The magistrates have both civil and criminal jurisdiction in minor cases.
(5) That the magistrates used their powers sometimes to raise wages, sometimes to force them down.
Each of the magisterial districts (of which, as has been said, there must be at least three and not more than ten in each county) elects one or two magistrates and constables, and a board of education of three members.
The seaport of Leith, though a distinct burgh, governed by its own magistrates, and electing its own representative to parliament, has also on its southern side become practically united to its great neighbour.
It was, as might be looked for, commonly filled by members of distinguished families, descendants of ancient magistrates, who were already beginning to be looked on as noble.
The Leiden magistrates said in 1581:" If we accept everything determined upon in the synod, we shall end by being vassals of the synod.
The gemeente - consisting only of those bound by the communal oath for mutual help and defence - elected their own magistrates.
The magistrates seem in general to have given him little trouble.
The inspectors, in addition to being trade superintendents, are magistrates, but serious crime is very rare.
The lord provost and magistrates offer to him the keys of the city, and levees, receptions and state dinners revive in some degree the ancient glories of Holyrood.
The commission also called attention to the numerical insufficiency of magistrates and native commissioners in certain parts of Natal.
What might have happened we cannot tell; but Descartes threw himself on the protection of the French ambassador and the prince of Orange, and the city magistrates, from whom he vainly demanded satisfaction in a dignified letter,2 were snubbed by their superiors.
Appeals can be made from the magistrates' decisions to the provincial or circuit court.
To form the consistory all the elders with the ministers were to meet every Sunday under the presidency of one of the syndics or magistrates.
Local laws, subject to approval by the legislative council of Fiji, are promulgated by a regulation board, composed of the commissioner, native chiefs of the seven districts into which the island is divided, and two native magistrates.
The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.
There is an imperial governor, having under him a native high chief assisted by a native council; and there are both German and native judges and magistrates.
The temple-tax was strictly exacted; Jews who lived the Jewish life without openly confessing their religion and Jews who concealed their nationality were brought before the magistrates.
Since 1814 the latter have been eligible as magistrates, and in 1849 full equality was formally ratified.
The De prelates of Valerian is concerned with secular princes, and even as late as the 14th century the title was occasionally applied to secular magistrates.
He alone transacts the business which occupies all the magistrates and councils of Venice, both civil and criminal; and all state affairs are managed by him, let their nature be what it may.
To answer this question we must collect the wages assessments sanctioned by the magistrates.
(4) That in the counties and towns where they were regulated the action of the magistrates was in general spasmodic, and rarely continuous for a long series of years.
We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
He names all the judges for criminal and civil cases, other than the juges de paix (magistrates) and the judges of the Cour de cassation, without having the power to discharge them."
In this way 1600 people are said to have perished, including the magistrates and clergy of the town of Kaufim, which the Kuttenbergers had taken.
Four legati juridici (or simply juridici) of consular rank were appointed for Italy, who took over certain important judicial functions formerly exercised by local magistrates (cases of fideicommissa, the nomination of guardians).
On the other hand there was legal persecution all over the country, and the preachers suffered many things from the hands of rural clergy and county magistrates.
The aristocratic council of the Areopagus constituted the chief criminal court, and nominated the magistrates, among whom the chief archon passed judgment in family suits, controlled admission to the genos or clan, and consequently the acquisition of the franchise.
Fanatics sought death by insulting the magistrates or by breaking idols, and in their enthusiasm for martyrdom became self-centred and forgetful of their normal duty.
She figured much in 16th-century literature, notably in the Mirrour for Magistrates, and in Thomas Heywood's Edward IV .
White was condemned by the presbytery, and the sect, which ultimately numbered forty-six adherents, was expelled by the magistrates in 1784 and settled in a farm, consisting of one room and a loft, known as New Cample in Dumfriesshire.
The Lord's Day Act 1656 also enacted penalties against any one disturbing the service, but apart from statute many Friends were imprisoned for open contempt of ministers and magistrates.
Among the most common causes of imprisonment was the practice adopted by judges and magistrates of tendering to Friends (particularly when no other charge could be proved against them) the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance (5 Eliz.
In January 1846, at the request of the magistrates and people of Perugia, he was appointed bishop of that city with the rank of archbishop; but before returning to Italy he spent February in London, and March and April in Paris.
There were also public slaves; of these some belonged to temples, to which they were presented as offerings, amongst them being the courtesans who acted as hieroduli at Corinth and at Eryx in Sicily; others were appropriated to the service of the magistrates or to public works; there were at Athens 1200 Scythian archers for the police of the city; slaves served, too, in the fleets, and were employed in the armies, - commonly as workmen, and exceptionally as soldiers.
The service of the magistrates was at first in the hands of freemen; but the lower offices, as of couriers, servants of the law courts, of prisons and of temples, were afterwards filled by slaves.
Already in the time of Nero the magistrates had been ordered to receive the slave's complaint of ill-treatment; and the lex Petronia, belonging to the same or an earlier period, forbade masters to hand over their slaves to combats with wild beasts.
At his death in 1624 Heriot left his estate in trust to the magistrates and ministers of Edinburgh for the maintenance and teaching of poor fatherless sons of freemen.
Further immunities and privileges were granted by James III.; and by a precept of 1482, known as the Golden Charter, he bestowed on the provost and magistrates the hereditary office of sheriff, with power to hold courts, to levy fines, and to impose duties on all merchandise landed at the port of Leith.
But meanwhile the exclusiveness of the single class of citizens from whose ranks the chief magistrates were drawn had converted the government into a close oligarchy and excited the hatred of every other class.
The administration of justice is conducted by magistrates' courts, circuit courts and the provincial division of the supreme court.
In native cases the chiefs have civil jurisdiction in disputes among their own tribesmen and criminal jurisdiction over natives except in capital cases, offences against the person or property of non-natives, pretended witchcraft, cases arising out of marriages by Christian rites, &c. An appeal lies to a magistrates' court from every judgment of a native chief, and from the magistrates' judgment on such appeal to a native high court.
Courts of first instance are presided over by magistrates, the whole colony being divided into sixteen magisterial wards.
' The relations between sacerdotal and civic authority may be seen in the vestments of the church (chasuble, alb, stole), which probably were once the official garments of magistrates.
We are told by ancient writers that the toga praetexta, with its purple border (lreplirop4wpos n'i13evva), as worn by Roman magistrates and priests, had been derived from the Etruscans (Pliny, N.H.
The plain white toga (toga Pura) was the ordinary dress of the citizen, but the toga praetexta, which had a border of purple, was worn by boys till the age of sixteen, when they assumed the plain toga virilis, and also by curule magistrates and some priests.
A purple toga with embroidery (toga pieta) was worn together with a gold-embroidered tunic (tunica palmata) by generals while celebrating a triumph and by magistrates presiding at games; it represented the traditional dress of the kings and was adopted by Julius Caesar as a permanent costume.
His principal works (1 579, 1 599) treat of Gaulish and French antiquities, of the dignities and magistrates of France, of the origin of the French language and poetry, of the liberties of the Gallican church, &c. A collected edition was published in 1610.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
The arrangements of quarter-sessions, justices, coroners, sheriffs, &c., were thus brought into line with other counties, except in so far as the ordinary organization is modified by the existence of the central criminal court, the metropolitan police, police courts and magistrates, and a paid chairman of quarter-sessions.
Previously the first magistrates lived in several different houses.
In the magistracies the authority of the chiefs and indumas (headmen) is exercised under the control of resident magistrates.
