How to use Machines in a sentence
Very simple machines are used in some parts of Africa.
Machines could, in theory, do all kinds of jobs in the world.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
Only the machines kept his body working.
The Chaff-cutting Machines (Accidents) Act 1897 is a measure very similar in its intention to the Threshing Machines Act 1878, and provides for the automatic prevention of accidents to persons in charge of chaff-cutting machines.Advertisement
In 1875, at Taunton, special prizes were awarded for onehorse and two-horse mowing-machines, hay-making machines, horse-rakes (self-acting and not self-acting), guards to the drums of threshing-machines, and combined guards and feeders to the drums of threshing-machines.
In 1893, at Chester, self-binding harvesters and sheep-shearing machines (power) were the appliances respectively in competition.
In 1894, at Cambridge, the awards were for fixed and portable oil engines, potato-spraying and tree-spraying machines, sheep-dipping apparatus and churns.
In 1896, at Leicester, prizes were awarded after trial to potatoplanting machines, potato-raising machines and butter-drying machines.
Saw gins are not adapted to long-stapled cottons, such as Sea Island and Egyptian, which are generally ginned by machines of the Macarthy type.Advertisement
Machines are manufactured here; beer is brewed, and shipbuilding is carried on.
I spend a fair amount of my time waiting for machines.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
They carry on agriculture wheat-growing on a large scale - with the aid of modern agricultural machines, and breed cattle and horses.
His description of the different kinds of ploughs is interesting; and he justly recommends such as were drawn by two horses (some even by one horse) in preference to the weighty and clumsy machines which required four or more horses or oxen.Advertisement
In 1898, at Birmingham, a prize of £ioo was given for a self-moving vehicle for light loads, ioo and 50 for self-moving vehicles for heavy loads, and fio for safety feeder to chaff-cutter, in accordance with the Chaffcutting Machines (Accidents) Act 1897.
In 1899, at Maidstone, special prizes were offered for machines for washing hops with liquid insecticides, cream separators (power and hand), machines for the evaporation of fruit and vegetables, and packages for the carriage of (a) soft fruit, (b) hard fruit.
In 1900, at York, the competitions were concerned with horse-power cultivators, self-moving steam diggers, milking machines and sheep-shearing machines (power and hand).
For the same reason potato-planting and potato-lifting machines were also in greater requisition.
Moveable gins were tried for a time in some places; they were dragged by traction engines from farm to farm, like threshing machines in parts of England, but the plan proved uneconomical because, among other reasons, farmers were not prepared to meet the cost of providing facilities for storing their cotton.Advertisement
The chief iron-foundries are to be found at Witkowitz, Stefanau, ZOptau and Rossitz; while industrial machines are manufactured at Briinn, Blansko and Adamsthal.
The principal industries are manufactures of woollen goods, spinning, sewing and washing machines, and tools.
Some coffee machines use foamed fresh milk to enable a true coffee cappuccino to be offered.
Wise machines are dramatically more valuable than machines that just store and retrieve information.
More precisely, we will probably teach machines to teach themselves how to process it for us and surface findings to us.Advertisement
A century later, machines entered the scene.
Machines can actually do a very limited palette of things.
So now that the task of remembering past purchases and using that information to suggest future purchases is completely transitioned to machines, it operates on a whole different scale.
We will just sit back and let the machines sort it all out.
No human could ever do this, for in these purely computational matters, machines are vastly superior to us, and always will be.
As we envision a world where machines do more and more work that people used to do, our minds naturally turn to those who would be displaced by technological advance.
Machines multiply our labor and increase our ability to do work.
Think of all the machines you use to do your job.
We only have people doing this work because we have not yet developed the technology to get machines to do it.
What if machines did all the things they could in theory do?
And the sooner we get machines to do the things they can do, freeing up people to do what they can do, the happier and wealthier we all will be.
Have I convinced you that replacing people with machines frees people from the bondage of doing machine work?
Mr. Marsh was in a coma and attached to life support machines.
It was strange being in Quinn's room although the only remnants of him were his machines.
That's up to you but you'll need me to operate the machines.
Evelyn stood in the dark grey room of the spaceship with its cozy, dim lighting and the soft purr of hidden machines.
There is much in the newspapers about closing the saloons and dance halls and even taking away the slot machines.
Man and the animals as thus described are compared to automata, and termed machines.
The years 1830-1833 are especially memorable for a disastrous outbreak of sheep-rot and for agrarian outrages, caused partly by the dislike of the labourers to the introduction of agricultural machines.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
The Convention held its first session in a hall of the Tuileries, then it sat in the hall of Manege, and finally from the 10th of May 1793 in that of the Spectacles (or Machines), an immense hall in which the deputies were but loosely scattered.
Alessandro Volta of Pavia discovered the electric battery in the year 1800, and thus placed the means of maintaining a steady electric current in the hands of investigators, who, before that date, had been restricted to the study of the isolated electric charges given by frictional electric machines.
It is obtained by breaking up the roots or rhizomes in hot water and separating the rubber, and machines have now been devised for this purpose.
Among the manufactures are cut glass, stoves and ranges, kitchen furniture, guns, thread-cutting machines, brooms and agricultural implements.
Many of the wooden and iron vessels listed in the Naval Annual, 1906, though obsolete and of no value whatever as fighting machines, are used for river and harbour service, and in the suppression of trifling insurrections.
This army was provided with a regular commissariat, cannon' and ballistic machines, and, being constantly on active service, was always in a high state of efficiency.
It is to be desired that transparent gratings should be obtained from first-class ruling machines.
Among its manufactures are agricultural machinery (especially seeding machines) and tools, automobiles, pianos, lawn-mowers, roller-skates, foundry and machine-shop products, furniture, burial caskets, and flour.
