Madagascar Sentence Examples
In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
Kink-tailed cats, it should be added, are also known from Madagascar.
There is no actual proof that this spider is more poisonous than others, but it is a significant fact that its species, inhabiting countries as widely separated as Chile, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and South Europe are held in great fear by the indigenous population, and many stories are current of serious or fatal results following their bites.
Since then this pest has spread across the African continent and even reached Madagascar.Advertisement
In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
The plant generally understood by this name is Nepenthes, a genus containing nearly sixty species, natives of tropical Asia, north Australia and (one only) of Madagascar.
The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.
The Proteaceous genus, Faurea, occurs in Angola and Madagascar.
After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.Advertisement
These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
Until a very recent epoch there flourished in Madagascar huge birds referable to the Ratitae, e.g.
Struthio in Africa and Arabia, fossil also in the Sivalik Hills, and Aepyornithidae in Madagascar; Pittzdae, Bucerotinae and Upupinae, of which Upupa itself in India, Madagascar and Africa; Coraciidae; Pycnonotidae or bulbuls; Trogonidae, of which the Asiatic genera are the less specialized in opposition to the Neotropical forms; Vulturidae; Leptoptilus, Anastomus and Ciconia among the storks; Pteroclidae; Treroninae among pigeons.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.Advertisement
Picidae, woodpeckers, cosmopolitan, excepting Madagascar and Australian region.
Vanda (Asia) and Angraecum (Africa and Madagascar) are known in cultivation.
It built ships as cheaply as any place in the world, it carried goods for other colonies, it traded-often evading British laws-with Europe, Guinea, Madagascar and above all with the West Indies.
The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886),(1886), Ceylon (1896).Advertisement
Madagascar and the Comoro Islands obtained most of their slaves from the Mozambique coast.
Slavery itself has been abolished in the Zanzibar, British, German and Portuguese dominions, and had ceased in Madagascar even before its conquest by the French.
The other is a peculiar insectivore (Solenodon paradoxus), the only other representatives of whose family ace found in Madagascar.
With the exception of Madagascar, the genus Mus ranges over practically the whole of the Old World, having indigenous representatives even in Australasia; while the house-mouse, with man's involuntary aid, has succeeded in establishing itself throughout the civilized world.
The predominant species are Madagascar plants and birds, which are carried by the currents and the winds..Advertisement
Endemic inferior animals and mammals are practically non-existent, except two bats and one scorpion, which are allied to Madagascar species or introduced.
The reptiles (tortoises) are also nearly allied to the Mascarenes and Madagascar species which once existed.
Of more marine habit are P. philippensis and P. fuscus, the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of the warmer parts of both North and South America.
An exceptional type in the order is represented by Humbertia, a native of Madagascar, which forms a large tree.
He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of the 17th of December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China.
The fossils of the Cenomanian have affinities with those in the Cenomanian of Spain, Egypt, Madagascar, Mozambique and India.
This makes the occurrence of a species of Corallus in Madagascar less remarkable, while all the others live in Central and South America.
They comprise about 300 species of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, and as a group they are almost cosmopolitan, including Madagascar, but excepting new Zealand.
In some of the species the elongate form of the head is still more exaggerated by a pointed flexible appendage of the snout (Passerita), which may be nearly half an inch in length, or leaf-like, as in the Madagascar Langaha.
These snakes are all very poisonous, mostly viviparous and found in all tropical and subtropical countries, with the exception of Madagascar and New Zealand.
The family is cosmopolitan, excepting Madagascar and the whole of the Australian region.
In the Indian Ocean it covers the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Gulf, the Mozambique Channel and the region to the south-west of Madagascar.
What may be called typical, that is to say arboreal, squirrels are found throughout the greater part of the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres, although they are absent both from Madagascar and Australasia.
By the French they have been much longer known as "Souimangas," from the Madagascar name of one of the species given in 1658 by Flacourt as Soumangha.
Hellville, the chief town (so called after De Hell, governor of Reunion at the time of the French annexation), is a port of call for the Messageries Maritimes and a centre for the coasting trade along the western shores of Madagascar.
The administration was entrusted to a subordinate of the governor of Mayotte until 1896, when Nossi-be was placed under the administration of Madagascar (q.v.).
On reaching Madagascar, Rozhestvenski heard of the fall of Port Arthur, and the question of returning to Russia arose.
