Magistrate Sentence Examples
He was mayor 1903; and was made a magistrate for the county of Durham.
They were convened by the magistrate, who presided as in the Roman senate.
For some years he was an active county magistrate.
The administration of justice by an elected magistrate was unsatisfactory.
The praefect had all the powers of the magistrate whose deputy he was, except that he could not nominate a deputy to himself.Advertisement
In each division of the province there is a resident magistrate with primary jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters.
As an ex magistrate myself I am grateful to you and Lord Justice Auld for the high esteem in which you hold the magistracy.
His principal treatises on this subject were the Measures of Submission to the Civil Magistrate and The Origin and Institution of Civil Government discussed; and his part in the discussion was so much appreciated by the Commons that in 1709 they presented an address to the queen praying her to "bestow some dignity in the church on Mr Hoadly for his eminent services both to church and state."
In each of these provincial fora the Roman magistrate, as is well known, was accustomed to pay all possible deference to the previously established common law of the district; and it was the privilege of every free subject to demand that he should be judged in accordance with the customs and usages of his proper forum.
Indeed it was a rule that the quaestor attached to a higher magistrate should hold office as long as his superior; hence, when a consul regularly presided over the city for one year, and afterwards as proconsul governed a province for another year, his quaestor also regularly held office for two years.Advertisement
To get out of the dilemma of party-government, resort was thereupon had to the appointment as chief magistrate of a podestd from among the nobles or knights of a different part of the country not mixed up with the local feuds.
In 1543 he quitted Frankfort for a similar position at Leipzig, his contention that it was the duty of the civil magistrate to punish fornication, and his sudden departure, having given offence to the authorities of the former university.
After serving as magistrate, he was elected burgomaster of Brussels Dec. 6 1909, and distinguished himself by his administrative qualities.
It was impossible, however, for a Roman magistrate of the time to rid himself of the idea that all forms of religion must do homage to the civil power.
A praefect was not one of the magistrates proper; he was, strictly speaking, only the deputy or lieutenant of a superior magistrate or commander.Advertisement
But it is probable that, in the developed procedure, where it was known that the judgment pronounced might legally give rise to the appeal, the magistrate pronounced no sentence, but brought the case at once before the people.
On cross-examination Galeshwe stated that Bosman, a magistrate of the Transvaal, had supplied ammunition to him, and urged him to rebel against the government of Cape Colony.
This chair seems to have been originally placed in the magistrate's chariot (hence the name).
At midnight, when the sky was clear and there was an absence of wind, the augur, in the presence of a magistrate, took up his position on a hill which afforded a wide view.
The augur afterwards announced the result of his observations in a set form of words, by which the magistrate was bound.Advertisement
Under British administration the chiefs have powers of a magistrate of the second class.
In the United Kingdom a paid magistrate or justice of the peace, appointed by the Crown on the advice of the home secretary for certain boroughs are termed "stipendiaries" or "stipendiary magistrates" (see Justice Of The Peace).
It was restricted only by the conservatism of the Roman, by the condition that the initiative must always be taken by a magistrate, by the de facto authority of the senate, and by the magisterial veto which the senate often had at its command (see Senate).
This plan of creating an electoral college to select the president was expected to secure the choice by the best citizens of each state, in a tranquil and deliberate way, of the man whom they in their unfettered discretion should deem fittest to be the chief magistrate of the Union.
He was succeeded by his brother, Maharaja Rameshwar Singh Bahadur, who was born on the 16th of January 1860, and on attaining his majority in 1878 was appointed to the Indian Civil Service, serving as assistant magistrate successively at Darbhanga, Chhapra and Bhagalpur.Advertisement
More ancient evidence is supplied by an inscription found at Aquinum, recording, so far as it has been deciphered, the dedication of an altar to Ceres by a Iunius Iuvenalis, tribune of the first cohort of Dalmatians, duumvir quinquennalis, and flamen Divi Vespasiani, a provincial magistrate whose functions corresponded to those of the censor at Rome.
An extreme result of this influence is shown in Tertullian's view, that no Christian could properly hold the office of a secular magistrate in which he would have to doom to death, chains, imprisonment; but even more sober writers, such as Ambrose, extend Christian passivity so far as to preclude self-defence even against a murderous assault.
A stipendiary magistrate / a justice of the peace On information on oath given by...