Under the wise administration of Sir Melmoth Osborn, the commissioner, whose headquarters were at Eshowe, and the district magistrates, the Zulu became reconciled to British rule, especially as European settlers were excluded from the greater part of the country.
At the principal towns benches of honorary magistrates, exercising powers of various degrees, have been constituted.
The deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates, district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the miscellaneous duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of government.
In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.
aedilis), in Roman antiquities, the name of certain Roman magistrates, probably derived from aedis (a temple), because they had the care of the temple of Ceres, where the plebeian archives were kept.
Other bodies and magistrates were maintained, and the capitano del popolo, now called capitano della massa di parte Guelfa, tended to become a very important person.
Each of the seven arti maggiori or greater gilds was organized like a small state with its councils, statutes, assemblies, magistrates, &c., and in times of trouble constituted a citizen militia.
The signory appointed Piero Capponi, a man of great ability and patriotism, and experienced in diplomacy, the gonfaloniere Francesco Valori, the Dominican Giorgio Vespucci, and the jurisconsult and diplomatist Domenico Bonsi, rule, 's every five years, appointed all the magistrates and Y Y PP g syndics to conduct the negotiations with the French king.
When Filippo Strozzi, and above Second all his wife, threw their influence in the scales against expulsion the Medici, and the magistrates declared for their ex of the pulsion from power, Passerini, Ippolito and Alessandro Medici left Florence (17th of May 1527).
A variety of causes, however, had produced strong dissatisfaction at Rome with many of the arrangements established by Diocletian, and on the 28th of October 306, the public discontent found expression in the massacre of those magistrates who remained loyal to Flavius Valerius Severus and in the election of Maxentius to the imperial dignity.
He came of a family that counted among its members several jurists and magistrates.
The pardon transmitted by the secretary of state is applied by the supreme court, who grant the necessary orders to the magistrates in whose custody the convict is.
The viceroys were chief magistrates, but in legal matters they had to consult the Audiencia of judges, in finance the Tribunal de Cuentas, in other branches of administration the Juntas de Gobierno and de Guerra.
He organized the boys of Florence in a species of sacred militia, an inner republic, with its own magistrates and officials charged with the enforcement of his rules for the holy life.
The magistrates signalled to the two champions to advance.
A scaffold, connected by a wooden bridge with the magistrates' rostrum, had been erected on the spot where the piles of the m.
Cicero states that from the earliest period down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet (album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had occurred during the year (per singulos dies, as Servius says).
one of the four chief magistrates of the city (probably 2nd century A.D.).
In 1710, the Edinburgh magistrates, regarding the university patronage as their privilege, appointed another professor, ignoring the appointment of Cunningham, who had been installed in the office for at least ten years.
The earliest English tragedy, Gorboduc (1565), the Mirror for Magistrates (1587), and Shakespeare's Lear, are instances in point.
As Janus is in the household the numen of the door, so in the state he is the god associated with the great gate near the corner of the forum: the Penates have their analogy in the Di Penates populi Romani Quiritium by whom the magistrates take their oath on entering office, the Lar familiaris in the Lares Praestites of the community, and the Genius in the new notion of the Genius populi Romani or Genius urbis Romae.
In the earlier stage - whose notions of course still persist alongside of the state religion - each household has its own relations to its numina: now the state approaches the gods through its duly appointed representatives, the magistrates and priests.
Thus in one city the reckoning was by succession of kings, in another by archons or annual magistrates, in a third by succession of priests.
Magistrates are addressed as "your worship."
The magistrates of this city were not less amenable than had been the bishop of Wiirzburg in 1673.
Trajan seized every opportunity for emphasizing his view that the princeps was merely the greatest of the magistrates, and so was not above but under the laws.
Oaths and the taking of life were absolutely forbidden; hence the magistracy and the army were for the Mennonite unlawful callings; but magistrates were to be obeyed in all things not prohibited by Scripture.
In the time of Ezra the Jewish "magistrates and judges" among their ecclesiastico-civil functions have the right of pronouncing sentence whether it be unto death, or to "rooting out," or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment (Ezra vii.
In the formula used by Synesius (4,0) which is to be found in Bingham's Antiquities, we already find the attention of magistrates specially called to the censured person.
The history of the next thousand years shows that the magistrates were seldom slow to respond to the appeal.
In 1668 it was purchased from Sir Patrick Maxwell of Newark by the Glasgow magistrates, who here constructed a harbour.
A praefect was not one of the magistrates proper; he was, strictly speaking, only the deputy or lieutenant of a superior magistrate or commander.
The city praefect (praefectus urbis) acted at Rome as the deputy of the chief magistrate or magistrates during his or their absence from the city.
The absence of the chief magistrate for more than a single day rendered the appointment of a praefect obligatory; but the obligation only arose when all the higher magistrates were absent.
Hence so long as the consuls were the only higher magistrates their frequent absence often rendered the appointment of a praefect necessary, but after the institution of the praetorship (367 B.C.) the necessity only arose exceptionally, as it rarely happened that both the consuls and the praetor were absent simultaneously.
But a praefect continued to be regularly appointed, even under the empire, during the enforced absence of all the higher magistrates at the Latin festival.
p common chest, to be in charge of the townsmen and the magistrates.
The magistrates successfully asserted themselves to the discomfiture of their critics (Ann Hutchinson being banished), and this was characteristic of the colony's early history.
Criticism of church or magistrates was not tolerated.
The magistrates, the Schout or high bailiff and his assessors, the Schepenen (scabini, echevins), were nominated by the burgrave from the order of knights.
In 1196 we read for the first time of councillors (consules, consiliarii, adjurati) as assessors of the magistrates, but these, who a little later were known as the Raad or council, were also nominated.
At length in 1758 the magistrates of Leipzig rescued him from his misery by giving him the rectorate of St Nicolai, and, though he still made no way with the leading men of the university and suffered from the hostility of men like Ruhnken and J.
The lex parieti faciundo, an interesting inscription of 105 B.C. relating to some building works in front of the temple of Serapis, shows that Puteoli had considerable administrative independence, including the right to date such a public document by the names of its own magistrates.
Magistrates " have not that authority over the church as to be.
He had civil and criminal jurisdiction within the boundaries of his estate; he could create offices, found cities, and appoint officers and magistrates, and, although the charter permitted an appeal from his court to the directorgeneral and council in any case in which the amount in dispute exceeded fifty guilders ($20), some of the patroons exacted from their colonists a promise not to avail themselves of the privilege.
69) to the rescript of that emperor impressing on governors and magistrates the duty of keeping a strict watch on extravagances in religion.
Both the higher and the provincial administrations were thoroughly reformed with the view of making them more centralized and efficient; and the positions and duties of the various magistrates, who now also received fixed salaries, were for the first time exactly defined.
He was discovered and taken prisoner; and the local magistrates, in accordance with Sulla's proclamation, resolved to put him to death.
"The people build cities, princes pull them down; the industry of the citizens creates wealth for rapacious lords to plunder; plebeian magistrates pass good laws for kings to violate; the people love peace, and their rulers stir up war."
1); and every priest was subject to the state exactly as the magistrates were, referring all weighty matters to state decision and then executing what the one supreme power decreed.
Consul (Magistrates) >>
In later times, too, the actual debate was almost, if not wholly, confined to the kings, elders, ephors and perhaps the other magistrates.
The apella voted on peace and war, treaties and foreign policy in general: it decided which of the kings should conduct a campaign and settled questions of disputed succession to the throne: it elected elders, ephors and other magistrates, emancipated helots and perhaps voted on legal proposals.
