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magnesium

magnesium

magnesium Sentence Examples

  • The barium and magnesium salts of this acid are formed when baryta and magnesia are fused with cobalt sesquioxide.

  • Phys., 1895, 6, p. 296) heats three parts of the oxide with one part of magnesium powder.

  • It does not react with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated temperatures.

  • Boron hydride has probably never been isolated in the pure condition; on heating boron trioxide with magnesium filings, a magnesium boride Mg 3 B 2 is obtained, and if this be decomposed with dilute hydrochloric acid a very evil-smelling gas, consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and boron hydride, is obtained.

  • of yttria, Y203, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium.

  • The green plant prefers as a rule nitrates of various metals, such as calcium, magnesium or potassium.

  • It may be in the form of an albumen crystal sometimes associated with a more or less spherical bodygloboid-composed of a combination of an organic substance with a double phosphate of magnesium and calcium.

  • The so-called alkaline earth-metals are the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.

  • Beryllium and magnesium are permanent in dry air; calcium, strontium and barium, however, oxidize rapidly on exposure.

  • Magnesium sulphate may be given by the mouth, but is poisonous if injected intravenously.

  • The other minerals found are silver, lead, copper, magnesium and lignite coal.

  • By heating with a small quantity of magnesium it is converted into germanious oxide, GeO.

  • copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).

  • The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.

  • of calcium and magnesium.

  • In 1808 Davy isolated sodium and potassium; he then turned his attention to the preparation of metallic calcium, barium, strontium and magnesium.

  • If the hot bead is colourless and remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium.

  • The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings.

  • Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.

  • For example, episomorphs of white potash alum and violet chrome alum, of white magnesium sulphate and green nickel sulphate, and of many other pairs of salts, have been obtained.

  • Magnesium sulphate (orthorhombic) takes up ferrous sulphate (monoclinic) to the extent of 19%, forming isomorphous orthorhombic crystals; ferrous sulphate, on the other hand, takes up magnesium sulphate to the extent of 54% to form monoclinic crystals.

  • By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corresponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, the lower line isomor phous crystals of stable monoclinic ferrous sulphate and unstable monoclinic magnesium sulphate.

  • Parker's series of photographs taken in the catacombs by the magnesium light.'

  • Hedenbergite, or calcium iron pyroxene, is a black mineral closely allied to diopside and, owing to the isomorphous replacement of iron by magnesium, there is no sharp line of division between them.

  • Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.

  • It combines directly with lithium, calcium and magnesium when heated, whilst nitrides of the rare earth metals are also produced when their oxides are mixed with magnesium and heated in a current of nitrogen (C. Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1900, 131, p. 837).

  • - These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.

  • All of this is not available, for carbonic acid is present as such in solution, as bicarbonate (of magnesium mainly) and as normal carbonate.

  • The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.

  • Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.

  • 5.09 Magnesium chloride.

  • The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.

  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.

  • Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.

  • The treatment is the prompt use of emetics, or the stomach should be washed out, and large doses of sodium or magnesium sulphate given in order to form an insoluble sulphate.

  • soc. chim., 1904 [31, 31, p.1306) prepares aldehydes by the gradual addition of disubstituted formamides (dissolved in anhydrous ether) to magnesium alkyl haloids, the best yields being obtained by the use of diethyl formamide.

  • In the German Patent 1 57573 (1904) it is shown that by the action of at least two molecular proportions of an alkyl formate on two molecular proportions of a magnesium alkyl or aryl haloid, a complex addition compound is formed, which readily decomposes into a basic magnesium salt and an aldehyde, C H MgBr-f-H000R-RO�CH�C H.

  • Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.

  • The newer glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of chemical constituents, the most important being the oxides of barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or without the addition of the bases already named in reference to the older glasses, and - among acid bodies - boric anhydride (B20 3) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying extent.

  • It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.

  • The older methods used for the preparation of the amorphous form, namely the decomposition of silicon halides or silicofluorides by the alkali metals, or of silica by magnesium, do not give good results, since' the silicon obtained is always contaminated with various impurities, but a pure variety may be prepared according to E.

  • phys., 1897, (7) 12, p. 153) by heating silica with magnesium in the presence of magnesia, or by heating silica with aluminium.

