the Turkish frontier would be advanced to the neighborhood of Nekhl, i.e.
A leader appeared in the person of Mahommed Ahmed, born in 1848, who had taken up his abode on Abba Island, and, acquiring great reputation for sanctity, had actively fomented insurrection.
In August 1881 a small force sent by Raouf Pasha to arrest Mahommed Abmed was destroyed, and the latter, proclaiming himself the mahdi, stood forth as the champion of revolt.
On the night of the 6th of May a combined movement was made from Suakin and Otao, which resulted in the surprise and break-up of a force of the enemy under Mahommed Sardun, and the capture of a large number of sheep and goats.
The mahdi, Mahommed Ahmed, died at Omdurman on the 22nd of June 1885.
was slain in January 1885, replaced Mahommed el Kheir as commander of the force for the conquest of Egypt, and brought large reinforcements to Dongola.
The Abyssinian Frontier.On the Abyssinian frontier Ras Adal was in command of a considerable force of Abyssinians early in 1886, and in June of that year he invaded Gallabat and defeated the dervishes on the plain of Madana; the dervish amir Mahommed Wad Ardal was killed and his camp captured.
Nizam-uddin Abu Mahommed Ilyas bin Yusuf, Persian poet, was born 535 A.H.
Khosrau and Shirin was inscribed to the reigning atabeg of Azerbaijan, Abu Ja`far Mahommed Pahlavan, and his brother Kizil Arslan, who, soon after his accession to the throne in 582 A.H., showed his gratitude to the poet by summoning him to his court, loading him with honours, and bestowing upon him the revenue of two villages, Hamd and Nijan.
In the middle of the 18th century, during the war between the rival claimants to the throne of the Carnatic, Mahommed Ali and Chanda Sahib, the English supported the claims of the former and the French those of the latter.
succeeded his father Mahommed I.
Shortly after this, being deeply affected by the death of his eldest son Prince Ala-ud-din, he abdicated in favour of Mahommed, his second son, then fourteen years of age.
Under Mahommed II.
The period of decadence was marked in the latter half of the 18th century by the formation of practically independent pashaliks or fiefs, such as those of Scutari under Mahommed of Bushat, Iannina under Ali of Tepelen, and Viden under Pasvan-oglu.
On the accession of his uncle Abd-ul-Aziz, Prince Mahommed Murad Effendi - as he was then called - was deprived of all share in public affairs and imprisoned, owing to his opposition to the sultan's plan for altering the order of succession.
Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed b.
He had, however, incurred punishment for refusing to obey a command of his master, Mahommed Bey.
After five years Mahommed Bey died and el-Jazzar returned to Egypt.
Dennie with a small force routed Dost Mahommed Khan, accompanied by a number of Uzbeg chiefs.
Any one has the right to appeal to the amir for trial, and the great amirs, Dost Mahommed and Abdur Rahman, were accessible at all times to the petitions of their subjects.
Only nine years after Mahommed's announcement of his mission they heard of the new prophet, and sent to Medina a deputation headed by a wise and holy man called Kais, to make inquiry.
As Mahommed Usbeg Khan, the eponymus of the medley of Tatar tribes called Usbegs, reigned in the 14th century A.D., this gives some possible light on the value of these so-called traditions.
His nephew, Shahabuddin Mahommed, repeatedly invaded India, conquering as far as Benares.
Herat remained thus till Kamran's death (1842), and after that was held by his able and wicked minister Yar Mahommed.
The rest of the country was divided among the Barakzais - Dost Mahommed, the ablest, getting Kabul.
Dost Mahommed, finding his troops deserting, passed the Hindu Kush, and Shah Shuja entered the capital (August 7).
Dost Mahommed surrendered (November 3, 1840) and was sent to India, where he was honourably treated.
Dost Mahommed now became the British ally, but on his death in 1863 the kingdom fell back into civil war, until his son, Shere Ali, had won his way to undisputed rulership in 1868.
Abdur Rahman, the son of the late amir Shere Ali's elder brother, had fought against Shere Ali in the war for succession to Dost Mahommed, had been driven beyond the Oxus, and had lived for ten years in exile with the Russians.
1861), who took the title of Mahommed VI.
In 711, or seventy-nine years after the death of Mahomet, an Arab army under Mahommed b.
Ala-ud-din had two nephews, Ghiyas-ud-din and Muiz-ud-din, the latter of whom, also called Shahab-ud-din by Mussulman chroniclers, and generally known in history as Mahommed Ghori, is the second of the great Mahommedan conquerors of India.
Mahommed Ghori achieved his object by playing off the rival kings against each other.
But Mahommed Ghori never settled permanently in India.
Mahommed Ghori died in 1206, being assassinated by some Ghakkar tribesmen while sleeping in his tent by the bank of the Indus; on his death both Ghor and Ghazni drop out of history, and Delhi first appears as the Mahommedan capital of India.
On the death of Mahommed Ghori, Kutb-ud-din at once laid aside the title of viceroy, and proclaimed himself sultan of Delhi.
Tughlak's son and successor, Mahommed b.
Mahommed was succeeded by his cousin Feroz, who likewise was not content without a new capital, which he placed a few miles north of Delhi, and called after his own name.
The independence of the Afghan kings - of Bengal is generally dated from 1336, when Mahommed Tughlak was yet on the throne.
This candidate was Mahommed Ali, afterwards known in history as Wala-jah.
On the whole, British influence predominated in the Carnatic, and their candidate, Mahommed Ali, maintained his position at Arcot.
In 1837, when the curtain rises upon the drama of British interference in Afghanistan, the usurper, Dost Mahommed Barakzai, was firmly established at Kabul.
The latter was unable to satisfy the demands of Dost Mahommed in the matter of Peshawar, and returned to India unsuccessful.
Macnaghten was treacherously murdered at an interview with the Afghan chief, Akbar Khan, eldest son of Dost Mahommed.
The great bazar at Kabul was blown up with gunpowder to fix a stigma upon the city; the prisoners were recovered; and all marched back to India, leaving Dost Mahommed to take undisputed possession of his throne.
Multan had previously fallen; and the Afghan horse under Dost Mahommed, who had forgotten their hereditary antipathy to the Sikhs in their greater hatred of the British name, were chased back with ignominy to their native hills.
Abdur Rahman Khan, the eldest male representative of the stock of Dost Mahommed, was then recognized as amir of Kabul.
The Mogul court of Delhi, especially during the reign of Mahommed Shah, nicknamed Rangila or the " dandy," greatly influenced change in these matters.
About the same time the constitutional party rose against Ali's vicegerent Mahommed, son of Abu Bekr, who had been the leader of the murderous attack on Othman.
Mahommed was beaten, taken in his flight, and, according to some reports, sewn in the skin of an ass and burned.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.