Magnates sentence example

magnates
  • The House of Magnates is composed as follows: princes of the royal house who have attained their majority (16 in 1904); hereditary peers who pay at least £250 a year land tax (237 in 1904); high dignitaries of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches (42 in 1904); representatives of the Protestant confessions (13 in 1904); life peers appointed by the crown, not exceeding 50 in number, and life peers elected by the house itself (73 altogether in 1904); members ex officio consisting of state dignitaries and high judges (19 in 1904); and three delegates of Croatia-Slavonia.
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  • A conference took place confined to the magnates sitting at the table.
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  • Under the Khuen-Heclvary Government he became on June 18 1910 once more president of the House of Magnates.
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  • He showed, on some occasions, great deference to the opinions of the magnates.
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  • Most of them, except when actually celebrating mass, were indistinguishable alike in costume and conduct from the temporal magnates.
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  • Subsequently Greek mercenaries became indispensable not only to the king but also to the satraps, who thereby gained the means for attempting successful rebellions, into which they were provoked by the weakness of the king, and by the continuous intrigues between the Persian magnates.
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  • Throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, as the life-benefices of the later Carolingian kings were gradually transformed into hereditary fiefs, the insecurity of life and property increased, for there was no central power to curb the warring local magnates.
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  • But though the treasury was thus temporarily replenished and the army increased, the gentry who had been so generous at the expense of their richer neighbours would hear of no additional burdens being laid on themselves, and the king only obtained what he wanted by sacrificing his principles to his necessities, and helping the szlachta to pull down the magnates.
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  • He had in fact already summoned a Russian army corps to assist him to reform his country, which sufficiently explains his own haughtiness and the unwonted compliancy of the rival magnates.
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  • In 1646 he was sent at the head of an extraordinary mission to France, and on his return married the queen's cousin Marie Euphrosyne of Zweibri cken, who, being but a poor princess, benefited greatly by her wedding with the richest of the Swedish magnates.
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  • He was generally known as the Pest Alcibiades, and was especially at home in the salons of the Protestant magnates.
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  • At coronations, however, and great festivals it became the custom in England and elsewhere to appoint magnates of the first rank to discharge for the occasion the domestic functions of the ordinary officials.
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  • He was one of the wealthiest, and at the same time one of the stingiest, magnates of his day.
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  • The marriage was a purely political one, arranged by his father and a section of the Hungarian magnates to counterpoise hostile German and Czech influences.
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  • On the 25th of December 1289 he issued a manifesto to the lesser gentry, a large portion of whom sided with him, urging them to continue the struggle against the magnates and their foreign supporters; but on the 10th of July 1290 he was murdered in his camp at Korosszeg by the Kumanians, who never forgave him for deserting them.
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  • Around the Anglo-Saxon magnates were collected a crowd of retainers and dependants of all ranks and conditions; and there is evidence enough to show that among them were some called cnihtas who were not always the humblest or least considerable of their number.'
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  • But all his efforts foundered on the jealousy and suspicion of the magnates headed by the chancellor.
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  • Barbara brought him a dower of ioo,000 gulden and the support of the Magyar magnates, but the match nearly brought about a breach with the emperor Maximilian, jealous already of the Jagiello influence in Hungary.
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  • Personally a devout Catholic and opposed in principle to the spread of sectarianism in Poland, Sigismund was nevertheless too wise and just to permit the persecution of non-Catholics;' and in Lithuania, where a fanatical Catholic minority of magnates dominated the senate, he resolutely upheld the rights of his Orthodox subjects.
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  • The constitutional right of voting money applicable to the common affairs and of its political control is exercised by the Delegations, which consist each of sixty members, chosen for one year, one-third of them by the Austrian Herrenhaus (Upper House) and the Hungarian Table of Magnates (Upper House), and two-thirds of them by the Austrian and the Hungarian Houses of Representatives.
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  • In June 1865 the emperor Francis Joseph visited Pest and replaced the chancellors of Transylvania and Hungary, Counts Francis Zichy and Nadasdy, supporters of the February constitution, by Count Majlath, a leader of the old conservative magnates.
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  • Not only were the magnates sharply reminded that they held their lands on military tenure, but the towns were also made to contribute both men and ships, and peasant levies, especially archers, were recruited from every parish.
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  • The burgesses had not yet recovered from the disaster of " Grevens fejde "; but while the towns had become more dependent on the central power, they had at the same time been released from their former vexatious subjection to the local magnates, and could make their voices heard in the Rigsdag, where they were still, though inadequately, represented.
