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magnetized

magnetized Sentence Examples

  • magnetized metals when cooled to the temperature of liquid air.

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  • The metal, having first been uniformly tempered glasshard, should be annealed in steam at loo° C. for twenty or thirty hours; it should then be magnetized to saturation, and finally " aged " by a second immersion in steam for about five hours.

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  • These electric pulses were made to act on an electromagnet at the receiving station, which, in accordance with Page's discovery, gave out a sound of a pitch corresponding to the number of times it was magnetized or demagnetized per second.

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  • The other phenomenon is mentioned by Greek and Roman writers of the 1st century: a piece of iron, when brought into contact with a magnet, or even held near one, itself becomes " inductively " magnetized, and acquires the power of lifting iron.

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  • The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.

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  • The small magnet may be a sphere rigidly magnetized in the direction of Ho; if this is replaced by an isotropic sphere inductively magnetized by the field, then, for a displacement so small that the magnetization of the sphere may be regarded as unchanged, we shall have dW = - vIdHo = v I+-, whence W = - 2 I + H2 ° (37) The mechanical force acting on the sphere in the direction of displacement x is 1 Hopkinson specified the retentiveness by the numerical value of the " residual induction " (=47rI).

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  • The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.

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  • These tongues are magnetized by the inducing action of a strong horse-shoe permanent magnet, S N, which is made in a curved shape for the sake of compactness.

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  • Owing to hysteresis the part of the band magnetized is not symmetrically placed with regard to the magnetic poles, but advanced in the direction of motion of the band.

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  • A bar of soft iron introduced into the coil is at once magnetized, the magnetism, however, disappearing almost completely as soon as the current ceases to flow.

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  • Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.

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  • A wire or rod in this condition is said to be circularly magnetized; it may be regarded as consisting of an indefinite number of elementary ring-magnets, having their axes coincident with the axis of the wire and their planes at right angles to it.

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  • Let a magnetized knitting needle, having north and south poles at the two ends respectively, be broken in the middle; each half will be found to possess a north and a south pole, the appropriate supplementary poles appearing at the broken ends.

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  • If the constituent solenoids are parallel and of equal strength, the magnet is also uniformly magnetized.

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  • A magnet consisting of a series of plane shells of equal strength arranged at right angles to the direction of magnetization will be uniformly magnetized.

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  • The potential due to a uniformly magnetized sphere of radius a for an external point at a distance r from the centre is V =:I ra 3 I cos 0/r 22, (23) 0 being the inclination of r to the magnetic axis.

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  • Since 7ra'I is the moment of the sphere (=volume X magnetization), it appears from (10) that the magnetized sphere produces the same external effect as a very small magnet of equal moment placed at its centre and magnetized in the same direction; the resultant force therefore is the same as in (14).

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  • Inside a magnetized body, B is the force that would be exerted on a unit pole if placed in a narrow crevasse cut in the body, the walls of the crevasse being perpendicular to the direction of the magnetization (Maxwell, § § 399, 604); and its numerical value, being partly due to the free magnetism on the walls, is generally very different from that of H.

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  • In the case of a straight uniformly magnetized bar the direction of the magnetic force due to the poles of the magnet is from the north to the south pole outside the magnet, and from the south to the north inside.

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  • When induction or magnetic flux takes place in a ferromagnetic metal, the metal becomes magnetized, but the magnetization at any point is proportional not to B, but to B - H.

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  • The resultant magnetic field, therefore, is compounded of two fields, the one being due to the poles, and the other to the external causes which would be operative in the absence of the magnetized metal.

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  • In certain cases, as, for instance, in an iron ring wrapped uniformly round with a coil of wire through which a current is passing, the induction is entirely within the metal; there are, consequently, no free poles, and the ring, though magnetized, constitutes a poleless magnet.

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  • The ratio I/H is called the susceptibility of the magnetized substance, and is denoted by «.

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  • Thus it happens that there is no definite relation between the magnetization of a piece of metal which has been previously magnetized and the strength of the field in which it is placed.

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  • If the wire consists of a ferromagnetic metal, it will become " circularly magnetized by the field, the lines of magnetization being, like the lines of force, concentric circles.