The relationship with Aepyornis of Madagascar is still problematic. Whilst the moas seem to have been entirely herbivorous, feeding not unlikely upon the shoots of ferns, the kiwis have become highly specialized wormeaters.
It has been urged that these brown peoples sprang from one stock with the Malays and the Malagasy of Madagascar; and that they represent this parent stock better than the Malays who have been much modified by crossings.
Whilst the skin is mostly soft on the back, with little granular tubercles, scales (except on the belly) are absent, but they are present in Homopholis, in Geckolepis of Madagascar, and most fully developed in Teratoscincus scincus.
Aeluronyx of Madagascar and Seychelles has cat-like retractile claws.
They are an exclusively Old World family; they are most numerous in Australia (except New Zealand) and the Indian and Malay countries; comparatively few live in Africa (none in Madagascar) and in the countries from Asia Minor to India.
Remarkable cases of discontinuous distribution are Chalarodon and Hoplodon in Madagascar, and Brachylophus fasciatus in the Fiji Islands.
This family contains only one genus, Varanus, with nearly 30 species, in Africa, Arabia and southern Asia, and Australia, but not in Madagascar.
Similar observances are found in our own day on the Upper Nile; the Nuba and Nuer worship the bull; the Angoni of Central Africa and the Sakalava of Madagascar keep sacred bulls.
In Easter Island a form of the house-god is the lizard; it is also a tutelary deity in Madagascar.
In many parts of Africa the serpent is looked upon as the incarnation of deceased relatives; among the Amazulu, as among the Betsileo of Madagascar, certain species are assigned as the abode of certain classes; the Masai, on the other hand, regard each species as the habitat of a particular family of the tribe.
Gennep, Tabou et tote'misme a Madagascar.
In many parts of south-eastern Asia, in Mauritius, in North and South Africa, in Madagascar, in the Azores, it has become thoroughly acclimatized, and successfully competes with the indigenous fresh-water fishes.
The Syrian goat is met with in various parts of the East, in Lower Egypt, on the shores of the Indian Ocean and in Madagascar.
Besides the commonest Capra recurva, there is a rarer breed, Capra depressa, inhabiting the Mauritius and the islands of Bourbon and Madagascar.
The group is represented in Madagascar, as well as in Africa south of the Sahara.
Madagascar yields sapphires generally of very deep colour, occurring as rolled crystals.
The fauna is allied to that of Madagascar rather than to the mainland of Africa; it includes some land birds and a species of lemur peculiar to the islands.
The external trade of the islands has developed since the annexation of Madagascar to France, and is of the value of about £100,000 a year.
A Sakalava chief who had been driven from Madagascar by the Hovas took refuge in Mayotte c. 1830, and, with the aid of the sultan of Johanna, conquered the island, which for a century had been given over to civil war.
The islands, as regulated by the decree of the 9th of April 1908, are under the supreme authority of the governor-general of Madagascar.
Hares (and rabbits) have a cosmopolitan distribution with the exception of Madagascar and Australasia; and are now divided into numerous genera and subgenera, mentioned in the article FIG.
Rodents include by far the greater number of species, and have the widest distribution, of any of the orders of terrestrial mammals, being in fact cosmopolitan, although more abundant in some parts, as in South America, which may be considered their headquarters, than in others, as in Australasia and Madagascar, where they are represented only by members of the mouse-group, or Myoidea.
On account of certain structural peculiarities, the rats of Madagascar, which have a dentition like that of the cricetine Muridae, are separated as a distinct family, Nesomyidae.
With the exception of Madagascar, the family, which may be divided into six sub-families, has a cosmopolitan distribution, and the genera are so numerous that only some of the most important can be even mentioned.
The typical rats and mice, together with their nearest relatives, constitute the sub-family Murinae, which is represented by more than three hundred species, distributed over the whole of the Old World except Madagascar.
The approaches to Cossack, North Australia; Cape St Francis, Labrador; the coasts of Madagascar and Iceland, are remarkable for such disturbance of the compass.
They are dispersed over the whole world with the exception of South America, Madagascar, Papuasia, and Australasia.
One of the most perfect cases of mimicry in birds is presented by a Madagascar thrush or babbler (Tylas eduardi), which resembles feather for feather a shrike (Xenopirostris polleni), from the same island.
Among these are several beautiful species such as the Japanese Geronticus nippon, the Lophotibis cristata of Madagascar, and the scarlet ibis, 5 Eudocimus ruber, of America.