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  • But the Renaissance, like the religious revivals initiated in Italy, arrived in Scotland weak and weary; hence the church did not share in the new enthusiasms of the faith of St Francis, and art was trampled on by the magnates who hated poetry and painting.
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  • New and palatial buildings of the various ministries, several high and middle schools, a few big hospitals, and the residences of several Hungarian magnates, are among the principal edifices in this part of the town.
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  • In any case Joseph borrowed money from his friends in Samaria; and this point in the story proves that the Jews were supposed to have dealings with the Samaritans at the time and could require of them the last proof of friendship. Armed with his borrowed money, Joseph betook himself to Egypt; and there outbid the magnates of Syria when the taxes of the province were put up to auction.
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  • On the one hand, the Saxon ceorls (twihyndemen), although considered as including the typical freemen in the earlier laws (1Ethelberht, Hlothhere and Edric, Ine), gradually became differentiated through the action of political and economic causes, and many of them had to recognize the patronage of magnates or to seek livelihood as tenants on the estates of the latter.
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  • The boy's gifts attracted the attention of certain Hungarian magnates, who furnished 600 gulden annually for some years to enable him to study music at Vienna and Paris.
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  • The enthusiasm aroused by Liszt's playing and his personality - the two are inseparable - reached a climax at Vienna and Budapest in 1839-1840, when he received a patent of nobility from the emperor of Austria, and a sword of honour from the magnates of Hungary in the name of the nation.
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  • Forced by the unruliness of the magnates to lean upon the middle classes, the king summoned (1359) the first Swedish Riksdag, on which occasion representatives from the towns were invited to appear along with the nobles and clergy.
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  • On the motion of the Estate of Peasants, which had a long memory for aristocratic abuses, the question of the recovery of the alienated crown lands was brought before the Riksdag, and, despite the stubborn opposition of the magnates, a resolution of the Diet directed that all countships, baronies, domains, manors and other estates producing an annual rent of more than 70 per annum should revert to the Crown.
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  • Two most interesting provisions, to which the clergy offered no opposition, were: (I) if a dispute arose between a clerk and a layman concerning a tenement which the clerk claimed as free-alms (frankalmoign) and the layman as a lay-fee, it should be determined by the recognition of twelve lawful men before the king's justice whether it belonged to free-alms or lay-fee, and if it were found to belong to free-alms then the plea was to be held in the ecclesiastical court, but if to lay-fee, in the court of the king or of one of his magnates; (2) a declaration of the procedure for election to bishoprics and royal abbeys, generally considered to state the terms of the settlement made between Henry I.
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  • This gradual Iranianization of the Parthian Empire is shown by the fact that the subsequent Iranian traditions, and Firdousi in particular, apply the name of the Parthian magnates (Pahiavan) to the glorious heroes of the legendary epoch.
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  • The Parthian magnates, on the other hand, with the army, would have little to do with Greek culture and Greek modes of life, which they contemptuously regarded as effeminate and unmanly.
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  • The kings themselves were toys in the hands of the magnates and the army who, tenaciously as they clung to the anointed dynasty of the Arsacids, were utterly indifferent to the person of the individual Arsacid.
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  • It still consisted, however, of levies from the retinue of the magnates led by their territorial lords; and, although these troops would stream in at the beginning of a war, they could not be kept permanently together.
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  • The name Pahlavan, moreover, which denoted the Parthian magnates, passed over into the new empire.
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  • At all events he found numerous adherents, both at court and among the magnates of the empire.
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  • Shapur II., a posthumous child of the late king, was then raised to the throne, a proof that the great magnates held the sovereignty in their own hands and attempted to order matters at their own pleasure.
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  • At first the magnates raised his aged brother Ardashir II.
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  • So great was the bitterness against him that the magnates would admit none of his sons to the throne.
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  • Eventually he succumbed to a conspiracy of his magnates, at whose head stood the general Bahram Cobin, who had defeated the Turks, but afterwards was beaten by the Romans.
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  • A whole list of kings and pretendersamong them the General Shahrbaraz and Boran, a daughter of Chosroesfollowed rapidly on one another; till finally the magnates united and, in 632, elevated a child to the throne, Yazdegerd III., grandson of Chosroes.