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  • The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.

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  • - Intensity of magnetization is most directly measured by observing the action which a magnetized body, generally a long straight rod, exerts upon a small magnetic needle placed near it.

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  • The magnetized body which is to be tested should be placed in such a position that the force H P due to its poles may, at the spot occupied by the suspended needle, act in a direction at right angles to that due to the earth - that is, east and west.

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  • In order to fulfil the requirement that the field which a magnetized rod produces at the magnetometer shall be at right angles to that of the earth, the rod may be conveniently placed in any one of three different positions with regard to the suspended needle.

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  • Ii shows the relation of B to H in a specimen which has never before been magnetized.

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  • Barrett in 1882 that a nickel bar contracts when magnetized, nothing of importance was added by Joule's results for nearly forty years.

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  • Later researches have however thrown much new light upon a class of phenomena which cannot fail to have an important bearing upon the complete theory of 1 The same phenomenon is exhibited in a less marked degree when soft iron is magnetized in stronger fields (Ewing, Phil.

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  • [[[Stress And Magnetization]] magnetized under very heavy loads, the wire was indeed found to undergo slight contraction.

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  • Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

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  • If a long magnetized rod is divided transversely and the cut ends placed nearly in contact, the magnetic force inside the narrow air gap will be B = H +47rI.

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  • The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.

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  • 4 Some writers have indeed contended that the stress in magnetized iron is not compressive, but tensile, even when, as in the case of a ring-magnet, there are no free ends.

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  • So, too, the Villari reversals in iron and cobalt might have been predicted - as indeed that in cobalt actually was - from a knowledge of the changes of length which those metals exhibit when magnetized.

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  • In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.

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  • The most interesting of his discoveries, now generally known as the " Wiedemann effect," is the following: If we magnetize longitudinally a straight wire which is fixed at one end and free at the other, and then pass an electric current through the wire (or first pass the current and then magnetize), the free end of the wire will twist in a certain direction depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron, and is magnetized (with a moderate force) so that its free end has north polarity, while the current through it passes from the fixed to the free end, then the free end as seen from the fixed end will twist in the direction of the hands of a watch; if either the magnetization or the current is reversed, the direction of the twist will be reversed.

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  • If we twist the free end of a ferromagnetic wire while a current is passing through it, the wire becomes longitudinally magnetized, the direction of the magnetization depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron and is twisted so that its free end as seen from the fixed end turns in the direction of the hands of a watch, while 5 Phys.

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  • Iron (moderately magnetized) expands along the lines of magnetization, and therefore for a right-handed spiral exhibits a right-handed twist.

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  • Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists.

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  • Maxwell has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a current passing through it.

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  • If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.

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  • A wire magnetized longitudinally and circularly becomes twisted.

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  • Twisting a circularly magnetized wire produces longitudinal magnetization.

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  • C. Twisting a longitudinally magnetized wire produces circular magnetization.

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  • Let each of the effects A, B, C, D and E be called positive when it is such as is exhibited by moderately magnetized iron, and negative when its sense is opposite.

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  • Then the results of a large number of investigations may be briefly summarized as follows: (W) =weakly magnetized.

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  • B r (S) = strongly magnetized.

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  • Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.

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  • Nickel when magnetized is always positive to the unmagnetized metal.

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  • to the magnetized cobalt was proportional to the square of the magnetic induction or of the magnetization.

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  • If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.

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  • As to whether the magnetized plate becomes positive or negative to the other, different experimenters are not in agreement.

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  • When the two electrodes are ferro-magnetic, the direction of the current through the liquid is from the unmagnetized to the magnetized electrode, the latter being least attacked; with diamagnetic electrodes the reverse is the case.

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  • This is attributed to the action of local currents set up between unequally magnetized portions of the iron.

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  • The greatest of Gilbert's discoveries was that the globe of the earth was magnetic and a magnet; the evidence by which he supported this view was derived chiefly from ingenious experiments made with a spherical lodestone or lerrella, as he termed it, and from his original observation that an iron bar could be magnetized by the earth's force.

