Magnetized metals when cooled to the temperature of liquid air.
The metal, having first been uniformly tempered glasshard, should be annealed in steam at loo° C. for twenty or thirty hours; it should then be magnetized to saturation, and finally " aged " by a second immersion in steam for about five hours.
These electric pulses were made to act on an electromagnet at the receiving station, which, in accordance with Page's discovery, gave out a sound of a pitch corresponding to the number of times it was magnetized or demagnetized per second.
The other phenomenon is mentioned by Greek and Roman writers of the 1st century: a piece of iron, when brought into contact with a magnet, or even held near one, itself becomes " inductively " magnetized, and acquires the power of lifting iron.
The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.
The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.
These tongues are magnetized by the inducing action of a strong horse-shoe permanent magnet, S N, which is made in a curved shape for the sake of compactness.
Owing to hysteresis the part of the band magnetized is not symmetrically placed with regard to the magnetic poles, but advanced in the direction of motion of the band.
A bar of soft iron introduced into the coil is at once magnetized, the magnetism, however, disappearing almost completely as soon as the current ceases to flow.
Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.
A wire or rod in this condition is said to be circularly magnetized; it may be regarded as consisting of an indefinite number of elementary ring-magnets, having their axes coincident with the axis of the wire and their planes at right angles to it.
Let a magnetized knitting needle, having north and south poles at the two ends respectively, be broken in the middle; each half will be found to possess a north and a south pole, the appropriate supplementary poles appearing at the broken ends.
The potential due to a uniformly magnetized sphere of radius a for an external point at a distance r from the centre is V =:I ra 3 I cos 0/r 22, (23) 0 being the inclination of r to the magnetic axis.
Since 7ra'I is the moment of the sphere (=volume X magnetization), it appears from (10) that the magnetized sphere produces the same external effect as a very small magnet of equal moment placed at its centre and magnetized in the same direction; the resultant force therefore is the same as in (14).
Inside a magnetized body, B is the force that would be exerted on a unit pole if placed in a narrow crevasse cut in the body, the walls of the crevasse being perpendicular to the direction of the magnetization (Maxwell, § § 399, 604); and its numerical value, being partly due to the free magnetism on the walls, is generally very different from that of H.
In the case of a straight uniformly magnetized bar the direction of the magnetic force due to the poles of the magnet is from the north to the south pole outside the magnet, and from the south to the north inside.
When induction or magnetic flux takes place in a ferromagnetic metal, the metal becomes magnetized, but the magnetization at any point is proportional not to B, but to B - H.
The resultant magnetic field, therefore, is compounded of two fields, the one being due to the poles, and the other to the external causes which would be operative in the absence of the magnetized metal.
In certain cases, as, for instance, in an iron ring wrapped uniformly round with a coil of wire through which a current is passing, the induction is entirely within the metal; there are, consequently, no free poles, and the ring, though magnetized, constitutes a poleless magnet.
The ratio I/H is called the susceptibility of the magnetized substance, and is denoted by «.
Thus it happens that there is no definite relation between the magnetization of a piece of metal which has been previously magnetized and the strength of the field in which it is placed.
The small magnet may be a sphere rigidly magnetized in the direction of Ho; if this is replaced by an isotropic sphere inductively magnetized by the field, then, for a displacement so small that the magnetization of the sphere may be regarded as unchanged, we shall have dW = - vIdHo = v I+-, whence W = - 2 I + H2 ° (37) The mechanical force acting on the sphere in the direction of displacement x is 1 Hopkinson specified the retentiveness by the numerical value of the " residual induction " (=47rI).
If the wire consists of a ferromagnetic metal, it will become " circularly magnetized by the field, the lines of magnetization being, like the lines of force, concentric circles.
The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.
- Intensity of magnetization is most directly measured by observing the action which a magnetized body, generally a long straight rod, exerts upon a small magnetic needle placed near it.
The magnetized body which is to be tested should be placed in such a position that the force H P due to its poles may, at the spot occupied by the suspended needle, act in a direction at right angles to that due to the earth - that is, east and west.
In order to fulfil the requirement that the field which a magnetized rod produces at the magnetometer shall be at right angles to that of the earth, the rod may be conveniently placed in any one of three different positions with regard to the suspended needle.
