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madras

madras

madras Sentence Examples

  • The district is served by lines of the Madras and the South Indian railways.

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  • and noon during westerly winds, which at Madras are usually very dry and dusty.

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  • CUDDAPAH, a town and district of British India, in the Madras Presidency.

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  • In 1805 Penang was made a separate presidency, ranking with Bombay and Madras; and when in 1826 Singapore and Malacca were incorporated with it, Penang continued to be the seat of government.

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  • On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness.

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  • CHIDAMBARAM, or Chedumbrum, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, 7 m.

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  • Certified measures of the yard, foot and inch are kept by the Commissioners of Police at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.

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  • Certified measures of the yard, foot and inch are kept by the Commissioners of Police at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.

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  • As a member of the council of Madras he helped to defend the city against the French in 1759, and in July 1760 he went to Bengal as president of the council and governor of Fort William.

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  • Of his two years' work at Madras it is needless to speak in detail.

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  • On the arrival of Lord Macartney as governor of Madras, the British fleet captured Negapatam, and forced Hyder Ali to confess that he could never ruin a power which had command of the sea.

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  • When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta.

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  • He signed a blank treaty of peace with the Mahrattas, who were still in arms, reversed the action of the Madras government towards the nizam, and concentrated all the resources of Bengal against Hyder Ali.

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  • He states that Bishop Caldwell,' whom he calls " the great missionary scholar of the Dravidian tongue," showed that the south and western Australian tribes use almost the same words for " I, thou, he, we, you, as the Dravidian fishermen on the Madras coast."

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  • Between 1731 and 1 To this was added a supplement by Petiver on the Birds of Madras, taken from pictures and information sent him by one Edward Buckley of Fort St George, being the first attempt to catalogue the birds of any part of the British possessions in India.

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  • BEZWADA, a town of British India, in the Kistna district of Madras, on the left bank of the river Kistna, at the head of its delta.

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  • Hyder Ali now began to occupy the serious attention of the Madras government, which in 1766 entered into an agreement with the nizam to furnish him with troops to be used against the common foe.

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  • Hyder Ali now began to occupy the serious attention of the Madras government, which in 1766 entered into an agreement with the nizam to furnish him with troops to be used against the common foe.

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  • BOBBILI, a town of British India, in the Vizagapatam district of Madras, 70 m.

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  • Teak timber is floated down the rivers to the Madras coast.

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  • The settlement of Fort St George or Madras, captured by force of arms, had only recently been restored in accordance with a clause of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.

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  • The council was reduced to four members with a governor-general, who were to exercise certain indefinite powers of control over the presidencies of Madras and Bombay.

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  • In India 3 the earliest English mint was that at Madras which was bought by the East India Company in 1620, reorganized more than once and finally closed in 1869.

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  • Here also is the central junction of the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta, 267 m.

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  • The council was reduced to four members with a governor-general, who were to exercise certain indefinite powers of control over the presidencies of Madras and Bombay.

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  • Chersydrus ranges from Madras to New Guinea; the body and tail are laterally compressed and form a ventral fold which is covered with tiny scales like the rest of the body.

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  • It is the centre of the Orissa canal system, and an important station on the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta.

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  • The great bulk of the Indo-Aryan or Hindu population consists of Uriyas, with a residue of immigrant Bengalis, Lala Kayets from Behar and northern India, Telingas from the Madras coast, Mahrattas from central and western India, a few Sikhs from the Punjab and Marwaris from Rajputana.

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  • It is the centre of the Orissa canal system, and an important station on the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta.

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  • Payne in Madras, one tusk measures 6 ft.

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  • He drew up a scheme for the construction of a pier at Madras, to avoid the dangers of landing through the surf, and instructed his brother-in-law in England to obtain estimates from the engineers Brindley and Smeaton.

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  • The imprudent conduct of the Madras authorities had irritated beyond endurance the two greatest Mussulman powers in the peninsula, the nizam of the Deccan and Hyder Ali, the usurper of Mysore, who began to negotiate an alliance with the Mahrattas.

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  • of Rutland Island across Duncan Passage, in which lie the Cinque and other islands, forming Manners Strait, the main commercial highway between the Andamans and the Madras coast.

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  • The first or typical palm-squirrel, Funambulus palmarum, inhabits Madras, has but three light stripes on the back, and shows a rufous band on the under-side of the base of the tail.

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  • Judaism and Islam, Madras, 1898).

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  • The first or typical palm-squirrel, Funambulus palmarum, inhabits Madras, has but three light stripes on the back, and shows a rufous band on the under-side of the base of the tail.

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  • CALICUT, a city of British India, in the Malabar district of Madras; on the coast, 6 m.

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  • by Hyderabad and the large zamindari estates of the Madras presidency; and on the E.

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  • from Madras, unopposed.

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  • of Madras by rail.

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  • In Dec. 1920 he went to India as the representative of King George in order to inaugurate the provincial legislative councils of Madras, Bengal, and Bombay, arriving at Madras Jan.

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  • It is served by the Madras railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products.

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  • CUDDALORE, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, on the coast 125 m.

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  • See Tanjore District Gazetteer (Madras, 1906).

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  • It is served by the East Coast railway, which was opened throughout from Calcutta to Madras in 1891, with a branch to Puri town.

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  • Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras Review, a quarterly first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894), are important.

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  • There is more than one meaning of Madras discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.

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  • There is more than one meaning of Madras discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.

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  • In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.

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  • Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.

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  • Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819).

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  • A very fairly executed compilation on the subject by an anonymous writer is to be found in a late edition of the Cyclopaedia of India, published at Madras, and W.

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  • RAMESWARAM, a town of British India, in the Madura district of Madras, on the island of Pambam in Palk Straits.

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  • In Ceylon and in some parts of India, especially in Madras, it has succeeded well.

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  • The principal mining districts are those of Hazaribagh in Bengal and Nellore in Madras; in the former district the mica has usually a ruby tint, whilst in the latter it is more often greenish.

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  • - Tobacco is grown for local use in many parts of India, but the principal centres of its cultivation on a commercial scale are Bombay, Madras and the Punjab.

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  • Pahlavi inscriptions' found on crosses at St Thomas's Mount near Madras and at Kottayam in Travancore, are evidence both of the antiquity of Christianity in these places (7th or 8th century), and for the semi-patripassianism (the apparent identification of all three persons of the Trinity in the sufferer on the cross) which marked the Nestorian teaching.

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  • A very fairly executed compilation on the subject by an anonymous writer is to be found in a late edition of the Cyclopaedia of India, published at Madras, and W.

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  • from Madras, where one branch line comes down from the Warangal coalfield in the Nizam's Dominions, and another from Bellary on the Southern Mahratta line.

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  • Madras.

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  • At last, in the winter of 1768, he received the appointment of second in council at Madras.

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  • In northern India the greatest difference does not exceed 40°; and it falls off to about 15 ° at Calcutta, and to about 10° or 12 °at Bombay and Madras.

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  • The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.

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  • The first empire, called Maurya,reached its greatest extent in the time of Asoka (264-227 B.C.), who ruled from Afghanistan to Madras.

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  • of Madras.

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  • St Peter's College, founded by Schwarz as a school, is now a first-grade college affiliated to the university of Madras.

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  • by rail from Madras.

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  • north of Calicut), at Cranganore, and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence, apparently, to Ceylon and to the shrine of St Thomas at Maylapur near Madras.

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  • A similar attack is said to have been made in 1719 by the governor of Madras.

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  • Madras, India (Presidency) >>

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  • Nevertheless, her cleverness, volubility, energy and will-power enabled her to maintain her ground, and when she died on the 8th of May 1891 (White Lotus Day), at the theosophical headquarters in the Avenue Road, London, she was the acknowledged head of a community numbering not far short of 100,000, with journalistic organs in London, Paris, New York and Madras.

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  • kulthi), which supplies in Madras the place of the chick-pea, affords seed which, when boiled, is extensively employed as a food for horses and cattle in South India, where also it is eaten in curries.

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  • It extended over the whole of Bombay into Hyderabad and affected the northern districts of Madras.

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  • Relief works were first opened during this famine in Madras.

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  • 1876-1878 Famine in Bombay, Madras and Mysore; five millions perish.

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  • The resulting reaction caused a regrettable loss of life in the Madras and Bombay famine of 1876-1878; and the Famine Commission of 1880, followed by those of 1898 and 1901, laid down the principle that every possible life must be saved, but that the wages on relief works must be so regulated in relation to the market rate of wages as not to undermine the independence of the people.

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  • See Cornelius Walford, "On the Famines of the World, Past and Present" (Journal of the Statistical Society, 1878-1879); Romesh C. Dutt, Famines in India (1900); Robert Wallace, Famine in India (1900); George Campbell, Famines in India (1769-1788); Chronological List of Famines for all India (Madras Administration Report, 1885); J.

