I used machinery to cut the pieces.
With money, you can buy machinery or hire workers to do your work.
"Just some machinery junk," a patrolman muttered.
Here are iron, machinery and brick works, tanneries, distilleries, and factories for jam, mustard and mead.
But the rumble of the machinery made me think it was thundering, and I began to cry, because I feared if it rained we should not be able to have our picnic out of doors.
Imports include woven goods, metals, ironware, machinery, tea, wines and spirits, mineral oils, opium, paper, and arms and powder.
So they threw their sabots, a kind of clog shoe, into the machinery to break it—an act that gave us the word sabotage.
Goats have two spigots instead of four, but the milking machinery is basically the same.
Other manufactures of Kendal are machine-made boots and shoes, cards for wool and cotton, agricultural and other machinery, paper, and, in the neighbourhood, gunpowder.
He takes care of them – like he does his machinery, but he doesn't love them the way Dad did.
The subsidiary industries, such as the manufacture of machinery and wire fabric, are of considerable importance.
I am not responsible for the successful working of the machinery of society.
He couldn't develop new irrigation techniques, invent new machinery, or create new fertilizers.
One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands employed, which if it proved advantageous to the landlord and to the few laborers retained, who received higher wages, resulted in an increase of unemployment.
Weissenfels manufactures machinery, ironware, paper and other goods, and has an electrical power-house.
The normal green plant is seen thus to be in possession of a complete machinery for the manufacture of its own food.
But he can't wiz a single thing if he hasn't the tools and machinery to work with.
Soon after the introduction of machinery, spinning factories were erected, and the first built in Bolton is said to have been set up in 1780.
There seems to have been no machinery for assisting the original or appellate jurisdiction of the pope by secular process, - by significavit or otherwise.
The importation of machinery amounted to over 5000 tons in 1901.
Whenever it was possible, I touched the machinery while it was in motion, so as to get a clearer idea how the stones were weighed, cut, and polished.
I observed that the vitals of the village were the grocery, the bar-room, the post-office, and the bank; and, as a necessary part of the machinery, they kept a bell, a big gun, and a fire-engine, at convenient places; and the houses were so arranged as to make the most of mankind, in lanes and fronting one another, so that every traveller had to run the gauntlet, and every man, woman, and child might get a lick at him.
The chief articles of import are apparel and textiles, machinery and hardware, stimulants, narcotics, explosives, bags and sacks, books and paper, oils and tea.
The manufacture of woollens, linens, hosiery, furniture, gloves, paper, machinery and tools, carriages, nuts and screws, needles and other hardware goods is carried on.
The city has extensive manufactures of heavy machinery, electric supplies, brass and copper products and silk goods.
It is in the heart of the manufacturing district of the West Riding, and has large woollen and worsted factories; carpets, machinery and soap are also produced.
Next after cottons come woollens, silk, cloth, chemicals, machinery, paper, furniture, hats, cement, leather, glass and china and other products.
Machinery 2,181 3,632 4,614
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
9) consists of a steel braced tower, on which revolves a large horizontal double cantilever; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting crab, and the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counter-balance.
It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.
But it is not the less necessary for this; for the people must have some complicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that idea of government which they have.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
Its other manufactures include machinery, pianos and other musical instruments, cotton goods, cigars, furniture, leather, paper, colours and chemicals.
Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population.
Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.
The city has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and foundries (value of products in 1905, $ 1, 743, 1 55, or 31% of the total of the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships (wooden and steel), wooden ware, woodpipe, veneer, railroad machinery, cement, alkali and chicory.
The chief manufactures are boots and shoes, tobacco and machinery; there is also some trade in cattle.
Artists have been known to use the left hand in the hope of checking the fatal facility which practice had conferred on the right; and if Hood had been able to place under some restraint the curious and complex machinery of words and syllables which his fancy was incessantly producing, his style would have been a great gainer, and much real earnestness of object, which now lies confused by the brilliant kaleidoscope of language, would have remained definite and clear.
Amongst imports raw materials (wool, cotton and silk, coal, oilseeds, timber, &c.) hold the first place, articles of food (cereals, wine, coffee, &c.) and manufactured goods (especially machinery) ranking next.
This involves the introduction of machinery for measuring and controlling the speed at which it leaves the ship and for measuring the pull on the cable.
The winters are less severe, and modern agricultural machinery is generally employed, at all events on the larger estates.
About that time a thorough reform of the machinery in use was effected whereby the number of hands employed was reduced, but the yearly production doubled or trebled.
Weaving and brewing and the manufacture of machinery, chicory, cigars, malt, boots, furniture and soap are the chief industries.
The principal imports consist of machinery, textiles and clothing, food substances and beverages, and live stock.
Besides cottons the products 'nclude woollens and cloth, silks, chemicals, machinery, ironware, beer and flour.
With regard to the imports into Russia-they consist mainly of raw materials and machinery for the manufactures, and of provisions, the principal items being raw cotton, 17% of the aggregate; machinery and metal goods, 13%; tea, 5%; mineral ores, 5%; gums and resins, 4%; wool and woollen yarns, 32%; textiles, 3%; fish, 3%; with leather and hides, chemicals, silks, wine and spirits, colours, fruits, coffee, tobacco and rice.
Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
Even more drastic were the changes in the electoral machinery, by far the most complicated in Europe, established by the law of 1905.6 This was based on the principle of indirect 3 Of this M.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
Great progress has been made in the manufacture of machinery; locomotives, railway carriages, electric tram-cars, &c., and machinery of all kinds, are now largely made in Italy itself, especially in the north and in the neighborhood of Naples.
Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.
The dual system of education, established in 1871, was abolished in 1890, and the administrative machinery consolidated under a minister of the Crown and an advisory board.
In the case of factories the exhaust steam from the engines used for driving the working machinery is made use of and forms the most economical method of heating possible.
During the Civil War army supplies, ammunition and cannon, and the armour-plate and parts of the machinery for the "Monitor" were made here.
The principal manufactures of East Orange are electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies (the factory of the Crocker-Wheeler Co.
The manufactures of Stralsund are more miscellaneous than extensive; they include machinery, playing cards, sugar, soap, cigars, gloves, furniture, paper, oil and beer.
In New South Wales, whose example was followed by Western Australia, the machinery adopted for fixing the statutory rate of wages was of a somewhat different type.
before the 19th century, that is to say, industries carried on with capital and machinery in large factories.
The yield reached its lowest point in 1899, but subsequently increased through the application of improved machinery, while the tailings of the old diggings were treated by the cyanide process with profitable results.
The industries mainly consist in shipbuilding, fish-curing, and the manufacture of machinery (particularly for agriculture), and the commerce in the export of corn, wood and fish.
The leading industries comprise manufactures of tweeds, hosiery, clogs, baskets and leather, besides the timber trade, nursery gardening and the making of machinery and iron implements.
The annual average value maybe put at not quite £2,000,000, machinery and tin-plate being a long way the most important items. There is further a small transit trade through Transcaucasia from Persia to the value of less than half a million sterling annually, and chiefly in carpets, cocoons and silk, wool, rice and boxwood; and further a sea-borne trade between Persia and Caucasian.
Upon the whole administrative machinery of government, upon criminal law and upon procedure, both criminal and civil, his influence has been most salutary; and the great legal revolution which in 1873 purported c :to accomplish the fusion of law and equity is not obscurely traceable to the same source.
It is the seat of cotton, calico, silk, machinery and other industries, and excellent wine is grown there.
Implements and Machinery.
The decrease in the demand for labour is attributable chiefly to the reduction of the cultivated area and the laying down to pasture of land once under the plough, and to the increasing use of agricultural machinery.
The worsted, woollen and cotton industries, and the iron, steel and machinery manufactures are very extensive.
Other important industries are wood-carving (of an artistic excellence long unknown), artistic iron-working, jewelling, bronze-casting, the production of steam-engines, machinery, matches (largely exported to Turkey, Egypt, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Greece), clock-making, wool-weaving and the manufacture of chemical manures.
Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of engines, boilers, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second among the state's manufactures; their value increased from $43,617,07 2 in 1890 to $72,399,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in 1905.
($11,791,223), electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($11,019,235), paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and refined petroleum ($10,948,864).
The principal manufactures are lumber and furniture, and saw-filing and filing-room machinery.
The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails.
the payment of rent, the repair of houses or fixtures or machinery already built or set up, or to a thing not in esse at the time of the demise, but touching the land, provided that the word " assigns " is used in the covenant.
The industries include the manufacture of tobacco, cigars, machinery, vinegar, soap and bricks, and there is a considerable trade by water in agricultural produce.
The production, therefore, of the most perfect and efficient cotton-cleaning machinery is of importance alike to the planter and manufacturer.
These are of importance to the spinner owing to the necessity of his cleaning machinery being adapted to the condition of the cotton.
The lower the grade the more elaborate and expensive is the machinery required to clean it, and consequently a spinner is willing to pay a certain amount extra for high grade cotton in order to save expenditure on preparatory machinery.
has been collected, but the reader must bear in mind that if improvement can be traced it cannot logically be attributed unhesitatingly to the perfecting of the machinery of speculation, whereby a larger use has been made of " futures," since many other economic changes have taken place concomitantly and they may have wrought the major effect.
It is therefore necessary that the machinery should be so arranged that the connexions may be rapidly made and broken.
The tins largely used for kerosene are made by machinery and contain 5 American gallons.
Petroleum has largely superseded other oils, and is still gaining ground, as a lubricant for machinery and railway rolling-stock, either alone or in admixture with fixed oils.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
The finer soaps are perfumed by the cold method; the soap is shaved down to thin slices, and the essential oil kneaded into and mixed with it by special machinery, after which it is formed into cakes by pressure in suitable moulds.
The industries include the manufacture of soap, tobacco, machinery, paper, bricks and tiles, beer and other goods.
It was to their control over the machinery of law that the Eupatridae owed their predominance.
Its manufactures include silks, velvets, carpets, calico-printing, machinery and brickmaking.
The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.
It is intended to provide an introduction, necessarily brief, to the terminology and machinery of the chemist.
The falls of the Hoosick river furnish water-power for the manufacture of agricultural machinery by the Walter A.
Other manufactures are knit goods, shirts and collars and papermaking machinery.
brewing, and the making of machinery, carpets, cigars, furniture,.
Wesley skilfully wove these into his system, and kept the whole machinery moving harmoniously.
The principal imports are manufactured cotton goods and other textiles, machinery, timber and coal.
He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.
I); as the earliest of the Wisdom books, it is the friendliest to supernatural machinery.