In Tahiti, Madagascar and other fields this society has largely taken over work begun by the London Society, whose operations were viewed with suspicion by the French government.
The old Swedish and Norwegian missionary societies work in South Africa, Madagascar and India; but large numbers of Scandinavians have been stirred up in missionary zeal, and have gone out to China in connexion with the China Inland Mission; several were massacred in the Boxer outbreaks.
Its chief mission has been in Basutoland, since extended to the Zambesi; but it has also followed French colonial extension, establishing missions in Senegambia, the French Congo, Madagascar and Tahiti.
Madagascar' is one of the most interesting mission fields.
For tying plants to trellises and stakes soft tarred string or raffia (the fibre from the Raphia palm of Madagascar) is used.
The Ethiopian Region has as representative of the group the Hypositta corallirostris of Madagascar.
C. vulgaris or niloticus of most of Africa, is found from the Senegal to Egypt and to Madagascar, reaching a length of i 5 ft.
As among their congeners in Madagascar, so also in parts of Polynesia, there may be a queen or a chieftainess in her own right; and a woman in high position will command as much respect, and will exercise as great authority, as a man would in the same position.
The Jamaica or calabash nutmeg is derived from Monodora Myristica, the Brazilian from Cryptocarya moschata, the Peruvian from Laurelia sempervirens, the Madagascar or clove nutmeg from Agathophyllum aromaticum, and the Californian or stinking nutmeg from Torreya Myristica.
It is now very generally believed that in Jurassic and Cretaceous times a great land-mass stretched from South Africa through Madagascar to India, and that the Cretaceous deposits of Cutch, &c., were laid down upon its northern shore, and those of Pondicherry and Trichinopoly upon its southern shore.
A lemur and one of the curious hedgehog-like Insectivora of Madagascar (Centetes ecaudatus) have probably both been brought from the larger island.
The avifauna resembles that of Madagascar; there are species of a peculiar genus of caterpillar shrikes (Campephagidae), as well as of the genera Pratincola, Hypsipetes, Phedina, Tchitrea, Zosterops, Foudia, Collocalia and Coracopsis, and peculiar forms of doves and parakeets.
The rice comes principally from India and Madagascar; cattle are imported from Madagascar, sheep from South Africa and Australia, and frozen meat from Australia.
There is also frequent communication with Madagascar, Reunion and Natal.
One of the most distinguished of the British governors was Sir Robert Farquhar (1810-1823), who did much to abolish the Malagasy slave trade and to establish friendly relations with the rising power of the Hova sovereign of Madagascar.
Until 1903 the Seychelles, Amirantes, Aldabra and other islands lying north of Madagascar were also part of the colony of Mauritius.
Under the treaty of the 17th of December 1885, between the French republic and the queen of Madagascar, a French protectorate was established over this island.
In 1896 this protectorate was converted by France into an annexation, and Madagascar then became "French territory."
The small Indian civet or rasse (Viverricula malaccensis) ranges from Madagascar through India to China, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Archipelago.
Blanford (Fauna of British India, " Mammals") thinks that the presence of the Indian form, Viverricula malaccensis, in Socotra, the Comoro Islands and Madagascar is due to the assistance of man.
The greyheaded love-bird (Agapornis Cana) of Madagascar is established in the Seychelles.
The little rooibek of South Africa (Estrilda astrild) has been so long and well established in St Helena that it is known in the bird trade as the St Helena waxbill, and the brilliant scarlet weaver of Madagascar (Foudia madagascariensis) inhabits as an imported bird Mauritius, the Seychelles and even the remote Chagos Islands.
He travelled in Mexico, under a commission from the French ministry of education, in 1857-1861; in Madagascar in 1863; in South America, particularly Chile and Argentina, in 1 875; and in Java and Australia in 1878.
The name of the town is spelt in a great variety of ways, including Madeigascar, whence the name of the island of Madagascar.
Alfred Grandidier points out that the Portuguese, misled by Marco Polo's description of Mukdishu as an island, fancied they had discovered the land of which he wrote when they touched at Madagascar.
For long only the principal village of the Hova chiefs, Antananarivo advanced in importance as those chiefs made themselves sovereigns of the greater part of Madagascar, until it became a town of some 80,000 inhabitants.
For live stock there is a good trade with Madagascar.
Both groups are unknown in Madagascar, in Australia, with the exception possibly of the extreme north, and in New Zealand.