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  • BERHAMPUR, a town of British India, in the presidency of Madras.

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  • It is a station on the East Coast railway, which connects Calcutta with Madras.

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  • Missions were begun in Madras, at the Cape of Good Hope, in Australia, and on the west coast of Africa.

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  • He died at Madras, 24th December 1814.

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  • The principal Indian markets are Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi and Madras.

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  • Madapolam or Madapollam is a name derived from a suburb of Narsapur in the Madras presidency where the cloth was first made.

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  • The principal places frequented by shipping are Pulicat, Madras, Sadras, Pondicherry, Cuddalore, Tranquebar, Nagore, and Negapatam.

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  • In 1836 he went to Madras and secured early promotion, but in consequence of ill-health he was obliged to return to England.

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  • Punjab, Kashmir and Ladak; Telugu missions of Madras; Maori missions of N.

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  • east coast, established a mission in Orissa in i 82 r which soon bore fruit; the Wesleyans were in Ceylon, Mysore and the Kaveri valley, the London Missionary Society at the great military centres Madras, Bangalore and Bellary, agents of the American Board at Ahmednagar 4nd other parts of the Mahratta country around Bombay.

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  • (5) English education, in which the missionary societies have amply supplemented the efforts of the government, outstanding examples being the Madras Christian College (Free Church of Scotland), so long connected with the name of Dr William Miller, the General Assembly of Scotland's Institution at Calcutta, founded by Duff, Wilson College, Bombay (Free Church of Scotland), and St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic) at Trichinopoly.

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  • A recent report of the Director of Public Instruction for the Madras Presidency says: " I have frequently called attention to the educational progress of the native Christian community.

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  • Krishnasurami Aiyar and Pandit Sitanath Tattvabhushan (Madras, 1902).

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  • at the Badara Tittha Vihara, near the east coast of India, just a little south of where Madras now stands.

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  • The zamindari system obtains throughout northern and central India, and also in the permanently settled estates of Madras.

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  • AMRAVATI, or Amaravati, a ruined city of India in the Guntur district of the Madras presidency, on the south bank of the Kistna river, 62 m.

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  • Some are preserved in the British Museum; others in the museum at Madras.

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  • On the west coast it has no harbours, Madras having a mere open roadstead, but on the east there are many good ports, such as Akyab, Moulmein, Rangoon and Tavoy river.

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  • COMBACONUM, or Kumbakonam, a city of British India, in the Tanjore district of Madras, in the delta of the Cauvery, on the South Indian railway, 194 m.

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  • from Madras.

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  • CHITTUR, a town of British India, in the North Arcot district of Madras, with a station on the South Indian railway.

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  • in thickness, and contain pebbles of quartzite, jasper, sandstone, slate, &c. The mines fall into five groups situated on the eastern side of the Deccan plateau about the following places (beginning from the south), the first three being in Madras.

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  • The Regent or Pitt diamond is a magnificent stone found in either India or Borneo; it weighed 410 carats and was bought for £20,400 by Pitt, the governor of Madras; it was subsequently, in 1717, bought for £80,000 (or, according to some authorities, £ 135,000) by the duke of Orleans, regent of France; it was reduced by cutting to '3614 carats; was stolen with the other crown jewels during the Revolution, but was recovered and is still in France.

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  • The Ostend Company was formed in 1722-1723, and with a capital of less than a million sterling founded two settlements, one at Coblom (Covelong) on the Madras coast between the English Madras and the Dutch Sadras, and the other on the Hugh between the English Calcutta and the Dutch Chinsura.

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  • This vast tract comprehends the chief provinces now distributed between the presidencies of Madras and Bombay, together with the native states of Hyderabad and Mysore, and those of Kolhapur, Sawantwari, Travancore, Cochin and the petty possessions of France and Portugal.

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  • In 1803 he was nominated governor of Madras, where he quarrelled with the chief justice, Sir Henry Gwillim, and several members of his council.

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  • COCHIN, a town of British India, in the district of Malabar, Madras.

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  • The annals of the Company record that, in February 1684, the directors wrote thus to Madras: - "In regard thea is grown to be a commodity here, and we have occasion to make presents therein to our great friends at court, we would have you to send us yearly five or six canisters of the very best and freshest thea."

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  • The first direct purchase in China was made at Amoy, the teas previously obtained by the Company's factors having bean purchased in Madras and Surat, whither it was brought by Chinese junks after the expulsion of the British from Java.

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  • In the jungles of Ceylon are to be found remains of gigantic irrigation dams, and on the neighbouring mainland of Southern India, throughout the provinces of Madras and Mysore, the country is covered with irrigation reservoirs, or, as they are locally termed, tanks.

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  • In the seventeen years ending1896-1897the capital expenditure on such works was Rx.10,954,948, including a sum of Rx.1, 742, 246 paid to the Madras Irrigation Company as the price of the Kurnool-Cuddapah canal, a work which can never be financially productive, but which nevertheless did good service in the famine of1896-1897by irrigating 87,226 acres.

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  • In the Madras presidency and in Mysore irrigation has long assumed a great importance, and the engineering works of the three great deltas of the Godavari, Kistna and Cauvery, the outcome of the genius and indefatigable enthusiasm of Sir Arthur Cotton, have always been quoted as showing what a boon irrigation is to a country.

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  • In 1878 the total area of irrigation in the Madras presidency amounted to about 5,000,000 acres.

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  • ANAMALAI HILLS, a range of mountains in southern India, in the Coimbatore district of Madras, lying between 10° 13' and 10 31' N.

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  • ARCOT, the name of a city and two districts of British India in the presidency of Madras.

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  • It is a station on the line of railway from Madras to Beypur, but has ceased to be a military cantonment.

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  • Soon afterwards, in 1835 and 1837, the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; whilst in 1836 Broughton himself was consecrated as first bishop of Australia.

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  • The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively.

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  • They are not only nominated by the crown and consecrated under letters patent, but the appointment is expressly subjected "to such power of revocation and recall as is by law vested" in the crown; and where additional oversight was necessary for the church in Tinnevelly, it could only be secured by the consecration of two assistant bishops, who worked under a commission for the archbishop of Canterbury which was to expire on the death of the bishop of Madras.

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  • CHINGLEPUT, or Chengalpat, a town and district of British India, in the Madras presidency.

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  • by rail from Madras, had a population in 1901 of 10,551.

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  • It was taken by the French in 1751, and was retaken in 1752 by Clive, after which it proved invaluable to the British, especially when Lally in his advance on Madras left it unreduced in his rear.

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  • The District Of Chingleput surrounds the city of Madras, stretching along the coast for about 115 m.

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  • TRAVANCORE, a state of southern India, in political relation with Madras.

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  • The Periyar irrigation project conducts water through the ghats in a tunnel to irrigate the Madras district of Madura, for which compensation of Rs.

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  • Native Christians, chiefly of the Syrian rite, form nearly one-fourth of the whole, being more numerous than in any Madras district.

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  • The smallest is the slender loris (Loris gracilis) of the forests of Madras and Ceylon, a creature smaller than a squirrel.

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  • comprises the Central Provinces and Berar, the presidencies /and of Madras and Bombay, and the territories of Hyderabad, Mysore and other feudatory states.

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  • The Eastern Ghats stretch in fragmentary spurs and ranges down the Madras presidency, here and there receding inland and leaving broad level tracts between their base and the coast.

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  • Its best known hills are the Nilgiris, with the summer capital of Madras, Ootacamund, 7000 ft.

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  • broad and easy passages from the Madras coast.

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  • In this way the three great rivers of the Madras Presidency, viz., the Godavari, the Kistna and the Cauvery, rise in the mountains overhanging the western coast, and traverse the whole breadth of the central table-land before they reach the sea on the eastern shores of India.

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  • They cover a large area in Bengal and Madras and extend into Ceylon; and they are found also in Bundelkhand and in Gujarat.

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  • Calcutta, Bombay and Madras all possess the equable climate that is induced by proximity to the sea, but Calcutta enjoys a cold season which is not to be found in the other presidency towns, while the hot season is more unendurable there.

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  • In Burma the favourite relish of nga-pi is prepared from fish; and at Goalanda, at the junction of the Brahmaputra with the Ganges, and along the Madras coast many establishments exist for salting fish in bond.

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  • Nearly two-thirds of the total number are found in the Madras.

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  • More than fourfifths of the Christians in Madras proper are found in the eight southernmost districts, the scene of the labours of St Francis Xavier and the Protestant missionary Schwarz.