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  • Indeed as early as 1 591 the judges had complained of the difficulty of enforcing the writ in the case of imprisonment at the instance of magnates of the realm.
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  • On the 2nd of April four commissioners were appointed to superintend the construction of the new castle ordered in the Isle of Sheppey, which when finished was called Queenborough, the purchases and payments, not the works, being under the beloved clerk, Wykeham, In this year came the second visitation of the Black Death, the Second Plague, as it was called, and carried off four bishops and several magnates, with many clerics, whose vacated preferments were poured on Wykeham.
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  • But during the greater part of his reign he was the puppet of the magnates and kept in such penury that he was often obliged to pawn his jewels to get proper food and clothing.
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  • Matters grew even worse on the death of Bakocz, when the magnates Istvan Bathory, Janos Zapolya and Istvan Verboczy fought each other furiously, and used the diets as their tools.
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  • It was he who restored something like order by intervening between the magnates and the gentry at the diet of 1525.
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  • This example was followed by lesser magnates, who styled themselves loosely, or were so styled by the chroniclers, " princes," even though they had little claim to independent sovereignty.
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  • The predicate of " Serene Highness," though borne by certain magnates who were princes before they became Russians - as in the case of the families mentioned above - is not attached to the Russian title of " prince."
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  • On well-guarded strongholds like Thanet or Sheppey in England, Noirmoutier at the Loire mouth, or the Isle of Walcheren, they defied the local magnates to evict them.
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  • One section of the magnates had possession of the thirteen-yearold king Edward, and used his name to cover their ambitions.
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  • Some of the local magnates made a desperate defence of their own regions, especially Ulfkytel of East Anglia, a Dane by descent; but the central government was at fault.
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  • The rivalries and intrigues of these three magnates constitute the main part of the domestic politics of Edwards reign.
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  • He was elected king in the old English fashion by the surviving magnates, and crowned on Christmas Day 1066.
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  • Even before the Conquest the lands of the magnates were to a large extent held in scattered units, not in solid patches.
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  • Two of the greatest of his foreign magnates, Roger, earl of Hereford, and Ralph, earl of Norfolk, rose against him in I075, with no better cause than personal grievances and ambitions.
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  • The prejudice against a female heir was strong, and there were too many turbulent magnates to whom the anarchy that would follow a disputed succession presented temptations which could not be resisted.
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  • But now,, when Edward met the Scottish magnates, who had asked for his services as arbitrator, he demanded that they should acknowledge that he was acting as suzerain and overlord Of the whole kingdom of Scotland.
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  • Even then Norfolk and Hereford refused to sail; but the greater part of the minor magnates consented to serve as stipendiaries.
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  • There was no more need to Edward conciliate the magnates nor the parliament.
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  • Though he found himself certain of a considerable amount of support, he yet could see that there would be no general rising in his favor, for many of the magnates refused to help in making king a baron whom they regarded as no more important than one of themselves.
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  • The flower of his knights had fallen, including his nephew, the earl of Gloucester, who was the only one of the great magnates of the realm who had shown loyalty to him during the last six years.
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  • The Yorkist magnates who did not belong to the clan of the Nevilles were not unnaturally jealous of that house, and Edward IV.
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  • Warwick, with his policy of conciliation for the masses and hard blows for the magnates, was mainly responsible for this moderation.
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  • His example was followed by three other magnates who contributed between them 58,000 florins more.
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  • The Minor Church included many Polish magnates, but their adoption of the views of Sozzini, which precluded Christians from magisterial office, rendered them politically powerless.
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  • The local magnates and several distinguished visitors attended, and Lambert was shown to the people borne aloft Henry on " great D'Arcy of Platten's " shoulders.
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  • A firm alliance between the king and the magnates was his ideal of government.
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  • Charters began to be given to the towns, and a class of burghers, endowed with rights and armed to defend them, was formed; while the council of the magnates was beginning to develop into a Cortes.
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  • She slowly consulted the magnates of all I parties with apparent impartiality, and finallyadopted the course which it was an open secret she had decided upon in pectore beforehand.
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  • After Shapur's death, he was raised to the throne by the magnates, although more than seventy years old.
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  • He had been crowned at Reims, in the presence of a number of magnates, on the 23rd of May 1059.
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  • In general, existing landed magnates were more active than is commonly supposed in buying yet more land.
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  • In 1873, leading magnates of the industry formed the Coal Owners Association.
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  • A couple of limousines drive by, but I suspect they contain oil magnates or football club owners rather than state councilors.