Describe briefly to the Magistrate 's bench that you need a summons under section 82 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990.
A magistrate was not bound to take notice of signs reported merely by a private person, but he could not overlook such a report from a brother magistrate.
Nomentum received the civitas sine suffragio after the last war of the Latins against Rome (338 B.C.); in its municipal constitution the chief magistrate even in imperial times bore the title of dictator.
He was always disposed to liberal ecclesiastical concessions for the sake of peace, and he recommended harmonious co-operation with the civil magistrate in all matters of worship and government that were not expressly determined by Scripture.
Even the churches which trace their descent from Calvin's work and faith no longer hold in their entirety his views on the magistrate as the preserver of church purity, the utter depravity of human nature, the non-human character of the Bible, the dealing of God with man.
Complaints about someone had to be made by churchwardens and overseers within forty days before a magistrate.
Three undersized lobsters cost a Pembrokeshire fisherman a £ 250 fine imposed by Haverfordwest Magistrate's Court sitting on Thursday 9 March 2006.
A new magistrate, the gonfalonier of justice, appears in some of the Guelph cities, with the special duty of keeping the insolence of the nobility in check.
I am but the magistrate of the republic. I merely act upon the imagination of the nation.
Adams's four years as chief magistrate (1797-1801) were marked by a succession of intrigues which embittered all his later life; they were marked, also, by events, such as the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which brought discredit on the Federalist party.
He was born in the early years of the 11th century at Pavia, where his father, Hanbald, held the rank of a magistrate.
Even when the slave had killed his master, the relatives of the house could not themselves inflict punishment; they were obliged to hand him over to the magistrate to be dealt with by legal process.
It was granted a separate court of quarter sessions in 1890, it was constituted a county borough in 1888, and, by letters patent dated the 28th of October 1905, it was created a city and the dignity of lord mayor conferred on its chief magistrate.
His grandfather was a maltster in that town, an energetic and prosperous man, almost always the bailiff or chief magistrate, and taking rather a notable part in county matters.
After the code was firmly established, the Locrians introduced a regulation that, if a citizen interpreted a law differently from the cosmopolis (the chief magistrate), each had to appear before the council of One Thousand with a rope round his neck, and the one against whom the council decided was immediately strangled.
The police courts of the City are held at the Mansion House, the Lord Mayor or an alderman sitting as magistrate, and at the Guildhall, where the aldermen preside in rotation.
Officially one of several chiefs subject to the control of the resident magistrate, he was, in fact, regarded by most of the Zulu as the head of their nation.
A magistrate under the old regime, he was elected deputy to the Legislative Assembly (1791), then to the Convention.
The latter were about to bury him without delay or ceremony, but the gastald or chief magistrate of the city interfered and appointed a public funeral; rumours of his wondrous travels and of posthumous miracles were diffused, and excitement spread like wildfire over Friuli and Carniola; the ceremony had to be deferred more than once, and at last took place in presence of the patriarch of Aquileia and all the local dignitaries.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
In an age when the foundations of the system on which society had rested for centuries were seriously shaken, such subjects as the right of the magistrate to interfere with the belief of the individual, and the limits of his authority over conscience, naturally assumed a prominence hitherto unknown.'
Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1740, and three years later, on attaining the degree of A.M., chose for his thesis, "Whether it be Lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved."
Excluded by his professional character from the councils of the republic, he nevertheless received all the deference and honour due to a first magistrate.
In some instances the old episcopal power passed more or less into the hands of the civil magistrate (a state of matters which was highly approved by Erastus and his followers), in other cases it was conceded to the presbyterial courts.
The city praefect (praefectus urbis) acted at Rome as the deputy of the chief magistrate or magistrates during his or their absence from the city.
They have been described as partaking at once of those of a diplomatist, a magistrate, a legal adviser and an administrator.
The synod was concluded on the 9th of May 1619, by a magnificent banquet given by the chief magistrate of Dort.
The island was brought under the immediate administration of New South Wales; a chief magistrate, appointed by the governor of New South Wales, took the place of the elected magistrate, and an elected council of twelve elders superseded the general gathering of the adult population.
For judicial purposes the province is divided into twenty-four divisions, in each of which is a resident magistrate, who has limited civil and criminal jurisdiction.