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  • At that time the three universities were founded at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay; English-teaching schools were established in every district; the benefit of grants-in-aid was extended to the lower vernacular institutions and to girls' schools; and public instruction was erected into a department of the administration in every province, under a director, with a staff of inspectors.

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  • The five universities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad and Lahore, which were formerly merely examining bodies, had their senates reformed by the introduction of experts; while hostels or boarding-houses for the college students were founded, so as to approach more nearly to the English ideal of residential institutions.

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  • First stand the two presidencies of Madras (officially Fort St George) and Bombay, each of which is administered by a governor and council appointed by the crown.

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  • In every province except Madras there are divisions, consisting of three or more districts under a commissioner.

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  • Broadly speaking, the subdivision is characteristic of Bengal, where revenue duties are in the background, and the tahsil of Madras, where the land settlement requires attention year by year.

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  • Bengal (including Eastern Bengal and Assam), Madras, Bombay and the old North-Western Provinces each has a high court, established by charter under an act of parliament, with judges appointed by the crown.

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  • But, except in Madras, where the districts are large, a single civil and sessions judge sometimes exercises jurisdiction over more than one district.

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  • The large towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras have municipalities of this character, and there are large numbers of municipal committees and local boards all over the country.

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  • There are also Port Trusts in the great maritime cities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Karachi and Rangoon.

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  • The superior stability of the village system was overlooked, and in the old provinces of Bengal and Madras the village organization has gradually been suffered to fall into decay.

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  • Lower Bengal and a few adjoining districts of the United Provinces and of Madras have a permanent settlement, i.e.

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  • The prevailing system throughout the Madras presidency is the ryotwari, which takes the cultivator or peasant proprietor as its rent-paying unit, somewhat as the Bengal system takes the zamindar.

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  • The Madras Government was accordingly instructed to enter into permanent engagements with zamindars, and, where no zamindars could be found, to create substitutes out of enterprising contractors.

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  • Throughout the rest of Madras there are no zamindars either in name or fact.

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  • The early ryotwari settlements in Madras were based upon insufficient experience.

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  • Nothing can be more complete in theory and more difficult of exposition than a Madras ryotwari settlement.

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  • in Madras to 10d.

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  • At the Kohat mines, and in the salt evaporation works on the sea-coast, with the exception of a few of the Madras factories, the government does not come between the manufacturer and the merchant, except in so far as is necessary in order to levy the duty from the salt as it issues from the factory.

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  • The salt administration is in the hands of (1) the Northern India Salt Department, which is directly under the government of India, and controls the salt resources of Rajputana and the Punjab, and (2) the salt revenue authorities of Madras and Bombay.

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  • The consumption of salt per head in India varies from 7 lb in Rajputana to 16.02 lb in Madras.

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  • The rice crop is most important in Burma, Bengal and Madras, and there is an average of 20 million acres under rice in the other provinces of British India.

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  • Excluding the special rice-growing tracts, different kinds of millet are grown more extensively than any other crop from Madras in the south at least as far as Rajputana in the north.

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  • A third sort of millet, ragi or marua, is cultivated chiefly in Madras and Bengal.

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  • "A third sort of millet, ragi or marua, is cultivated chiefly in Madras" is not a chief crop of Madras, it is a chief crop of Karnataka.

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  • Bengal and the United Provinces are at present the chief sources of supply for the foreign demand, but gingelly is largely exported from Madras, and, to a smaller extent, from Burma.

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  • But the mangoes of Bombay, of Multan, and of Malda in Bengal, and the oranges of Nagpur and the Khasi hills, enjoy a high reputation; while the guavas of Madras are made into an excellent preserve.

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  • The bastard date, grown chiefly in the country round Calcutta and in the north-east of the Madras presidency, supplies both the jaggery sugar of commerce and intoxicating liquors for local consumption.

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  • Spirit is also distilled from the palmyra, especially in the neighbourhood of Bombay and in the south-east of Madras.

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  • The success of this experiment led to the extension of coffee cultivation into the neighbouring tract of Manjarabad, also in Mysore, and into the Wynaad subdivision of the Madras district of Malabar.

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  • In the Madras districts of Nellore and Kurnool the indigenous breed has been greatly improved under the stimulus of cattle shows and prizes founded by British officials.

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  • In Bengal Proper, and also in Madras, it may be broadly said that horses are not bred.

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  • In 1844 and 1847 the subject was actively taken up by the governments of Bombay and Madras.

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  • But now the larger part of the cotton goods used in India is manufactured in mills in that country or in England, and the handloom weavers' output is confined to the coarsest kinds of cloth, or to certain special kinds of goods, such as the turbans and " saris " of Bombay, or the muslins of Arni, Cuddapah, and Madura in Madras, and of Dacca in Bengal.

    0
    0
  • In Behar it has begun to replace indigo, and some success was achieved in Orissa, Assam and Madras; but jute is a very exhausting crop, and requires to be planted in lands fertilized with silt or else with manure.

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    0
  • An uncertain but unimportant amount is annually procured by sand-washing in various tracts of northern India and Burma; and there have been many attempts, including the great boom of 1880, to work mines in the Wynaad district of the Madras Presidency.

    0
    0
  • They are to be found in every part of the country, from the northern mountains of Assam and Kumaun to the extreme south of the Madras Presidency.

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    0
  • The principal sources of iron-stone at present are the Madras ores, chiefly at Salem, the Chanda ores in the Central Provinces, and the ores obtained at and near Raniganj in Bengal.

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    0
  • - Manganese ore is found in very large quantities on a tract on the Madras coast about midway between Calcutta and Madras.

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    0
  • In Madras also a mica industry has recently grown up. Tin is found in the Tavoy and Mergui districts of Lower Burma, and has for many years been worked in an unprogressive manner chiefly by Chinese labour.

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    0
  • Copper ore is found in many tracts throughout India, plumbago in Madras, and corundum in southern India.

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    0
  • It is believed that the far-famed diamonds of Golconda actually came from the sandstone formation which extends across the south-east borders of the nizam's dominions into the Madras districts of Ganjam and Godavari.

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    0
  • Pearls are found off the southern coast of Madras and also in the Mergui archipelago.

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    0
  • In the Deccan their place is taken by Lingayats from the south, who again follow their own form of Hinduism, which is an heretical species of Siva worship. Throughout Mysore, and in the north of Madras, Lingayats are still found, but along the eastern sea-board the predominating classes of traders are those named Chetties and Komatis.

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    0
  • In the early days of railway enterprise the agency of private companies guaranteed by the state was exclusively employed, and nearly all the great trunk lines were made under this system, but the leases of the last three of these lines, the Great Indian Peninsula, the Bombay Baroda and Central India, and the Madras companies, fell in respectively in 'goo, 1905 and 1907.

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    0
  • In Bombay and Madras almost all the irrigation systems, except in the deltas of the chief rivers, are dependent on reservoirs or " tanks," which collect the rainfall of the adjacent hills.

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    0
  • In 297 B.C. he was succeeded by his son, Bindusara, who is supposed to have extended his dominions down to Madras.

    0
    0
  • One of the blood-royal of Vijayanagar fled to Chandragiri, and founded a line which exercised a prerogative of its former sovereignty by granting the site of Madras to the English in 1639.

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    0
  • In 1611 Captain Hippon in the seventh separate voyage essayed a landing at Pulicat, but was driven off by the Dutch, who were already settled there, and sailed farther up the coast to Pettapoli, where he founded the first madras English settlement in the Bay of Bengal, which ments.

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    0
  • In 1639 Francis Day, the chief at Armagon, founded Madras, building Fort St George (1640), and transferring thither the chief factory from Masulipatam.

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    0
  • In 1653 Madras was raised to an independent presidency, and in 1658 all the settlements in Bengal and on the Coromandel coast were made subordinate to Fort St George.

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    0
  • In 1677 the president of found- Madras had to warn him that unless his exactions ing of ceased, the company would be obliged to withdraw Calcutta.

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    0
  • The British, especially, appear to have been submissive to the native powers at Madras no less than in Bengal.

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    0
  • Dupleix French was at that time governor of Pondicherry and Clive and was a young writer at Madras.

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    0
  • Madras surrendered almost without a blow, and the only settlement left to the British was Fort St David, a few miles south of Pondicherry, where Clive and a few other fugitives sought shelter.

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    0
  • The nawab, faithful to his policy of impartiality, marched with 10,000 men to drive the French out of Madras, but he was signally defeated by a French force of only four hundred men and two guns.

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    0
  • The French successfully repulsed all attacks, and at last peace was restored by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which gave back Madras to the British (1748).

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  • For the British of Madras, under the instinct of self-preservation, were compelled to maintain the cause of another candidate to the throne of Arcot in opposition to the nominee of Dupleix.