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  • Coulomb, 2 however, by using long and thin steel rods, symmetrically magnetized, and so arranged that disturbing influences became negligibly small, was enabled to deduce from his experiments with reasonable certainty the law that the force of attraction or repulsion between two poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.

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  • When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.

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  • The mica card is generally mounted on a brass framework, F F, with a brass cap, C, fitted with a sapphire centre and carrying four magnetized needles, N, N, N, N, as in fig.

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  • The disturbance of the compass by the magnetism of the hull is generally modified, sometimes favourably, more often un favourably, by the magnetized fittings of the ship, such as masts, conning towers, deck houses, engines and boilers.

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  • Soft iron is iron which becomes instantly magnetized by induction when exposed to any magnetic force, but has no power of retaining its magnetism.

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  • Hard iron is less susceptible of being magnetized, but when once magnetized it retains its magnetism permanently.

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  • If an iron ship be swung when upright for deviation, and the mean horizontal and vertical magnetic forces at the compass positions be also observed in different parts of the world, mathematical analysis shows that the deviations are caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by the transient induced magnetism of soft iron both horizontal and vertical, and in a lesser degree by iron which is neither magnetically hard nor soft, but which becomes magnetized in the same manner as hard iron, though it gradually loses its magnetism on change of conditions, as, for example, in the case of a ship, repaired and hammered in dock, steaming in an opposite direction at sea.

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  • Some vessels are more liable to become sub-permanently magnetized than others, and as no corrector has been found for this source of deviation the navigator must determine its amount by observation.

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  • Bailak Kibdjaki, also, an Arabian writer, shows in his Merchant's Treasure, a work given to the world in 1282, that the magnetized needle, floated on water by means of a splinter of wood or a reed, was employed on the Syrian seas at the time of his voyage from Tripoli to Alexandria (1242), and adds:"They say that the captains who navigate the Indian seas use, instead of the needle and splinter, a sort of fish made out of hollow iron, which, when thrown into the water, swims upon the surface, and points out the north and south with its head and tail" (Klaproth, Lettre, p. 57).

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  • The Arab traders in the Levant certainly used a floating compass, as did the Italians before the introduction of the pivoted needle; the magnetized piece of iron being floated upon a small raft of cork or reeds in a bowl of water.

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  • He introduced a pattern having four or five parallel straight strips of magnetized steel fixed under a card, a form which remained the standard admiralty type until the introduction of the modern Thomson (Kelvin) compass in 1876.

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  • Sturgeon in 1824 wound a copper wire round a bar of iron bent in the shape of a horseshoe, and passing a voltaic current through the wire showed that the iron became powerfully magnetized as long as the connexion with the pile was maintained (Trans.

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  • Nobili (1784-1835) in 1825 conceived the ingenious idea of neutralizing the directive effect of the earth's magnetism by employing a pair of magnetized steel needles fixed to one axis, but with their magnetic poles pointing in opposite directions.

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  • Abandoning the long and somewhat heavy magnetic needles that had been used up to that date in galvanometers, he attached to the back of a very small mirror made of microscopic glass a fragment of magnetized watch-spring, and suspended the mirror and needle by means of a cocoon fibre in the centre of a coil of insulated wire.

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  • It is attracted by a magnet and may be magnetized, but the magnetization is quickly lost.

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  • For many conditions, including colitis, eczema or psoriasis, we recommend drinking magnetized water.

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  • Waves and instabilities in fully ionized (and magnetized) fluid and kinetic plasmas will also be addressed.

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  • Magnetic susceptibility The magnetic susceptibility of a material is its ability to become magnetized by an external magnetic susceptibility The magnetic susceptibility of a material is its ability to become magnetized by an external magnetic field.

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  • Needles were magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone, a lump of magnetic rock called magnetite.

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  • magnetized water would alter the individual's running performance.

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  • magnetized plasma expelled by galaxies.

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  • magnetized neutron stars that are born in a violent explosion marking the death of massive stars.

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  • magnetized telegraph wire stretched from one room to another located in a remote part of the building.

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  • Pulsars are dense, highly magnetized neutron stars that are born in a violent explosion marking the death of massive stars.