  • Wohler, Ann., 1856, 97, p. 266; 1857, 102, p. 382); by heating silica with magnesium in the presence of zinc (L.

  • Silicon hydride, SiH4, is obtained in an impure condition, as a spontaneously inflammable gas, by decomposing magnesium silicide with hydrochloric acid, or by the direct union of silicon and hydrogen in the electric arc. In the pure state it may be prepared by decomposing ethyl silicoformate in the presence of sodium (C. Friedel and A.

  • Smiles (Comptes rendus, 1902, pp. 5 6 9, 1 549) from the products obtained in the action of hydrochloric acid on magnesium silicide.

  • Numerous methods have been given for the preparation of magnesium silicide, Mg 2 Si, in a more or less pure state, but the pure substance appears to have been obtained by P. Lebeau (Cornptes rendus, 1908, 146, p. 282) in the following manner.

  • Alloys of magnesium and silicon are prepared by heating fragments of magnesium with magnesium filings and potassium silico-fluoride.

  • From the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue consisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left.

  • Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbC03), malachite and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3), strontianite (strontium carbonate, SrC03), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO 3 MgCO 3), and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3.

  • Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.

  • The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.

  • Distillable at red heats: cadmium, alkali metals, zinc, magnesium.

  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

  • The same holds for the following group (A): [manganese, zinc, magnesium] iron, aluminium, cobalt, nickel, cadmium.

  • Potassium, for example, yields peroxide, K202 or K204; sodium gives Na202; the barium-group metals, as well as magnesium, cadmium, zinc, lead, copper, are converted into their monoxides MeO.

  • The metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, also magnesium, burn in sulphur vapour as they do in oxygen.

  • The following, though volatile at higher temperatures, are not volatilized at dull redness: KC1, NaCI, LiC1, NiC1 2, CoC1 2, MnC1 2, ZnCl 2, MgCl 2, PbCl 2, AgCI, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, magnesium, lead, silver.

  • It has been found by experiment that plants need for their nutritive process and their growth, certain chemical elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron.

  • The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.

  • Second in importance is the carbonate, calamine (q.v.) or zinc spar, which at one time was the principal ore; it almost invariably contains the carbonates of cadmium, iron, manganese, magnesium and calcium, and may be contaminated with clay, oxides of iron, galena and calcite; "white calamine" owes its colour to much clay; "red calamine" to admixed iron and manganese oxides.

  • Neither mechanical nor magnetic concentration can effect much in the way of separation when, as in many complex ores, carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium replace the isomorphous zinc carbonate, when some iron sulphide containing less sulphur than pyrites replaces zinc sulphide, and when gold and silver are contained in the zinc ore itself.

  • It is chemically related to cadmium and mercury, the resemblance to cadmium being especially well marked; one distinction is that zinc is less basigenic. Zinc is capable of isomorphously replacing many of the bivalent metals - magnesium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and cadmium.

  • Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.

  • In 1852 magnesium was isolated electrolytically by R.

  • The isolation of metallic titanium is very difficult since it readily combines with nitrogen (thus resembling boron and magnesium) and carbon.

  • Titanium monoxide, TiO, is obtained as black prismatic crystals by heating the dioxide in the electric furnace, or with magnesium powder.

  • The following is a list of the chief radiant points visible during the year: Many meteors exhibit the green line of magnesium as a principal constituent.

  • von Konkoly remarked in the fireball of 1873 (July 26) the lines of magnesium and sodium.

  • Bright meteors often emit the bluish-white light suggestive of burning magnesium.

  • In addition to magnesium and sodium the lines of potassium, lithium and also the carbon flutings exhibited in cometary spectra, has been seen.

  • For the theory and elemental laws of electro-deposition see Electrolysis; and for the construction and use of electric generators see Dynamo and Battery: Electric. The importance of the subject may be gauged by the fact that all the aluminium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium carbide, carborundum and artificial graphite, now placed on the market, is made by electrical processes, and that the use of such processes for the refining of copper and silver, and in the manufacture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate and bleach, already pressing very heavily on the older non-electrical systems, is every year extending.

  • Hermite, which consisted in the production of bleach-liquors by the electrolysis (according to the 1st edition of the 1884 patent) of magnesium or calcium chloride between platinum anodes carried in wooden frames, and zinc cathodes.