On coming of age he got employment at Hempstead, Long Island, making machines for shearing cloth; three years afterwards he set up in this business for himself, having bought the sole right to manufacture such machinery in the state of New York.
In steep pitching beds sufficient excavated material is allowed to remain in the stope for the support of the machines and men, the excess being drawn out from time to time and loaded into cars.
Cornish pumps are the oldest of the machines for draining mines; in fact, one of the earliest applications of the old Woolf and Newcomen engines in the 18th century was to pumps for deep mines.
In the former will be found such things as siphons," Hero's fountain," penny-in-theslot "machines, a fire-engine, a water-organ, and arrangements employing the force of steam.
All the earlier attempts in this direction failed on account of the difficulty of bringing the glass to the machines without introducing air-bells, which are always formed in molten glass when it is ladled or poured from one vessel into another.
Bottle-making machines, based on Ashley's original patent, are already being largely used.
In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.
Such machines were good enough when the juice was expelled from the small and, so to speak, chopped slices and pulp by means of hydraulic presses.
Instead of the small slicers, machines made on the same principle, but with disks 7 ft.
These are then discharged into large receivers, which are generally fitted with stirrers, and from the receivers the cooked mass passes to the centrifugal machines.
As in the beetroot factories, these machines work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance similar to that of loaf sugar made in moulds, as this kind of sugar meets with the greatest demand.
The manufacturers who have adopted this system assert that, as compared with other methods, not only do they obtain an increased yield of sugar of better quality, but that they do so at a less cost for running their machines and with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairce."
These latter pass to automatic weighing machines, which drop them, in quantities of 1 cwt., into wooden boxes of uniform measurement, made to contain that weight; and the boxes are then conveyed to the storehouse, ready for sale.
During the transplanting, preferably done on cloudy days or during light rains, the plants must be handled very carefully; machines are now available which can set out and water plants over from two to six acres in a working day.
The increase in favour of packet tobaccos has brought about the invention of elaborate packing machines.
In other machines a roll of narrow paper, in width equal to the circumference of the cigarette, is converted into a long tube, filled with tobacco, and automatically cut off into proper lengths.
Such machines can make several hundred cigarettes per hour.
Norwalk has some manufactures, including woollen goods and typewriting machines; and there is some coasting trade, oysters especially being shipped from Norwalk.
The prohibition of the exportation from England of machinery, models or drawings retarded mechanical improvement, but in 1790 an industrial company was formed at Providence to carry on cotton spinning, and in December of that year there was established at Pawtucket a factory equipped with Arkwright machines constructed by Samuel Slater.
These machines were soon adapted to the spinning of wool, and in 1804 a woollen factory was built at Peacedale, South Kingston.
Two years later he distinguished himself at the king's siege of Frederikshall by the invention of machines for the transport of boats and galleys overland from Stromstadt to Iddefjord, a distance of 14 m.
The first difficulty was to make it sufficiently light in relation to the power its machinery could develop; and several machines were built in which trials were made of steam, and of compressed air and carbonic acid gas as motive agents.
In 1920 were exported farm products, live stock, fowls, timber and flax valued at 501,797,000 marks, and imported foreign products and machines at 428,728,000 marks.
Tin amalgam is used for "silvering" mirrors, gold and silver amalgam in gilding and silvering, cadmium and copper amalgam in dentistry, and an amalgam of zinc and tin for the rubbers of electrical machines; the zinc plates of electric batteries are amalgamated in order to reduce polarization.
The only work he published was his Reflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres a developper cette puissance (Paris, 1824).
There are manufactures of cigars, beer, hats, watches, furniture and machines, and a trade in wine, fruit and cereals.
The freezing machines were kept at work for 200 days, and 2191 tons of coal were consumed in supplying steam for the compressors and circulating pumps.
This agent has been applied in various ways, in machines which either imitate the action of the collier by cutting with a pick or make a groove by rotating cutters attached to an endless chain or a revolving disk or wheel.
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
Pick machines have also been introduced by Jones and Levick, Bidder, and other inventors, but their use is now mostly abandoned in favour of those working continuously.
These machines weigh from 20 to 22 cwt., and are mostly driven by electric motors of 25 up to 35 h.p. as a maximum.
In some instances electric motors have been substituted for compressed-air engines in such machines.
Another class of percussive coal-cutters of American origin is represented by the Harrison, Sullivan and Ingersoll-Sergeant machines, which are essentially large rock-drills without turning gear for the cutting tool, and mounted upon a pair of wheels placed so as to allow the tool to work on a forward slope.
These machines, which are driven by compressed air, are very handy in use, as the height and direction of the cut may be readily varied; but the work is rather severe to the driver on account of the recoil shock of the piston, and an assistant is necessary to clear out the small coal from the cut, which limits the rate of cutting.
In the first method reciprocating bells, or piston machines, or rotary machines of varying capacity like gas-works exhausters, are employed.
The smaller duff is separated by vibrating or rotating screens into a great number of sizes, which are cleaned by washing in continuous current or pulsating jigging machines, where the lighter coal rises to the surface and is removed by a stream of water, while the heavier waste falls and is discharged at a lower level, or through a valve at the bottom of the machine.
Jagerndorf has large manufactories of cloth, woollens, linen and machines, and carries on an active trade.
Among the city's manufactures are boilers, machines, glass, chemicals, terra cotta, brick, iron pipes and couplings, gas engines, cutlery and silk.
Vast water-power is developed on the Merrimac at Lawrence and Lowell, and on the Connecticut at South Hadley, and to a less extent at scores of other cities on many streams and artificial ponds; many of the machines that have revolutionized industrial conditions since the beginning of the factory system have been invented by Massachusetts men; and the state contains various technical schools of great importance.
