The other principal rivers in Bengal are the Sone, Gogra, Gandak, Kusi, Tista; the Hugh, formed by the junction of the Bhagirathi and Jalangi, and farther to the west, the Damodar and Rupnarayan; and in the south-west, the Mahanadi or great river of Orissa.
The principal hills are - (1) the Maikal range, situated in the north-western extremity of the district; (2) a chain of hills forming part of the Vindhyan range, on the north; (3) the Korba hills, an off-shoot of the Vindhyas, on the eastern boundary; and (4) the Sonakhan block of hills, in the vicinity of the Mahanadi river.
The Mahanadi is the principal river of the district, and governs the whole drainage and river system of the surrounding country.
The eastern part of the Nagpur country and the Chhattisgarh plain, comprising the Mahanadi basin, form the great rice tract of the province, its heavy rainfall and hard yellowish soil rendering it excellently adapted for the growth of this crop.
The middle and eastern divisions of the district, forming the south-western part of the Mahanadi delta, consist entirely of alluvial plains, watered by a network of channels through which the most southerly branch of that river, the Koyakhai, finds its way into the sea.
The District of Ctttack lies in the centre of Orissa, occupying the deltas of the Mahanadi and Brahmani, together with a hilly tract inland.
The best harbour in Cuttack district is at False Point, on the north of the Mahanadi estuary.
The bay receives many large rivers, of which the most important are the Ganges and Brahmaputra on the north, the Irrawaddy on the east, and the Mahanadi, Godavari, Kistna and Cauvery on the west.
(4) Sambalpur on the river Mahanadi in the Central Provinces.
Such may be seen on the canals of Cuttack, derived from the Mahanadi, a river of which the discharge does not exceed 400 cub.
The system consists of weirs over the rivers Gulleri, Mahanadi and Rushikulya in the backward province of Ganjam, south of Orissa.
This chain may be regarded as a single geographical feature, forming one of the principal watersheds of the peninsula, the waters to the north draining chiefly into the Nerbudda and the Ganges, those to the south into the Tapti, the Mahanadi, the Godavari and some smaller streams. In a meteorolgical point of view it is of considerable importance.
Sambalpur, on the upper channel of the Mahanadi river in the Central Provinces, is another spot once famous for diamonds.
In 1633 eight Englishmen from Masulipatam, under Ralph Cartwright, sailed northward to Harishpur near Cuttack on the mouth of the Mahanadi, and entered into negotiations to trade with the governor of Orissa; and' in June Bengal 1633 Cartwright founded a factory at Balasore, which settle- 33 g Y ?
Orissa embraces the rich deltas of the Mahanadi and the neighbouring rivers, bounded by the Bay of Bengal on the S.E., and walled in on the N.W.
The most important affluents of the Mahanadi are the Seonath and Hasdu.