  • Rotating zinc cathodes were used, with scrapers to prevent the accumulation of a layer of insoluble magnesium compounds, which would otherwise increase the electrical resistance beyond reasonable limits.

  • Magnesium ammonium Microcosmic phosphate; salt.

  • For example, if vapours of the volatile metals cadmium, zinc and magnesium are allowed to act on platinum or palladium, alloys are produced.

  • Aluminium, when alloyed with a few per cent of magnesium, gains greatly in rigidity while remaining very light; this alloy, under the name of magnalium, is coming into use for small articles in which lightness and rigidity have to be combined.

  • An analysis of the marble gave the following result: calcium carbonate, 90 93; magnesium, 75; iron, 1.37; manganese, 4.34; calcium sulphate, 2.30; calcium phosphate, 24 (R.

  • The metal can be reduced by magnesium, zinc, cadmium, iron, tin, copper and substances like hypophosphorous acid from acid solutions or from alkaline ones by formaldehyde.

  • Tantalum tetroxide, Ta 2 0 4, is a porous dark grey mass harder than glass, and is obtained by reducing the pentoxide with magnesium.

  • In the Red Sea the " Pola " expedition discovered a calcareous .00ze similar to that of the Mediterranean, and the formation of a stony crust by precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates may be recognized as giving origin to a recent dolomite.

  • common salt, Epsom salts, gypsum and magnesium chloride were recognized amongst its constituents.

  • The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.

  • Dittmar showed that the average proportion of the salts in ocean water of 35 parts salts per thousand was as follows (calculated as parts per 'thousand of the sea-water, as percentage of the total"salts and per hundred molecules of magnesium bromide) :- The Salts in Ocean Water.

  • There must be considerable dissociation of molecules, and as a first approximation it may be taken that of io molecules of most of the components about 9 (or in the case of magnesium sulphate 5) have been separated into their ions, and that it is only during slow concentration as in a natural saline that the ions combine to produce the various salts in the proportions set out in the above table.

  • Magnesium sulphate amounts to 4.7% of the total salts of sea-water according to Dittmar, but to 23.6% of the salts of the Caspian according to Lebedinzeff; in the ocean magnesium chloride amounts to 10.9% of the total salts, in the Caspian only to 4.5%; on the other hand calcium sulphate in the ocean amounts to 3.6%, in the Caspian to 6.9 This disparity makes it extremely difficult to view ocean water as merely a watery extract of the salts existing in the rocks of the land.

  • sodium sulphate is the first ingredient of the salts to separate out, potassium chloride follows at 12° F., sodium chloride at - 7.4° F., magnesium chloride at - 28.5°.

  • The metal has been obtained by electrolysis of a mixture of caesium and barium cyanides (C. Setterberg, Ann., 1882, 211, p. loo) and by heating the hydroxide with magnesium or aluminium (N.

  • The ammonia found in the acetylene is probably partly due to the presence of magnesium nitride in the carbide.

  • The metal may be obtained by reduction of its oxide with magnesium.

  • The amorphous metal also results when the chloride is heated with sodium; the oxide reduced with magnesium; or when fused potassium zircono fluoride is electrolysed (Wedekind, Zeit.

  • When heated in a loosely covered crucible with magnesium the nitride Zr 2 N 3 is formed (Wedekind, Zeit.

  • Zirconium hydride, ZrH2, is supposed to be formed when zirconia is heated with magnesium in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

  • It may contain from 55 to 62% of calcium phosphate, with about 7% of magnesium phosphate.

  • The drug, along with gum, fatty oils, and malates of magnesium and calcium, contains also about 1% of cubebic acid, and about 6% of a resin.

  • Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.

  • In its chemical properties it closely resembles barium and strontium, and to some degree magnesium; these four elements comprise the so-called metals of the "alkaline earths."

  • Calcium carbonate, CaCO 3, is of exceptionally wide distribution in both the mineral and animal kingdoms. It constitutes the bulk of the chalk deposits and limestone rocks; it forms over one-half of the mineral dolomite and the rock magnesium limestone; it occurs also as the dimorphous minerals aragonite (q.v.) and calcite (q.v.).

  • It also results on decomposing magnesium nitride (Mg 3 N 2) with water, Mg3N2 -16H 2 O = 3Mg(OH) 2 -{- 2NH 3.