Carding, roving and spinning machines were constructed at Bridgewater in 1786.
Various machines have been constructed to perform this operation, some of them specially designed for the use of troops in the field; those in which economy of fuel is studied have an exchange-heater, by means of which the incoming cold water receives heat from the outgoing hot water, which thus arrives at the point of outflow at a temperature nearly as low as that of the supply.
He had then just published his first work, an Essai sur les machines en general.
Its chief productions are sugar, tobacco and cigars, 'stoves, machines, vehicles, agricultural implements and bricks.
For mechanical methods of calculating areas and moments see CALCULATING MACHINES.
Olivier introduced screw presses for striking coins, together with rolls for reducing the cast bars and machines for punching-out round disks from flattened sheets of metal, in Paris in 1553.
The cutting machines at the Mint work at 160 revolutions per minute, so that each of the eleven machines would be capable of cutting 19,200 blanks in an hour if it could be fed continuously.
The counting or telling is now carried out in the case of bronze and silver coins by ingenious machines introduced in 1891.
Among Davenport's manufactures are the products of foundries and machine shops, and of flouring, grist and planing mills; glucose syrup and products; locomotives, steel cars and car parts, washing machines, waggons, carriages, agricultural implements, buttons, macaroni, crackers and brooms. The value of the total factory product for 1905 was $13,695,978, an increase of 38.7% over that of 1900.
Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
In spite of one or two stirring scenes it is a tedious book, and its personages are little more than machines for the enunciation of the author's opinions and sentiments.
The material is sometimes won by the aid of channelling machines which make a series of cuts at right angles to each other in the face of the rock; a block is then broken off at its base by wedges forced into the cuts, and its removal permits access to other blocks.
The manufacture of cloth is the chief industry; lace, starch, machines, cigars and chemicals are also produced, while spinning, dyeing, brewing and printing are carried on.
Its fixed capital consists chiefly of (1) machines, (2) buildings which are the means of procuring a revenue, (3) agricultural improvements and (4) the acquired and useful abilities of all members of the society (since sometimes known as "personal capital").
The industries comprise the manufacture of cloth, industrial machines, sugar-refining, jute fabrics and brewing.
But it must not be thought that in practice the rule of the Society and the high degree of obedience demanded ce the working is smooth his followers were flesh and blood, not machines.
The cotton factories of 1905 were equipped with 22,021 looms having 678,058 spindles, and with 38 stamping machines, employed 30,162 operatives, and turned out 13,731,638 pieces of cloth.
In mining it is applied to various machines used in breaking and crushing the ore (see ORE-Dressing) .
In the engineering industries milling machines constitute a very important class of machine tools, the characteristic of which is that rotary cutters are employed for shaping the metal.
Other important products were automobiles and sewing machines, hosiery and knit goods, candles, furniture, flour, crockery, and canned goods (especially mince-meat).
This is the first of the series of drawing machines.
This sliver is taken through a series of four other drawing machines called " four head drawing box."
There are grain elevators and various manufactories, among the products of which are cheese and other creamery products, flour, knit goods, pickles and canned goods, woodenware, washing machines and gloves.
He therefore confined his attention to several practical arts and trades; and to these labours we owe his Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen (1780-1805), translated into English as the History of Inventions - a work in which he relates the origin, history and recent condition of the various machines, utensils, &c., employed in trade and for domestic purposes.
There are rock quarries here, and the city manufactures sewing machines, musical instruments, especially pianos, foundry and machine shop products, agricultural implements and furniture.
The housewife long persisted in deceiving herself by purchasing filled calicoes, and the movement in favour of purer goods owes a good deal, strangely enough, to the increase in the making-up trade and the consequent inconveniences to workers of sewing machines, whose needles were constantly broken by hard filled calicoes.
The iron industry is concentrated at Trzinietz, near Teschen, and various industrial and agricultural machines are manufactured at Troppau, Jagerndorf, Ustron and Bielitz.
The child-labour law of 1909 forbids the employment of children under eighteen years of age in blast furnaces, tanneries, quarries, in managing elevator lifts or hoisting machines, in oiling dangerous machinery while in motion, at switch tending, as brakesmen, firemen, engineers, motormen and in other positions of similar character.
Many types of mixing machines are obtainable; the favourite type is one in which the materials are placed in a large iron box which is made to rotate, thus tumbling the matrix and aggregate over each other again and again.
Its industries include weaving, dyeing, brewing, iron-founding and the manufacture of leather goods, boots and shoes and machines.
Bare aluminium strip has recently been tried for winding-coils in electrical machines, the oxide of the metal acting as insulators between the layers.
The general principle of all the machines described below will be best understood by considering a simple ideal case.
Holtz constructed and described a large number of influence machines which were for a long time considered the most advanced development of this type of electrostatic machine.
All the above described machines, however, have been thrown into the shade by the invention of a greatly improved type of influence machine first constructed by James Wimshurst about 1878.
Wimshurst constructed numerous very powerful machines of this type, some of them with "multiple plates, which operate i - almost any climate, and rarely fail to charge themselves and deliver a torrent of sparks between the disf El charge balls whenever the winch is turned.
Large Wimshurst multiple plate influence machines are often used instead of induction coils for exciting Rntgen ray tubes in medical work.
Bouchotte have 1 See Lord Kelvin, Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism (1872);" Electrophoric Apparatus and Illustrations of Voltaic Theory,"p. 319;" On Electric Machines Founded on Induction and Convection,"p. 330;" The Reciprocal Electrophorus,"P. 337.
Besides a great saving of labour, only partly offset by the cost of repairs, these machines have the great merit of making the management independent of a very troublesome set of labourers, the hand pig-breakers, who were not only absolutely indispensable for every cast and every day, because the pig iron must be removed promptly to make way for the next succeeding cast of iron, but very difficult to replace because of the great physical endurance which their work requires.