The memory of his father, however, and the commands of the king induced him to accept it; and he seems to have discharged it neither better nor worse than an average magistrate.
In spite of his political reforms, he opposed the admission of the plebeians to the consulship and priestly offices; and, although these reforms might appear to be democratic in character and calculated to give preponderance to the lowest class of the people, his probable aim was to strengthen the power of the magistrates (and lessen that of the senate) by founding it on the popular will, which would find its expression in the urban inhabitants and could be most easily influenced by the magistrate.
Shortly afterwards he was arrested by the French government, and, after a trial at Lyons, sentenced by a police-court magistrate (under a special law passed on the fall of the Commune) to five years' imprisonment, on the ground that he had belonged to the International Workingmen's Association (1883).
On the death of John Adams on the 29th of March 1829 George Hunn Nobbs, who had settled at Pitcairn in 1828, was appointed pastor and chief magistrate.
The older part of the urban district is included in the parliamentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil, and also shares with Merthyr and Aberdare the services of a stipendiary magistrate.
Waterford, whence he marched through the counties of Kilkenny and Wicklow, and subsequently arrived in Dublin, where he remained a fortnight, sumptuously entertained by the provost, as the chief magistrate of the city was then called, till intelligence of the invasion of his kingdom by Bolingbroke recalled him to England.
Thus the Roman draughtsman who wishes to express the idea "magistrates of any kind as president of assemblies" writes "Magistratus queiquomque comitia conciliumve habebit" (Lex Latina tabulae Bantinae, 1.5), and formalism required that a magistrate who summoned only a portion of the people to meet him should, in his summons, use the word concilium.
In addition to what has already been said formal assemblies convened by a magistrate; but while, in the of several comets in this list the following remarks may be made.
The voting was preceded by a contio at which a limited debate was permitted by the magistrate.
Glas dissented from the Westminster Confession only in his views as to the spiritual nature of the church and the functions of the civil magistrate.
They were never regarded as magistrates, but merely as judices, and as such would be appointed for a fixed term of service by the magistrate, probably by the praetor urbanus.
In November 1549 he was appointed Greek professor at Lausanne, where he acted as Calvin's adjutant in various publications, including his defence of the burning of Servetus, De Haereticis a civili magistrate puniendis (1554).
In 1627 he was elected alderman of Magdeburg, and in 1646 mayor of that city and a magistrate of Brandenburg.
The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, known as aµvinlove, and presided over by a magistrate called an apEo-rjp; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation.
Even in the imperial period its chief magistrate was styled dictator, and its council senatus, and it preserved its own calendar of festivals.
From 1205 to 1358 it acknowledged Venetian suzerainty; its chief magistrate was the Venetian count; and its archbishops, who wielded much political influence, were of ten Venetian nominees.
It was one of the members of the Latin League, and remained independent until conquered by Rome in 338 B.C. At first it did not enjoy the right of Roman citizenship, but acquired it later; and even in imperial times its chief magistrate and municipal council kept the titles of dictator and senatus respectively.
In 1877 he was appointed police magistrate of Toronto.
As the emblem of official authority, they were carried by the lictors, in the left hand and on the left shoulder, before the higher Roman magistrates; at the funeral of a deceased magistrate they were carried behind the bier.
He was secretary of state from 1632 to 1636, and syndic or chief magistrate in 1637, 1641, 1645 and 1649.
Next to the amir comes the court of the kazi, the chief centre of justice, and beneath the kazi comes the kotwal, who performs, as in India, the ordinary functions of a magistrate.
He issued the first charter to the citizens, and constituted them a free Saxon community having their own magistrate, an advantage over all other towns of his dominions.
It provides a regular force in each district, under a superintendent who is almost always a European, subordinate for general purposes to the district magistrate.
The supreme authority on the spot is represented by the governor, under whom are the residents of Kudat, Darvel Bay and Keppel, officers who occupy much the same position as that usually known by the title of magistrate and collector.
By the Licinian law of 367, which abolished the military tribunes with consular power and enacted that the supreme executive should henceforward be in the hands of the two consuls, a new magistrate was at the same time created who was to be a colleague of the consuls, though with lower rank and lesser powers.
This new magistrate was entrusted with the exclusive jurisdiction in civil cases; in other respects his powers resembled those of the consuls.
To this new magistrate the title of "praetor" was thenceforward properly restricted.'