The forty species of Nepenthes are mostly natives of the hotter parts of the Indian Archipelago, but a few range into Ceylon, Bengal, Cochin China, and some even occur in tropical Australia on the one hand, and in the Seychelles and Madagascar on the other.
The outlying islands lie south-west of the Seychelles group and between that archipelago and Madagascar.
The granite is of the same formation or closely related to that of Madagascar and throughout the islands is closely uniform in its composition, but exhibits dikes of finer grain.
The indigenous fauna, so far as its limited range affords comparison, resembles that of Madagascar.
In 1688 Davis cleared Cape Horn and arrived in the West Indies, while Swan's ship, the "Cygnet," was abandoned as unseaworthy, after sailing as far as Madagascar.
The exceptional genera are Brachylophus in the Fiji Islands, Hoplurus and Chalarodon in Madagascar.
The d-form is found as a methyl ether in pirate (from the juice of Pinus lambertina, and of caoutchouc from Mateza roritina of Madagascar), from which it may be obtained by heating with hydriodic acid.
The 2000fathom line approaches close to the coast except (I) in the Bay of Bengal, which it does not enter; (2) to the south-west of India along a ridge on which are the Laccadive and Maldive Islands; and (3) in the Mozambique Channel, and on a bank north and east of Madagascar, on which are the Seychelles, Mascarene Islands and other groups.
The chief continental islands are Madagascar, Sokotra and Ceylon.
The red clay covers a nearly square area in the eastern part of the basin bounded on two sides by the Sunda Islands and the west coast of Australia, as well as two strips extending east and west from the southern margin of the square along the south of Australia and nearly to Madagascar.
The equatorial current, on meeting the northern extremity of Madagascar, sends a branch southwards along the east coast of that island, sometimes called the Mascarene current.
This fact is probably due partly to the actual intrusion of warm water from the Mascarene current east of Madagascar, and partly to the circumstance that the different temperatures of the waters are so compensated by their differences of salinity that they have almost precisely the same specific gravity in situ.
It may be added that even bats are unable to cross large tracts of sea; and the fact that fruitbats of the genus Pteropus are found in Madagascar and the Seychelles, as well as in India, while they are absent from Africa, is held to be an important link in the chain of evidence demonstrating a former land-connexion between Madagascar and India.
Madagascar is the sole habitat of the tenrecs (Centetidae), as is Southern Africa of the golden moles (Chrysochloridae).
With the remarkable exception of Madagascar, where it is represented by the Nesomyidae, that family has thus a cosmopolitan distribution.
Very noteworthy is the fact that, with the exception of Madagascar (and of course Australia) the squirrel family (Sciuridae) is also found in all parts of the world.
Porcupines enjoy a very wide range, being represented throughout the warmer parts of the Old World, with the exception of Madagascar (and of course Australasia), by the Hystricidae, and in the New World by the Erethizontidae.
Its original home was probably in the northern hemisphere; and it has no representatives in Madagascar.
The civet-tribe (Viverridae), on the other hand, which is exclusively an Old World group, is abundant in Madagascar, where it is represented by peculiar and aberrant types.
The dogtribe (Canidae), on the other hand, are, with the exception of Madagascar, an almost cosmopolitan group. Their place of origin was, however, almost entirely in the northern hemisphere, and not improbably in some part of the Old World, where they gave rise to the bears (Ursidae).
The latter are abundant throughout the northern hemisphere, and have even succeeded in penetrating into South America, but, with the exception of the Mediterranean zone, have never succeeded in entering Africa, and are therefore of course unknown in Madagascar.
The weasel-tribe (Mustelidae) is clearly a northern group, which has, however, succeeded in penetrating into South America and Africa, although it has never reached Madagascar.
On the other hand, in common with the rest of the Perissodactyla, they never reached Madagascar.
The Artiodactyla are the only group of ungulates known to have been represented in Madagascar; but since both these Malagasy forms - namely two hippopotamuses (now extinct) and a river-hog - are capable of swimming, it is most probable that they reached the island by crossing the Mozambique Channel.
The main facts at the present day are, firstly, the restriction of the Prosimiae, or lemurs, to the warmer parts of the Old World, and their special abundance in Madagascar (where other Primates are wanting); and, secondly, the wide structural distinction between the monkeys of tropical America (Platyrrhina), and the Old World monkeys and apes, or Catarrhina.