  • The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH 2, and potassamide, KNH 2, are formed.

  • Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.

  • A solution in hydrochloric acid, consisting of the chloride and hydrogen peroxide, is used for bleaching straw under the name of soda-bleach; with calcium or magnesium chlorides this solution gives a solid product which, when dissolved in water, is used for the same purpose (Castner, Journ.

  • It does not burn, and does not support ordinary combustion, but the alkali metals and magnesium, if strongly heated, will continue to burn in the gas with formation of oxides and liberation of carbon.

  • - The crude salt is ground up and then heated in a concentrated solution of magnesium chloride with agitation.

  • It is worked up either for Epsom salt and common salt, or for sodium sulphate and magnesium chloride.

  • If the original solution contained the chlorides of magnesium or calcium or sulphate of potassium all impurities remain in the mother-liquor (the sulphur as KHS04), and can be removed by washing the precipitate with strong hydrochloric acid.

  • Later magnesium powder or ribbon was used, being set off in the same way.

  • A red-hot iron rod may also be used to set off the magnesium, which in turn ignites the thermit.

  • The sodium and potassium salts, when heated to 400° C., give oxalates and carbonates of the alkali metals, but the magnesium, calcium and barium salts yield carbonates only.

  • It is a silicate, containing aluminium, magnesium and iron' brought originally from Greenland, and since found in a rock from the Vizagapatam district in India.

  • Epsom salts crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, being isomorphous with the corresponding zinc and nickel sulphates, and also with magnesium chromate.

  • For the manufacture of Epsom salts and for other hydrated magnesium sulphates see Magnesium.

  • The spectra of magnesium, calcium, zinc, cadmium and mercury, give the two branch series, and each series is repeated three times with constant difference of frequency.

  • MAGNESIUM [[[symbol]] Mg, atomic weight 24.32 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.

  • Magnesium is found widely distributed in nature, chiefly in the forms of silicate, carbonate and chloride, and occurring in the minerals olivine, hornblende, talc, asbestos, meerschaum, augite, dolomite, magnesite, carnallite, kieserite and kainite.

  • It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.

  • The problem of magnesium reduction is in many respects similar to that of aluminium extraction, bait the lightness of the metal as compared, bulk for bulk, with its fused salts, and the readiness with which it burns when exposed to air at high temperatures, render the problem somewhat more difficult.

  • Bunsen, in 1852, electrolysed fused magnesium chloride in a porcelain crucible.

  • In later processes, carnallite (a natural double chloride of magnesium and potassium) has commonly, after careful dehydration, been substituted for the single chloride.

  • Graetzel's process, which was at one time employed, consisted in electrolysing the chloride in a metal crucible heated externally, the crucible itself forming the cathode, and the magnesium being deposited upon its inner surface.

  • The fusing-point of the metal is about 730° C. (1350° F.), and the magnesium is therefore reduced in the form of melted globules which gradually accumulate.

  • At intervals the current is interrupted, the cover removed, and the temperature of the vessel raised considerably above the melting-point of magnesium.

  • The solidified chloride is then broken up, the shots and fused masses of magnesium are picked out, run together in a plumbago crucible without flux, and poured into a suitable mould.

  • Smaller pieces are thrown into a bath of melted carnallite and pressed together with an iron rod, the bath being then heated until the globules of metal float to the top, when they may be removed in perforated iron ladles, through the holes in which the fused chloride can drain away, but through which the melted magnesium cannot pass by reason of its high surface tension.

  • Magnesium is a silvery white metal possessing a high lustre.

  • Neville), and boils at about lioo C. Magnesium and its salts are diamagnetic. It burns brilliantly when heated in air or oxygen, or even in carbon dioxide, emitting a brilliant white light and leaving a residue of magnesia, MgO.

  • It is rapidly dissolved by dilute acids, with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of magnesium salts.

  • Magnesium Oxide, magnesia, MgO, occurs native as the mineral periclase, and is formed when magnesium burns in air; it may also be prepared by the gentle ignition of the hydroxide or carbonate.

  • Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2, occurs native as the minerals brucite and nemalite, and is prepared by precipitating solutions of magnesium salts by means of caustic soda or potash.

  • de Schulten (Comptes rendus, 1885, 101, p. 72) by boiling magnesium chloride with caustic potash and allowing the solution to cool.