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  • The news of this disaster fortunately found Clive returned to Madras, where also was a squadron of king's ships under Admiral Watson.

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    0
  • In the south the influence of the French under Lally and Bussy was overshadowing the British at Madras.

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  • The Bombay government was naturally emulous to follow the example of Madras and Bengal, and to establish its influence at the court of Poona by placing its own nominee upon the throne.

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  • The system thus organized in Bengal was afterwards extended to Madras and Bombay, when those presidencies also acquired territorial sovereignty.

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    0
  • On his refusal war was declared, and Wellesley came down in state to Madras to organize the expedition in person and watch over the course of events.

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    0
  • One British army marched into Mysore from Madras, accompanied by a contingent from the nizam.

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    0
  • The reckless conduct of the Madras government had roused the hostility both of Hyder Ali of Mysore and of the nizam of the Deccan, the two strongest Mussulman powers in India, who attempted to draw the Mahrattas into an alliance against the British.

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  • The diplomacy of Hastings won over the nizam and the Mahratta raja of Nagpur, but the army of Hyder Ali fell like a thunderbolt upon the British possessions in the Carnatic. A strong detachment under Colonel Baillie was cut to pieces at Perambakam, and the Mysore cavalry ravaged the country unchecked up to the walls of Madras.

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  • Sir Eyre Coote, the victor of Wandiwash, was sent by sea to relieve Madras with all the men and money available, while Colonel Pearse marched south overland to overawe the raja of Berar and the nizam.

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  • At about the same time the province of the Carnatic, or all that large portion of southern India ruled by the nawab of Arcot, and also the principality of Tanjore, were placed under direct British administration, thus constituting the Madras presidency almost as it has existed to the present day.

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    0
  • During his administration also occurred the mutiny of the Madras sepoys at Vellore, which, though promptly suppressed, sent a shock of insecurity through the empire.

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  • One expedition with gunboats proceeded up the Brahmaputra into Assam; another marched by land through Chittagong into Arakan, for the Bengal sepoys refused to go by sea; a third, and the strongest, sailed from Madras direct to the mouth of the Irrawaddy.

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    0
  • The next governor-general was Lord William Bentinck, who had been governor of Madras twenty years earlier at the time of the mutiny of Vellore.

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  • By the Indian Councils Act 1861 the governor-general's council and also the councils at Madras and Bombay were augmented by the addition of non-official members, either natives or Europeans, for legislative purposes only; and by another act passed in the same year high courts of judicature were constituted out of the existing supreme courts and company's courts at the presidency towns.

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  • While the first riots occurred in the Punjab and Madras, it is only in Bengal and eastern Bengal that the unrest has been bitter and continuous.

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    0
  • It further authorized the addition of two members to the executive councils at Madras and Bombay, and the creation cf an executive council in Bengal and also (subject to conditions) in other provinces under a lieutenantgovernor.

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  • In Bengal, Madras and Bombay Presidencies women do not wear a skirt, only a choli and sari.

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  • Madras, shortly afterwards joining his regiment at Vellore.

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  • On his return to India in 1796 he became military secretary to Sir Alured Clarke, commander-in-chief at Madras, and afterwards to his successor General Harris; and in 1798 he was appointed by Lord Wellesley assistant to the resident at Hyderabad.

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    0
  • 1784 (in 1811 and 1826); Sketch of the Sikhs (1812); Observations on the Disturbances in the Madras Army in 1809 (1812); Persia, a Poem, anonymous (1814); A Memoir of Central India (2 vols., 1823); and Sketches of Persia, anonymous (1827).

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  • ANANTAPUR, a town and district of India, in the Madras presidency.

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  • The town has a station on the Madras railway, 6 2 m.

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  • BIMLIPATAM, a town of British India, in the Vizagapatam district of Madras, on the sea-coast 18 m.

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  • angustifolia, leaves of the date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), of the dwarf palm (Chamaerops Ritchiana), of the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis), of the coco-nut palm (Cocos nucifera)andof the screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), the munja or munj grass (Saccharum Munja) and allied grasses, and the mat grasses Cyperus textilis and C. Pangorei, from the last of which the well-known Palghat mats of the Madras Presidency are made.

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  • Fawcett, Madras Bulletin, iii.

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  • Fawcett, Madras Gov..

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  • Fawcett, Madras Gov.

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  • In the following year Bengal, Madras, Haidarabad and Mysore were invaded.

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  • In the Punjab from 179 deaths in 1897 the mortality reached a maximum of 334,897 in 1905, in Agra and Oudh they rose from 72 in 1897 to 383,802 in 1905, and in Madras Presidency from 1658 in 1899 to 20,125 in 1904.

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  • 2 Henry Whitehead, D.D., bishop of Madras, The Village Deities of Southern India (Madras, 1907).

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  • The term is used in Bombay, Madras and Bengal to denote a considerable number of castes of moderate respectability, the higher of whom are considered ` clean ' Sudras, while the precise status of the lower is a question which lends itself to endless controversy."In northern and north-western India, on the other hand," the grade next below the twice-born rank is occupied by a number of castes from whose hands Brahmans and members of the higher castes will take water and certain kinds of sweetmeats.

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  • In Madras especially the idea of ceremonial pollution by the proximity of an unclean caste has been developed with much elaboration.

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  • In English it is principally employed in the name ' of the Northern Circars, used to designate a now obsolete division of the Madras presidency, which consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40' to 20° 17' N.

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  • Under the superintendence of an officer lent by the government of Madras, two great works of irrigation, from the lack of which agriculture had seriously suffered, were undertaken in 1898 and 1899.

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    0
  • The garrison of Madras native infantry, formerly stationed in the town, was withdrawn in 1898.

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  • In 5759 he was made prisoner at the siege of Madras, but was released on parole.

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  • COCANADA, or Coconada, a town of British India, in the Godavari district of Madras, on the coast in the extreme north of the Godavari delta, about 315 m.

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  • As the administrative headquarters of the district, and the chief port on the Coromandel coast after Madras, Cocanada was formerly of considerable importance, but its shipping trade has declined, owing to the silting of the anchorage, and to the construction of the railway.

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  • natural razor strops, and the expressed juice of the leaves will lather in water like soap. In the Madras Presidency the plant is extensively used for hedges along railroads.

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  • The Indian army is recruited from Mahommedans and Hindus of various tribes and sects, and with some exceptions (chiefly in the Madras infantry) companies, sometimes regiments, are composed exclusively of men of one class.

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  • After entering the Madras presidency, the Cauvery forms the boundary between the Coimbatore and Salem districts, until it strikes into Trichinopoly district.

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  • A certain Mahdi ~Ali Khan had landed at Bushire, entrusted by the governor of Bombay with a letter to the shah, and Relations he was followed shortly by an English envoy from the with Eng- governor-general, Captain Malcolm of the Madras land, India army.

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  • Baluchistan as a whole is a sparsely populated tract covering a larger area than any Indian province save Burma, Madras and Bengal.

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  • Mahe, a French settlement in the Malabar district of Madras, India, situated in 11 0 43' N.

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  • He was the younger son of Robert Pitt of Boconnoc, Cornwall, and grandson of Thomas Pitt (1653-1726), governor of Madras, who was known as "Diamond" Pitt, from the fact of his having sold a diamond of extraordinary size to the regent Orleans for something like £135,000.

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  • In January 1757 the expedition despatched from Madras, under the command of Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive, regained possession of the city.

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  • Up to 1707, when Calcutta was first declared a presidency, it had been dependent upon the older English settlement at Madras.

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  • It was not until 1854 that a separate head was appointed for Bengal, who, under the style of lieutenant-governor, exercises the same powers in civil matters as those vested in the governors in council of Madras or Bombay, although subject to closer supervision by the supreme government.

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  • BANGANAPALLE, a state of southern India, surrounded by the Madras district of Kurnool.

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  • CONJEEVERAM, KANCHIPURAM, a town of British India, in the Chingleput district of Madras, 45 m.

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  • JOHN ARTHUR ROEBUCK (1801-1879), British politician, was born at Madras on the 28th of December 1801.

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  • Arriving at Tabriz, then the chief city of Mongol Persia, and indeed of all Western Asia, Monte Corvino moved down to India to the Madras region or " Country of St Thomas, " from which he wrote home, in December 1291 (or 1292), the earliest noteworthy account of the Coromandel coast furnished by any Western European.

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  • , by his widow, Amelia Heber (1830), which also contains a number of Heber's miscellaneous writings; The Last Days of Bishop Heber, by Thomas Robinson, A.M., archdeacon of Madras (1830);(1830); T.

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  • 'The native armies of Bombay and Madras remained loyal, and the former in particular - thanks to Lord Elphinstone - furnished valuable reinforcements.