Humped cattle are widely spread over Africa, Madagascar and India, and form a distinct species, Bos indicus, characterized by the presence of a fleshy hump on the shoulders, the convexity (instead of concavity) of the first part of the curve of the horns, the very large size of the dewlap, and the general presence of white rings round the fetlocks, and light circles surrounding the eyes.
The real reason of its fall was the mismanagement of the Madagascar expedition, the cost of which in men and money exceeded all expectations, and the alarming social conditions at home, as indicated by the strike at Carmaux.
The true boas comprise some forty species; most of them are American, but the genus Eryx inhabits North Africa, Greece and south-western Asia; the genus Enygrus ranges from New Guinea to the Fiji; Casarea dussumieri is restricted to Round Island, near Mauritius; and two species of Boa and one of Corallus represent this subfamily in Madagascar, while all the other boas live in America, chiefly in tropical parts.
Since 5896 Madagascar has been a French colony.
In its broad structure Madagascar consists of an elevated mountainous region, from 3000 to 5000 ft.
But the north-western side of Madagascar is broken up by a number of inlets, some of them land-locked and of considerable size.
The islands around Madagascar are few and unimportant.
One of the finest of the Madagascar mountains is an isolated mass near the northern point of the island called Ambohitra.
In the elevated region of Madagascar are many fertile plains and valleys, the former being the dried-up beds of ancient lakes.
On the eastern side of Madagascar the contest between the fresh water of the rivers and the sea has caused the formation of a chain of lagoons for nearly 300 m.
Besides these lagoons, there are few lakes of any size in Madagascar, although there were some very extensive lakes in a recent geological epoch.
There is now no active volcano in Madagascar, but a large number of extinct cones are found, some apparently of very recent formation.
Madagascar may be divided into two very distinct geological regions, viz.
It must be remembered that the geology of Madagascar is still only known in its broad features.'
Associated with these remains there have been found those of many other birds, including a hawk, a duck, a darter, a spoonbill, a heron, a rail and a wild-goose, some of these being much larger than any now inhabiting Madagascar.
Near the south-west coast the skull of a large lemuroid animal was discovered in 1893, much longer than that of any living lemur, the animal being probably three times the size of any previously known Madagascar lemuroid.
Many of these birds and animals were probably contemporaneous with the earliest human inhabitants of Madagascar.
Since the French occupation (1895) considerable additions have been made to our knowledge of the fossil fauna of Madagascar from researches made both on the west and south-west coast (at Belo and Ambolisatrana) and in the interior (at Antsirabe), especially in the rich deposits near Tsarazaza (Ampasambazimba), to the north-west of Lake Itasy.
The fauna of Madagascar, while deficient in most of the characteristic tropical forms of life, is one of great interest to the naturalist from its remote affinities, much of its animal life having Asiatic rather than African relationships.
Other peculiar animals are twenty-three species of the Centetidae, a family of the Insectivora almost confined to Madagascar; while of the Carnivora there are several small creatures belonging to the civets (Viverridae).
Madagascar may be considered as one of the headquarters of the Chamaeleonidae, for of the fifty known species no fewer than twenty-five have already been described from the island.
As a whole, the Madagascar fauna is marked by a strong individuality, which would appear to be the result of long isolation from the other zoological " regions."
The Asiatic and Malayan affinities of many of its animals, as well as the physical conditions of the bed of the Indian Ocean, make it highly probable that Madagascar, while once forming part of Africa, is the chief relic of a considerable archipelago formerly connecting that continent with Asia, its other portions being shown by groups of small islands, and by coral atolls and shoals, which are gradually disappearing beneath the waves.
The flora of Madagascar is one of great interest.
On the lagoons and lower reaches of the rivers the Viha (Typhonodorum lindleyanum), an arum endemic to Madagascar, grows in great profusion to a height of 12 or 13 ft.
Of the 4100 known plants - of which about three-fourths are endemic - composing the Madagascar flora, there are 3492 Dicotyledons, 248 Monocotyledons and 360 Acotyledons.
One natural order, Chlaenaceae, is strictly confined to Madagascar.
The most striking proof of the virtual unity of the inhabitants of Madagascar is that substantially but one language is spoken over the whole country.
Royalty and chieftainship in Madagascar had many peculiar customs. It had a semi-sacred character; the chief was, in heathen tribes, while living, the high priest for his people, and after death, was worshipped as a god; in its modern development among the Hova sovereigns it gathered round it much state and ceremony.