  • Magnesium hydroxide is a white amorphous solid which is only slightly soluble in water; the solubility is, however, greatly increased by ammonium salts.

  • When magnesium is heated in fluorine or chlorine or in the vapour of bromine or iodine there is a violent reaction, and the corresponding halide compounds are formed.

  • It may be prepared by dissolving the metal, its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in dilute hydrochloric acid, or by mixing concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and common salt, and cooling the mixture rapidly, when the less soluble sodium sulphate separates first.

  • The hydrated salt loses water on heating, and partially decomposes into hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxychlorides.

  • To obtain the anhydrous salt, the double magnesium ammonium chloride, MgCl2 NH 4 C1.6H 2 O, is prepared by adding ammonium chloride to a solution of magnesium chloride.

  • The solution is evaporated, and the residue strongly heated, when water and ammonium chloride are expelled, and anhydrous magnesium chloride remains.

  • Magnesium chloride readily forms double salts with the alkaline chlorides.

  • Magnesium oxychloride when heated to redness in a current of air evolves a mixture of hydrochloric acid and chlorine and leaves a residue of magnesia, a reaction which is employed in the Weldon-Pechiney and Mond processes for the manufacture of chlorine.

  • Magnesium Carbonate, MgCO 3.

  • It is not possible to prepare the normal carbonate by precipitating magnesium salts with sodium carbonate.

  • C. Marignac has prepared it by the action of calcium carbonate on magnesium chloride.

  • By - adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate and allowing the mixture to stand, hexagonal needles of MgHPO 4.7H 2 O are deposited.

  • It may be prepared by adding normal sodium phosphate to a magnesium salt and boiling the precipitate with a solution of magnesium sulphate.

  • Magnesium ammonium phosphate, MgNH 4 PO 4.6H 2 O, is found as the mineral struvite and in some guanos; it occurs also in urinary calculi and is formed in the putrefaction of urine.

  • It is prepared by adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride.

  • When heated to 100° C., it loses five molecules of water of crystallization, and at a higher temperature loses the remainder of the water and also ammonia, leaving a residue of magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7.

  • Magnesium Nitrate, Mg(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is a colourless, deliquescent, crystalline solid obtained by dissolving magnesium or its carbonate in nitric acid, and concentrating the solution.

  • Water decomposes it with liberation of ammonia and formation of magnesium hydroxide.

  • Magnesium sulphide, MgS, may be obtained, mixed with some unaltered metal and some magnesia, as a hard brown mass by heating magnesia, in sulphur vapour.

  • By heating magnesium filings with methyl and ethyl iodides A.

  • The compounds formed by the action of magnesium on alkyl iodides in the cold have been largely used in synthetic organic Gri chemistry since V.

  • Grignard (Comptes rendus, 1900 et seq.) observed that magnesium and alkyl or aryl halides combined together in presence of anhydrous ether at ordinary R temperatures (with the appearance of brisk boiling) to form compounds of the type RMgX(R = an alkyl or aryl group and X = halogen).

  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.

  • Formaldehyde behaves abnormally with magnesium benzyl bromide (M.

  • A Klages (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2633 et seq.) has shown that if one uses an excess of magnesium and of an alkyl halide with a ketone, an ethylene derivative is formed.

  • The magnesium salts may be detected by the white precipitate formed by adding sodium phosphate (in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride) to their solutions.

  • The same reaction is made use of in the quantitative determination of magnesium, the white precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate being converted by ignition into magnesium pyrophosphate and weighed as such.

  • The atomic weight of magnesium has been determined by many observers.

  • These salts of magnesium may be regarded as the typical saline purgatives.

  • The oxide and carbonate of magnesium are also invaluable as antidotes, since they form insoluble compounds with oxalic acid and salts of mercury, arsenic, and copper.

  • The compounds of magnesium are not absorbed into the blood in any appreciable quantity, and therefore exert no remote actions upon other functions.

  • This is fortunate, as the result of injecting a solution of a magnesium salt into a vein is rapid poisoning.

  • The usual doses of the oxide and carbonate of magnesium are from half a drachm to a drachm.

  • Lacombe in 1904 obtained the pure salts by fractional crystallization of the nitric acid solution with magnesium nitrate in the presence of bismuth nitrate.