For straight seams the machines are excellent, making as neat a seam as is found in glove work, unless, of course, the pelts are especially heavy, such as bears and sheep rugs.
The direct-acting lift is perhaps the simplest of all machines using pressure-water, but as the height of the lift increases, certain problems in construction become exceedingly difficult to cope with, notably those due to the great increase in the weight and displacement of the ram.
Such machines have been extensively employed in America, and have also lately been used in Great Britain, worked by the FIG.
Though no radical changes have been made in the design of turbines for some years, an immense amount of skill and ingenuity has been shown in perfecting and improving details, and such machines of great size and power are now constantly being made, and give every satisfaction when in use.
Its principal industries are weaving, and the manufacture of machines, ovens, furniture, pianos, porcelain and sausages.
The fibre has come into use as a suitable material for binder-twine as used in self-binding reaping machines.
The machines to be driven are airfans, rollers, roll-breakers, sifters, cutters and packers, and there are besides numerous types of driers or desiccators.
Germany stands second to Great Britain in the manufacture of machines and engines.
Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
Instruments, machines, &c..
Salt works, flour mills, canning factories, and the manufacture of type-setting machines are the principal industries.
Among its manufactures are sewing machines, boilers, automobiles, bicycles, roller-skates, pianos, gloves and mittens, corsets, flour and dairy products, Borden's condensed milk factory being located there.
The industries include wool-spinning and weaving and the manufacture of paper, beer, machines, hosiery and matches.
Although on the large farms iron ploughs, and threshing and grain-cleaning machines, have been introduced, the small cultivator prefers the simple native plough made of wood.
These in Dortmund more particularly embrace steel railway rails, mining plant, wire ropes, machinery, safes and sewing machines.
The city is a trading centre for the rich agricultural and fruit-growing district by which it is surrounded, has good water-power, and is an important manufacturing centre, its chief manufactured products being cereal health foods, for which it has a wide reputation, and the manufacture of which grew out of the dietetic experiments made in the laboratories of the sanitarium; and threshing machines and other agricultural implements, paper cartons and boxes, flour, boilers, engines and pumps.
The manufactures include linen fabrics, cloth, toys, buttons, optical instruments, agricultural machines, knives, mineral waters, condensed soups and condensed milk.
It has also important and growing manufactures of ladies' mantles, boots and shoes, machines, furniture, woollen goods, musical instruments, agricultural machinery and implements, leather, tobacco, chemicals, &c. Brewing, bleaching and dyeing are also carried on on a large scale, and there are extensive railway works and a government rifle factory.
The cotton industry employs thousands of operatives, the iron trade is also very considerable, and many are engaged in the making of machines; but a former woollen manufacture is almost extinct.
In 1905 Laconia ranked first among the cities of the state in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods, and the value of these products for the year was 48.4% of the total value of the city's factory product; among its other manufactures are yarn, knitting machines, needles, sashes and blinds, axles, paper boxes, boats, gas and gasolene engines, and freight, passenger and electric cars.
Hand-riveting on large contracts has been wholly displaced by power-riveting machines.
He passed the Straits of Dover with a numerous flotilla laden with military machines and stores, and also carrying many knights and soldiers.
Its chief industries are watch-making, chain-making, the manufacture of machines and other objects for use on railways, &c. Its rapidly increasing commercial activity accounts no doubt for the rapid rise in its population, which in 1850 was but 3589, rose in 1870 to 8165, and in 1900 was 22,016, mainly Protestant, and two-thirds German-speaking.
In the principal rice-producing districts the rice is threshed and cleaned by machines, but in other districts more primitive methods are employed.
Such machines are not properly described as air-engines since their function is not the conversion of heat into work.
But his operations were at first greatly fettered by want of capital, until Jedediah Strutt, having satisfied himself of the value of the machines, entered with his partner, Samuel Need, into partnership with him, and enabled him in 1771 to build a second factory, on a much larger scale, at Cromford in Derbyshire, the machinery of which was turned by a water-wheel.
Considerable additions, however, have been introduced in order to indicate subsequent developments of the subject; the new sections are numbered continuously with the old, objects to which they relate are intended to remain fixed or to move relatively to each otherthe former class being comprehended under the term Theory of Structures and the latter under the term Theory of Machines.
Definition and Division of the Theory of Machines.From what has been said in the last section it appears that the department of the art of designing machines which has reference to the stability of the frame and to the stiffness and strength of the frame and mechanism js,a branch of the art of construction.
It is therefore to he separated from the theory of machines, properly speaking, which has reference to the action of machines considered as moving.
But in studying or treating of, the theory of machines, the order of simplicity is the best; and in this order the first branch of the subject is the modification of motion and force by the train of mechanism; the next is the effect or purpose of the machine; and the last, or most complex, is the action of the prime mover.
The modification of motion and the modification of force take place together, and are connected by certain laws; but in the study of the theory of machines, as well as in that of pure mechanics, much advantage has been gained in point of clearness and simplicity by first considering alone the principles of the modification of motion, which are founded upon what is now known as Kinematics, and afterwards considering the principles of the combined modification 01 motion and force, which are founded both on geometry and on the laws of dynamics.
Unguents.The most important kind of resistance in machines is the friction or rubbing resistance of surfaces which slide over each other.
The equations 65 and 66 are applicable to a kind of brake called a friction-strap, used to stop or moderate the velocity of machines by being tightened round a pulley.
In most of the delusive machines commonly called perpetual motions, of which so many are patented in each year, and which are expected by their inventors to perform work without receiving energy, the fundamental fallacy consists in an expectation that some reciprocating force shall restore more energy than it has been the means of storing.
Working of Machines of Varying Velocity.