At the same time the position of woman is much higher in Madagascar than in most heathen countries; and, the fact that for nearly seventy years there were (with a few months' exception) only female sovereigns, helped to give women considerable influence in native society.
Before the occupation of Madagascar by France the duty on imports and exports was io% ad valorem, and the foreign trade was very largely in the hands of British and American merchants.
In1880-1885the entire foreign trade of Madagascar, imports and exports, was estimated to be about £1,000,coo; in1900-1906the volume of trade had increased to a little over £2,500,000 a year.
Reports of rich discoveries attracted considerable attention in South Africa and Europe during 1904-1906, but experts, sent from the Transvaal, came to the conclusion that Madagascar would not become one of the rich goldfields of the world.
From the earliest accounts given of the people of Madagascar by European travellers, as well as from what may be inferred from their present condition, they seem for many centuries to have been divided into a number of tribes, often separated from one another by a wide extent of uninhabited country.
No one tribe seems to have gained any great ascendancy over the rest until about the middle of the 17th century, when a small but warlike people called Sakalava, in the south-west of Madagascar, advanced northward, conquered all the inhabitants of the western half of the island, as well as some northern and central tribes, and eventually founded two kingdoms which retained their supremacy until the close of the 18th century.
About that time, the Hova in the central province of Imerina began to assert their own position under two warlike and energetic chieftains, Andrianimpoina and his son Radama; they threw off the Sakalava authority, and after several wars obtained a nominal allegiance from them; they also conquered the surrounding tribes, and so made themselves virtual kings of Madagascar.
While European intercourse with Madagascar is comparatively recent, the connexion of the Arabs with the island dates from a Arab very remote epoch; and in very early times settle- Intercourse ments were formed both on the north-west and south and east coasts.
There is also in these districts a Hindu element in the population, for intercourse has also been maintained for some centuries between India and northern Madagascar, and in some towns the Banyan Indian element is as prominent as the Arab element.
In the early times of their intercourse with Madagascar, the Arabs had a very powerful influence upon the Malagasy.
Marco Polo has a chapter upon « „ it, and terms it Madagascar, but his accounts are confused with those of the mainland of Africa.
The first European voyager who saw Madagascar was a Portuguese named Diogo Diaz, captain of one of the ships of a fleet commanded by Pedro Cabral and bound for India.
That day being the feast of St Lawrence, Madagascar was named the " Isle of St Lawrence," and retained that name on all maps and charts for a hundred years.
In 1811 Tamatave had been occupied by British troops, and the Treaty of Paris of 1814 recognized as British the " French settlements in Madagascar," but as a matter of fact France had then no settlements on the mainland.
The political history of Madagascar as a whole may be said to date from the reign of Radama I.
The Hova queen's authority was maintained over the central and eastern portions of Madagascar, and at almost all the ports, by governors appointed by the queen, and supported by small garrisons of Hova troops.
The Hova government aspired to have Madagascar recognized as an independent civilized state, and consuls appointed by the British, French and American governments were accredited to the Malagasy sovereign, the queen RelaForetionns.
At this period, on the initiative of the 4th earl of Clarendon, then foreign secretary, an understanding was come to between the British and French governments by which it was agreed that each power should respect the independence of Madagascar; and the future of the country appeared to be bound up in the gradual consolidation of the central Hova authority over the whole island.
A treaty, concluded in 1868, while establishing French consular jurisdiction in Madagascar, recognized Ranavalona II.
Treaties had been concluded with Great Britain, Germany and America, giving improved facilities for trade with Madagascar, but before the return of the envoys matters had come to a crisis in the island.
By a treaty signed on the 17th of December it was agreed that the foreign relations of Madagascar should be directed by France; that a resident should live at the capital, with a small guard of French soldiers; and that the Bay, of Diego-Suarez, together with surrounding territory, should be ceded to France.
Although the British government, in return for concessions in Zanzibar, had consented, in 1890, to recognize a French protectorate over Madagascar, the Malagasy prime minister, Rainilaiarivony, was not disposed to give any advantage to France and continued to arm and train, by the help of British officers, a large body of native soldiers.
In 1866 the Norwegian Lutheran Society began work in Madagascar, and was joined in 1888 by an American Lutheran Society.
At that date the anti-clerical movement in France began to affect Madagascar.