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  • However, slower waves are allowed in a magnetized plasma.

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  • The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.

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  • The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.

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  • The armature is placed between the poles of the electromagnet, and being magnetized by the magnet m it will oscillate to the right or left under the action of the poles of the electromagnet M according as the current passes through M in one direction or the other.

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  • These tongues are magnetized by the inducing action of a strong horse-shoe permanent magnet, S N, which is made in a curved shape for the sake of compactness.

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  • Owing to hysteresis the part of the band magnetized is not symmetrically placed with regard to the magnetic poles, but advanced in the direction of motion of the band.

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  • These electric pulses were made to act on an electromagnet at the receiving station, which, in accordance with Page's discovery, gave out a sound of a pitch corresponding to the number of times it was magnetized or demagnetized per second.

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  • The other phenomenon is mentioned by Greek and Roman writers of the 1st century: a piece of iron, when brought into contact with a magnet, or even held near one, itself becomes " inductively " magnetized, and acquires the power of lifting iron.

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  • A bar of soft iron introduced into the coil is at once magnetized, the magnetism, however, disappearing almost completely as soon as the current ceases to flow.

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  • Steel articles, such as knitting or sewing needles and pieces of flat spring, may be readily magnetized by stroking them with the bar-magnet; after having produced magnetism in any number of other bodies, the magnet will have lost nothing of its own virtue.

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  • The wire will in fact become temporarily magnetized by induction, that end of it which is nearest to the pole of the magnet acquiring opposite polarity, and behaving as if it were the pole of a permanent magnet.

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  • If the inductively magnetized body lies in a part of the field which happens to be uniform there will be no resulting force tending to move the body, and it will not be " attracted."

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  • If a magnetized needle were supported so that it could move freely'about its centre of gravity it would not generally settle with its axis in a horizontal position, but would come to rest with its north-seeking pole either higher or lower than its centre.

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  • Yet it will be magnetized; for if it is cut through and the cut ends are drawn apart, each end will be found to exhibit polarity.

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  • Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.

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  • A wire or rod in this condition is said to be circularly magnetized; it may be regarded as consisting of an indefinite number of elementary ring-magnets, having their axes coincident with the axis of the wire and their planes at right angles to it.

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  • Let a magnetized knitting needle, having north and south poles at the two ends respectively, be broken in the middle; each half will be found to possess a north and a south pole, the appropriate supplementary poles appearing at the broken ends.

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  • The moment, M, M or V, of a uniformly and longitudinally magnetized bar-magnet is the product of its length into the strength of one of its poles; it is the moment of the couple acting on the magnet when placed in a field of unit intensity with its axis perpendicular to the direction of the field.

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  • The intensity of magnetization, or, more shortly, the magnetization of a uniformly magnetized body is defined as the magnetic moment per unit of volume, and is denoted by I, I, or „a.

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  • If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.

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  • If the constituent solenoids are parallel and of equal strength, the magnet is also uniformly magnetized.

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  • A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.

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  • A magnet consisting of a series of plane shells of equal strength arranged at right angles to the direction of magnetization will be uniformly magnetized.

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  • The potential due to a uniformly magnetized sphere of radius a for an external point at a distance r from the centre is V =:I ra 3 I cos 0/r 22, (23) 0 being the inclination of r to the magnetic axis.

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  • Since 7ra'I is the moment of the sphere (=volume X magnetization), it appears from (10) that the magnetized sphere produces the same external effect as a very small magnet of equal moment placed at its centre and magnetized in the same direction; the resultant force therefore is the same as in (14).

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  • Inside a magnetized body, B is the force that would be exerted on a unit pole if placed in a narrow crevasse cut in the body, the walls of the crevasse being perpendicular to the direction of the magnetization (Maxwell, § § 399, 604); and its numerical value, being partly due to the free magnetism on the walls, is generally very different from that of H.

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  • In the case of a straight uniformly magnetized bar the direction of the magnetic force due to the poles of the magnet is from the north to the south pole outside the magnet, and from the south to the north inside.

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  • When induction or magnetic flux takes place in a ferromagnetic metal, the metal becomes magnetized, but the magnetization at any point is proportional not to B, but to B - H.