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  • Becky had met other Hungarian magnates with the army in France in 1816-17.
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  • Originally the wealthy steel magnates built their large houses up wind of the pollution from the industrial east end.
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  • Here, the bankers and the industrial magnates have the decisive word.
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  • American finance magnates (who already exploit twelve million blacks in their own country) have begun a peaceful invasion of Africa.
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  • To the west, of some historical interest, is the Rand Club, haunt of mining magnates past and present.
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  • This was a momentous occasion, for hitherto only eleven prelates and twenty-three magnates had attended.
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  • Kossuth's letters were so excellent that they were circulated in MS. among the Liberal magnates, and soon developed into an organized parliamentary gazette (Orszagyulesi tudositasok), of which he was editor.
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  • Matthias was the elect of the Hungarian people, gratefully mindful of his father's services to the state and inimical to all foreign candidates; and though an influential section of the magnates, headed by the palatine Laszlo Garai and the voivode of Transylvania, Miklos Ujlaki, who had been concerned in the judicial murder of Matthias's brother Laszlo, and hated the Hunyadis as semi-foreign upstarts, were fiercely opposed to Matthias's election, they were not strong enough to resist the manifest wish of the nation, supported as it was by Matthias's uncle Mihaly Szilagyi at the head of 15,000 veterans.
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  • He was one of the first of the magnates to adhere to the Reformation and its promoter King Frederick I.
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  • Thus the desire for vengeance and the prospect of a brilliant military career impelled the Bogomil magnates to adopt the creed of Islam, which, in its austerity, presented some points of resemblance to their own doctrines.
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  • He also frequently employed his soldiers in collecting the taxes from the estates of those magnates who refused to contribute to the public burdens, in protecting the towns from the depredations of the robber barons, or in convoying the caravans of the merchants.
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  • Like Poland two centuries later, Hungary had ceased to be a civilized autonomous state because her prelates and her magnates, uncontrolled by any higher authority, and too ignorant or corrupt to look beyond their own immediate interests, abandoned themselves to the exclusive enjoyment of their inordinate privileges, while openly repudiating their primal obligation of defending the state against extraneous enemies.
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  • When Mr Chamberlain reached the Transvaal in January 1903 the feeling among the British section of the community was optimistic. Mr Chamberlain was well received by the Boer leaders; it was, however, to the Rand magnates that he turned for financial help. That large sums were imperatively needed to accomplish the work of reconstruction was apparent.
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  • From 1293 onward Philip and his sons had been striving to make an end of the power of the Plantagenets in Aquitaine, sometimes by the simple argument of war, more frequently by the insidious process of encroaching on ducal rights, summoning litigants to Paris, and encouraging local magnates and cities alike to play off their allegiance to their suzerain against that to their immediate lord.
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  • The gold pocket watch, which featured 24 complications, was the result of a long-standing competition between two magnates of America's Gilded Age.
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  • He was in fact a typical representative of the unscrupulous selfseeking Polish magnates of the 17th century who were always ready to sacrifice everything, their country included, to their own private ambition.
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  • Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 152 4 became professor of Greek at the university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from 1526.
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  • The 13th earl of Eglinton also set an example of active interest which many magnates emulated.
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  • But that party among the Parthian magnates which was hostile to Artabanus applied to Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates.
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  • These great magnates, all of them Knights of the Fleece and men of peculiar weight and authority in the country, were disgusted to find that, though nominally councillors of state, their advice was never asked, and that all power was placed in the hands of the Consulta.
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  • He increased the dignity of the crown by introducing a stricter court etiquette, and its wealth by recovering those of the royal domains which the magnates had appropriated during the troubles of the last reign.
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  • Throughout 1458 the struggle between the young king and the magnates, reinforced by Matthias's own uncle and guardian Szilagyi, was acute.
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  • In 1884 he pleaded eloquently in the House of Magnates for the establishment of civil marriage, and in 1888 was Minister of Education in the Cabinet of Koloman Tisza.
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  • He resigned in 1894, and in 1900 was appointed president of the House of Magnates, an office which he resigned on the fall of the Liberal party in 1906.
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  • Parthian (Pehlevi is the modern form of Parthawa) and the magnates themselves Pehlevans, i.e.
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  • The common story, that she appeared before the Hungarian magnates in the diet at Pressburg in 1741 with her infant son, afterwards Joseph II., in her arms, and so worked on their feelings that they shouted Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresia, is only mythically true.