The tidal action of the gulf is so slight and the marshes are so low that perfect drainage cannot be obtained through tide gates, which must therefore be supplemented by pumping machinery when rains are heavy or landward winds long prevail.
The " buckshot clays " of the backlands, which are so stiff that they can scarcely be ploughed until flooded and softened, and are remarkably retentive of moisture, are ideal rice soil; but none of the alluvial lands has an underlying hardpan, and they cannot as a rule be drained sufficiently to make the use of heavy harvesting machinery possible.
Thus the use of machinery became possible, and this revolutionized the entire industry.
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
The leading articles of export are sugar, tobacco and fruit products; of import, textiles, foodstuffs, lumber and wood products, and machinery.
Machinery was lent to the farmers, and free grants of seed were made.
Seed is distributed, and agricultural machinery lent, by the government.
The imports consist principally of food stuffs, building materials, drinks, sugar, machinery, glass, fats, clothes, wooden and stone wares, and various manufactured goods.
Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.
The chief industries are the manufacture of machinery (especially machinery for sugarrefineries) and carriages, rice-milling and ship-building.
Its inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of cloth, starch and machinery, in ironfounding and lithography.
within the city limits and furnishes water-power for factories; among the manufactures are textiles, boots and shoes, leather belting, sash, doors and blinds, carriages, machinery and bricks.
Purchas), and since the "Ritualists" refused to bow to this decision, parliament intervened with the Public Worship Regulation Act of 1874, which set up a disciplinary machinery for enforcing the law, and at the same time reconstituted the Court of Arches.
The whole machinery of government was centralized at the Hague, and Dutchmen filled nearly all the principal posts.
Africa, can, however, only be enforced by special administrative machinery and at considerable expense, and this legislative action can only be regarded as temporary and preliminary to the establishment of plantations of rubber trees, which are not only easier to control, but the trees are less liable to injury from careless tapping.
Belting intended for driving machinery is built up of canvas which has been thoroughly frictioned with the soft mixed rubber, and is cured by placing it in a kind of press kept by means of steam at a dry heat of about 140° C. Packing for the stuffing boxes of steam engines is similarly prepared from strips of rubber and friotioned canvas, as also are the so-called insertion sheets, in which layers of rubber alternate with canvas or even wire gauze.
There are manufactures of cloth, paper, machinery, straw hats, leather and tobacco.
the preparation of felt boots and sheepskins; and the manufacture of dairy utensils and machinery.
The principal manufactures are cordage and twine, agricultural implements, engines, pianos, boots and shoes, cotton and woollen goods, carpets and rugs, rubber goods, flour and machinery.
Bangor has various manufactures, the most important of which (other than those dependent upon lumber) are boots and shoes (including moccasins); among others are trunks, valises, saws, stoves, ranges and furnaces, edge tools and cant dogs, saw-mill machinery, brick, clothing, cigars, flour and dairy products.
He carried on a successful warfare against the old combination laws that hampered workmen and favoured masters; he brought about the repeal of the laws prohibiting the export of machinery and of the act preventing workmen from going abroad.
The slag is a waste product, and the flue-dust, collected by special devices in dust-chambers, is briquetted by machinery, with lime as a bond, and then resmelted with the ore-charge.
The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.
The manufactures of machinery, especially locomotives and railway plant, chemicals, and hardware are also important.
The industries include the spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap. There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works.
Tribunals and rules are, after all, only machinery.
If this machinery is to act smoothly we must improve our motive power, the source of which is human passion and sentiment.
Modern industrial development in some of the states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for consumption by some cities.
2 The " old metals " consist of old iron, brass, &c., derived from railway material, machinery, &c., all imported, and should not be considered a Brazilian product.
Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in Portugal.
It contains manufactories of chemicals, machinery, starch, white lead and various other articles, but is chiefly noted for its extensive salt springs and works, which produce about 75,000 tons of salt per annum.
The metallurgical works of the Societe de la Franche-Comte are established in the city and there are saw-mills, printing-works, paperfactories, distilleries, and manufactories of boots and shoes, machinery, hosiery, leather, elastic fabric, confectionery and artificial silk.
long and equipped with electric light, stationary and travelling hydraulic cranes, machinery for meat freezing, and large sheds for storing corn and wool.
Textiles, largely cotton goods, hardware, mining and agricultural machinery, tobacco and foodstuffs form the bulk of the imports.
machinery, or semi-manufactured goods which serve as raw material for those industries.
Other principal branches of industry are: tobacco manufactories, belonging to the state, tobacco being a government monopoly; iron foundries, mostly in the mining region; agricultural machinery and implements, notably at Budapest; leather manufactures; paper-mills, the largest at Fiume; glass (only the more common sort) and earthenwares; chemicals; wooden products; petroleum-refineries; woollen yarns and cloth manufactories, as well as several establishments of knitting and weaving.
But though reaction was the motive power of this new machinery of government, it could not do away with many of the practical and obvious improvements of 1848, and it was not blind to some of the indispensable requirements of a.
Among the city's manufactures are agricultural implements, iron bridges and other structural iron work, watches and watch-cases, steel, engines, safes, locks, cutlery, hardware, wagons, carriages, paving-bricks, furniture, dental and surgical chairs, paint and varnish, clay-working machinery and saw-mill machinery.
The chief manufacture is paint ("Schweinfurt green" is a well-known brand in Germany), introduced in 1809; but beer, sugar, machinery, soap and other drysalteries, straw-paper and vinegar are also produced.