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  • by the Bay of Bengal and Madras; on the W.

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  • The presidency of Bengal, in contradistinction to those of Madras and Bombay, eventually included all the British territories north of the Central Provinces, from the mouths of the Ganges and Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab.

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  • The Bengal-Nagpur, from the Central Provinces, also has its terminus at Howrah, and the section of this railway through Midnapore carries the East Coast line from Madras.

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  • There is no executive council, as in Madras and Bombay; but there is a board of revenue, consisting of two members.

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  • DINDIGUL, a town of British India, in the Madura district of Madras, 880 ft.

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  • The district of Bangalore borders on the Madras district of Salem.

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  • by Madras and Mysore; and on the W.

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  • The Sahyadri, or Western Ghats, also throw off to the eastward the two principal rivers of the Madras Presidency, the Godavari and the Kistna.

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  • The district is traversed throughout its entire length by the navigable Orissa coast canal, and also by the East Coast railway from Calcutta to Madras.

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  • In India, Frenchmen and Englishmen had striven during the last war for authority over the native states round Pondicherry and Madras, and the conflict threatened to break out anew.

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  • TIRUPATI, or Tripetty, a town of British India, in the North Arcot district of Madras, with a station on the Madras railway, 84 m.

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  • of Madras city.

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  • AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN (1806-1871), English mathematician and logician, was born in June 1806, at Madura, in the Madras presidency.

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  • SRIRANGAM, or Seringham, a town of British India, in Trichinopoly district, Madras presidency, 2 m.

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  • The school, formerly called the Madras Academy, was originally endowed by Dr Bell, founder of the Madras system of education, but, having been enriched at a later date by a bequest of Sir David Baxter, it was afterwards called the Bell-Baxter school, and is one of the recognized higherclass schools of the county.

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  • After a few months at Madras, they settled at Rangoon.

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  • PORTO NOVO, a town of British India, on the Coromandel coast in the South Arcot district of Madras.

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  • The place is chiefly famous for the battle in July 1781, in which Sir Eyre Coote with 8000 men defeated Hyder Ali with 60,000 and saved the Madras presidency.

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  • CANNANORE, or Kananore, a town of British India, in the Malabar district of Madras, on the coast, 58 m.

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  • Unable to check him the East India Company took him into its service in 1695, and in 1697 he became president of Fort St George, or Madras.

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  • Soon afterwards he received news of the peace, and Madras was delivered up to him by the French.

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  • ADONI, a town of British India, in the Bellary district of Madras, 307 m.

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  • from Madras by rail.

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  • But the death-rate is still high, due partly to the swampy nature of the outskirts of the city proper, and still more to the mortality among Hindu immigrants from the Madras presidency.

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  • Tilak, Madras, 2nd edition, 1920.

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  • cormorant seen in Madras.

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  • Mexican Madras 3cl gold tequila 6cl cranberry juice 1.5cl fresh orange juice dash fresh lime juice Pour all ingredients into a shaker with ice.

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  • drop-in surgery Wilma Bain has worked with Madras Nursery offering a drop-in surgery for help in using ICT.

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  • Walking down a street market in Madras I decided that I would buy some lungi 's for presents.

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  • The chicken madras are the best you'll find anywhere!

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  • In May 1942 she was attacked by a Japanese seaplane off Madras which dropped four bombs before being driven off by accurate antiaircraft fire.

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  • Mexican Madras 3cl gold tequila 6cl cranberry juice 1.5cl fresh orange juice dash fresh lime juice Pour all ingredients into a shaker with ice.

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  • Payne in Madras, one tusk measures 6 ft.

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  • At Madras, Michie Smith (30) often observed negative potential during bright August and September days.

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  • and noon during westerly winds, which at Madras are usually very dry and dusty.

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  • The settlement of Fort St George or Madras, captured by force of arms, had only recently been restored in accordance with a clause of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.

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  • When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta.

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  • At last, in the winter of 1768, he received the appointment of second in council at Madras.

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  • Of his two years' work at Madras it is needless to speak in detail.

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  • He drew up a scheme for the construction of a pier at Madras, to avoid the dangers of landing through the surf, and instructed his brother-in-law in England to obtain estimates from the engineers Brindley and Smeaton.

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  • The imprudent conduct of the Madras authorities had irritated beyond endurance the two greatest Mussulman powers in the peninsula, the nizam of the Deccan and Hyder Ali, the usurper of Mysore, who began to negotiate an alliance with the Mahrattas.

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  • On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness.

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  • He signed a blank treaty of peace with the Mahrattas, who were still in arms, reversed the action of the Madras government towards the nizam, and concentrated all the resources of Bengal against Hyder Ali.

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  • Sir Eyre Coote, a general of renown in former Carnatic wars, was sent by sea to Madras with all the troops and treasure that could be got together; and a strong body of reinforcements subsequently marched southwards under Colonel Pearse along the coast line of Orissa.

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  • The landing of Coote preserved Madras from destruction, though the war lasted through many campaigns and only terminated with the death of Hyder.

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  • Pearse's detachment was decimated by an epidemic of cholera (perhaps the first mention of this disease by name in Indian history); but the survivors penetrated to Madras, and not only held in check Bhonsla and the nizam, but also corroborated the lesson taught by Goddard - that the Company's sepoys could march anywhere, when boldly led.

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  • As a member of the council of Madras he helped to defend the city against the French in 1759, and in July 1760 he went to Bengal as president of the council and governor of Fort William.

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  • In Dec. 1920 he went to India as the representative of King George in order to inaugurate the provincial legislative councils of Madras, Bengal, and Bombay, arriving at Madras Jan.

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  • He states that Bishop Caldwell,' whom he calls " the great missionary scholar of the Dravidian tongue," showed that the south and western Australian tribes use almost the same words for " I, thou, he, we, you, as the Dravidian fishermen on the Madras coast."

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  • of Rutland Island across Duncan Passage, in which lie the Cinque and other islands, forming Manners Strait, the main commercial highway between the Andamans and the Madras coast.

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  • In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.

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  • CALICUT, a city of British India, in the Malabar district of Madras; on the coast, 6 m.

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  • It is served by the Madras railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products.

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  • CUDDALORE, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, on the coast 125 m.

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  • of Madras by rail.

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    0
  • The final result of this latest determination is to place the Madras observatory 2' 27" to the west of the position adopted for it on the strength of absolute astronomical determinations.

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    0
  • In northern India the greatest difference does not exceed 40°; and it falls off to about 15 ° at Calcutta, and to about 10° or 12 °at Bombay and Madras.

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    0
  • The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.

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    0
  • At Madras it rarely falls as low as 65°, or at Bombay below 60°.

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  • The forest areas of India include the dense vegetation and luxuriant growth of the Tarai jungles at the foot of the eastern Himalaya, and wide stretches of loosely-timbered country which are a prevailing feature in the Central Provinces and parts of Madras.

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    0
  • The first empire, called Maurya,reached its greatest extent in the time of Asoka (264-227 B.C.), who ruled from Afghanistan to Madras.

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  • TANJORE, a city and district of British India in the Madras presidency.

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  • of Madras.

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  • St Peter's College, founded by Schwarz as a school, is now a first-grade college affiliated to the university of Madras.

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  • See Tanjore District Gazetteer (Madras, 1906).

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  • The English power was rising at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.

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  • BELLARY, or Ballari, a city and district of British India, in the Madras presidency.

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  • by rail from Madras.

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  • Between 1731 and 1 To this was added a supplement by Petiver on the Birds of Madras, taken from pictures and information sent him by one Edward Buckley of Fort St George, being the first attempt to catalogue the birds of any part of the British possessions in India.

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  • BOBBILI, a town of British India, in the Vizagapatam district of Madras, 70 m.

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  • by Hyderabad and the large zamindari estates of the Madras presidency; and on the E.

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  • It is served by the East Coast railway, which was opened throughout from Calcutta to Madras in 1891, with a branch to Puri town.

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  • RAMESWARAM, a town of British India, in the Madura district of Madras, on the island of Pambam in Palk Straits.

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  • In Ceylon and in some parts of India, especially in Madras, it has succeeded well.

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  • The principal mining districts are those of Hazaribagh in Bengal and Nellore in Madras; in the former district the mica has usually a ruby tint, whilst in the latter it is more often greenish.

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  • north of Calicut), at Cranganore, and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence, apparently, to Ceylon and to the shrine of St Thomas at Maylapur near Madras.

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  • Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.

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  • - Tobacco is grown for local use in many parts of India, but the principal centres of its cultivation on a commercial scale are Bombay, Madras and the Punjab.

