Some children will require additional diagnostic imaging procedures, such as computed tomography scan (CAT scan), x ray, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to determine the cause of the macrocephaly and the appropriate treatment.
Also called macrocephalia and megalocephaly, macrocephaly is diagnosed when the circumference of the head is more than two standard deviations above average for the child's age, sex, race, and period of gestation.
Medical care for children with macrocephaly focuses on management of specific symptoms such as developmental delays and mental retardation and treatment of the primary diagnosis responsible for the macrocephaly.
Macrocephaly is distinguished from hydrocephalus in that there is no increase in pressure within the head; however, hydrocephalus can result in macrocephaly in some children.
Unfortunately, many children with macrocephaly experience delayed development, slow growth, seizure disorders, and limited intelligence.
Because of the many conditions that cause macrocephaly, a true assessment of its incidence is difficult.
When macrocephaly is a result of megalencephaly, it is often impossible to determine the cause.
Macrocephaly is often present at birth or is a result of conditions that are present at birth.
Macrocephaly is usually diagnosed by the pediatrician during a physical examination.
All of these are related to the underlying condition that caused the macrocephaly.