  • The other method by which nitrogen may be absorbed on a considerable scale is by the aid of magnesium.

  • At this temperature the nitrogen combines with the magnesium, and thus the argon is concentrated.

  • A still more potent absorption is afforded by calcium prepared in situ by heating a mixture of magnesium dust with thoroughly dehydrated quick-lime.

  • The density of argon, prepared and purified by magnesium, was found by Sir William Ramsay to be 19.941 on the O = 16 scale.

  • From the manner of its preparation it was clear at an early stage that argon would not combine with magnesium or calcium at a red heat, nor under the influence of the electric discharge with oxygen, hydrogen or nitrogen.

  • It attacks most metals readily, usually with production of a nitrate or hydrated oxide of the metal and one or other of the oxides of nitrogen, or occasionally with the production of ammonium salts; magnesium, however, liberates hydrogen from the very dilute acid.

  • Kaolin or China clay is essentially a pure disilicate (Al 2 O 3.2SiO 2.2H 2 O), occurring in large beds almost throughout the world, and containing in its anhydrous state 2 4.4% of the metal, which, however, in common clays is more or less replaced by calcium, magnesium, and the alkalis, the proportion of silica sometimes reaching 70%.

  • Other aluminates (in particular, of iron and magnesium), are of frequent occurrence in the mineral kingdom, e.g.

  • Like these they require water, small but indispensable quantities of salts of potassium, magnesium, sulphur and phosphorus, and supplies of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials in different stages of complexity in the different cases.

  • The alkali metals and alkaline earth metals decompose water at ordinary temperatures; magnesium begins to react above 70° C., and zinc at a dull red heat.

  • Ann., 1875, 156, p. 466) on electrolysis of the fused chloride, while C. Winkler (Ber., 1890, 23, p. 78) prepared it by heating the oxide with a mixture of magnesium and magnesia.

  • It combines with water with evolution of heat, and on heating with magnesium powder in an atmosphere of hydrogen forms a hydride of probable composition La 2 H 3 (C. Winkler, Ber.

  • BERYLLIUM, or Glucinum (symbol Be, atomic weight 9.1), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same sub-group of the periodic classification as magnesium.

  • At a density of 1.218 the deposit becomes augmented by sodium chloride, which goes down mixed with a little magnesium chloride and sulphate.

  • By night the liquor gives nearly pure magnesium sulphate; in the day the same sulphate mixed with sodium and potassium chlorides is deposited.

  • The mother-liquor now falls to a specific gravity of 1.3082 to 1.2965, and yields a very mixed deposit of magnesium bromide and chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium sulphate, with the double magnesium and potassium sulphate, corresponding to the kainite of Stassfurt.

  • There is also deposited a double magnesium and potassium chloride, similar to the carnallite of Stassfurt, and finally the mother-liquor, which has now again risen to specific gravity 1.3374, contains only pure magnesium chloride.

  • The sea salt thus made is collected into small heaps on the paths around the basins or the floors of the basins themselves, and here it undergoes a first partial purification, the more deliquescent salts (especially the magnesium.

  • Pure halite consists only of sodium chloride, but salt usually contains certain magnesium ccmpounds rendering it deliquescent.

  • The salt is commonly associated with gypsum, often also with anhydrite, and occasionally with sylvite, carnallite and other minerals containing potassium and magnesium.

  • The Stassfurt deposits are of special importance for the sake of the associated salts of potassium and magnesium, such as carnallite and kainite.

  • In Britain the brine is so pure that, keeping a small stream of it running into the pan to replace the losses by evaporation and the removal of the salt, it is only necessary occasionally (not often) to reject the mother-liquor when at last it becomes too impure with magnesium chloride; but in some works the mother-liquor not only contains more of this impurity but becomes quite brown from organic matter on concentration, and totally unfit for further service after yielding but two or three crops of salt crystals.

  • At times sodium sulphate is added to the brine, producing sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate by double decomposition with the magnesium chloride.

  • This destructive action is increased if the water contains sulphates or magnesium salts, both of which act chemically on the calcareous constituents of the cement.

  • As sea-water contains both sulphates and magnesium salts, it is especially necessary in concrete for harbour work to take every care to produce an impervious structure.