The industries of the town include ironfounding and the manufacture of machinery, corsets, hosiery, flannel goods, jam and wall-paper, and brewing, cotton spinning and weaving, leather-dressing and dyeing.
On the 24th Count Andrassy was appointed joint foreign minister, but the machinery of State had ceased to work, and both the Austrian and Hungarian Cabinets were in statu demissionis.
In accordance with the Declaration of Corfu, the decision regarding the actual form of the State was left to a constituent assembly: but as the machinery of Belgrade was naturally quite inadequate to the task of administering a country three times the size of the Serbia of 1914, the provincial Governments of Croatia (with the Ban at its head), Slovenia, Dalmatia and Bosnia continued to function, though the local diets were no longer summoned.
Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..
Operations began in 1873 but in 1880 the machinery was destroyed by the Boers.
Machinery, provisions, largely in the form of tinned and otherwise preserved food, and liquors, clothing, textiles and hardware, chemicals and dynamite, iron and steel work and timber, and jewelry are the chief items in the imports.
This council was presided over by the governor of the Transvaal and formed an important part of the administrative machinery.
1 Hostilities were still proceeding, but in the areas under control Lord Milner (who was raised to the peerage in May) speedily set the machinery of government in motion.
The industries are very active, especially in iron, machinery, paper, chemicals, shoes, woollen goods, beer, leather and tobacco.
Among its manufactures are agricultural machinery (especially seeding machines) and tools, automobiles, pianos, lawn-mowers, roller-skates, foundry and machine-shop products, furniture, burial caskets, and flour.
The industry, however, has not kept pace with its development in other countries and, in great part, still employs antiquated methods and machinery.
There has been some development in the manufacture of agricultural machinery and implements, vehicles, pianos and furniture, and some older industries, such as tanning leather and the manufacture of saddles and harness, the milling of wheat and Indian corn, distilling, soap-making, &c. At Guanta there is a factory for the manufacture of patent fuel from Naricual coal and asphalt.
The imports are chiefly rice (from India) and cotton goods for local use, and food stuffs, machinery, hardware and manufactured goods for Rhodesia.
A department of public health was formed within the precincts of the Local Government Board; government laboratories were established, and machinery was devised for the notification of infectious diseases.
The difficulty of ascending the rapids near Bingen is usually surmounted by the help of steam hauling machinery placed on the bank, though powerful tugs have also come into use for this purpose.
He followed the policy of his predecessors in enforcing the royal authority over the nobles, but the machinery of a centralized government strong enough to hold nobility in check increased the royal expenditure, to meet which Charles had recourse to doubtful financial expedients.
On coming of age he got employment at Hempstead, Long Island, making machines for shearing cloth; three years afterwards he set up in this business for himself, having bought the sole right to manufacture such machinery in the state of New York.
This is a suspension bridge with a central portion, between two lofty and massive stone towers, consisting of bascules which can be raised by hydraulic machinery to admit the passage of vessels.
The head-gear is often combined with ore-bins and machinery for breaking and sizing the lump ore previous to shipment to the reduction works.
There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.
In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.
This operation, like all the subsequent steps in the polishing of the glass, is carried out by powerful machinery.
It is impossible to describe this machinery within the limits of this article, but it is notable that the principal difficulties to be overcome arise from the necessity of providing the glass with a perfectly continuous and unyielding support to which it can be firmly attached but from which it can be detached without undue difficulty.
The manufactures are considerable, the chief articles made being cloth, wool, leather, tobacco, pianos and machinery.
In the Greek school at Alexandria, which flourished under the auspices of the Ptolemies, the first attempts were made at the construction of hydraulic machinery, and about 120 B.C. the fountain of compression, the siphon, and the forcing-pump were invented by Ctesibius and Hero.
2, it will be balanced by a thrust W lb applied to the other piston of area B ft.', where p = P/A=W/B, (I) the pressure p of the liquid being supposed uniform; and, by making the ratio B/A sufficiently large, the mechanical advantage can be increased to any desired amount, and in the simplest manner possible, without the intervention of levers and machinery.
Very similar kinds of sugar are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in Mexico, under the names of " Panela " and " Chancaca," but in those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most approved machinery.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
Leather and rubber goods, gold, silver and aluminium wares, machinery, wall-paper, and stained glass are also among other of its staple products.
Mr and Mrs Williston built up the industry of covering buttons with cloth, at first doing the work by hand, then (1827) experimenting with machinery, and in 1848 building a factory for making and covering buttons.
The material is supplied to the twisting machinery by an attendant, and formed into a cord of uniform thickness, twisted and wound on a drum by mechanism analogous to that used in rope-spinning.
Machinery is now employed for forming and moulding the fillings of the cheaper grades of cigars.
cigarettes were entirely prepared by the smoker himself; Ci but now they are very largely made by automatic machinery.
See Davidson and Chase, Farm Motors and Farm Machinery; articles in L.
Stendal is the seat of a large railway workshop, and carries on various branches of textile industry, besides the manufacture of tobacco, machinery, stoves, gold-leaf, &c. The earliest printing-press in the.
The chief industries are the manufacture of tobacco, beer, leather, porcelain, machinery and paper.
The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and carriages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood furniture, textiles and chemicals.
It is, after Altona, the most important industrial town in the province, and contains extensive cloth-factories, besides manufactories of leather, cotton, wadding, carpets, paper, machinery, beer and sweetmeats.