In the sense of "worker for the people" the word was used throughout the Peloponnese, with the exception of Sparta, and in many parts of Greece, for a higher magistrate.
By the terms of this charter the town appears to have been immediately subject to the king, who was represented by his magistrate (or Schultheiss).
Under Theophilus the central government sent out a governor to take the place of the elected magistrate.
They held "that no church ought to challenge any prerogative over any other"; and that "the magistrate is not to meddle with religion, or matters of conscience nor compel men to this or that form of religion."
In his first year abroad he consulted Calvin and Bullinger as to the right of the civil "authority" to prescribe religion to his subjects - in particular, whether the godly should obey "a magistrate who enforces idolatry and condemns true religion," and whom should they join "in the case of a religious nobility resisting an idolatrous sovereign."
The great majority of the voters, however, required no pressure to decide who was in their opinion the man most fitted to administer the affairs of the republic. For the first time in the history of Chile a perfectly free election was held, and Admiral Montt was duly chosen by a nearly unanimous vote to be chief magistrate for the constitutional term of five years.
The election for the position of president of the republic was closely contested in 1896 between Senor Errazuriz and Senor Reyes, and ended in the triumph of the former candi of the new president had been chief magistrate of Chile from 1871 to 1876, and his administration had been one of the best the country had ever enjoyed; his son had therefore traditions to uphold in the post he was now called upon to fill.
At the present day the cities of Trent and Trieste give the name of podesta to their chief magistrate.
The misdirected activity of the civil magistrate in the 17th century is illustrated by the familiar literature of Butler, Bunyan and others.
As regards the rural police of India every village headman and the village watchman as well as the village police office are required by the code to communicate to the nearest magistrate or the officer in charge of the nearest police station, whichever is nearest, any information respecting offenders.
This residence takes its name from the family of whom James Lynch Fitzstephen, mayor of Galway in 1493, was a member; whose severity as a magistrate is exemplified in the story that he executed his own son, and thus gave origin (according to one of several theories) to the familiar term of Lynch law.
In Santarem appeared Antonio Prestes, a magistrate who drew from his judicial experience but evinced more knowledge of folk-lore than dramatic talent, while Camoens himself was so far influenced by Gil Vicente, whose plays he had perhaps seen performed in Lisbon, that in spite of his Coimbra training he never exchanged the old forms for those of the classical comedy.
Having studied law at Gottingen, he became chief magistrate at Lilienthal, near Bremen, in 1788.
Through the influence of his father, Miguel de Zurita, physician to Charles V., he entered the public service as magistrate at Barbastro, and in 1 537 was appointed assistant-secretary of the Inquisition.
He entered upon office on the 26th of October, and proved himself to be a strong and capable chief magistrate.
At first Frederick was victorious; Milan, except its churches, was utterly destroyed; everything that marked municipal independence was abolished in the "rebel" cities; and they had to receive an imperial magistrate instead of their own (1158-1162).
They were the constant attendants, both in and out of the house, of the magistrate to whom they were attached.
It should be noted that directly a magistrate entered an allied, independent state, he was obliged to dispense with nis lictors.
His name immediately aroused suspicions, and accordingly it was ordered that a further search should be made by Thomas Knyvett, a Westminster magistrate who, coming with his men at night, discovered the gunpowder and arrested Fawkes on the threshold.
The council as a whole is the legislative body, while the board of control is the executive body, and as such is responsible for the supervision of all matters of finance, the appointment of officials, the carrying on of public works, and the general administration of the affairs of the city, except the departments of education and of police, the first being under the control of the board of education, elected annually by the citizens, and the latter under the board of police commissioners, consisting of the mayor, the county judge and the police magistrate.
The council may by petition obtain the appointment of a stipendiary magistrate for the borough.
Under the Republic, the term imperator applied in theory to any magistrate vested with imperium; but in practice it was only used of a magistrate who was acting abroad (militiae) and was thus in command of troops.
The term imperator was the natural and regular designation employed by his troops in addressing such a magistrate; but it was more particularly and specially employed by them to salute him after a victory; and when he had been thus saluted he could use the title of imperator in public till the day of his triumph at Rome, after which it would lapse along with his imperium.
A village sheikh is a sort of head magistrate and chief of police.