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  • In 1232 Stephen, the successor of Kulin, was dethroned by the native magnates, who chose instead Matthew Ninoslav, a Bogomil.
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  • A rising of the native magnates in 1322 resulted in the election of the Bogomil, Stephen Kotromanic, last and greatest of the Bosnian bans.
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  • At this period the Servian empire had reached its zenith; Hungary, governed by the feeble monarch, Charles Robert of Anjou, was striving to crush the insurgent magnates of Croatia; Venice, whose commercial interests were imperilled, desired to restore peace and maintain the balance of power.
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  • These magnates played a considerable part in the politics of south-eastern Europe; see especially their correspondence with the Venetian Republic, given by Shafarik, Acta archivi Veneti, &c.
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  • Kotromanic and Tvrtko had known how to crush or conciliate their turbulent magnates, whose power reasserted itself under Dabisa (Stephen II., 1 3 91-1398), a brother of Tvrtko.
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  • In the Upper House he was the spokesman of the gentry against the magnates, whose inordinate privileges he would have curtailed or abolished.
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  • At the head of a strong government he was enabled, in spite of a powerful opposition of Catholics and Magnates, to carry in 1894 the Civil Marriage Bill.
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  • The legislative power is vested in the parliament (Orszaggyiiles), which consists of two houses: an upper house or the House of Magnates (Forendihdz), and a lower house or House of Representatives (KepviselOhdz).
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  • The lesser gentry were protected against the tyranny of the magnates, encouraged to appear at court and taxed for military service by the royal treasury direct - so as to draw them closer to the crown.
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  • It marks the dawn of a public spirit as represented by the gentry, who, alarmed at the national peril and justly suspicious of the ruling magnates, unhesitatingly placed their destinies in the hands of Hunyadi, the one honest man who by sheer merit had risen within the last ten years from the humble position of a country squire to a leading position in the state.
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  • Thus, at the very time when the modernization of the means of national defence had become the first principle, in every other part of Europe, of the strongly centralized monarchies which were rising on the ruins of feudalism, the Hungarian magnates deliberately plunged their country back into the chaos of medievalism.
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  • Unfortunately Tamas Bak6cz, her leading diplomatist from 1 499 to 1521, was as much an egotist as the other magnates, and he sacrificed the political interests of Hungary entirely to personal considerations.
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  • The stupid and abortive conspiracy of Peter Zrinyi and three other magnates, who were publicly executed (April 30, 1671), was followed by wholesale arrests and confisca 1 The jobbagyok, or under-tenants, had to follow the example of their lords; they were, by this time, mere serfs with no privileges either political or religious.
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  • Towards all her Magyars, especially the Catholics, she was ever most gracious; but the magnates, the Batthyanis, the Nadasdys, the Pallfys, the Andrassys, who had chased her enemies from Bohemia and routed them in Bavaria, enjoyed the lion's share of her benefactions.
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  • In the Upper House, however, the magnates united with the government to form a conservative party obstinately opposed to any project of reform, which frustrated all the efforts of the Liberals.
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  • It is frequently found upon deities, kings and magnates, and appears to have been composed of some thick furrowed or fluted material, sometimes of bright and variegated design.
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  • He was raised to the throne by the magnates who had rebelled against Hormizd IV.
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  • On the 28th of May the coffin, preceded by the two Houses of Parliament and escorted by the chief magnates of the realm, was carried from Westminster Hall to Westminster Abbey.
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  • The word wapentake seems to have been first applied to the periodical meetings of the magnates of a district; and, if we may believe the 12th century compilation known as the Leges Edwardi, it took its name from the custom in accordance with which they touched the spear of their newly-appointed magistrate with their own spears and so confirmed his appointment.
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  • On the other hand, it readily leads to a limited power of election by the magnates, and in fact good Arabian sources speak of seven electoral princes.
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  • Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
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  • But the chronic state of rebellion in western Denmark, which, fomented by the discontented Jutish magnates, lasted with short intervals from 1350 to 1360, compelled Valdemar to renounce these farreaching and fantastic designs.
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  • Matters improved somewhat in 1527, when the szlachta, by a special act, placed the mightiest magnates on the same level as the humblest squire as regards military service, and proposed at the same time a more general assessment for the purpose, the control of the money so realized to be placed in the hands of the king.