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  • Pahlavi inscriptions' found on crosses at St Thomas's Mount near Madras and at Kottayam in Travancore, are evidence both of the antiquity of Christianity in these places (7th or 8th century), and for the semi-patripassianism (the apparent identification of all three persons of the Trinity in the sufferer on the cross) which marked the Nestorian teaching.

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  • COIMBATORE, a city and district of British India, in the Madras presidency.

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  • from Madras by the Madras railway.

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  • The south-west line of the Madras railway runs through the district, and the South Indian railway (of metre gauge) joins this at Erode.

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  • Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819).

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  • Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras Review, a quarterly first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894), are important.

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  • Chersydrus ranges from Madras to New Guinea; the body and tail are laterally compressed and form a ventral fold which is covered with tiny scales like the rest of the body.

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  • The great bulk of the Indo-Aryan or Hindu population consists of Uriyas, with a residue of immigrant Bengalis, Lala Kayets from Behar and northern India, Telingas from the Madras coast, Mahrattas from central and western India, a few Sikhs from the Punjab and Marwaris from Rajputana.

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  • Teak timber is floated down the rivers to the Madras coast.

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  • Judaism and Islam, Madras, 1898).

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  • CUDDAPAH, a town and district of British India, in the Madras Presidency.

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  • The district is served by lines of the Madras and the South Indian railways.

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  • In India 3 the earliest English mint was that at Madras which was bought by the East India Company in 1620, reorganized more than once and finally closed in 1869.

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  • In 1805 Penang was made a separate presidency, ranking with Bombay and Madras; and when in 1826 Singapore and Malacca were incorporated with it, Penang continued to be the seat of government.

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  • BEZWADA, a town of British India, in the Kistna district of Madras, on the left bank of the river Kistna, at the head of its delta.

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  • Here also is the central junction of the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta, 267 m.

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  • from Madras, where one branch line comes down from the Warangal coalfield in the Nizam's Dominions, and another from Bellary on the Southern Mahratta line.

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  • A similar attack is said to have been made in 1719 by the governor of Madras.

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  • CHIDAMBARAM, or Chedumbrum, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, 7 m.

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  • from Madras, unopposed.

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  • On the arrival of Lord Macartney as governor of Madras, the British fleet captured Negapatam, and forced Hyder Ali to confess that he could never ruin a power which had command of the sea.

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  • Madras, India (Presidency) >>

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  • Nevertheless, her cleverness, volubility, energy and will-power enabled her to maintain her ground, and when she died on the 8th of May 1891 (White Lotus Day), at the theosophical headquarters in the Avenue Road, London, she was the acknowledged head of a community numbering not far short of 100,000, with journalistic organs in London, Paris, New York and Madras.

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  • kulthi), which supplies in Madras the place of the chick-pea, affords seed which, when boiled, is extensively employed as a food for horses and cattle in South India, where also it is eaten in curries.

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  • It extended over the whole of Bombay into Hyderabad and affected the northern districts of Madras.

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  • Relief works were first opened during this famine in Madras.

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  • 1876-1878 Famine in Bombay, Madras and Mysore; five millions perish.

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  • The resulting reaction caused a regrettable loss of life in the Madras and Bombay famine of 1876-1878; and the Famine Commission of 1880, followed by those of 1898 and 1901, laid down the principle that every possible life must be saved, but that the wages on relief works must be so regulated in relation to the market rate of wages as not to undermine the independence of the people.

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  • See Cornelius Walford, "On the Famines of the World, Past and Present" (Journal of the Statistical Society, 1878-1879); Romesh C. Dutt, Famines in India (1900); Robert Wallace, Famine in India (1900); George Campbell, Famines in India (1769-1788); Chronological List of Famines for all India (Madras Administration Report, 1885); J.

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  • BERHAMPUR, a town of British India, in the presidency of Madras.

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  • It is a station on the East Coast railway, which connects Calcutta with Madras.

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  • Missions were begun in Madras, at the Cape of Good Hope, in Australia, and on the west coast of Africa.

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  • He died at Madras, 24th December 1814.

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  • The principal Indian markets are Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi and Madras.

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  • Madapolam or Madapollam is a name derived from a suburb of Narsapur in the Madras presidency where the cloth was first made.

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  • The principal places frequented by shipping are Pulicat, Madras, Sadras, Pondicherry, Cuddalore, Tranquebar, Nagore, and Negapatam.

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  • In 1836 he went to Madras and secured early promotion, but in consequence of ill-health he was obliged to return to England.

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  • Punjab, Kashmir and Ladak; Telugu missions of Madras; Maori missions of N.

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  • east coast, established a mission in Orissa in i 82 r which soon bore fruit; the Wesleyans were in Ceylon, Mysore and the Kaveri valley, the London Missionary Society at the great military centres Madras, Bangalore and Bellary, agents of the American Board at Ahmednagar 4nd other parts of the Mahratta country around Bombay.

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  • (5) English education, in which the missionary societies have amply supplemented the efforts of the government, outstanding examples being the Madras Christian College (Free Church of Scotland), so long connected with the name of Dr William Miller, the General Assembly of Scotland's Institution at Calcutta, founded by Duff, Wilson College, Bombay (Free Church of Scotland), and St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic) at Trichinopoly.

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  • A recent report of the Director of Public Instruction for the Madras Presidency says: " I have frequently called attention to the educational progress of the native Christian community.

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  • Krishnasurami Aiyar and Pandit Sitanath Tattvabhushan (Madras, 1902).

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  • at the Badara Tittha Vihara, near the east coast of India, just a little south of where Madras now stands.

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  • The zamindari system obtains throughout northern and central India, and also in the permanently settled estates of Madras.

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  • AMRAVATI, or Amaravati, a ruined city of India in the Guntur district of the Madras presidency, on the south bank of the Kistna river, 62 m.

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  • Some are preserved in the British Museum; others in the museum at Madras.

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  • On the west coast it has no harbours, Madras having a mere open roadstead, but on the east there are many good ports, such as Akyab, Moulmein, Rangoon and Tavoy river.

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  • COMBACONUM, or Kumbakonam, a city of British India, in the Tanjore district of Madras, in the delta of the Cauvery, on the South Indian railway, 194 m.

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  • from Madras.

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  • CHITTUR, a town of British India, in the North Arcot district of Madras, with a station on the South Indian railway.

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  • in thickness, and contain pebbles of quartzite, jasper, sandstone, slate, &c. The mines fall into five groups situated on the eastern side of the Deccan plateau about the following places (beginning from the south), the first three being in Madras.

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  • The Regent or Pitt diamond is a magnificent stone found in either India or Borneo; it weighed 410 carats and was bought for £20,400 by Pitt, the governor of Madras; it was subsequently, in 1717, bought for £80,000 (or, according to some authorities, £ 135,000) by the duke of Orleans, regent of France; it was reduced by cutting to '3614 carats; was stolen with the other crown jewels during the Revolution, but was recovered and is still in France.

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  • The Ostend Company was formed in 1722-1723, and with a capital of less than a million sterling founded two settlements, one at Coblom (Covelong) on the Madras coast between the English Madras and the Dutch Sadras, and the other on the Hugh between the English Calcutta and the Dutch Chinsura.

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  • This vast tract comprehends the chief provinces now distributed between the presidencies of Madras and Bombay, together with the native states of Hyderabad and Mysore, and those of Kolhapur, Sawantwari, Travancore, Cochin and the petty possessions of France and Portugal.

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  • In 1803 he was nominated governor of Madras, where he quarrelled with the chief justice, Sir Henry Gwillim, and several members of his council.

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  • COCHIN, a town of British India, in the district of Malabar, Madras.

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  • The annals of the Company record that, in February 1684, the directors wrote thus to Madras: - "In regard thea is grown to be a commodity here, and we have occasion to make presents therein to our great friends at court, we would have you to send us yearly five or six canisters of the very best and freshest thea."

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  • The first direct purchase in China was made at Amoy, the teas previously obtained by the Company's factors having bean purchased in Madras and Surat, whither it was brought by Chinese junks after the expulsion of the British from Java.

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  • In the jungles of Ceylon are to be found remains of gigantic irrigation dams, and on the neighbouring mainland of Southern India, throughout the provinces of Madras and Mysore, the country is covered with irrigation reservoirs, or, as they are locally termed, tanks.

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  • In the seventeen years ending1896-1897the capital expenditure on such works was Rx.10,954,948, including a sum of Rx.1, 742, 246 paid to the Madras Irrigation Company as the price of the Kurnool-Cuddapah canal, a work which can never be financially productive, but which nevertheless did good service in the famine of1896-1897by irrigating 87,226 acres.

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  • In the Madras presidency and in Mysore irrigation has long assumed a great importance, and the engineering works of the three great deltas of the Godavari, Kistna and Cauvery, the outcome of the genius and indefatigable enthusiasm of Sir Arthur Cotton, have always been quoted as showing what a boon irrigation is to a country.