When a machine undergoes alternate acceleration and retardation, so that at certain instants of time, occurring at the end of intervals called periods or cycles, it returns to its original speed, then in each of those periods or cycles the alternate excesses of energy and of work neutralize each other; and at the end of each cycle the principle of the equality of energy and work stated in 87, with all, its consequences, is verified exactly as in the case of machines of uniform speed.
Principle of the Conservation of Energy in Machines.The following principle, expressing the general law of the action of machines with a velocity uniform or varying, includes the law of the equality of energy and work stated in 89 for machines of uniform speed.
For example, in a machine-work, the steam-engine, which is the prime mover of the various tools, has a flywheel on the crank-shaft to store and restore the periodical excess of energy arising from the variations in the effort exerted by the connecting-rod upon the crank; and each of the slotting machines, punching machines, riveting machines, and other tools has a flywheel of its own to store and restore energy, so as to enable the very different resistances opposed to those tools at different times to be overcome without too great unsteadiness of motion.
Unless there is some special reason for using impact in machines, it ought to be avoided, on account not only of the wasteof energy which it causes, but from the damage which it occasions to the frame and mechanism.
Its industries include iron foundries, rolling mills, puddling furnaces, and manufactures of iron, steel and brass wares and of machines.
Canton first suggested the use of an amalgam of mercury and tin for use with glass cylinder electrical machines to improve their action.
This important fact laid the foundation for all subsequent inventions which finally led to the production of electromagnetic or dynamo-electric machines.
With the advent of large magneto-electric machines the era of electrotechnics was fairly entered, and this period, which may be said to terminate about 1867 to 1869, was consummated by the theoretical work of Clerk Maxwell.
Dredging machines are kept constantly at work, while steamers are stationed near the most dangerous sandbanks to assist vessels that run aground.
A great many modified scutching machines and processes have been proposed and introduced with the view of promoting economy of labour and improving the turn-out of fibre, both in respect of cleanness and in producing the least proportion of codilla or scutching tow.
In England the broad distinction between " presses " and " machines " is generally considered to rest in the fact that the former are worked by hand, and the latter by steam, gas or electricity; and the men who work by these two methods are called respectively " pressmen " and " machine minders " or " machine managers."
But in America the terms " presses " and " pressmen " are universally applied to machines and the men who operate them.
For the purposes of this article presses and machines are used as synonymous terms.
He induced the proprietor of The Times (London) to take two of these machines, and in 1814 that newspaper was printed with steam power at the rate of i roo impressions per hour, a great advance on the number produced up to that time.
Both Nicholson's and Kijnig's machines printed only one side at a time - the second or backing printing being a separate and distinct operation - but they really embodied the general principles on which all other machines have been constructed or modelled.
This is why machines of flat construction were so long employed for the best class of work.
We shall deal with it more fully below in relation to the modern and more complicated class of machinery; and this also applies to the ordinary stop or single cylinder, and small platen machines, both of which have been in use many years, and are still in demand.
These machines were made to print several sheets at a time, and were called four-, six-, eightor ten-feeders, according to the number of sheets fed in and printed.
Hoe's first presses were four-feeders, but as many as ten feeds were supplied, as in the case of the two presses built to replace the Applegath machine for The Times, each of which produced about 2000 impressions from each feed, making a total of 20,000 per hour, printed on one side, or from two machines 20,000 sheets printed on both sides.
As will be observed, the only differences in principle between these two type revolving machines were in the positions of the respective cylinders, and the fixing of the type to form a printing surface.
Small platen machines (worked by foot or tion power) used for the printing of cards, circulars and small jobbing or commercial work.
Single cylinder machines (in England generally called " Wharfedales "), usually built on the " stop " cylinder principle, and printing one side of the sheet only.
Perfecting machines, usually with two cylinders, and printing or " perfecting " both sides of a sheet before it leaves the machine, but with two distinct operations.
Two-revolution machines, which, although with but one cylinder, have largely superseded perfecting machines, as their output has been increased and the quality of their work compares favourably with that of the average two-cylinder.
Two-colour machines, usually made with one feed, that is, with only one cylinder, but with two printing surfaces, and two sets of inking apparatus one at each end of the machine.
Occasionally these machines are made with two cylinders.
The smaller machines can be worked with the foot, but if the establishment is equipped with power it is customary to gear them for driving.
The larger machines require power.
Generally the larger of these machines will print a sheet up to 21 X 16 in.
The modern single or " stop " cylinder, quite different in construc- Wharfe= tion from the old single cylinder machines, largely suc dale" ceeded the double platen machine.
This perfecting class of machine has been in use a great many years, Machines.
It is perhaps best adapted for the printing of newspapers or magazines having circulations that do not require rotary machines intended for long runs.
Although some perfecting machines have been made with one cylinder only, which reverses itself on the old " tumbler " principle, they now are made with two cylinders, and it is with this class that we are particularly concerned.
There are various makes of perfecting machines of which the Dryden & Foord is shown in fig.
This is a general description of the principles on which these machines are built, but, as in other classes, there are many variations in details.
A recent feature of this machine is the tandem equipment, whereby two, three or even four machines may be coupled together for colour work.
Among other advantages claimed for this press one is that the movement which governs the action of the type bed in reversing is so arranged that the strain which sometimes occurs in other reciprocating machines is considerably reduced; another is that the registering or correct backing of the pages on the second side in printing is uncommonly good; but this depends much upon the layer-on.
In many of the old kinds of two-revolution machines, owing to the cylinder being geared separately from the type bed, it was apt to be occasionally thrown out, but in the Miehle, for instance, it is only out of gear in reversing, and in gear while printing.
Many of these machines are made to print four double crowns, 60 X 40 in., or even larger.