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  • The great obstacle in the way of this, the only true solution of the difficulty, was the opposition of the Lithuanian magnates, who feared to lose the absolute dominancy they possessed in the grand-duchy if they were merged in the szlachta of the kingdom.
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  • The privileges conferred upon the magnates of which these councils were composed, especially upon the magnates of Little Poland, who brought the Jagiellos to the throne, directed their policy, and grew rich upon their liberality, revolted the less favoured szlachta, or gentry, who, towards the end of the 14th century, combined for mutual defence in their sejmiki, or local diets, of which originally there were five, three in Great Poland, one in Little Poland and one in Posen-Kalisz.'
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  • But to this the magnates and the szlachta were equally opposed, the former because they feared the rivalry of a national assembly, the latter because they were of more importance in their local diets than they could possibly hope to be in a I The Red Russian sejmik was of later origin, c. 1433.
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  • In Poland proper the szlachta were fiercely opposed to the magnates; and the Protestants seemed bent upon still further castigating the clergy.
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  • In Poland the bishops and most of the Catholic magnates were for an Austrian archduke, while the strongly anti-German szlachta were inclined to accept almost any candidate but a German, so long as he came with a gift in his hand and was not a Muscovite.
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  • Well provided with funds, he speedily bought over many of the leading magnates, and his popularity reached its height when he strenuously advocated the adoption of the mode of election by the gentry en masse (which the szlachta proposed to revive), as opposed to the usual and more orderly "secret election" by a congress of senators and deputies, sitting with closed doors.
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  • Incredible as it may seem, the expedition to place the false Demetrius on the Muscovite throne was a private speculation of a few Lithuanian magnates, and similar enterprises on the part of other irresponsible noblemen on the Danube or Dniester brought upon unhappy Poland retaliatory Tatar raids, which reduced whole provinces to ashes.
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  • Nicholas Zebrzydowski, a follower of the chancellor Zamoyski, was one of the wealthiest and most respectable magnates in Poland.
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  • Her magnates, having already got all they could out of their own country, looked eagerly abroad for fresh El Dorados.
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  • The diet was the humble servant of the conqueror of the moment, and the leading magnates chose their own sides without the slightest regard for the interests of their country, the Lithuanians for the most part supporting Charles XII., while the Poles divided their allegiance between Augustus and Stanislaus Leszczynski, whom Charles Leszczyn- placed upon the throne in 1704 and kept there till 1709.
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  • At least 40,000 men were necessary for the purpose, and these could have been obtained for 200,000 ducats; but a congress of magnates, whose collective fortunes amounted to hundreds of millions, having decided that it was impossible to raise this sum, there was nothing for it but to fight a few skirmishes and then take refuge abroad.
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  • In later times royal persons and great feudal magnates frequently kept menageries of wild animals, aviaries and aquaria, and it is from these that modern public Gardens have taken their origin.
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  • Chodkiewicz was one of the few magnates who remained loyal to the king, and after helping to defeat the rebels in Poland a fresh invasion of Livonia by the Swedes recalled him thither, and once more he relieved Riga besides capturing Pernau.
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  • He drew the horoscopes of the emperor and Wallenstein, as well as of a host of lesser magnates; but, though keenly alive to the unworthy character of such a trade, he made necessity his excuse for a compromise with superstition.
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  • The Comte de Turenne showed him into a big reception room where many generals, gentlemen-in-waiting, and Polish magnates--several of whom Balashev had seen at the court of the Emperor of Russia--were waiting.
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  • The chief magnates sat on high- backed chairs at a large table under the portrait of the Emperor, but most of the gentry were strolling about the room.
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  • The crowd drew up to the large table, at which sat gray-haired or bald seventy-year-old magnates, uniformed and besashed almost all of whom Pierre had seen in their own homes with their buffoons, or playing boston at the clubs.
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  • They brought from their native Italy a thorough knowledge of the science of government as the middle ages understood it, and the decimation of the Hungarian magnates during the civil wars enabled them to re-create the noble hierarchy on a feudal basis, in which full allowance was made for Magyar idiosyncracies.
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  • Unfortunately the fruits of his diligence and foresight were dissipated by the follies of his two immediate successors, Emerich (1196-1204) and Andrew II., who weakened the Ar royal power in attempting to win support by lavish grants of the crown domains on the already over-influential magnates, a policy from which dates the supremacy of the semi-savage Magyar oligarchs, that insolent and self-seeking class which would obey no superior and trampled ruthlessly on every inferior.
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