Authorities.-As regards the scientific aspects of the country, almost everything of value in previous books and papers is included in the magnificent work (1882 et seq.), in 28 4to vols., by Alfred Grandidier, entitled Histoire naturelle, physique, et politique de Madagascar.
Madagascar (Paris, 1894); Rentier, Les droits de la France sur Madagascar (1895) Corlay, Notre campagne a Madagascar(Paris, 1896); Knight,Madagas- car in Wa'-time (London, 1896); Carol, Chez les Hovas (Paris, 1898); Gallieni, Neuf ans a Madagascar (Paris, 1908).
Till recently the galagos have been included in the family Lemuridae; but this is restricted to the lemurs of Madagascar, and they are now classed with the lorises and pottos in the family Nycticebidae, of which they form the section Galaginae, characterized by the great elongation of the upper portion of the feet (tarsus) and the power of folding the large ears.
After discovering the islands which now bear his name, da Cunha landed in Madagascar, subsequently visiting Mozambique, Brava (where he reduced the Arab power) and Sokotra, which he conquered.
With one exception - Madagascar - the African islands are small.
Madagascar in its general structure, as in flora and fauna, forms a connecting link between Africa and southern Asia.
East of Madagascar are the small islands of Mauritius and Reunion.
Other blocks, termed horsts, remained unmoved, the island of Madagascar affording a striking example.
The island of Madagascar, belonging to the African continent, still remains for discussion.
The Hova occupy the table-land of Imerina and form the first of the three main groups into which the population of Madagascar may be divided.
Madagascar might almost stand as a fifth division of the world, characterized by the total absence of Caudata, Apoda, and arciferous Ecaudata.
It may be noted here that no two parts of the world differ so considerably in their Ecaudata as do Madagascar and Australia, the former having only Firmisternia, the latter only Arcifera.
Using fine flavor cocoa from the Mangaro plantation in Madagascar.
Vegetation consists mainly of dense dry deciduous forests, which are characteristic of the limestone plateaux of western Madagascar.
Three new species of mouse lemur have been discovered in Madagascar.
Like much of the wildlife of Madagascar, the vasa parrots ' future is uncertain mainly due to the loss of natural habitat.
Very slow in its movements, it rarely descends to the ground, but, when it does, walks upright like the other members of the group. It is found throughout the forests which clothe the mountains on the east coast of Madagascar, and also in a limited district on the northwest coast, the specimens from the latter locality being of smaller size and rather different in colour.
As might be expected, the culture found in Madagascar contains two elements, Negroid and Malayo-Indonesian.
Finally, the mountains and highlands of Madagascar have undergone hardly any economic development due to the isolated position of the island.
It is the combination of flavors in Chambord, which include cognac, lemon peel and Madagascar vanilla, that makes this Martini taste so fantastic.
In 2005, Stiller provided his vocal talents for the animated film Madagascar.
Tourmaline has a hardness of 7.5 on the Moh's scale and is found in Africa, Madagascar, Brazil, United States of America, Mexico, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.
Kunz. Although the stone was discovered in the United States, kunzite is also found in Madagascar, Pakistan, and Brazil.
The gem is found in places all over the world such as Sri Lanka, India, Madagascar, Brazil, Australia and the United States.
While the dome is one large tropical bubble, each level represents a different rainforest area, including Borneo, Costa Rica, Madagascar, and the Amazon.
Young children and the young at heart are sure to fall for this novel beach towel based on the cartoon Madagascar.
These gemstones come from many countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Kenya, Madagascar, Russia, Sri Lanka, and the United States.
Characters such as Sponge Bob or the Penguins of Madagascar are on the site, as well as versions of games like "Bloons Super Monkey" (one of the games also featured on CoolMath websites).
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
Till recently the aye-aye was regarded as representing a family by itself - the Chiromyidae; but the discovery that it resembles the other lemurs of Madagascar in the structure of the inner ear, and thus differs from all other members of the group, has led to the conclusion that it is best classed as a subfamily (Chiromyidae) of the Lemuridae.
The natural division of the subregion is that into an African and a Madagascar province.
Nepenthes may be mentioned as a genus specially developed in the Malayan area, and extending from New Caledonia to Madagascar; it is found as far north as the Khasi hills, and in Ceylon, but does not appear on the Himalaya or in the peninsula of India.
Species of this genus occur in Europe, Africa and Madagascar.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.