In spite of his political reforms, he opposed the admission of the plebeians to the consulship and priestly offices; and, although these reforms might appear to be democratic in character and calculated to give preponderance to the lowest class of the people, his probable aim was to strengthen the power of the magistrates (and lessen that of the senate) by founding it on the popular will, which would find its expression in the urban inhabitants and could be most easily influenced by the magistrate.
C. who wrote for the Mirror for Magistrates (ed.
His writings, with the exception of his contributions to the Mirror for Magistrates, are chiefly autobiographical in character or deal with the wars in which he had a share.
AGORANOMI, magistrates in the republics of Greece, whose position and duties were in many respects similar to those of the aediles of Rome.
In the early middle ages it was commonly applied to secular officials and magistrates, and it remained all though the middle ages as the title of certain officials in the Italian city states.
The word is also applied, and perhaps more usually, to certain subordinate magistrates who administer justice in minor matters, and who are usually called justices of the peace (q.v.).
That Caesar held the imperium which he enjoyed as dictator to be distinct in kind from that of the republican magistrates he indicated by placing the term imperator at the head of his titles.'
It also provides that the local magistrates shall take a census of the citizens at the same time as the census takes place in Rome, and send the registers to Rome within sixty days.
The existing fragments tell us little as to the decentralization of the functions of government, but from the Lex Rubria, which applies to the Transpadane districts enfranchised by Caesar (it must be remembered that Cisalpine Gaul remained nominally a province until 42 B.C.) we gather that considerable powers of independent jurisdiction were reserved to the municipal magistrates.
In 1227 the same monarch confirmed the charter of John fixing the city boundaries and the jurisdiction of its magistrates.
Thus the Roman draughtsman who wishes to express the idea "magistrates of any kind as president of assemblies" writes "Magistratus queiquomque comitia conciliumve habebit" (Lex Latina tabulae Bantinae, 1.5), and formalism required that a magistrate who summoned only a portion of the people to meet him should, in his summons, use the word concilium.
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
This power of judging exercised by the assemblies had in the main developed from the use of the right of appeal (provocatio) against the judgments of the magistrates.
The comitia centuriata could be summoned and presided over only by the magistrates with imperium.
It elected the magistrates with imperium and the censors, and alone had the power of declaring war.
Its presidents were the magistrates of the people, usually the consuls and praetors, and, for purposes of jurisdiction, the curule aediles.
It elected these aediles and other lower magistrates of the people.
The concilium plebis, although voting, like this last assembly, by tribes, could be summoned and presided over only by plebeian magistrates, and never included the patricians.
After the essential elements in the election of magistrates had passed to the senate in A.D.
That system recognized the municeps as at once a citizen of a self-governing city community, and a member of the city of Rome, his dual capacity being illustrated by his right of voting both in the election of Roman magistrates and in the election of magistrates for his own town.
The government of each town consists of magistrates, senate and assembly, and is entirely independent of the Roman government except in certain cases of higher civil jurisdiction, which come under the direct cognisance of the praetor urbanus at Rome.
The theoretical powers of these comitia were extensive both in the election of magistrates and in legislation.
The magistrates were elected annually, and were six in number, forming three pairs of colleagues.
The highest magistrates were the Ilviri (Duoviri) juri dicundo, who had charge, as their name implies, of all local jurisdiction, and presided over the assembly.
Indeed many inscriptions speak of IVviri (Quattuorviri) consisting of two I Vviri juri dicundo and two I Vviri aediles; but in the majority of cases the former are regarded as distinct and superior magistrates.
Other municipal magistrates frequently referred to in the inscriptions are the quinquennales and praefecti.
The second class, referred to in inscriptions by the name of praefecti ab decurionibus creati lege Petronia, seem to have been appointed by the local senate in case of a complete absence of higher magistrates, such as would have led in Rome to the appointment of an interrex.
The watersupply was also provided out of the municipal budget, and controlled by magistrates appointed for the purpose.
Each elected its officers and treasurers at an annual meeting, and every five years a revision of the list of members was held, corresponding to that of the senators held quinquennially by the city magistrates.
We know from Strabo that they had a democratic constitution save in time of war, when a dictator was chosen from among the regular magistrates.
The purpose of this bill was disclosed in the statement that "the government of India had decided to settle the question of jurisdiction over European British subjects in such a way as to remove from the code, at once and completely, every judicial disqualification which is based merely on race distinctions," in fact to subject Europeans in certain cases to trial by native magistrates.
of 1884 was a compromise, which, while subjecting Europeans to the jurisdiction of native district magistrates or sessions judges, reserved to them the right to demand trial by a jury of which at least half should be Europeans.
Its pliant and flexible branches are made into brooms; and in ancient Rome the fasces of the lictors, with which they cleared the way for the magistrates, were made up of birch rods.
The clergy, now Roman officials, vested in the robes of the civil dignitaries, took their seats in the apse of the basilica where the magistrates were wont to sit, in front of them the holy table, facing the congregation.
They were never regarded as magistrates, but merely as judices, and as such would be appointed for a fixed term of service by the magistrate, probably by the praetor urbanus.
p. 115 seq.); but we must be careful not to draw the inference that Phoenicia itself had any such magistrates.
In both rebellions the magistrates took the side of the Crown and were supported by the townsfolk generally, the Jacobites drawing their strength mainly from the county noblemen and gentry with their retainers.
The executive power is vested in a college formed by the burgomaster and two, three or four magistrates (wethouders) to be chosen by and from the members of the council.
Like the priests, the magistrates also had similar notes, partly written by themselves, and partly records of which they formed the subject.
He returned to Constantinople, but at the invitation of the magistrates of Florence he became about 1395 professor of the Greek language in that city, where he taught three years.
It mentions the two principal magistrates as medix.
The word is not found in pre-Christian writings except in the Septuagint, though as Deissmann has shown it is found on the Papyri as an official title for the village magistrates of Egypt and the members of the yEpovoia, or senate, of many towns in Asia Minor.
It prescribes severe simplicity of dress and of life, and certain abstinences and prayers and other religious exercises, and forbids the frequentation of the theatre, the bearing of arms and the taking of oaths except when administered by magistrates.
The smaller theatre, which was erected, as we learn from an inscription, by two magistrates specially appointed for the purpose by the decuriones of the city, was of older date than the large one, and must have been constructed a little before the amphitheatre, soon after the establishment of the Roman colony under Sulla.
The amphitheatre was erected by the same two magistrates who built the smaller theatre, C. Quinctius Valgus and M.
Unfortunately the names are all otherwise unknown; but we learn from the inscriptions that they are for the most part those of local magistrates and municipal dignitaries of Pompeii.
Under the supreme dominion of Rome even the unprivileged cities kept their own laws, magistrates and assemblies, provision being made for suits between Romans and Sicilians and between Sicilians of different cities (Verr.
Potidaea, a Dorian town on the western promontory of Chalcidice in Thrace, a tributary ally of Athens - to which however Corinth as metropolis still sent annual magistrates - was induced to revolt,' with the support.
Apart from such qualification, it signified chiefly the temporary commission which superseded all the ordinary magistrates of the Republic from 451 to 449 B.C., for the purpose of drawing up a code of laws.
They were forced to abdicate (449 B.C.), and the ordinary magistrates were restored.
They were originally a body of jurors which gave a verdict under the presidency of the praetor, but eventually became annual minor magistrates of the Republic, elected by the Comitia Tributa.
The cities appear equally Hellenic in their political organs and functions with boule and demos and popularly elected magistrates.