  • Manganese is found widely distributed in nature, being generally found to a greater or less extent associated with the carbonates and silicates of iron, calcium and magnesium, and also as the minerals braunite, hausmannite, psilomelane, manganite, manganese spar and hauerite.

  • Glatzel (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 2857) the chloride by magnesium, H.

  • 884) obtained it by heating the dioxide with magnesium powder.

  • Erdmann, again, has invented an induction from particular predicates to a totality of predicates which he calls " erganzende Induction, " giving as an example, " This body has the colour, extensibility and specific gravity of magnesium; therefore it is magnesium."

  • But this inference contains the tacit major, " What has a given colour, &c., is magnesium," and is a syllogism of recognition.

  • His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.

  • The residual magnesium chloride of the ammonia-soda process is evaporated until it ceases to give off hydrochloric acid, and is then mixed with more magnesia; the magnesium oxychloride formed is broken into small pieces and heated in a current of air, when it gives up its chlorine, partly in the uncombined condition and partly in the form of hydrochloric acid, and leaves a residue of magnesia, which can again be utilized for the decomposition of more ammonium chloride (W.

  • At 300° C. the ammonium chloride is decomposed by the magnesia, with the formation of magnesium chloride and ammonia.

  • The waters are tasteless and inodorous, and contain calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, combinations of hydrogen and silicon, and of iodides, bromides and lithium.

  • Magnesium phenyl bromide gives triphenyl vinyl alcohol.

  • The former possesses a uniform temperature of 82° Fahr., and the principal substances in solution are bicarbonate of calcium, bicarbonate of magnesium, chloride of sodium, chloride of magnesium and silica acid.

  • Three oxides of barium are known, namely, the monoxide, BaO, the dioxide, Ba02, and a suboxide, obtained by heating Ba0 with magnesium in a vacuum to 110o (Guntz, loc. cit., 1906, p. 359).

  • In visiting the most famous wateringplaces, it is curious to note how one finds, in the various waters, here some chloride, there some sulphate, here some potash, there some magnesium, but in all of them we find water.

  • Simple alkaline waters containing carbonates, chiefly of sodium along with some magnesium and calcium, are drunk for their utility in gastric and intestinal disorders as well as in rheumatism and gout.

  • The crystals belong to the monoclinic system, and it is a curious fact that in habit and angles they closely resemble pyroxene (a silicate of calcium, magnesium and iron).

  • It combines with chlorides of the alkali metals to form double salts, and also with barium, calcium, strontium, and magnesium chlorides.

  • carbonates, sulphates and chlorides of ammonium, sodium and magnesium - were added.

  • The brine is pumped into conduits, carried to large ponds and there evaporated by the sun; during late years the salt has been refined here, being purified of the sulphates and magnesium compounds which formerly rendered it efflorescent and of a low commercial grade.

  • Its solubility in water is lessened by sodium or magnesium sulphate, but is increased by potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, and most acids.

  • Potassium, sodium and magnesium bromides are found in mineral waters, in river and sea-water, and occasionally in marine plants and animals.

  • Its chief commercial sources are the salt deposits at Stassfurt in Prussian Saxony, in which magnesium bromide is found associated with various chlorides, and the brines of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, U.S.A.; small quantities are obtained from the mother liquors of Chile saltpetre and kelp. In combination with silver it is found as the mineral bromargyrite (bromite).

  • It is manufactured from the magnesium bromide contained in "bittern" (the mother liquor of the salt industry), by two processes, the continuous and the periodic. The continuous process depends upon the decomposition of the bromide by chlorine, which is generated in special stills.

  • Dyson has measured some eight hundred lines in the lower chromosphere and identified them with emission spectra of the following elements: hydrogen, helium, carbon with the cyanogen band, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, ytterbium, lead, europium, besides a few doubtful identifications; it is a curious fact that the agreement is with the spark spectra of these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or more definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a lower temperature.

  • In the higher chromosphere the following were recognized: helium and parhelium, hydrogen, strontium, calcium, iron, chromium, magnesium, scandium and titanium.

  • hydriodic acid and red phosphorus on benzene, and considered to be hexahydrobenzene, is obtained synthetically by the action of sodium on 1.5 dibromhexane; and by the action of magnesium on acetylbutyl iodide (N.