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  • In 1878 the total area of irrigation in the Madras presidency amounted to about 5,000,000 acres.

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  • ANAMALAI HILLS, a range of mountains in southern India, in the Coimbatore district of Madras, lying between 10° 13' and 10 31' N.

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  • ARCOT, the name of a city and two districts of British India in the presidency of Madras.

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  • It is a station on the line of railway from Madras to Beypur, but has ceased to be a military cantonment.

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  • Soon afterwards, in 1835 and 1837, the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; whilst in 1836 Broughton himself was consecrated as first bishop of Australia.

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  • The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively.

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  • They are not only nominated by the crown and consecrated under letters patent, but the appointment is expressly subjected "to such power of revocation and recall as is by law vested" in the crown; and where additional oversight was necessary for the church in Tinnevelly, it could only be secured by the consecration of two assistant bishops, who worked under a commission for the archbishop of Canterbury which was to expire on the death of the bishop of Madras.

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  • CHINGLEPUT, or Chengalpat, a town and district of British India, in the Madras presidency.

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  • by rail from Madras, had a population in 1901 of 10,551.

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  • It was taken by the French in 1751, and was retaken in 1752 by Clive, after which it proved invaluable to the British, especially when Lally in his advance on Madras left it unreduced in his rear.

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  • The District Of Chingleput surrounds the city of Madras, stretching along the coast for about 115 m.

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  • TRAVANCORE, a state of southern India, in political relation with Madras.

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  • The Periyar irrigation project conducts water through the ghats in a tunnel to irrigate the Madras district of Madura, for which compensation of Rs.

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  • Native Christians, chiefly of the Syrian rite, form nearly one-fourth of the whole, being more numerous than in any Madras district.

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  • The smallest is the slender loris (Loris gracilis) of the forests of Madras and Ceylon, a creature smaller than a squirrel.

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  • comprises the Central Provinces and Berar, the presidencies /and of Madras and Bombay, and the territories of Hyderabad, Mysore and other feudatory states.

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  • The Eastern Ghats stretch in fragmentary spurs and ranges down the Madras presidency, here and there receding inland and leaving broad level tracts between their base and the coast.

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  • Its best known hills are the Nilgiris, with the summer capital of Madras, Ootacamund, 7000 ft.

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  • broad and easy passages from the Madras coast.

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  • In this way the three great rivers of the Madras Presidency, viz., the Godavari, the Kistna and the Cauvery, rise in the mountains overhanging the western coast, and traverse the whole breadth of the central table-land before they reach the sea on the eastern shores of India.

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  • They cover a large area in Bengal and Madras and extend into Ceylon; and they are found also in Bundelkhand and in Gujarat.

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  • Calcutta, Bombay and Madras all possess the equable climate that is induced by proximity to the sea, but Calcutta enjoys a cold season which is not to be found in the other presidency towns, while the hot season is more unendurable there.

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  • In Burma the favourite relish of nga-pi is prepared from fish; and at Goalanda, at the junction of the Brahmaputra with the Ganges, and along the Madras coast many establishments exist for salting fish in bond.

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  • Nearly two-thirds of the total number are found in the Madras.

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  • More than fourfifths of the Christians in Madras proper are found in the eight southernmost districts, the scene of the labours of St Francis Xavier and the Protestant missionary Schwarz.

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  • At that time the three universities were founded at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay; English-teaching schools were established in every district; the benefit of grants-in-aid was extended to the lower vernacular institutions and to girls' schools; and public instruction was erected into a department of the administration in every province, under a director, with a staff of inspectors.

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  • The five universities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad and Lahore, which were formerly merely examining bodies, had their senates reformed by the introduction of experts; while hostels or boarding-houses for the college students were founded, so as to approach more nearly to the English ideal of residential institutions.

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  • First stand the two presidencies of Madras (officially Fort St George) and Bombay, each of which is administered by a governor and council appointed by the crown.

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  • In every province except Madras there are divisions, consisting of three or more districts under a commissioner.

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  • Broadly speaking, the subdivision is characteristic of Bengal, where revenue duties are in the background, and the tahsil of Madras, where the land settlement requires attention year by year.

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  • Bengal (including Eastern Bengal and Assam), Madras, Bombay and the old North-Western Provinces each has a high court, established by charter under an act of parliament, with judges appointed by the crown.

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  • But, except in Madras, where the districts are large, a single civil and sessions judge sometimes exercises jurisdiction over more than one district.

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  • The large towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras have municipalities of this character, and there are large numbers of municipal committees and local boards all over the country.

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  • There are also Port Trusts in the great maritime cities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Karachi and Rangoon.

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  • The superior stability of the village system was overlooked, and in the old provinces of Bengal and Madras the village organization has gradually been suffered to fall into decay.

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  • Lower Bengal and a few adjoining districts of the United Provinces and of Madras have a permanent settlement, i.e.

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  • The prevailing system throughout the Madras presidency is the ryotwari, which takes the cultivator or peasant proprietor as its rent-paying unit, somewhat as the Bengal system takes the zamindar.

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  • The Madras Government was accordingly instructed to enter into permanent engagements with zamindars, and, where no zamindars could be found, to create substitutes out of enterprising contractors.

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  • Throughout the rest of Madras there are no zamindars either in name or fact.

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  • The early ryotwari settlements in Madras were based upon insufficient experience.

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  • Nothing can be more complete in theory and more difficult of exposition than a Madras ryotwari settlement.

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  • in Madras to 10d.

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  • At the Kohat mines, and in the salt evaporation works on the sea-coast, with the exception of a few of the Madras factories, the government does not come between the manufacturer and the merchant, except in so far as is necessary in order to levy the duty from the salt as it issues from the factory.

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  • The salt administration is in the hands of (1) the Northern India Salt Department, which is directly under the government of India, and controls the salt resources of Rajputana and the Punjab, and (2) the salt revenue authorities of Madras and Bombay.

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  • The consumption of salt per head in India varies from 7 lb in Rajputana to 16.02 lb in Madras.

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  • The rice crop is most important in Burma, Bengal and Madras, and there is an average of 20 million acres under rice in the other provinces of British India.

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  • Excluding the special rice-growing tracts, different kinds of millet are grown more extensively than any other crop from Madras in the south at least as far as Rajputana in the north.

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  • A third sort of millet, ragi or marua, is cultivated chiefly in Madras and Bengal.

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  • "A third sort of millet, ragi or marua, is cultivated chiefly in Madras" is not a chief crop of Madras, it is a chief crop of Karnataka.

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  • Bengal and the United Provinces are at present the chief sources of supply for the foreign demand, but gingelly is largely exported from Madras, and, to a smaller extent, from Burma.

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  • But the mangoes of Bombay, of Multan, and of Malda in Bengal, and the oranges of Nagpur and the Khasi hills, enjoy a high reputation; while the guavas of Madras are made into an excellent preserve.

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  • The bastard date, grown chiefly in the country round Calcutta and in the north-east of the Madras presidency, supplies both the jaggery sugar of commerce and intoxicating liquors for local consumption.

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  • Spirit is also distilled from the palmyra, especially in the neighbourhood of Bombay and in the south-east of Madras.

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  • The success of this experiment led to the extension of coffee cultivation into the neighbouring tract of Manjarabad, also in Mysore, and into the Wynaad subdivision of the Madras district of Malabar.

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  • In the Madras districts of Nellore and Kurnool the indigenous breed has been greatly improved under the stimulus of cattle shows and prizes founded by British officials.

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  • In Bengal Proper, and also in Madras, it may be broadly said that horses are not bred.

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  • In 1844 and 1847 the subject was actively taken up by the governments of Bombay and Madras.

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  • But now the larger part of the cotton goods used in India is manufactured in mills in that country or in England, and the handloom weavers' output is confined to the coarsest kinds of cloth, or to certain special kinds of goods, such as the turbans and " saris " of Bombay, or the muslins of Arni, Cuddapah, and Madura in Madras, and of Dacca in Bengal.

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  • In Behar it has begun to replace indigo, and some success was achieved in Orissa, Assam and Madras; but jute is a very exhausting crop, and requires to be planted in lands fertilized with silt or else with manure.

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  • An uncertain but unimportant amount is annually procured by sand-washing in various tracts of northern India and Burma; and there have been many attempts, including the great boom of 1880, to work mines in the Wynaad district of the Madras Presidency.

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  • They are to be found in every part of the country, from the northern mountains of Assam and Kumaun to the extreme south of the Madras Presidency.

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  • The principal sources of iron-stone at present are the Madras ores, chiefly at Salem, the Chanda ores in the Central Provinces, and the ores obtained at and near Raniganj in Bengal.