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  • The resultant magnetic field, therefore, is compounded of two fields, the one being due to the poles, and the other to the external causes which would be operative in the absence of the magnetized metal.

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  • In certain cases, as, for instance, in an iron ring wrapped uniformly round with a coil of wire through which a current is passing, the induction is entirely within the metal; there are, consequently, no free poles, and the ring, though magnetized, constitutes a poleless magnet.

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  • The ratio I/H is called the susceptibility of the magnetized substance, and is denoted by «.

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  • Thus it happens that there is no definite relation between the magnetization of a piece of metal which has been previously magnetized and the strength of the field in which it is placed.

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  • The small magnet may be a sphere rigidly magnetized in the direction of Ho; if this is replaced by an isotropic sphere inductively magnetized by the field, then, for a displacement so small that the magnetization of the sphere may be regarded as unchanged, we shall have dW = - vIdHo = v I+-, whence W = - 2 I + H2 ° (37) The mechanical force acting on the sphere in the direction of displacement x is 1 Hopkinson specified the retentiveness by the numerical value of the " residual induction " (=47rI).

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  • If the wire consists of a ferromagnetic metal, it will become " circularly magnetized by the field, the lines of magnetization being, like the lines of force, concentric circles.

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  • The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.

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  • - Intensity of magnetization is most directly measured by observing the action which a magnetized body, generally a long straight rod, exerts upon a small magnetic needle placed near it.

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  • The magnetized body which is to be tested should be placed in such a position that the force H P due to its poles may, at the spot occupied by the suspended needle, act in a direction at right angles to that due to the earth - that is, east and west.

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  • In order to fulfil the requirement that the field which a magnetized rod produces at the magnetometer shall be at right angles to that of the earth, the rod may be conveniently placed in any one of three different positions with regard to the suspended needle.

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  • Fleming, it 47r requires about 18 foot-pounds of work to make a complete mag netic cycle in a cubic foot of wrought iron, strongly magnetized first one way and then the other, the work so expended taking the form of heat in the mass.

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  • Ii shows the relation of B to H in a specimen which has never before been magnetized.

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  • Barrett in 1882 that a nickel bar contracts when magnetized, nothing of importance was added by Joule's results for nearly forty years.

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  • Later researches have however thrown much new light upon a class of phenomena which cannot fail to have an important bearing upon the complete theory of 1 The same phenomenon is exhibited in a less marked degree when soft iron is magnetized in stronger fields (Ewing, Phil.

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  • [[[Stress And Magnetization]] magnetized under very heavy loads, the wire was indeed found to undergo slight contraction.

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  • Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

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  • If a long magnetized rod is divided transversely and the cut ends placed nearly in contact, the magnetic force inside the narrow air gap will be B = H +47rI.

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  • The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.

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  • 4 Some writers have indeed contended that the stress in magnetized iron is not compressive, but tensile, even when, as in the case of a ring-magnet, there are no free ends.

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  • So, too, the Villari reversals in iron and cobalt might have been predicted - as indeed that in cobalt actually was - from a knowledge of the changes of length which those metals exhibit when magnetized.

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  • In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.

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  • The most interesting of his discoveries, now generally known as the " Wiedemann effect," is the following: If we magnetize longitudinally a straight wire which is fixed at one end and free at the other, and then pass an electric current through the wire (or first pass the current and then magnetize), the free end of the wire will twist in a certain direction depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron, and is magnetized (with a moderate force) so that its free end has north polarity, while the current through it passes from the fixed to the free end, then the free end as seen from the fixed end will twist in the direction of the hands of a watch; if either the magnetization or the current is reversed, the direction of the twist will be reversed.

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  • If we twist the free end of a ferromagnetic wire while a current is passing through it, the wire becomes longitudinally magnetized, the direction of the magnetization depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron and is twisted so that its free end as seen from the fixed end turns in the direction of the hands of a watch, while 5 Phys.

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  • Iron (moderately magnetized) expands along the lines of magnetization, and therefore for a right-handed spiral exhibits a right-handed twist.

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  • Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists.