The imports consist mainly of European manufactured goods (especially British cotton), machinery, flour, alcohol, sugar, timber, coal and petroleum.
Modern machinery is little used and many mines are practically unworkable for want of pumps.
The other industrial products include wall-paper, railway plant, machinery, gloves and artificial flowers.
The machinery worked so badly that the revolution of the turret was stopped.
There are manufactures of machinery and agricultural implements, and trade in the products of the district, such as cider and malt, and several fairs are held annually.
sugar, paper, timber, machinery and various manufactured goods.
The acreage of improved farm land in Rhode Island decreased from 356,487 in 1850 to in 1900, but the value of farm property (including land with improvements, implements, machinery and live stock) increased in the same period from $19,100,640 to $26,989,189.
The prohibition of the exportation from England of machinery, models or drawings retarded mechanical improvement, but in 1790 an industrial company was formed at Providence to carry on cotton spinning, and in December of that year there was established at Pawtucket a factory equipped with Arkwright machines constructed by Samuel Slater.
This machinery was operated by waterpower, then first used in the United States for the spinning of cotton thread; and from this may be dated the beginning of the factory system in Rhode Island.
were: combined textiles (not including flax, hemp and jute products) in 1900, $77,998,396; in 1905, $103,096, 311; foundry and machine shop products in 1900, $13,269,086; in 1905, $16,338,512; woollen goods in 1900, $5,330,550; in 1905, $8,163,167; rubber boots and shoes in 1 9 00, $8,034,417; electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies in 1900, $5,113,292; in 1905, $5,435,474; silversmithing and silverware in 1900, $4,249,190; in 1905, $5,323,264; gold and silver, reducing and refining (not from ore) in 1900, $3,484,454; in 1905, $4,260,698; cotton small wares in 1900, $2,379,500; in 1 905, $3,944, 60 7; hosiery and knit goods in 1900, $2,713,850; in 1905, $3,344,655; silk and silk goods in 1900, $1,311,333; in 1905, $2,555,986.
Instead of discoursing on the corporate conscience of the state and the endowments of the Church, the importance of Christian education, and the theological unfitness of the Jews to sit in parliament, he is solving business-like problems about foreign tariffs and the exportation of machinery; waxing eloquent over the regulation of railways, and a graduated tax on corn; subtle on the monetary merits of half-farthings, and great in the mysterious lore of quassia and cocculus indicus.
The principal industries are flax, sugar, tobacco and machinery, and there is a trade in cattle and horses.
Other sources of employment are the cutting of hair for making hats, the production of fancy goods, type, machinery, soap and perfumery, ready-made clothing, chemicals, electro-technical apparatus, jewelry and metal wares.
The most approved fashion of weaving is called tsuzure-ori (linked-weaving); that is to say, the cross threade are laid in with the fingers and pushed into their places with a comb by hand, very little machinery being used.
Iron goods and machinery, glass, earthenware, chemicals and wooden articles, including large quantities of toys, are produced; and various branches of textile industry are carried on.
The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, woollen and cotton goods, silk ribbons, paper, tobacco, leather, china, glass, clocks, jewellery and chemicals.
Hence the numerous bleachers dwell in the country with their assistants and machinery.
In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.
The Cambrian railway engine and carriage works are here; and there are tanneries, malting works, machinery works and iron foundries.
Dijon is well known for its mustard, and for the black currant liqueur called cassis de Dijon; its industries include the manufacture of machinery, automobiles, bicycles, soap, biscuits, brandy, leather, boots and shoes, candles and hosiery.
Szombathely is an important railway and industrial centre, and has a state railway workshop, manufactories for agricultural machinery, foundries and steam mills.
The first difficulty was to make it sufficiently light in relation to the power its machinery could develop; and several machines were built in which trials were made of steam, and of compressed air and carbonic acid gas as motive agents.
Barre is an important seat of the granite industry, and manufactures monuments and tombstones, stone-cutting implements and other machinery.
The chief industries of the place are the making of cigars, malt and machinery; also of albums, portfolios and other articles in leather.
Machinery, cement, cordage, wire ropes, tobacco, leather, &c. are manufactured.
Lithuania requires primarily manufactured fertilizers and agricultural machinery and salt, sugar, herrings, manufactured articles, etc.
The dock is provided with railways and machinery for facilitating traffic, including a large grain elevator.
The year 1890 was one of great depression following the exhaustion of the surface ore, but the provision of better machinery and cheaper coal led to a revival in 1891.
On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.
In modern times two factors have accelerated this process, viz.: (I) the building of railways, which have developed commerce to a very great degree and favoured the large towns at the expense of the small; and (2) the invention of machinery, which has greatly increased the possibility of division of labour and manufactures on a large scale.
It has important iron and steel works and iron foundries, at which armour-plates, guns and projectiles are made for the Italian navy, also steel castings, machinery and rails, a royal arms factory, and lignite mining.
Among, the city's manufactures are refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt, ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour.
Zeitz has manufactures of cloth, cottons and other textiles, machinery, wax-cloth, musical instruments, vinegar, cigars, &c.; and wood-carving, dyeing and calico-printing are carried on.
Belfast is the centre of the Irish linen industry, machinery for which was introduced by T.