At about ten o' clock Robert Keyes brought Fawkes from Percy a watch, that he might know how the anxious hours were passing, and very shortly afterwards he was arrested, and the gunpowder discovered, by Thomas Knyvett, a Westminster magistrate.
Almost the first book printed by Koresi (at the expense of the magistrate of Kronstadt, Foro Miklaus, c. 1570), seems to have been a translation from some Calvinistic compilation of homilies, one for every Sunday in the year.
In this latter office he is said to have shown himself a vigorous magistrate, suppressing brigandage and plunder without regard to his personal safety.
The councils are presided over by a civil commissioner who is also usually resident magistrate.
This court consists of two judges of the supreme court and one other member, hitherto the civil commissioner or the resident magistrate of Kimberley.
Besides the usual magistrates in these territories, there is a chief magistrate, resident at Cape Town, with two assistants in the territories.
Sandili refused obedience; upon which, at an assembly of other chiefs (October 1850), the governor declared him deposed from his chief ship, and appointed an Englishman, Mr Brownlee, a magistrate, to be temporary chief of the Gaika tribe.
It provided that all civil cases were to be tried by magistrates, an appeal to lie only to the chief magistrate of the territory with an assessor.
Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa was called Abbas Populi.
Alexis de Tocqueville was brought up for the bar, or rather for the bench, and became an assistant magistrate in 1830.
When important or involving a considerable amount, they had to be made in the presence of a flaith or magistrate.
A newly-made pastor was to be settled in a fixed charge by the magistrate with the consent of the congregation, after having been approved as to knowledge and manner of life by the pastors already in office.
The chief magistrate of the commune is the mayor (tnaire), who is (I) the agent of the central government and charged as such with the local promulgation and execution of the general laws and decrees of the country; (2) the executive head of the municipality, in which capacity he supervises the police, the revenue and public works of the commune, and acts as the representative of the corporation in general.
When Seleucus was assassinated by Heliodorus, Antiochus IV., his brother, who had been chief magistrate at Athens, came xv.
This sentence from Browne's spiritual autobiography contains the root of the whole matter, and explains the title of his other chief work, also of 1582, A Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any, and of the wickedness of those Preachers which will not reform till the Magistrate command or compel them.
He had a difficult part to play with the different parties in the state, but he adroitly kept himself aloof from them all; and at last, in his fifty-second year, he was made chief magistrate of the city of Chung-tu.
He was made pensionary (stipendiary magistrate) of Middelburg; and two years afterwards of Dort.
This decision created the strongest resentment among the people of the territory, as it was in distinct 1 The act enjoined that " every male native residing in the district, exclusive of natives in possession of lands under ordinary quit-rent titles, or in freehold, who, in the judgment of the resident magistrate, is fit for and capable of labour, shall pay to the public revenue a tax of ten shillings per annum unless he can show to the satisfaction of the magistrate that he has been in service beyond the borders of the district for at least three months out of the previous twelve, when he will be exempt from the tax for that year, or unless he can show that he has been employed far a total period of three years, when he will be exempt altogether."
Sadly, Mr Galland's fate is likely to hinge on whether or not the presiding magistrate ever rolled a spliff in his youth.
In order to remove a summary conviction, it was necessary to serve notice both on the convicting magistrate and on the informer.
A keen trade unionist, in 1932 Smewin was appointed a magistrate.
Defense attorney Barros accused the magistrate of wanting " to leave the case with a display of fireworks.
It was thought that trial by jury or by a stipendiary magistrate would be a more satisfactory mode of trial.
It has been pretended, that this republic of kings was moderated by a general council and a supreme magistrate.
But the chief magistrate and his colleagues were not deterred from doing their duty.
Power of resident magistrate to order dead body to be removed to mortuary or buried forthwith.
A county shall have a county government headed by a county magistrate who shall be elected by the people of the said county.
During a brief two minute hearing before resident magistrate Ken Nixon Mr Rush spoke only once to confirm he understood the charge.
The Establishment shown to be laid prostrate at the feet of the Civil magistrate, 1840.
The magistrate bound them all over to enter into their own recognizances to keep the peace for six months.
Cicero (l.c.) speaks of the senate in the Sicilian towns as appointed by a vote of the township. But in most towns it was the duty of the chief magistrate to draw up a list (album) of the senators every five years.