Before leaving the subject of printing with the reciprocating bedmotion, it may be mentioned that although in all modern machines of that kind the printed sheet is self-delivered, the imprinted paper has generally been fed in by hand, and for some classes of work this is still done.
As the name implies, these presses are so constructed that both printing surfaces and paper to duplicate the type pages and to run several machines at the same time, thus producing copies with far greater rapidity.
In some large offices as many as five machines were in constant use.
The rotary presses in use at the present time are indeed wonderful specimens of mechanical ingenuity, all the various operations of damping (when necessary), feeding, printing (both sides), cutting, folding, pasting, wrapping (when required) and counting being purely automatic. These machines are of various kinds, and are specially made to order so as to cope with the particular class of work in view.
Single and two-reel machines are generally constructed on the " straight line " principle, i.e.
Threeand four-reel machines have also been constructed on the same principle, but the more usual arrangement of the four-reel press is to place two reels at either end, with the folders and delivery boards in the centre.
This makes it possible to operate them as independent machines, or to run in combination with each other.
Double sextuple and double octuple machines are made, having six and eight reels respectively.
The press is practically four quadruple machines built together, each of which can be worked independently of the other.
And this applies to all good work produced from whatever presses or machines other than those built on the rotary principle.
This is all important in a newspaper office, where the margin of time between the caseroom and machine department is usually so limited, for it permits several machines being quickly equipped with duplicate sets of the same pages.
To make the department pay, the machines must be kept fully employed with the many classes of work that a large concern has to deal with; the wheels must be kept running as much as possible, and the time for making-ready curtailed as far as is consistent with the proper preparation of the forme.
After the fibre has been thoroughly carded by the above machines, the cans containing the sliver from the finisher card are taken to the first drawing frame.
The manufacture of machines, stoves and bricks are the principal industries.
Among the chief articles of manufacture and production are railway plant, sewing machines, bicycles,.
He travelled through several of the countries of Europe, examining different systems of machinery; and some of the results of his investigations were published in the admirable little work, Economy of Machines and Manufactures (1834).
During the later years of his life he resided in London, devoting himself to the construction of machines capable of performing arithmetical and even algebraical calculations.
This fact is important as bearing on the construction of flying machines.
The kite-like surfaces referred to in natural flight are those upon which the constructors of flying machines very properly ground their hopes of ultimate success.
We are now in a position to enter upon a consideration of artificial wings and wing movements, and of artificial flight and flying machines.
By 1893-1894 both had embodied their views in models and large flying machines.
C. Ader, who had already tested, with indifferent results, two full-sized flying machines, built a third apparatus with funds furnished by the French government.
They depended mainly on the utilization of natural air currents, trusting for stability and balance to movements in their own bodies, or in portions of their machines which they could control.
Their machines to begin with were merely gliders, the operator lying upon them in a horizontal position, but in 1903 a petrol motor was added, and a flight lasting 59 seconds was performed.
Thanks, however, to the efforts of automobile engineers, great improvements were now being effected in the petrol engine, and, although the certainty and trustworthiness of its action still left something to be desired, it provided the designers of flying machines with what they had long been looking for - a motor FIG.
The progress made by all these experiments at aviation had naturally created widespread interest, both as a matter of sport and also as indicating a new departure in the possibilities of machines of war.
The table below gives some details, approximately correct, of the, principal experiments made with flying machines up to 1908.
According to this school, man is a machine, no doubt the most complex and wonderfully adapted of all known machines, but still neither more nor less than an instrument whose energy is provided by force from without, and which, when set in action, performs the various operations for which its structure fits it, namely, to live, move, feel, and think.
The staple industry is the production of boots and shoes; but musical instruments, leather and machines are also manufactured.
For their production, therefore, dividing engines of extraordinary trueness and delicacy must be employed, and in the construction of such machines Rowland's engineering skill brought him conspicuous success.
Mechanical devices for determining weights or comparing the masses of bodies may be classified as (a) equal-armed balances, (b) unequal-armed balances, (c) spring balances and (d) automatic machines.
Equal-armed balances may be divided into (t) scale-beams or balances in which the scale-pans are below the beam; (2) counter machines and balances on the same principle, in which the scale-pans are above the beam.
Unequal-armed balances may be divided into (I) balances consisting of a single steelyard; (2) balances formed by combinations of unequal-armed levers and steelyards, such as platform machines, weighbridges, &c.
To keep the beam truly in its place, which is very necessary, as all the bearings are flat,the re From Airy, " On Weighing Machines," Institution of Civil Engineers, 1892.
Counter machines have an advantage over scale-beams in not being encumbered with suspension chains and the beam above.
In using these machines there is seldom any question of determining the weight to any great nicety, and rapid action is generally of high importance.
For the latter purpose machines are used of which the beams are made stable, or " vibrating," by constructing them with the fulcrum knife-edges above the line joining the end knife-edges.
With " vibrating " machines the value of in is in general so extremely small that w is of no practical importance in either of the above cases.
As will be readily understood from the construction of the machines, there is more friction in counter machines than in scale-beams. The "sensitiveness " error allowed by the Board of Trade for counter machines is five times as great as that allowed for scale-beams.
Steelyards, like other weighing machines, will be " accelerating," or " vibrating " according to the arrangement of the knife-edges.
Steelyards, again, are frequently arranged as counter machines, having a scoop or pan resting on a pair of knife-edges at the short end, which is prevented V P FIG.
Steelyards are largely used in machines for the automatic weighing out of granular substances.
Some of the largest and most accurate steelyards are those made for testing machines for tearing and crushing samples of metals and other materials.
Balances are frequently used as counting machines, when the articles to be counted are all of the same weight or nearly so, and this method is both quick and accurate.