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  • Maxwell has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a current passing through it.

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  • If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.

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  • A wire magnetized longitudinally and circularly becomes twisted.

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  • Twisting a circularly magnetized wire produces longitudinal magnetization.

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  • C. Twisting a longitudinally magnetized wire produces circular magnetization.

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  • Let each of the effects A, B, C, D and E be called positive when it is such as is exhibited by moderately magnetized iron, and negative when its sense is opposite.

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  • Then the results of a large number of investigations may be briefly summarized as follows: (W) =weakly magnetized.

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  • B r (S) = strongly magnetized.

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  • magnetized metals when cooled to the temperature of liquid air.

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  • The metals, which were prepared in the form of small rods, were magnetized between the poles of an electromagnet and tested with a magnetometer at temperatures of - 186° and 15°.

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  • The metal, having first been uniformly tempered glasshard, should be annealed in steam at loo° C. for twenty or thirty hours; it should then be magnetized to saturation, and finally " aged " by a second immersion in steam for about five hours.

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  • Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.

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  • Nickel when magnetized is always positive to the unmagnetized metal.

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  • to the magnetized cobalt was proportional to the square of the magnetic induction or of the magnetization.

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  • If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.

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  • As to whether the magnetized plate becomes positive or negative to the other, different experimenters are not in agreement.

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  • When the two electrodes are ferro-magnetic, the direction of the current through the liquid is from the unmagnetized to the magnetized electrode, the latter being least attacked; with diamagnetic electrodes the reverse is the case.

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  • This is attributed to the action of local currents set up between unequally magnetized portions of the iron.

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  • The greatest of Gilbert's discoveries was that the globe of the earth was magnetic and a magnet; the evidence by which he supported this view was derived chiefly from ingenious experiments made with a spherical lodestone or lerrella, as he termed it, and from his original observation that an iron bar could be magnetized by the earth's force.

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  • Coulomb, 2 however, by using long and thin steel rods, symmetrically magnetized, and so arranged that disturbing influences became negligibly small, was enabled to deduce from his experiments with reasonable certainty the law that the force of attraction or repulsion between two poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.

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  • When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.

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  • On this hypothesis Poisson investigated the forces due to bodies magnetized in any manner, and also originated the mathematical theory of magnetic induction.

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  • The mica card is generally mounted on a brass framework, F F, with a brass cap, C, fitted with a sapphire centre and carrying four magnetized needles, N, N, N, N, as in fig.

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  • The disturbance of the compass by the magnetism of the hull is generally modified, sometimes favourably, more often un favourably, by the magnetized fittings of the ship, such as masts, conning towers, deck houses, engines and boilers.

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  • Soft iron is iron which becomes instantly magnetized by induction when exposed to any magnetic force, but has no power of retaining its magnetism.

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  • Hard iron is less susceptible of being magnetized, but when once magnetized it retains its magnetism permanently.

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  • If an iron ship be swung when upright for deviation, and the mean horizontal and vertical magnetic forces at the compass positions be also observed in different parts of the world, mathematical analysis shows that the deviations are caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by the transient induced magnetism of soft iron both horizontal and vertical, and in a lesser degree by iron which is neither magnetically hard nor soft, but which becomes magnetized in the same manner as hard iron, though it gradually loses its magnetism on change of conditions, as, for example, in the case of a ship, repaired and hammered in dock, steaming in an opposite direction at sea.

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  • Some vessels are more liable to become sub-permanently magnetized than others, and as no corrector has been found for this source of deviation the navigator must determine its amount by observation.

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  • Bailak Kibdjaki, also, an Arabian writer, shows in his Merchant's Treasure, a work given to the world in 1282, that the magnetized needle, floated on water by means of a splinter of wood or a reed, was employed on the Syrian seas at the time of his voyage from Tripoli to Alexandria (1242), and adds:"They say that the captains who navigate the Indian seas use, instead of the needle and splinter, a sort of fish made out of hollow iron, which, when thrown into the water, swims upon the surface, and points out the north and south with its head and tail" (Klaproth, Lettre, p. 57).