This shows us the normal organs of a Greek city, boule, ecclesia, prytaneis, &c., in full working, with the annual election of magistrates, and ordinary forms of public action.
The town hall is a handsome classical building erected in 1875; it bridges the county boundary, the Calder, enabling the magistrates to exercise jurisdiction in both counties.
In the markak (district) tribunals, created in 1904 and presided over by magistrates with jurisdiction in cases of misdemeanour, the prosecution is, however, conducted directly by the police.
As these jurists had in their commentaries upon the leges, senatus consulta and edicts of the magistrates practically incorporated all that was of importance in those documents, the books of the jurists may substantially be taken as including (i.) and (ii.).
Taxation and the appointment of the Lyciarch and other magistrates were vested in the assembly.
Though utterly baseless, the story gained currency in the Mirrour for Magistrates, and was adopted in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.
Towards the end of the 16th century the practice arose of regular communication by letter between the magistrates of the larger towns and the seat of government in Edinburgh.
Those holding their charters from a feudal superior and not from the crown were called burghs of regality, their magistrates and council being usually appointed by the overlord or his representative.
Towns that received their charters from bishops were burghs of barony, their magistrates and council being appointed by the superior.
The burghs were not actually the creations of David and William the Lion, but the rights, duties and privileges which had gradually developed in the towns were in the time of these kings codified and confirmed by charters; the towns had magistrates of their own election, courts, and legalized open markets.
Scotland was to be forgiven the ransom, receive the Stone of Scone and retain its independent title as a kingdom: her parliaments were to be held within her own borders; her governors and magistrates were to be Scots, freedom of trade was guaranteed, and the earl of Douglas was to be restored to his English estates, or to an equivalent.
Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
A good deal of local self-government was permitted; the cities struck their own bronze coins, inscribed on them the names of their own magistrates, 2 and probably administered their own laws in matters purely local.
As the emblem of official authority, they were carried by the lictors, in the left hand and on the left shoulder, before the higher Roman magistrates; at the funeral of a deceased magistrate they were carried behind the bier.
A dictator, as taking the place of the two consuls, had 24 fasces (including the axe even within the city); most of the other magistrates had fasces varying in number, with the exception of the censors, who, as possessing no executive authority, had none.
Their resentment was inflamed by a powerful party, embracing the magistrates, the ministers, the favourite eunuchs, the ladies of the court, and Eudoxia the empress herself, against whom the preacher thundered daily from the pulpit of St Sophia.
The magistrates of the town were won over and issued an ordinance which attempted to express in legislation the new evangelical ideas.
The counts of Mansfeld, the magistrates of the city and all the burghers of Eisleben accompanied the coffin to the gates of their town.
€gopos), the title of the highest magistrates of the ancient Spartan state.
From this date he devoted increasing attention to political affairs, and in 1835 was prosecuted for libelling the magistrates of Halifax.
Meanwhile, the number of magistrates (consules) had increased, ranging from twenty to forty and upwards.
Nevertheless, the seven great companies continued to choose the magistrates by co-optation among themselves.
His term of office was chiefly notable for the agitation against the Ilbert Bill, which proposed to subject European offenders to trial by native magistrates.
Facing the South Common were the homes of Rev. Nathaniel Ward (1578-1652), principal author of the Massachusetts "Body of Liberties" (1641); the first code of laws in New England, and author of The Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America, Willing to help mend his Native Country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper-Leather and the Sole (1647), published under the pseudonym, "Theodore de la Guard," one of the most curious and interesting books of the colonial period; of Richard Saltonstall (1610-1694), who wrote against the life tenure of magistrates, and although himself an Assistant espoused the more liberal principles of the Deputies; and of Ezekiel Cheever (1614-1708), a famous schoolmaster, who had charge of the grammar school in 1650-1660.
We have unfolded to us the monstrous system by which the governor could fix upon a remote place for the delivery of corn, and so compel the farmer to compound by a payment in money which the orator does not blame, on the ground that it is only proper to allow magistrates to receive corn wherever they wish (ib.
At the same time the co-operation of the local magistrates was invited so far as advice and assistance were concerned; but all real power and control has passed from their hands into that of the commissioners of prisons.
The republic was restored; senate, magistrates and assembly resumed their ancient functions; and the public life of Rome began to run once more in the familiar grooves.
This was properly the name of the shellfish (Purpura, Murex) which yielded the famous Tyrian dye, the particular mark of the dress of emperors, kings, chief magistrates and other dignitaries, whence "the purple" still signifies the rank of emperors or kings.
In this character her special sanctuary was in the prytaneum, where the common hearth-fire round which the magistrates meet is ever burning, and where the sacred rites that sanctify the concord of city life are performed.
at Aberdeen; and on this occasion the magistrates voted him a present of a tun of wine when the new wines should arrive, or, according to his option, the sum of £ 20 to purchase bonnets.
The less important districts are administered by district magistrates, who also collect the taxes.
prae-itor, " he who goes before," "a leader"), originally a military title, was in classical times the designation of the highest magistrates in the Latin towns.
2 The insignia of the praetor were those common to the higher Roman magistrates - the purple-edged robe (toga praetexta) and the ivory chair (sella curulis); in Rome he was attended by two lictors, in the provinces by six.
The city praetor presided over popular assemblies for the election of certain inferior magistrates, but all the praetors officiating in Rome had the right to summon assemblies for the purpose of legislation.
The meetings became increasingly popular, and were soon attended not only by the women but even by some of the ministers and magistrates, including Governor Henry Vane.
This board was to meet annually in September, two years of every five at Boston, one year of every five at Hartford, one at New Haven, and one at Plymouth; special meetings also might be called by three magistrates of any of the four colonies.
The most important powers of the Confederacy were those relating to defence, and in case of an invasion its entire force, consisting of 1 00 men from Massachusetts and 45 men from each of the other colonies (or some other proportion which the commissioners might name), was to march out if so requested by three magistrates of any of the contracting colonies.
In 44, as tribune of the people, he brought forward a law authorizing Caesar to nominate the chief magistrates during his absence from Rome.
The courts in existence at the time of the occupation were superseded by the following, constituted by an order in council dated the 30th of November 1882: - (I) a supreme court of criminal and civil appeal; (2) six assize courts; (3) six district courts; (4) six magistrates' courts; and (5) village courts.
He aimed a further blow at Fustel's system by showing that the Frankish kings had never borne the Roman title of vir inluster, and that they could not therefore be considered as being in the first place Roman magistrates; and that in the royal diplomas the king issued his commands as rex Francorum and addressed his functionaries as viri inlustres.
They speak of the "breathing time" which they have had of late, and their hope that God would, as they say, "incline the magistrates' hearts so for to tender our consciences as that we might be protected by them from wrong, injury, oppression and molestation"; and then they proceed: "But if God withhold the magistrates' allowance and furtherance herein, yet we must, notwithstanding, proceed together in Christian communion, not daring to give place to suspend our practice, but to walk in obedience to Christ in the profession and holding forth this faith before mentioned, even in the midst of all trials and afflictions, not accounting our goods, lands, wives, children, fathers, mothers, brethren, sisters, yea, and our own lives, dear unto us, so that we may finish our course with joy; remembering always that we ought to obey God rather than men."
He had much to do with the witchcraft persecution of his day; in 1692 when the magistrates appealed to the Boston clergy for advice in regard to the witchcraft cases in Salem he drafted their reply, upon which the prosecutions were based; in 1689 he had written Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions, and even his earlier diaries have many entries showing his belief in diabolical possession and his fear and hatred of it.