Among the leading products are those of the furnaces, foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, planing mills, creameries, bridge and iron works, publishing houses and a packing house; and brick, tile, pottery, patent medicines, furniture, caskets, tombstones, carriages, farm machinery, Portland cement, glue, gloves and?hosiery.
The principal manufactures of the town are sugar, cigars, paper, gloves, chemical products, beer and machinery.
Among the manufactures of Oneida are wagons, cigars, furniture, caskets, silver-plated ware, engines and machinery, steel and wooden pulleys and chucks, steel grave vaults, hosiery, and milk bottle caps.
The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.
Another kind of application of machinery to coal mining is that of Messrs Bidder & Jones, which is intended to replace the use of blasting for bringing down the coal.
The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, with the amount of work to be done with one fixing of the machinery; where it is likely to be used for a considerable time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over friction rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to prevent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground.
Such a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical means when the workings are of any extent, the methods actually adopted being - (i) The rarefaction of the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface.
Modern screening and washing plants, especially when the small coal forms a considerable proportion of the output, are large and costly, requiring machinery of a capacity of ioo to 150 tons per hour, which absorbs 350 to 400 H.P. In this, as in many other cases, electric motors supplied from a central station are now preferred to separate steam-engines.
The principal products of its numerous factories are silk, cotton, woollen and mixed fabrics, velvet, iron goods, machinery, shoes, cables, soap and cigars.
Cotton goods, chiefly " Americani," are the chief imports, machinery, hardware and provisions ranking next.
The manufacture of machinery, amber articles, tobacco and cigars, and bricks, with some iron-founding, linen-weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Stolpe, are the chief industrial occupations of the inhabitants, who also carry on trade in grain, cattle, spirits, timber, fish and geese.
Bread-stuffs, colonial products and machinery are largely imported.
Exports are all kinds of manufactured goods, such as cotton, linen, woollen, worsted and leather goods, machinery and hardware.
Lesser interests, in the order of importance, with the product value of each in 1905, were: rubber goods ($53,133,020), tanned, curried and finished leather ($33,35 2, 999), in the manufacture of which Massachusetts ranked second among the states; paper and wood pulp' ($32,012,247), in the production of which the state ranked second among the states of the Union; slaughtering and meat packing ($30,253,838); printing and publishing ($33,900,7}8, of which $21,020,237 was the value of newspapers and periodicals); clothing ($21,724,056); electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($15,882,216); lumber ($12,636,329); iron and steel, steel works and rolling-mills products ($ 11, 947,73 1; less than in 1900); cordage and twine ($11,173,521), in the manufacture of which Massachusetts was second only to New York; furniture ($11,092,581); malt liquors ($11,080,944); jewelry ($10,073,595), Massachusetts ranking second to Rhode Island; confectionery ($9,317,996), in which Massachusetts was third among the states.
Improvements were introduced much more slowly than in England, the cost of cotton machinery as late as 1826 being 50-60% greater in America.
Woolcard machinery destined to revolutionize the industry was devised by Amos Whittemore (1759-1828) in 1 797; spinning jennies were in operation under water-power before 1815.
2 The introduction of the remarkably complete machinery of the shoe industry was practically complete by 1865, this being the last of the great industries to come under the full dominance of machinery.
In the case of corporations realty and machinery are taxed generally by the local authorities, and stock values by the commonwealth.
Hayes, " American Textile Machinery: its Early History, &c."
The industries of Konigsberg have made great advances within recent years, notable among them are printing-works and manufactures of machinery, locomotives, carriages, chemicals, toys, sugar, cellulose, beer, tobacco and cigars, pianos and amber wares.
Soon afterwards he designed a hydraulic crane, which contained the germ of all the hydraulic machinery for which he and Elswick were subsequently to become famous.
Among other manufactures are brushes, boilers and the like, machinery, metal ware generally, the cases and other parts of watches.
The states of the American Union are non-tropical, adapted to the development of European races, not mixed with Indian blood, and possessed by long inheritance of the machinery needed for the successful conduct of self-government.
They inherited no machinery of self-government.
The principal manufactures of the township are jewelry, silverware, cotton goods, cotton machinery, coffin trimmings, and leather.
Since 1864 agricultural implements, steam-engines, and machinery for beetroot sugar-works, distilleries, &c., have been the chief manufactures.
The town has a large garrison, consisting of nearly all arms. Its industries are considerable, including the manufacture of machinery, metal ware, chemicals, paper, leather and sugar.
Its industries are ironfounding, dyeing, brewing and the manufacture of machinery, soap and matches.
The manufactures include machinery, chemicals, soap, leather, shoes, glass and other articles, and there are iron-foundries, breweries, and steam flour and saw-mills.
In consequence the census of 1870 was taken with the outgrown machinery established twenty years earlier, a law characterized by Francis A.
Iron war-ships, railway locomotives, iron bridges, machinery, &c., are built; the company has branches in Norrkoping, Gothenburg, and elsewhere.
Varin in 1640 and the practice of hammering was forbidden in 1645.3 In England the new machinery was tried in London in 1561, but abandoned soon afterwards; it was finally adopted in 1662, although the old pieces continued in circulation until 1696.
A mint was opened in Hong-Kong in 1866 but was closed in 1868 and the machinery sold to Japan.
Woollen, cloth, cotton and flax mills, steam flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery works, paper mills, furniture, tobacco, soap, candle and hardware works are among the chief industrial establishments.