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  • - Manganese ore is found in very large quantities on a tract on the Madras coast about midway between Calcutta and Madras.

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  • In Madras also a mica industry has recently grown up. Tin is found in the Tavoy and Mergui districts of Lower Burma, and has for many years been worked in an unprogressive manner chiefly by Chinese labour.

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  • Copper ore is found in many tracts throughout India, plumbago in Madras, and corundum in southern India.

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  • It is believed that the far-famed diamonds of Golconda actually came from the sandstone formation which extends across the south-east borders of the nizam's dominions into the Madras districts of Ganjam and Godavari.

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  • Pearls are found off the southern coast of Madras and also in the Mergui archipelago.

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  • In the Deccan their place is taken by Lingayats from the south, who again follow their own form of Hinduism, which is an heretical species of Siva worship. Throughout Mysore, and in the north of Madras, Lingayats are still found, but along the eastern sea-board the predominating classes of traders are those named Chetties and Komatis.

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  • In the early days of railway enterprise the agency of private companies guaranteed by the state was exclusively employed, and nearly all the great trunk lines were made under this system, but the leases of the last three of these lines, the Great Indian Peninsula, the Bombay Baroda and Central India, and the Madras companies, fell in respectively in 'goo, 1905 and 1907.

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  • In Bombay and Madras almost all the irrigation systems, except in the deltas of the chief rivers, are dependent on reservoirs or " tanks," which collect the rainfall of the adjacent hills.

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  • In 297 B.C. he was succeeded by his son, Bindusara, who is supposed to have extended his dominions down to Madras.

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  • One of the blood-royal of Vijayanagar fled to Chandragiri, and founded a line which exercised a prerogative of its former sovereignty by granting the site of Madras to the English in 1639.

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  • In 1611 Captain Hippon in the seventh separate voyage essayed a landing at Pulicat, but was driven off by the Dutch, who were already settled there, and sailed farther up the coast to Pettapoli, where he founded the first madras English settlement in the Bay of Bengal, which ments.

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  • In 1639 Francis Day, the chief at Armagon, founded Madras, building Fort St George (1640), and transferring thither the chief factory from Masulipatam.

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  • In 1653 Madras was raised to an independent presidency, and in 1658 all the settlements in Bengal and on the Coromandel coast were made subordinate to Fort St George.

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  • In 1677 the president of found- Madras had to warn him that unless his exactions ing of ceased, the company would be obliged to withdraw Calcutta.

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  • The British, especially, appear to have been submissive to the native powers at Madras no less than in Bengal.

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  • Dupleix French was at that time governor of Pondicherry and Clive and was a young writer at Madras.

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  • Madras surrendered almost without a blow, and the only settlement left to the British was Fort St David, a few miles south of Pondicherry, where Clive and a few other fugitives sought shelter.

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  • The nawab, faithful to his policy of impartiality, marched with 10,000 men to drive the French out of Madras, but he was signally defeated by a French force of only four hundred men and two guns.

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  • The French successfully repulsed all attacks, and at last peace was restored by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which gave back Madras to the British (1748).

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  • For the British of Madras, under the instinct of self-preservation, were compelled to maintain the cause of another candidate to the throne of Arcot in opposition to the nominee of Dupleix.

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  • The news of this disaster fortunately found Clive returned to Madras, where also was a squadron of king's ships under Admiral Watson.

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  • In the south the influence of the French under Lally and Bussy was overshadowing the British at Madras.

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  • The Bombay government was naturally emulous to follow the example of Madras and Bengal, and to establish its influence at the court of Poona by placing its own nominee upon the throne.

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  • The system thus organized in Bengal was afterwards extended to Madras and Bombay, when those presidencies also acquired territorial sovereignty.

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  • On his refusal war was declared, and Wellesley came down in state to Madras to organize the expedition in person and watch over the course of events.

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  • One British army marched into Mysore from Madras, accompanied by a contingent from the nizam.

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  • The reckless conduct of the Madras government had roused the hostility both of Hyder Ali of Mysore and of the nizam of the Deccan, the two strongest Mussulman powers in India, who attempted to draw the Mahrattas into an alliance against the British.

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  • The diplomacy of Hastings won over the nizam and the Mahratta raja of Nagpur, but the army of Hyder Ali fell like a thunderbolt upon the British possessions in the Carnatic. A strong detachment under Colonel Baillie was cut to pieces at Perambakam, and the Mysore cavalry ravaged the country unchecked up to the walls of Madras.

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  • Sir Eyre Coote, the victor of Wandiwash, was sent by sea to relieve Madras with all the men and money available, while Colonel Pearse marched south overland to overawe the raja of Berar and the nizam.

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  • At about the same time the province of the Carnatic, or all that large portion of southern India ruled by the nawab of Arcot, and also the principality of Tanjore, were placed under direct British administration, thus constituting the Madras presidency almost as it has existed to the present day.

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  • During his administration also occurred the mutiny of the Madras sepoys at Vellore, which, though promptly suppressed, sent a shock of insecurity through the empire.

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  • One expedition with gunboats proceeded up the Brahmaputra into Assam; another marched by land through Chittagong into Arakan, for the Bengal sepoys refused to go by sea; a third, and the strongest, sailed from Madras direct to the mouth of the Irrawaddy.

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  • The next governor-general was Lord William Bentinck, who had been governor of Madras twenty years earlier at the time of the mutiny of Vellore.

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  • By the Indian Councils Act 1861 the governor-general's council and also the councils at Madras and Bombay were augmented by the addition of non-official members, either natives or Europeans, for legislative purposes only; and by another act passed in the same year high courts of judicature were constituted out of the existing supreme courts and company's courts at the presidency towns.

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  • While the first riots occurred in the Punjab and Madras, it is only in Bengal and eastern Bengal that the unrest has been bitter and continuous.

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  • It further authorized the addition of two members to the executive councils at Madras and Bombay, and the creation cf an executive council in Bengal and also (subject to conditions) in other provinces under a lieutenantgovernor.

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  • In Bengal, Madras and Bombay Presidencies women do not wear a skirt, only a choli and sari.

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  • Madras, shortly afterwards joining his regiment at Vellore.

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  • On his return to India in 1796 he became military secretary to Sir Alured Clarke, commander-in-chief at Madras, and afterwards to his successor General Harris; and in 1798 he was appointed by Lord Wellesley assistant to the resident at Hyderabad.

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  • 1784 (in 1811 and 1826); Sketch of the Sikhs (1812); Observations on the Disturbances in the Madras Army in 1809 (1812); Persia, a Poem, anonymous (1814); A Memoir of Central India (2 vols., 1823); and Sketches of Persia, anonymous (1827).

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  • ANANTAPUR, a town and district of India, in the Madras presidency.

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  • The town has a station on the Madras railway, 6 2 m.

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  • BIMLIPATAM, a town of British India, in the Vizagapatam district of Madras, on the sea-coast 18 m.

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  • angustifolia, leaves of the date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), of the dwarf palm (Chamaerops Ritchiana), of the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis), of the coco-nut palm (Cocos nucifera)andof the screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), the munja or munj grass (Saccharum Munja) and allied grasses, and the mat grasses Cyperus textilis and C. Pangorei, from the last of which the well-known Palghat mats of the Madras Presidency are made.

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  • Fawcett, Madras Bulletin, iii.

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  • Fawcett, Madras Gov..

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  • Fawcett, Madras Gov.

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  • In the following year Bengal, Madras, Haidarabad and Mysore were invaded.

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  • In the Punjab from 179 deaths in 1897 the mortality reached a maximum of 334,897 in 1905, in Agra and Oudh they rose from 72 in 1897 to 383,802 in 1905, and in Madras Presidency from 1658 in 1899 to 20,125 in 1904.

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  • 2 Henry Whitehead, D.D., bishop of Madras, The Village Deities of Southern India (Madras, 1907).

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  • The term is used in Bombay, Madras and Bengal to denote a considerable number of castes of moderate respectability, the higher of whom are considered ` clean ' Sudras, while the precise status of the lower is a question which lends itself to endless controversy."In northern and north-western India, on the other hand," the grade next below the twice-born rank is occupied by a number of castes from whose hands Brahmans and members of the higher castes will take water and certain kinds of sweetmeats.

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  • In Madras especially the idea of ceremonial pollution by the proximity of an unclean caste has been developed with much elaboration.

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  • In English it is principally employed in the name ' of the Northern Circars, used to designate a now obsolete division of the Madras presidency, which consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40' to 20° 17' N.

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  • Under the superintendence of an officer lent by the government of Madras, two great works of irrigation, from the lack of which agriculture had seriously suffered, were undertaken in 1898 and 1899.

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