Whereupon certain theologians (themselves perhaps the authors of it) took occasion to complain of me to the prince and the magistrates; moreover, the stupid Cartesians, because they are commonly supposed to side with me, desiring to free themselves from that suspicion, were diligent without ceasing in their execrations of my doctrines and writings, and are as diligent still."
They contain treatises on the Roman magistrates, priests and lawyers, and a compendium of Roman history from Plutarch, Tib.
He was educated privately, and having taken to the law was one of the magistrates at the police court in Queen Square, Westminster, from 1792 to his death.
A beginning was made by the siege and capture of Kexholm in Russian Finland (March 2, 1611); and, on the 16th of July, Great Novgorod was occupied and a convention concluded with the magistrates of that wealthy city whereby Charles IX.'s second son Philip was to be recognized as tsar, unless, in the meantime, relief came to Great Novgorod from Moscow.
When the police was put on a more complete footing and the area enlarged, provision was made for the more effectual administration of justice by the magistrates of the metropolis (Metropolitan Police Courts Act 1839).
At the beginning of the 19th century, outside of the city of London (where magisterial duties were, as now, performed by the lord mayor and aldermen), there were various public offices besides the Bow Street and Thames police offices where magistrates attended.
This was effected, and thus magisterial functions were completely separated from the duties of the executive police; for although the jurisdiction of the two justices, afterwards called commissioners, as magistrates extended to ordinary duties (except at courts of general or quarter sessions), from the first they took no part in the examination or committal for trial of persons charged with offences.
Their functions were in practice confined to the discipline of the force and the prevention and detection of offences, their action limited to having persons arrested or summoned to be dealt with by the ordinary magistrates, whose courts were not interfered with.
The city of London has its own distinct police organization under a commissioner and assistant commissioner, and its functions extend over an area of 673 statute acres containing two courts of justice, those of the Guildhall and Mansion House, where the lord mayor and the aldermen are the magistrates.
The detective is the direct descendant of the old "Bow Street runners" or "Robin Redbreasts" - so styled from their scarlet waistcoats - officers in attendance upon the old-fashioned police offices and despatched by the sitting magistrates to follow up any very serious crime in the interests of the public or at the urgent request of private persons.
The smallness of the number of European magistrates, and other circumstances, make the police more important and relatively far more powerful in India than in England (Stephen).
Ephesus was very prosperous during the Hellenistic period, and is conspicuous both then and later for the abundance of its coinage, which gives us a more complete list of magistrates' names than we have for any other Ionian city.
All serious cases of crime are tried before a judge and jury, with the same formalities and safeguards as in England, while minor offences are dealt with by stipendiary magistrates possessing a limited statutory jurisdiction.
'VIGINTISEXVIRI, in Roman history, the collective name given in republican times to "twenty-six" magistrates of inferior rank.
They were originally nominated by the higher magistrates, but subsequently elected in a body at a single sitting of the comitia tributa; under the empire they were chosen by the senate.
On the extinction of the native dynasty of the O'Connors, the town fell into the hands of the De Burgos, the head of a branch of which, under the name of M`William Eighter, long governed it by magistrates of his own appointment.
Its municipal privileges were extended by a charter from James I., whereby the town, and a district of two miles round in every direction, were formed into a distinct county, with exclusive jurisdiction and a right of choosing its own magistrates.
It was at this time he began his memorable controversy with Episcopius, who, in attacking the Coronis, railed against the author as having been "a disturber of the public peace in his native country, so that the English magistrates had banished him thence; and now, by his late printed Coronis, he was raising new disturbances in the peaceable Netherlands."
The Parlement had also become fixed at Paris, and, by a development which goes back to fairly early times, the presidents and councillors, instead of being merely the king's advisers, had acquired certain powers, though these were conferred by the monarch; they were, in fact, true magistrates.
of the Parlement; they were the hereditary councillors, taking the oath as official magistrates, and, if they wished, sitting and having a deliberative function in the Parlement.
This was explained in theory by the principle that if the king himself held his court, it lost, by the fact of his presence, all the authority which he had delegated to it; for the moment the only authority existing in it was that of the king, just as in the ancient curia regis there was the principle that apparente rege cessat magistrates.
The league embraced an indefinite number of city-states which maintained their internal independence practically undiminished, and through their several magistrates, assemblies and law-courts exercised all traditional powers of self-government.
This body met for three days in spring and autumn at Aegium to discuss the league's policy and elect the federal magistrates.
The title of consul, in the sense in which it is used in international law, is derived from that of certain magistrates, in the cities of medieval Italy, Provence and Languedoc, charged with the settlement of trade disputes whether by sea or land (consules mercatorum, consules artis maxis, &c.).
Particular quarters of mercantile cities were assigned to foreign traders and were placed under the jurisdiction of their own magistrates, variously styled syndics, provosts (praepositi), echevins earliest foreign consuls were those established by Genoa, Pisa, Venice and Florence, between 1098 and 1196, in the Levant, at Constantinople, in Palestine, Syria and Egypt.
The authority of the council was also curtailed, and a new board of magistrates, the patronomi, became the chief officers of state.
The Hussites, led by John Zizka, stormed the town-hall and threw the magistrates from its windows.
He also reduced the revolted Sabines to submission; a large portion of their territory was distributed among the Roman citizens, and the most important towns received the citizenship without the right of voting for magistrates (civitas sine sufJragio).
LICTORS (lictores), in Roman antiquities, a class of the attendants (apparitores) upon certain Roman and provincial magistrates.'
The majority of the city lictors were freedmen; they formed a corporation divided into decuries, from which the lictors of the magistrates in office were drawn; provincial officials had the nomination of their own.
This, like the scandal concerning Margaret and Suffolk, is baseless; the tradition, however, continued and found expression in the Mirror for Magistrates and in Drayton's Heroical Epistles, as well as in Shakespeare's Henry VI.
With regard to any offensive trade which has been established or may be consented to in any urban district, if it is verified by the medical officer or any two legally qualified medical practitioners, or by any ten inhabitants of the district, to be a nuisance or injurious to health, the urban district council are required to take proceedings before magistrates with a view to the abatement of the nuisance complained of.
Rumania (1828-56), when magistrates were made irremovable, and new tribunals created, including a petty court in each rural commune.
There are various inferior courts also, including magistrates or jueces de paz, but their organization and functions are loosely defined and not generally understood outside the republic. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in judicial matters, and original jurisdiction in impeachment trials and in matters involving constitutional interpretation.
Two magistrates, styled rahanadores, are appointed by the Council General to see that viguiers and judges preserve the customs and privileges of Andorra.
They have to maintain all roads in the division; can nominate field cornets (magistrates); may borrow money on the security of the rates for public works; and return three members yearly to the district licensing court.
Besides the usual magistrates in these territories, there is a chief magistrate, resident at Cape Town, with two assistants in the territories.
The championship of Hottentot grievances by the missionaries caused much dissatisfaction among the majority of the colonists, whose views, it may be noted, temporarily prevailed, for in 1812 an ordinance was issued which empowered magistrates to bind Hottentot children as apprentices under conditions differing little from that of slavery.
An ordinance passed in 1827, abolishing the old Dutch courts of landroost and heemraden (resident magistrates being substituted) and decreeing that henceforth all legal proceedings should be conducted in English; the granting in 1828, as a result of the representations of the missionaries, of equal rights with whites to the Hottentots and other free coloured people; the imposition (1830) of heavy penalties for harsh treatment of slaves, and finally the emancipation of the slaves in 1834,3 - all these things increased the dislike of the farmers to the government.