  • It may be obtained electrolytically from solutions of ferrous and magnesium sulphates and sodium bicarbonate, a wrought iron anode and a rotating cathode of copper, thinly silvered and iodized, being employed (S.

  • Calcium ferrite, magnesium ferrite and zinc ferrite, ROFe203(R=Ca, Mg, Zn), are obtained by intensely heating mixtures of the oxides; magnesium ferrite occurs in nature as the mineral magnoferrite, and zinc ferrite as franklinite, both forming black octahedra.

  • The important reducing agents include hydrogen, hydrides such as those of iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., carbon, many metals, potassium, sodium, aluminium, magnesium, &c., salts of lower oxyacids, lower salts of metals and lower oxides.

  • It is an energetic oxidizing agent and is consequently readily reduced when heated with various metals (zinc, magnesium, &c.), with carbon and with oxalic acid.

  • Among them, iron, sodium, magnesium, calcium and hydrogen are conspicuous; but it would be rash to assert that any of the seventy forms of matter provisionally enumerated in text-books are wholly absent from his composition.

  • Arsenic is usually estimated either in the form of magnesium pyroarsenate or as arsenic sulphide.

  • From the weight of magnesium pyroarsenate obtained the weight of arsenic can be calculated.

  • 504), who has found the remarkable result that copper, gold, magnesium and silver have refractive indices less than unity, and this has been completely confirmed by observations with metallic prisms of small refracting angle.

  • Similar sodium, ammonium, lithium, magnesium, calcium, barium and zinc salts have been obtained.

  • Magnesium nitrate.

  • Magnesium chloride Magnesium bromide Iron and aluminium oxides Organic matter, water of tion, loss .

  • The chemical bodies which have played the most important part as agents of petrifaction are silicic acid and calcium carbonate, though other substances, such as magnesium carbonate, calcium sulphate and ferric oxide have also been concerned, either as the chief constituents of petrifac tions, or mixed with other bodies.

  • - This includes caustic potash, caustic soda, solution of ammonia, their carbonates and bicarbonates, borax, soaps, lithium carbonate and citrate, quicklime, slaked lime, chalk, magnesia and magnesium carbonate.

  • Calcium and magnesium have actions somewhat similar to that of potassium.

  • - This group includes the sulphates of sodium, potassium and magnesium, the acetate and tartrate of potash, citrate of magnesium, sodium phosphate, sodium tartrate and similar salts.

  • Ergo laptops are tougher magnesium alloy is many times stronger than plastic, however smart the latter may appear.

  • This noble alloy is found in the magnesium generator cover with titanium screws and dedicated sprocket cover of billet aluminum.

  • The second most common type, accounting for 6-20% of renal stones, is formed from struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate ).

  • anhydrous colloidal silica, maize starch, povidone, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate.

  • Internal surfaces of the vessel are glass lined, with magnesium anodes offering full protection against corrosion.

  • magnesium ascorbate is a convenient way of obtaining both these vital nutrients.

  • For them switching to the salt form (sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, etc.) often permits far higher tolerance.

  • ascorbic acid at high intake levels may deplete calcium, magnesium and potassium.

  • aspergillus Niger [1] Useful for studies of the influence of magnesium on growth and the development of spore color.

  • beryllium chloride is compared with magnesium chloride.

  • Where trace elements are used, boron plus cocktails of zinc, magnesium, manganese and sulfur will be applied.

  • I found a small dropper bottle of a 33% solution of Magnesium chloride hidden at the back of a shelf.

  • Long-term use of ascorbic acid at high intake levels may deplete calcium, magnesium and potassium.

  • It is worth taking 600 mg magnesium to 300 mg calcium daily to see if this relieves the problem.

  • magnesium carbonate can cause belching due to carbon dioxide being liberated from the compound in the stomach.

  • High definition automotive LCD screen housed in a magnesium alloy casing.

  • Two FV engines glued together in vee formation by means of a magnesium block casting became the Double Four Valve or DFV.

  • Ingredients Soya extract, capsule shell: hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, maltodextrins, anti-caking agent: magnesium stearate.

  • Last, but not least, we've added magnesium chelate for optimum muscle contraction.

  • chlorophyll molecule has a Magnesium ion at its center.

  • McCance, R.A. and Shipp, H.L. (1933) The magnesium and other inorganic constituents of some marine invertebrates.

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