They are also used as trade computing machines, as in the case of the machine made by the Computing Scale Company, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A. In this machine the goods to be priced are placed on the platform of a small platform machine whose steelyard is adjusted to balance exactly the weight of the platform, levers and connexions.
In the machines commonly used to weigh loads exceeding 2 cwt.
The load is received upon four knife-edges, so that on the average each knife-edge receives only one-fourth of the load, and, as will be seen, it is immaterial whether the load is received equally by the four knife-edges or not, which is essential to the useful application of these machines.
Platform machines, like steelyards, may be arranged either on the " accelerating " principle or on the " vibrating " principle.
It is very important that platform machines should be truly level.
With accelerating machines a small amount of tilt in any direction considerably affects the accuracy of the weighing, and when the amount of tilt is considerable the action may be changed, so that a machine which was intended to act as an accelerating machine acts like a vibrating one.
Vibrating machines are only slightly affected by being out of level in comparison with accelerating machines, and in this matter they have a distinct advantage.
Platform machines are slightly affected by changes of temperature.
When the goods to be weighed are very heavy, portable weigh - bridges or platform machines are inapplicable and it is necessary to erect the weighbridge on a solid foundation.
Some weigh - bridges are arranged in a manner similar to that of the platform machines already described, but having the long body lever turned askew, so that the end of it projects considerably beyond the side of the weighbridge casing, and the pillar and steelyard which receive its pull are clear of the wagon on the platform.
There are many kinds of weighing machines depending for their action on combinations of levers, and arranged to meet special requirements.
A crane machine of peculiar construction, well adapted for weigh - ing heavy loads, and extremely simple and compact, which does not properly come under any of the heads under which the machines have been classified, is the hydrostatic weighing machine.
For many purposes spring balances are the most convenient of all weighing machines.
The accuracy of spring machines depends upon the accuracy of the springs and the workmanship of the machines.
For the above reasons spring balances are nbt in general so accurate as knife-edge machines.
During the last few years great efforts have been made to expedite the operation of weighing machines by the introduction of machinery, more or less complicated, which renders the machines to a great extent self-acting.
The object aimed at varies very much with different machines.
Sometimes the object is to weigh many loads in succession, the loads being of varying weight, and to prevent the total weight at the end of a day's work; this is the case with machines for weighing coal and other minerals.
Of course the introduction of automatic mechanism introduces friction and other complications, and it is difficult to construct automatic machines that shall be as accurate in their weighing as the simpler weighing machines, but in many weighing operations a moderate degree of accuracy will suffice, and speed is of great importance.
It is to meet such cases that the greater number of automatic weigh - ing machines have been invented.
Some examples of these machines will now be given.
Among the manufactures of Bloomsburg are railway cars, carriages, silk and woollen goods, furniture, carpets, wire-drawing machines and gun carriages.
Besides cloth, which forms its staple article of commerce, it has manufactories of various linen and woollen wares, machines, railway wagons, glass, sago, tobacco, leather, chemicals and tiles.
The machines charge simultaneously at each end, so that the lids of the retorts may be shut immediately the coal enters.
The charging machines travel on lines in front of the retort bench, and the power is transmitted by connexions made with flexible hose.
Taking into account the original cost of such machines, and the unavoidable wear and tear upon the retorts brought about by using labour-saving appliances, and the fact that the coke-dust is very detrimental to the machinery, it is clear that the suggestion of setting the retorts at an incline in order to facilitate the work presented great inducements to the gas manager.
The rivers furnish good water power, which is used in the manufacture of a variety of commodities, including foundry products, paper and pulp, woollen goods, hosiery, saws, needles and knitting machines.
Among others are the manufacture of cigars, cement pipes, iron-ware and machines, alabaster ware, shoes, leather, &c., cabinet-making, brewing, granite quarrying and working, tile-making, and sawand corn-milling.
Between these two there are machines of all sizes adapted to the needs of the particular work.
It is estimated that at least $5,000,000 worth of agricultural machines is annually sold in this region.
Heaps of cast-iron can be seen already upon many of the large farms. Of course a great many extra parts are bought to take the place of those which break most frequently, and some men are always kept at work repairing machines in the field.
These machines cut, thresh and stack the grain at the rate of 1600 sacks a day, and cover an area in that time of 100 acres.
These machines can only be used where the wheat ripens thoroughly standing in the field.
The farmer estimates that a threshing-machine can thresh all the wheat ordinarily grown upon 2500 acres, so that a 5000-acre farmer would have at least two machines running at the same time.
Time is a very important thing in threshing, since a rainfall might spoil enough grain in one night to buy several machines.
Lace-making was formerly the chief industry, but machines for making lace set up in the town by John Heathcote were destroyed by the Luddites in 1816, and the manufacture lost its importance.
Here, too, are a plant (covering more than Boo acres) of the Standard Oil Company and a large establishment for the manufacture of the "Singer" sewing machine - according to the U.S. census the largest manufactory of sewing machines in the world - employing more than 6000 workmen in 1905; among the other manufactures of Elizabeth are foundry and machine shop products (value in 1905, $3,887,139), wire, oil (value in 1905, $2,387,656), refined and smelted copper, the output of railway repair shops, edge tools and lager beer.
It has an Evangelical church, a modern château of the princes of Stolberg, with pretty grounds, and a high grade school, and manufactures metal wares, machines and iron screws and bolts.
In February 1884 there was a plot to blow up four London railway stations by means of clockwork infernal machines containing dynamite, brought from America.
The frame cases - wired on both sides - are hung at the angles of a revolving ring of iron, and the reversing process is so simple and effective that the " Cowan " reversible frame has been adopted in all the best machines.
Some of the largest machines - propelled by motor power - are capable of taking eight or more frames at one time.
In all roller machines used at that time the plain sheets of wax were first made by the " dipping " process, i.e.