It provided that all civil cases were to be tried by magistrates, an appeal to lie only to the chief magistrate of the territory with an assessor.
The bill was passed, and the effect of it was, inasmuch as the magistrates administered according to native law, that native marriage customs and laws (including polygamy) were legalized in these territories.
granted the harbour to the magistrates of Edinburgh, who did not always use their power wisely.
Laws of universal application which could be administered only by duly qualified judges were called Cain law, while minor laws administered by nobles and magistrates were called Urradhus law..
As an independent community it had already begun to use Latin as well as Umbrian in its inscriptions (for one of these recording the chief magistrates - marones - see C.I.L.
currus, " chariot"), in Roman antiquities, the epithet applied to the chair of office, sella curulis, used by the "curuie" or highest magistrates and also by the emperors.
Lincoln was also given the right of electing its own magistrates in 1194, and many smaller places owe grants of more or less of municipal privilege to Hubert Walter acting in the name of the absent king.
The result of these demonstrations was the introduction in the House of Lords, on the 4th of November, of the Treasonable Practices Bill, the main principle of which was that it modified the law of treason by dispensing with the necessity for th~ proof of an overt act in order to secure conviction; and in the House of Commons, on the 10th, of the Seditious Meetings Bill, which seriously limited the right of public meeting, making all meetings of over fifty persons, as well as all political debates and lectures, subject to the previous consent and active supervision of the magistrates.
Manchester followed suit; but the meeting arranged for the 9th of August was declared illegal by the magistrates, on the strength of a royal proclamation against seditious meetings issued on the 3oth of July.
leaders asserted, of enabling the vast assemblage to be conducted in an orderly manner; for the purpose, as the magistrates suspected, of preparing them for an armed insurrection.
ing, but directed that he should be brought to trial within a year; the second increased the penalties for seditious libel; the third imposed the newspaper stamp duty on all pamphlets and the like containing news; the fourth (Seditious Meetings Act) once more greatly curtailed the liberty of public meetings; the fifth forbade the training of persons in the use of arms; the sixth empowered magistrates to search for and seize arms.
The persons entitled to ask for an expression of the divine will on a public affair were the magistrates.
The subjects for which auspicia publica were always taken were the election of magistrates, their entering on office, the holding of a public assembly to pass decrees, the setting out of an army for war.
From this time, however, the magistrates whom it elected refused to take the oath of supremacy, and, as by its charter it possessed the right to refuse admission to the king's judges, and therefore to dispense with the right of holding assizes, a rule was obtained in the Irish chancery for the seizure of its charter, which was carried into effect in 1618.
Although shaken by the acquittal of William Hone on a charge of libel the government was supported by parliament; and after the "Manchester massacre" in August 1819 the home secretary thanked the magistrates and soldiers for their share in quelling the riot.
In after times Pelops was honoured at Olympia above all other heroes; a temple was built for him by Heracles, his descendant in the fourth generation, in which the annual magistrates sacrificed to him a black ram.
He was elected its honorary secretary, and it was largely owing to information obtained by him that the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885 was passed, while by his personal effort he secured the insertion of a clause giving magistrates power to take the evidence of children too young to understand the nature of an oath.
He at once began to expound the epistles of St Paul in the church of St Pierre, and after about a year was also elected preacher by the magistrates with the consent of the people, an office which he would not accept until it had been repeatedly pressed upon him.
These Calvin regarded as matters of indifference, provided the magistrates did not make them of importance, by seeking to enforce them; and he was the more willing to concede them, because he hoped thereby to meet the wishes of the Bernese brethren whose ritual was less simple than that established by Farel at Geneva.
There are 66 resident (stipendiary) magistrates, and four police magistrates in Dublin.
In 1904, 81,775 cases of drunkenness were brought before Irish magistrates as compared with 227,403 in England and 43,580 in Scotland.
abroad, the burden of proof lying on the accused, and the decision being left to magistrates without a jury.
The attempt to govern Ireland under what was called " the ordinary law " was necessarily abandoned, and a perpetual Crimes Act was passed which enabled the lordlieutenant to proclaim disturbed districts and dangerous associations, and substituted trial by magistrates for trial by jury in the case of certain acts of violence.
The government was determined not to use the Crimes Act, and the result was that offenders nearly always went unpunished, benches of magistrates being often swamped by the chairmen of district councils who were ex officio justices under the act of 1898.
His functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but these were the least important; the real power lay in the administration of the jus divinum, the chief departments of which may briefly be described as follows: (1) the regulation of all expiatory ceremonials needed as the result of pestilence, lightning, &c.; (2) the consecration of all temples and other sacred places and objects dedicated to the gods by the state through its magistrates; (3) the regulation of the calendar both astronomically and in detailed application to the public life of the state; (4) the administration of the law relating to burials and burying-places, and the worship of the Manes, or dead ancestors; (5) the superintendence of all marriages by confarreatio, i.e.
They had also the care of the state archives, of the lists of magistrates, and kept records of their own decisions (commentarii) and of the chief events of each year (annales).
The members of the curia who assisted the magistrates in the cities, crushed by the burden of taxes, now evaded as far as possible public office or senatorial honors.
The police, instituted in 1667 by La Reynie, became a public force independent of magistrates and under the direct orders of the ministers, making the arbitrary royal and ministerial authority absolute by means of lettres de cachet (qv.), which were very convenient for the government and very terrible for the individuals concerned.
Followir~g on an edict registered by the lit de justice, which forbade any remonstrance in political matters, the parlement had resigned, and had been imitated by the provincial parlements; whereupon Maupeou, an energetic chancellor, suppressed the parlements and substituted superior councils of magistrates appointed by the king (1771).
In each mudiria criminal justice is administered by a court, consisting of the mudir (or a judge) and two magistrates, which has general competence.
The magistrates are members of the administrative staff, who try minor cases without the help of the mudir (or judge).
Civil cases of importance are heard by a judge (or where no judge is available by the mudir or his representative); minor civil cases are tried by magistrates.
38) resembling men tied hand and foot, which were taken down to the ancient bridge over the Tiber (pons sublicius) on the 14th of May by the pontifices and magistrates, with the flaminica Dialis in mourning guise, and there thrown into the Tiber by the Vestal virgins.
This clause would seem to leave the state government with no powers not expressly granted, and to make the rule for interpreting the Nebraska constitution similar to that for interpreting the Federal constitution; but in their practice the Nebraska courts have been little influenced by it, and it is chiefly of historical interest.2 The administration of justice is vested in a supreme court, 15 district courts, county courts and courts of justices of the peace and police magistrates.
His works include Ad Sabinum, a commentary on the jus civile, in over 50 books; Ad edictum, a commentary on the Edict, in 83 books; collections of opinions, responses and disputations; books of rules and institutions; treatises on the functions of the different magistrates - one of them, the De officio proconsulis libri x., being a comprehensive exposition of the criminal law; monographs on various statutes, on testamentary trusts, and a variety of other works.
They were under an obligation to furnish a contingent to the Roman army for foreign service, but were allowed to maintain garrisons of their own, and their magistrates had the right to call out a militia.
The States of Holland, also by a narrow majority, refused their assent to this, and passed (August 4, 1617) a strong resolution (Scherpe Resolutie) by which all magistrates, officials and soldiers in the pay of the province were required to take an oath of obedience to the states on pain of dismissal, and were to be held accountable not to the ordinary tribunals, but to the States of Holland.