Knitting by machinery was introduced into America in 1831 at Cohoes Falls, on the Mohawk river; the products, consisting largely of underwear, were valued at $46,108,600 in 1905.
Foundry and machine-shop products were valued at $115,876,193 in 1905, and electrical machinery, apparatus,.
The Employers' Liability Act of 1902 (amended and broadened in 1910) holds an employer liable for damages in any case in which one of his employees sustains a personal injury by reason of the negligence of the employer, of a sub-contractor, of a superintendent, or any other person in the employer's service whose duty it was to see that " the ways, works or machinery connected with or used in the business," were in proper condition, or whose duty it was to " direct ...
Salt is the only mineral raised, but the iron industry, and especially the manufacture of agricultural machinery (e.g.
It has manufactures of toys and agricultural machinery, electrical works and breweries.
The city's principal manufactures are carriages, ploughs, brick, machinery, sanitary ware and plumber's goods.
In the South artificial grassing went on for a time hand in hand with cereal-growing, which by 1876 seemed likely to develop on a considerable scale, thanks to the importation of American agricultural machinery, which the settlers were quick to utilize.
Peace, railways, telegraphs (including cable connexion with Europe), agricultural machinery and a larger population had carried New Zealand beyond the primitive stage.
There are also iron foundries, manufactures of machinery, and stone quarries.
At North Fond du Lac, just beyond the city limits, are car-shops of the two last-mentioned railways, and in the city are manufactories of machinery, automobiles, wagons and carriages, awnings, leather, beer, flour, refrigerators, agricultural implements, toys and furniture.
Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
Velvet, cloth, machinery, bricks and candles are manufactured, and there are flour-mills, breweries, distilleries and lignite mines.
Apart from a growing import trade in coal and machinery, its commerce has declined; but it is among the first twelve manufacturing places in Sweden, having large mechanical workshops.
Machinery of all kinds is produced, from the sewing-machines of Dresden to the steam-locomotives and marine-engines of Chemnitz.
The leading branch is the machinery used in the industries of the country - mining, paper-making and weaving.
The Conciliation Act 1896 provides machinery for the prevention and settlement of trade disputes, and in 1892 a chamber of arbitration for business disputes was established by the joint action of the corporation of the city of London and the London chamber of commerce.
Ordinarily bridges are fixed bridges, but there are also movable bridges with machinery for opening a clear and unobstructed passage way for navigation.
They are worked by hydraulic machinery.
The car receives the traffic and conveys it across the river, being caused to travel by electric machinery on the high level bridge.
So early as 1904 KOrber had declared a complete change in the principles of administration to be essential if the machinery of State were to continue working.
Wauwatosa has important manufactures, including machinery, brick, lime, beer, chemicals and wooden-ware, and extensive market gardens and nurseries and valuable stone quarries.
Other products exceeding $1,000,000 in value were: leather ($14, 0 74,397), Milwaukee being second in the manufacture of leather among the cities of the United States; foundry and machine shop products ($10,232,723); iron and steel ($7,010,793); flour and grist-mill products ($6,320,428) slaughtering and meat-packing products ($5,95 8, 5 1 5); men's clothing ($4,759,54 8); boots and shoes ($2,929,405); electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($2,257,229); chewing and smoking tobacco ($1,966,930) and cigars and cigarettes ($1,540,019); furniture ($1,767,290); trunks and valises ($1,623,310); hosiery and knit goods ($ 1, 535, 1 7 6); confectionery ($1,379,668); stoves and furnaces ($1,288,931); leather gloves and mittens 41,207,633); structural iron work ($1,037,217); wooden packing boxes ($1,024,750); and paints ($ 1, 01 5,774).
Bernburg is the seat of considerable industry, manufacturing machinery and boilers, sugar, pottery and chemicals, and has lead and zinc smelting.
All manufactured articles of daily use are imported, as is all ironware and machinery.
Imports, principally timber, grain, cotton and linseed, increased owing to these improvements from L116,179 in 1881 to £816,698 in 1899; and exports (coal, machinery and manufactured goods) from £83,000 in 1883 to £261,873 in 1899.
In Military Park is a monument to MajorGeneral Philip Kearny (1815-1862), and in Washington Park is a monument to Seth Boyden (1785-1870), a Newark inventor of malleable iron, of machinery for making nails, and of improvements in the steam-locomotive.
The city's foreign trade is light (the value of its imports was $859,442 in 1907; of its exports $664,525), but its river traffic is heavy, amounting to about 3,000,000 tons annually, and being chiefly in general merchandise (including food-stuffs, machinery and manufactured products), ores and metals, chemicals and colours, stone and sand and brick.
The smaller streams are of great use in working machinery.
Imports consist of cotton, linen and woollen fabrics, hardware, cutlery and machinery, kerosene, glass and earthenware; and the exports of cattle, sugar, tobacco, coffee, coco-nuts and fibre, dividivi and dye-woods, vegetable ivory, rubber, hides and skins, medicinal forest products, gold, silver and platinum.
Its chief industries are cotton and wool-spinning and the weaving of cloth, but machinery of various kinds, paper and a few other articles are also manufactured.
The reasons for this were numerous, first among them being the abuses of the papal system of finance, which had to provide funds for the vast administrative machinery of the Curia.
Czechoslovakia manufactures and exports agricultural machinery, plant for sugar refineries and distilleries, locomotives, railway carriages and trucks and other rolling-stock, motor-cars, tractors.