Barrett in 1882 that a nickel bar contracts when magnetized, nothing of importance was added by Joule's results for nearly forty years.
Later researches have however thrown much new light upon a class of phenomena which cannot fail to have an important bearing upon the complete theory of 1 The same phenomenon is exhibited in a less marked degree when soft iron is magnetized in stronger fields (Ewing, Phil.
[[[Stress And Magnetization]] magnetized under very heavy loads, the wire was indeed found to undergo slight contraction.
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
If a long magnetized rod is divided transversely and the cut ends placed nearly in contact, the magnetic force inside the narrow air gap will be B = H +47rI.
The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.
4 Some writers have indeed contended that the stress in magnetized iron is not compressive, but tensile, even when, as in the case of a ring-magnet, there are no free ends.
In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.
The most interesting of his discoveries, now generally known as the " Wiedemann effect," is the following: If we magnetize longitudinally a straight wire which is fixed at one end and free at the other, and then pass an electric current through the wire (or first pass the current and then magnetize), the free end of the wire will twist in a certain direction depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron, and is magnetized (with a moderate force) so that its free end has north polarity, while the current through it passes from the fixed to the free end, then the free end as seen from the fixed end will twist in the direction of the hands of a watch; if either the magnetization or the current is reversed, the direction of the twist will be reversed.
If we twist the free end of a ferromagnetic wire while a current is passing through it, the wire becomes longitudinally magnetized, the direction of the magnetization depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron and is twisted so that its free end as seen from the fixed end turns in the direction of the hands of a watch, while 5 Phys.
Iron (moderately magnetized) expands along the lines of magnetization, and therefore for a right-handed spiral exhibits a right-handed twist.
Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists.
Maxwell has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a current passing through it.
If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.
A wire magnetized longitudinally and circularly becomes twisted.
Twisting a circularly magnetized wire produces longitudinal magnetization.
C. Twisting a longitudinally magnetized wire produces circular magnetization.
Let each of the effects A, B, C, D and E be called positive when it is such as is exhibited by moderately magnetized iron, and negative when its sense is opposite.
Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.
Nickel when magnetized is always positive to the unmagnetized metal.
To the magnetized cobalt was proportional to the square of the magnetic induction or of the magnetization.
If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.
As to whether the magnetized plate becomes positive or negative to the other, different experimenters are not in agreement.
When the two electrodes are ferro-magnetic, the direction of the current through the liquid is from the unmagnetized to the magnetized electrode, the latter being least attacked; with diamagnetic electrodes the reverse is the case.
This is attributed to the action of local currents set up between unequally magnetized portions of the iron.
Steel articles, such as knitting or sewing needles and pieces of flat spring, may be readily magnetized by stroking them with the bar-magnet; after having produced magnetism in any number of other bodies, the magnet will have lost nothing of its own virtue.
The poles of a piece of magnetized steel may be at once distinguished if the two ends are successively presented to the compass; that end which attracts the south pole of the compass needle (and is therefore north) may be marked for easy identification.
This can be more easily shown if the compass is replaced by a magnetized knitting needle, supported horizontally by a thread.
The wire will in fact become temporarily magnetized by induction, that end of it which is nearest to the pole of the magnet acquiring opposite polarity, and behaving as if it were the pole of a permanent magnet.
If the inductively magnetized body lies in a part of the field which happens to be uniform there will be no resulting force tending to move the body, and it will not be " attracted."
If a magnetized needle were supported so that it could move freely'about its centre of gravity it would not generally settle with its axis in a horizontal position, but would come to rest with its north-seeking pole either higher or lower than its centre.
Yet it will be magnetized; for if it is cut through and the cut ends are drawn apart, each end will be found to exhibit polarity.
The moment, M, M or V, of a uniformly and longitudinally magnetized bar-magnet is the product of its length into the strength of one of its poles; it is the moment of the couple acting on the magnet when placed in a field of unit intensity with its axis perpendicular to the direction of the field.
If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.
A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.
Fleming, it 47r requires about 18 foot-pounds of work to make a complete mag netic cycle in a cubic foot of wrought iron, strongly magnetized first one way and then the other, the work so expended taking the form of heat in the mass.
The intensity of magnetization, or, more shortly, the magnetization of a uniformly magnetized body is defined as the magnetic moment per unit of volume, and is denoted by I, I, or „a.