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  • The Arab traders in the Levant certainly used a floating compass, as did the Italians before the introduction of the pivoted needle; the magnetized piece of iron being floated upon a small raft of cork or reeds in a bowl of water.

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  • Cardinal Jacques de Vitry, bishop of Acon in Palestine, in his History (cap. 89), written about the year 1218, speaks of the magnetic needle as "most necessary for such as sail the sea"; 1 and another French crusader, his contemporary, Vincent de Beauvais, states that the adamant (lodestone) is found in Arabia, and mentions a method of using a needle magnetized by it which is similar to that described by Kibdjaki.

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  • He introduced a pattern having four or five parallel straight strips of magnetized steel fixed under a card, a form which remained the standard admiralty type until the introduction of the modern Thomson (Kelvin) compass in 1876.

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  • Sturgeon in 1824 wound a copper wire round a bar of iron bent in the shape of a horseshoe, and passing a voltaic current through the wire showed that the iron became powerfully magnetized as long as the connexion with the pile was maintained (Trans.

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  • Nobili (1784-1835) in 1825 conceived the ingenious idea of neutralizing the directive effect of the earth's magnetism by employing a pair of magnetized steel needles fixed to one axis, but with their magnetic poles pointing in opposite directions.

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  • Abandoning the long and somewhat heavy magnetic needles that had been used up to that date in galvanometers, he attached to the back of a very small mirror made of microscopic glass a fragment of magnetized watch-spring, and suspended the mirror and needle by means of a cocoon fibre in the centre of a coil of insulated wire.

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  • It is attracted by a magnet and may be magnetized, but the magnetization is quickly lost.

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  • The entire board is magnetized so displaying photos is as simple as placing a magnet in each photo corner.

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  • The medallion is magnetized so you can also wear it as one piece if you decide to let your friendship be with Jacob.

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  • Convenience: The clips are lightweight and the magnets are stronger than many other magnetized sunglasses.

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  • A less common cause of internal injuries to the nose in older children and adolescents is the use of magnetized jewelry as a substitute for body piercing.

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  • Steel articles, such as knitting or sewing needles and pieces of flat spring, may be readily magnetized by stroking them with the bar-magnet; after having produced magnetism in any number of other bodies, the magnet will have lost nothing of its own virtue.

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  • The poles of a piece of magnetized steel may be at once distinguished if the two ends are successively presented to the compass; that end which attracts the south pole of the compass needle (and is therefore north) may be marked for easy identification.

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  • This can be more easily shown if the compass is replaced by a magnetized knitting needle, supported horizontally by a thread.

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  • The wire will in fact become temporarily magnetized by induction, that end of it which is nearest to the pole of the magnet acquiring opposite polarity, and behaving as if it were the pole of a permanent magnet.

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  • If the inductively magnetized body lies in a part of the field which happens to be uniform there will be no resulting force tending to move the body, and it will not be " attracted."

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  • If a magnetized needle were supported so that it could move freely'about its centre of gravity it would not generally settle with its axis in a horizontal position, but would come to rest with its north-seeking pole either higher or lower than its centre.

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  • Yet it will be magnetized; for if it is cut through and the cut ends are drawn apart, each end will be found to exhibit polarity.

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  • The moment, M, M or V, of a uniformly and longitudinally magnetized bar-magnet is the product of its length into the strength of one of its poles; it is the moment of the couple acting on the magnet when placed in a field of unit intensity with its axis perpendicular to the direction of the field.

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  • If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.

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  • A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.

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  • Fleming, it 47r requires about 18 foot-pounds of work to make a complete mag netic cycle in a cubic foot of wrought iron, strongly magnetized first one way and then the other, the work so expended taking the form of heat in the mass.

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  • The poles of a piece of magnetized steel may be at once distinguished if the two ends are successively presented to the compass; that end which attracts the south pole of the compass needle (and is therefore north) may be marked for easy identification.

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  • This can be more easily shown if the compass is replaced by a magnetized knitting needle, supported horizontally by a thread.

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  • The intensity of magnetization, or, more shortly, the magnetization of a uniformly magnetized body is defined as the magnetic moment per unit of volume, and is denoted by I, I, or „a.

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