Powerful dredgers and sudd-cutting machines are used to keep open communications in the upper Nile and Bahr-el-Ghazal.
The secret ballot was adopted in 1891; the use of the voting machines was authorized in 1899; and the nomination of candidates by primaries was made mandatory in 1907.
A few of the blubber oils, like dolphin jaw and porpoise jaw oils (used for lubricating typewriting machines), have exceedingly high saponification values ` owing to their containing volatile fatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable also are coco-nut and palm-nut oils, the saponification numbers of which vary from 240 to 260, and especially butter-fat, which has a saponification value of about 227.
There are, however, an increasingly large number of cases in which temperatures below that of any available natural cooling agent are required, and in these it is necessary to resort to machines which are capable of producing the required cooling effect by taking in heat at low temperatures and rejecting it at temperatures somewhat above that of the natural cooling agent, which for obvious reasons is generally water.
There are two distinct classes of machines used for refrigerating and ice-making.
Coleman of Glasgow, and in the early part of 1879 one of his machines was fitted on board the Anchor liner " Circassia," which successfully brought a cargo of chilled beef from America-the first imported by the aid of refrigerating machinery, ice having been previously used.
In such compressed-air machines as are now made there is no injection of water during compression, and the compressed air is cooled in a surface cooler, not by actual mixture with a shower of cold water.
For marine purposes two complete machines are frequently mounted on one bed-plate and worked either together or separately.
In some machines used in the United States the cold air is not discharged into the rooms but is worked in a closed cycle, the rooms being cooled by means of overhead pipes through which the cold expanded air passes on its way back to the compressor.
This property is made use of in vacuum machines.
Windhausen patented a vacuum machine for producing ice in large quantities, and in 1881 one of these machines, said to be capable of making about 12 tons of ice per day, was put to work in London.
At the present time vacuum machines are only employed for domestic purposes.
This machine, though never used commercially, is the parent of all modern compression machines.
It is stated that these machines were first made in New South Wales in 1859, but the first Harrison machine adopted successfully for industrial purposes in England was applied in the year 1861 for cooling oil in order to extract the paraffin.
Improvements were made by Siebe & Company of London, and a considerable number of ether machines both for ice-making and refrigerating purposes were supplied by that firm and others up to the year 1880.
He dealt with the coefficient of performance as a common basis of comparison for all machines, and showed that the compression vapour machine more nearly reached the theoretic maximum than any other (Bayerisches Industrie and Gewerbeblatt, 1870 and 1871).
Schroeter and others with compression machines using sulphur dioxide and ammonia.
Sometimes an additional vessel is employed for heating liquor by means of the exhaust steam from the engine driving the ammonia pump. Absorption machines are also made without a pump for returning the strong liquor to the generator.
With compressed-air machines which discharge the cold air direct into the insulated room or hold, a snow box is provided close to the outlet of the expansion cylinder to catch the snow and congealed oil.
With liquid machines of the compression and absorption system, the rooms are either cooled by means of cold pipes or surfaces placed in them, or by a circulation of air cooled in an apparatus separated from the rooms. The cold pipes may be direct-expansion pipes in which the liquid evaporates, or they may be pipes or walls through which circulates an uncongealable brine previously cooled to the desired temperature.
On battleships and cruisers the British Admiralty use small compressedair machines for ice-making, and larger machines, generally on the carbonic-acid system, for cooling the magazines.
In the meat trade between the River Plate, the United States, Canada and Great Britain, ammonia or carbonic acid machines are now exclusively used, but for the Australian and New Zealand frozenmeat trade compressed-air machines are still employed to a small extent.
Though the adoption of refrigerating and ice-making machinery for industrial purposes practically dates from the year 1880, the manufacture of these machines has already assumed very great proportions; indeed, in no branch of mechanical engineering, with the exception of electrical machinery, has there been so remarkable a development in recent years.
The manufacture of cotton goods was the chief sub-division of the industry, employing 153,375 spindles, 3008 looms and 1787 knitting machines.
It was strange being Quinn's room although the only remnants of him were his machines.
Emergency lighting glowed along the walls, and the strange silhouettes of workout machines made her pause and wait for her night vision to filter out machine from potential attacker.
Several Guardians used the rows of machines or free weights while a few were gathered around the boxing ring in a corner.
Gabriel followed, ignoring the rows of delicate glassware, Bunsen burners, machines, and other science toys that employed the two dozen immortal scientists.
New machines were implemented in preparation for a rapid expansion of the brand.
Then flying at 50 feet he attacked an aerodrome where approximately 19 machines were either landing or attempting to take off.
In an age enamored of machines, life becomes amoral, without moral bearings, devoid of moral categories.
There are vast amounts of slot machines for you to try you luck.
An amusement permit applied where there was a mixture of amusement permit applied where there was a mixture of amusement and gaming machines or purely gaming machines.
Specifically the set of information-processing machines were designed to solve problems faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
It is manufactured for Davey, Paxman and Co., and each plate is carefully annealed after having passed through the various machines.
It is equally applicable in an environment where there are no machines or process, just people carrying out assembly tasks or warehousing.
All amusement arcades need a license to enable the public to play on fruit machines where a cash prize can be won.
Products, ordering info etc... also assorted documentation for Acorn machines.
Professional tattoo machines, supplies, inks, needles and accessories supplied including, autoclaves and ultrasonics for equipment cleaning and sterilization.
The fact that it used to stand for Advanced RISC Machines is now relegated to the ' History ' section of a corporate backgrounder.
When softened by whale oil, it can be woven on machines to make coal sacks, horse bags and carpet backing.
A welsh beacon for grouse Clean machines Game, set and point What does the NGO do for you?
And their machines beep when they shift into backward gear.