In all matters the magistrates were obliged to act according to their direction, and in some towns they heard cases of appeal against judicial sentences passed by the magistrate.
In 1576 William, with the support of Holland, Zeeland and their allies, put forth forty articles, by which doctors, elders and deacons were recognized, and church discipline given to the elders, subject to appeal to the magistrate and by which the Church was placed in absolute dependence on the state.
The main object of these was to invest the senate, which he recruited with a number of his own party, with full control over the state, over every magistrate and every province; and the mainstay of his political system was to be the military colonies which he had established with grants of land throughout every part of Italy, to the ruin of the old Italian freeholders and farmers, who from this time dwindled away, leaving whole districts waste and desolate.
In religious ceremonies, the magistrate presiding at the sacrifice drew the back of the toga over his head; see in the same illustration the priest with veiled head, rite Gabino, who also wears his toga with the cinctus Gabinus.
On the 30th of March a proclamation establishing martial law and authorizing the military to act without orders from the civil magistrate, which was acted upon with revolting cruelty in several parts of the country, precipitated the crisis.
The" kerk-raad "(kirk-session) met weekly, the magistrate being a member ex officio.
The agency by which these principles were introduced was the edicts of the praetor, an annual proclamation setting forth the manner in which the magistrate intended to administer the law during his year of office.
The syndic (sindaco) or chief magistrate of the commune was appointed by the king for three years, and he was assisted by a municipal junta.
The borough was represented by two members in parliament in 1300 and 1311, and then not again till 1640, from which date it returned two members until disfranchised by the act of 1868, the returning officer being the portreeve, who was also the chief magistrate of the borough until its incorporation by charter of 1846.
The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did not contain the word "slave"; by its provisions any Federal district or circuit judge or any state magistrate was authorized to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged fugitive.
The absence of the chief magistrate for more than a single day rendered the appointment of a praefect obligatory; but the obligation only arose when all the higher magistrates were absent.
Under Byzantium it remained nominally until the 10th century, when we find the chief magistrate still bearing the title of apXow.3 In the 8th century 4 (720) the period of Saracen invasion began; but the Saracens never secured a firm footing in the island.
The first attack upon the aristocracy proceeded from a young noble named Cylon, who endeavoured to become tyrant about 630 B.C. The people helped to crush this movement; yet discontent must have been rife among them, for in 621 the Eupatrids commissioned Draco, a junior magistrate, to draft and publish a code of criminal law.
This temple was cared for, and the cult attended, by women only, and the same was the case at a second celebration at the beginning of December in the house of a magistrate with imperium, which became famous owing to the profanation of these mysteries by P. Clodius in 62 B.C., and the political consequences of his act.
A fugitive slave clause was inserted in the Articles of Confederation of the New England Confederation of 1643, providing for the return of the fugitive upon the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction out of which the said servant fled - no trial by jury being provided for.
As such, they were eagerly welcomed by the clergy; for a single magistrate, sitting in secret without appeal, necessarily grasps at whatever will lighten his burden of responsibility.
The tenure of the presidential office was for two years, and at every alternate election Guzman Blanco was declared to be duly and legally chosen to fill the post of chief magistrate of the republic. In 1889 there was an open revolt against the dictatorial system so long in vogue; and President Rojas Paul, Blanco's locum tenens, was forced to flee the country and take refuge in the Dutch colony of Curacoa.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
The word wapentake seems to have been first applied to the periodical meetings of the magnates of a district; and, if we may believe the 12th century compilation known as the Leges Edwardi, it took its name from the custom in accordance with which they touched the spear of their newly-appointed magistrate with their own spears and so confirmed his appointment.
All political power was vested in the noble class; the prince sank to a magistrate, keeping only some of the outward forms of sovereignty; the mass of the people were shut out altogether.
The borough has a separate commission of the peace, having a stipendiary magistrate since 1858.
He had contracted a second marriage in 1869 with Mlle Autard de Bragard, daughter of a former magistrate of Mauritius; and eleven out of twelve children of this marriage survived him.
At this court the members of the new church, together with six members of other approved churches, were admitted to citizenship; a magistrate, four.
Ten years later it became one of the wards of Trinidad, under a warden and magistrate; its revenue, expenditure and debt were merged into those of the united colony, and Trinidadian law, with very few exceptions, was made binding in Tobago.