There are considerable remains of perhaps pre-Roman polygonal walls - in one place a piece of this walling has masonry of rectangular blocks superposed, with an inscription of two of the Roman municipal magistrates (quattuorviri).
The general court - the supreme civil authority - was composed of deputies from the towns, and a governor and magistrates who were chosen at a session of the court attended by all freemen of the towns.
In June 1639, however, a more definite statement of political principles was framed, in which it was clearly stated that the rules of Scripture should determine the ordering of the church, the choice of magistrates, the making and repeal of laws, the dividing of inheritances, and all other matters of public import; that only church members could become free burgesses and officials of the colony; that the free burgesses should choose twelve men who should choose seven others, and that these should organize the church and the civil government.
In 1643 the jurisdiction of the New Haven colony was extended by the admission of the townships of Milford, Guilford and Stamford to equal rights with New Haven, the recognition of their local governments, and the formation of two courts for the whole jurisdiction, a court of magistrates to try important cases and hear appeals from " plantation " courts, and a general court with legislative powers, the highest court of appeals, which was similar in composition to the general court of the Connecticut Colony.
The towns and villages had generally been laid out by contractors or locatores, men not necessarily of noble birth, who were installed as hereditary chief magistrates of the communities, and received numerous encouragements to reclaim waste lands.
This proceeding gave the barons and knights an opportunity to buy out the village magistrates and to replace them with nominees of their own.
In his conflict with the towns over his refusal to ratify all their privileges the elector's task was lightened by a quarrel between the magistrates and the burghers of Berlin, which he was called in to decide in 1442.
The Thirty Years' War afforded them frequent opportunities of replacing the village Schulzen, or magistrates, with officials of their own; and the fact that their share of taxation was wholly wrung from the peasants made the burden of the latter much heavier than that of the townsmen.
I was bewildered to find that our magistrates courts have become junior crown courts.
Licenses are granted by the local licensing justices or magistrates' court.
acquittal rate in the Magistrates & Crown court.
aggrieved by the order of a Magistrates ' Court on such an appeal has a right of appeal to the Crown Court.
apprentice mechanic, narrowly escaped custody when he appeared before Carlisle magistrates.
bailed to appear at Bow St Magistrates Court on 2 July 2003.
bench of magistrates or judges awarding paternal sentences!
At Eden Magistrates ' Court Potter admitted obstructing a constable by fitting a jamming device to his car which prevented police recording his speed.
convicted in the magistrates ' court, they could be fined up to £ 1,000.
Theater and drama are played out every time a magistrates court is convened.
On 11 June a magistrates ' court granted a liability order.
deify magistrates had to swear by Jupiter, the deified emperors and by whatever gods were worshiped locally.
This, at least, was the belief of the local gentry and magistrates and in 1796 the dole was temporarily discontinued.
It forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin-shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates.
forfeiture hearing took place at Bolton Magistrates Court on 07 November 2005.
heard by the magistrates or justices of the peace for each division or boro.
The eight will appear at Reading Magistrates Court at 9.30am on Saturday 6th August - Hiroshima Day - for a bail hearing.
Magistrates ' court - 6 months Maximum Penalty - basic form: Crown Court - 5 years imp.
imposed by magistrates ' courts.
Judges, magistrates and tribunal judiciary have contributed ' day in the life ' diaries.
jurisdiction of local magistrates.
The " trial " would be heard by professional judges, specifically without " simple jurors " or " lay magistrates " .
Meanwhile, magistrates are locking up otherwise law-abiding sellers of cannabis for seven years.
A diverse magistracy 5.50 The Lord Chancellor had appointed 925 magistrates for the nine months to 31 December 2003.
lay magistrates sit together in a row facing the rest of the people.
Over 95% of all criminal cases are dealt with by lay magistrates.
There were concerns about the low level of fines imposed by magistrates ' courts.
The lieutenant-governor soon came into the town house and there met some of his Majesty's Council and a number of civil magistrates.
magistrates courts can only commit your opponent to prison for up to 2 months.
Prior to this most prisons were owned and controlled locally by both county and boro magistrates.
magistrates ' court in 2002/03 was £ 515.
magistrates ' courts committees.
mischievous prank " could face a flogging, magistrates have warned.
Social organizations, recommendations of magistrates and probation officers, possibly Prisoners ' Aid Societies and Borstal Associations.
Outcome of appeals This includes the outcome of appeals This includes the outcome of the appeals by the magistrates court.
overpayy Magistrates were told that the Housing Benefit Office was recovering the sum overpaid from on-going benefit payments.
Timebat tribunos aut plebes [one feared the magistrates or the mob] does not exclude the case in which one feared both.
The city rulers were called praetors, we translate that word magistrates.
Young thugs who pulled down stalls at a country market for a " mischievous prank " could face a flogging, magistrates have warned.
reparation orders " Kingston magistrates can soon require vandals to clean up graffiti mess.
A man will appear before magistrates in Southend tomorrow (Monday, February 6) following a knifepoint robbery in a shop in Westcliff.
shouted racial abuse at a restaurant worker has been fined by magistrates.
This is already being addressed with extra court sittings in the magistrates ' courts.
The magistrates decreed that a fund be set up to relieve the suffering of families bereft of any income.
Despite Cromwell's broadly sympathetic view, however, many Quakers were imprisoned by local magistrates for causing disturbances in their regions.
Under the empire, on the other hand, it had the ordinary magistrates of a colony, the chief being duoviri, charged with the administration of justice, whose place was taken every fifth year by duoviri censoria potestate quinquennales, then quaestores (or financial officials) and then aediles (building officials).
In all matters the magistrates were obliged to act according to their direction, and in some towns they heard cases of appeal against judicial sentences passed by the magistrate.
The president is assisted in his duties by two other magistrates, who may be chosen either from among the conseillers of the court of appeal or the presidents or judges of the local court of first instance.
which English magistrates dismiss a case or commit the prisoner to quatter sessions or assizes, but the powers of the juge dmnstruction are more arbitrary and absolute.
in the Miles and the Poenulus) the result is generally not happy; and the romanization of the plays by way of allusions to towns in Italy, to the streets, gates and markets of Rome, to Roman magistrates and their duties, to Roman laws and the business of Roman law-courts, banks, comitia and senate, &c., involves the poet in all the difficulties of attempting to blend two different civilizations.
It was a municipium under the Empire, as the inscriptions show, but it seems to have had magistrates rather suited to a vicus or village, its importance being due entirely to the naval station (cf.
But during his tenure of power all the magistrates of the people were regarded as his subordinates; and it was even held that the right of assistance (auxilium), furnished by the tribunes of the plebs to members of the citizen body, should not be effectively exercised when the state was under this type of martial law.
The particulars of the proceedings of Governor Endecott and the magistrates of New England as given in Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers (see below) are startling to read.
Romford was included in the liberty of Havering-atte-Bower, which until 1892 had a jurisdiction of its own distinct from that of the county, with a high steward, magistrates, clerk of the peace, coroner and quarter sessions.
The municipal magistrates took the title of sufetes in place of that of duumvirs, and in certain towns the Christian bishops were obliged to know the lingua Punica, since it was the only language that the people understood.
A Greater Council empowered to appoint magistrates and pass laws was formed, to which all citizens netti di specchio (who had paid their taxes) and beneficiati (i.e.
Being all condemned to the rack in order to extort confession, they appealed to the parlement; but this body, being as weak as the subordinate magistrates, sentenced the father to the torture, ordinary and extraordinary, to be broken alive upon the wheel, and then to be burnt to ashes; which decree was carried into execution on the 9th of March 1762.
Negotiations were carried on for some months, but in vain; in March 1411 the ban was anew pronounced upon Huss as a disobedient son of the church, while the magistrates and councillors of Prague who had favoured him were threatened with a similar penalty in case of their giving him a contumacious support.
It follows in the main the line of Hooker and Calvin, but adds (§ 6) an important definition: "Excommunication being a spirituall punishment it doth not prejudice the excommunicate in, nor deprive him of his civil rights, therfore touched' not princes, or other magistrates, in point of their civil dignity or authority.
Among these functions were probably jurisdiction in cases of impiety, the supervision of magistrates and the censorship of the morals of citizens, the inhibition of illegal and unconstitutional resolutions in the Five Hundred and the Ecclesia, the examination into the fitness of candidates for office, and the collection of rents from the sacred property (cf.
universis, &c., singulis civibus dare posse; (b) bellum indicere aut pacem inire; (c) to appoint and change magistrates; (d) power of final appeal; (e) power of pardon; (f) raising revenue; (g) coining money" (De republica, vol.
In Greece the priest, so far as he is an independent functionary and not one of the magistrates, is simply the elected or hereditary minister of a temple charged with " those things which are ordained to be done towards the gods " (see Aristotle, Pol.
In the United Kingdom a paid magistrate or justice of the peace, appointed by the Crown on the advice of the home secretary for certain boroughs are termed "stipendiaries" or "stipendiary magistrates" (see Justice Of The Peace).
It is explained elsewhere (see Rome: History, Ancient) that Caesar's power was exercised under the form of the dictatorship. In the first instance (autumn of 49 B.C.) this was conferred upon him as the only solution of the constitutional deadlock created by the flight of the magistrates and senate, in order that elections (including that of Caesar himself to the consulship) might be held in due course.
Besides the dictatorship, Caesar held the consulship in each year of his reign except 47 B.C. (when no curule magistrates were elected save for the last three months of the year); and he was moreover invested by special enactments with a number of other privileges and powers; of these the most important was the tribuni'cia potestas, which we may believe to have been free from the limits of place (i.e.
Equally vain were his efforts in the same year to persuade the magistrates of Ghent to cease persecuting the Catholics in the city.
The two quaestores, who appear to have controlled finance in a large number of municipia, cannot be traced in others; and it is probable that in the municipia, as at Rome, the quaestorship was locally instituted, as need arose, to relieve the supreme magistrates of excessive business.
The clergy, now Roman officials, vested in the robes of the civil dignitaries (see Vestments), took their seats in the apse of the basilica where the magistrates were wont to sit, in front of them the holy table, facing the congregation.
Originally the quaestors seem to have been nominated by the consuls, but later, perhaps from the fall of the decemvirs (449 B.C.), they were elected by the people assembled in tribes (comitia tributa) under the presidency of a consul or another of the higher magistrates.
Before the election of the quaestors the senate decided the duties to be undertaken by them, and after election these duties were distributed amongst the new quaestors either by lot or by the choice of the higher magistrates to whom quaestors were assigned.
Originally the duties of the quaestors, like those of the consuls, were undefined; the consuls were the superior magistrates of the republic, the quaestors their assistants.
Their functions as keepers of the treasury were withdrawn from the urban quaestors by Augustus and transferred to other magistrates, but the office itself continued to exist into the 3rd century, though as to the nature of the duties attached to it we have little or no information.
The lord mayor and magistrates not only carried out the appointed administrative measures, but looked to the cleanliness of the city and the relief of the poor, so that there was little or no actual want; and the burial arrangements appear to have been well attended to.
Mrs Hutchinson was supported by Governor Vane, Cotton, Wheelwright and the great majority of the Boston church; opposed to her were Deputy-Governor John Winthrop, Wilson and all of the country magistrates and churches.
As representatives of magistrates who possessed the imperium, they carried the fasces and axes in front of them (see Fasces).
ordered the sheriffs and magistrates in each county and borough to collect a general benevolence from all persons of ability, and with some difficulty about £40,000 was collected.
In 1817 the Habeas Corpus Act was suspended, and Sidmouth issued a circular to the lordslieutenant declaring that magistrates might apprehend and hold to bail persons accused on oath of seditious libels.
With new " reparation orders " Kingston magistrates can soon require vandals to clean up graffiti mess.
Woman racially abused worker A WOMAN who shouted racial abuse at a restaurant worker has been fined by magistrates.
Despite Cromwell 's broadly sympathetic view, however, many Quakers were imprisoned by local magistrates for causing disturbances in their regions.
But magistrates saw a BMW safety video show how wearing a helmet on the high-tech machine could cause whiplash in an accident.
He was summoned before the magistrates of Utrecht to defend himself against charges of irreligion and slander.
When it began to have magistrates of its own is not known: nor indeed have we any inscriptions from Ostia that can be certainly attributed to the Republican period.
We learn much as to these magistrates from the large number of inscriptions that have been found (over 2000 in Ostia and Portus taken together) and also as to the cults.
The archons and members of the boule, who certainly received remuneration in 411, and also some minor magistrates, were perhaps paid for the first time by Pericles.
In 1572 a formal manifesto was published, entitled an Admonition to Parliament, the leading ideas in which were: parity of ministers, appointment of elders and deacons; election of ministers by the congregation; objection to prescribed prayer and antiphonal chanting; preaching, the chief duty of a minister; and the power of the magistrates to root out superstition and idolatry.
The magistrates bore the name of scabini (schepenen or echevins), and at their head was the seigneurial official - the schout or baljuw.
Following the example of William of Orange, Hoorn, Berghen and other governors, the magistrates generally declined to enforce the edicts, and offered to resign rather than be the instruments for burning and maltreating their fellow-countrymen.
It became in effect the principal feast of the Church, the procession of the Sacrament a gorgeous pageant, in which not only the members of the trade and craft gilds, with the magistrates of the cities, took part, but princes and sovereigns.
These magistrates, as we have already seen, were originally appointed to control and protect the humbler classes.
The magistrates of the city were still nominated scabini (fixed at thirteen), but their duties and rights were strictly defined and the liberties of the citizens safe-guarded; the city, moreover, received the right to fortify itself and even individuals within it to fortify their houses.
Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristocratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the magistrates were chosen.
Roman municipalities were not indeed unknown, but very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the old tribal districts.
When we are first entitled to speak with any kind of certainty, the non-privileged class possess a certain share in the election of magistrates and the making of laws.
This nobility consisted of all those who, as descendants of curule magistrates, had the jus imaginum - that is, who could point to forefathers ennobled by office.
The judicial functions are discharged by four grades of officials - the local magistrates, the courts of common pleas, the quarterly courts (five in number) and the supreme court.
The magistrates in some of the Italian towns, and especially Uberto Pallavicino at Milan, expelled the flagellants with threats, and for a time the sect disappeared.
The highest officer of the confederacy was the general (oTparnyos), who was assisted by a treasurer (raµias), while the chief magistrates of the several communities bore the title of ephors (g 4 opoc).
The supreme governing authority was vested in magistrates called Cosmi, answering in some measure to the Spartan Ephori, but there was nothing corresponding to the two kings at Sparta.
But here as elsewhere the senate asserted its authority over the magistrates, and the view was finally held that the senate should not only suggest the need of nomination but also the name of the nominee.
Cant's frequent and bitter attacks on various members of his congregation led in 1660 to complaints laid before the magistrates, in consequence of which he resigned his charge.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.