Industries include the manufacture of agricultural machinery, spirits, furniture and sugar, also milling and brewing.
It is a prosperous little industrial town in the Ausser Rhoden half of the canton, especially busied with the manufacture of embroidery by machinery, and of muslins.
The liberum veto and all the intricate and obstructive machinery of the anomalous old system were for ever abolished.
The machinery of government was framed of a council of state, at which the Imperial government was represented by a commissioner plenipotentiary, and a diet divided into a senate composed of the princes of the blood, the palatines and councillors named for life, and a house of nuntii elected for seven years, 77 chosen by the "dietines" of the nobles, and 51 by the commons.
The construction of locomotives and machinery, carried on by the Societe Alsacienne, wire-drawing, and the spinning and weaving of cotton are included among its industries, which together with the population increased greatly owing to the Alsacian immigration after 1871.
In the manufacture of vehicles, harness, leather, hardwood lumber, wood-working machinery, machine tools, printing ink, soap, pig-iron, malt liquors, whisky, shoes, clothing, cigars and tobacco, furniture, cooperage goods, iron and steel safes and vaults, and pianos, also in the packing of meat, especially pork,' it ranks very high among the cities of the Union.
These figures are from the U.S. census, and are of course for Cincinnati proper: some of the largest industrial establishments, however, are just outside the city limits - among these are manufactories of soap (the Ivory Soap Works), machine tools, electrical machinery and appliances, structural and architectural iron work, and office furnishings.
Its chief industries are the manufacture of watch springs, gloves, lace, beer and machinery, and it has a trade in grain.
There are manufactures of cloth, machinery and tobacco, and an active trade in grain and horses.
The chief industries are the making of blankets, carpets, druggets and worsted yarn; and there are iron foundries and machinery works.
Some peculiarities of the ores have required the use of new methods in their treatment, and in general the development of mining methods and machinery is of a wonderful character.
Leather and shoe machinery also are important manufactures; and the main plant of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation is located here.
off, one recent addition to the business buildings having electric power and modern British machinery; some older barracks and a military tannery and boot factory being in the town.
In medieval times Romsey had a considerable share of the woollen trade of Hampshire, but by the end of the 17th century this manufacture began to decline, and the introduction of machinery and the adoption of steam led to its subsequent transference to the northern coal centres.
Sugar, coffee, machinery, metal work of all kinds, clothing and pottery are largely imported.
The British imports consist chiefly of coal, cotton fabrics and machinery.
Other manufactures include needles, machinery, cigars, soap, hosiery, furniture and shoes.
employed secular machinery for ecclesiastical purposes, and regarded heresy as an offence against the state rather than against the church.
Both in the town and neighbourhood there are numerous foundries and works for iron, brass, steel and bronze goods, while other manufactures include wire, needles and pins, fish-hooks, machinery, umbrella-frames, thimbles, bits, furniture, chemicals, coffee-mills, and pinchbeck and britanniametal goods.
The church and church theology, to whose guidance the masses now surrendered themselves, took in along with them their superstition, their polytheism, their magic, their myths, and all the machinery of religious witchcraft.
Either process will in general require additional capital, the former to maintain the new labourers, the latter to provide improved machinery or to enable the employer to introduce a more complete division of labour.
This parochial machinery enabled him to make a singularly successful experiment in dealing with the problem of poverty.
Next we must consider the machinery by which the Society is constituted and governed so as to make its spirit a living energy and not a mere abstract Society is distributed into six grades: novices, scholastics, temporal coadjutors (lay brothers), spiritual coadjutors, professed of the three vows, and professed of the four vows.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
Factories for arms and ammunition have been established with modern machinery, and uniforms and other equipment are made in the country.
The cotton manufacture is the principal industry; there are also calico printing, dyeing and bleaching works, machinery and iron works, woollen manufactures, and coal mines and quarries in the vicinity.
On the introduction of steam-power and machinery the worsted trade advanced with great rapidity.
The presence of a bed of lignite in the neighbourhood has encouraged the industrial development of Teplitz, which carries on manufactures of machinery and metal goods, cotton and woollen goods, chemicals, hardware, sugar, dyeing and calicoprinting.
Its industries include iron and steel works, breweries, distilleries and brickyards, and the manufacture of starch, sugar, malt, machinery and artificial manure.
Other important manufactures were furniture, ships and boats, railway cars (the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound and the Northern Pacific systems having shops here), engines, machinery, shoes, water pipes, preserves and beer.
Other industries are the making of furniture, machinery, cigars and cement.
miihle), the term given to the apparatus or machinery used in the grinding of corn into flour, and hence applied to similar mechanical devices for grinding, crushing to powder, or pulping other substances, e.g.
saw-mill, rolling-mill, &c., or still more widely to buildings containing machinery used in manufactures, e.g.
During the five years 1900 to 1904 inclusive, the average value of Guatemalan imports, which consisted chiefly of textiles, iron and machinery, sacks, provisions, flour, beer, wine and spirits, amounted to £776,000; about one-half came from the United States, and nearly one-fourth from the United Kingdom.
Among the manufactures of the town are machinery, agricultural implements, chemicals, soap, tobacco, &c. But Cracow is more important as a trading than as an industrial centre.
It is a shipping centre for a large wheat, fruit and cotton-raising region, and the principal jobbing market for northern Texas, Oklahoma and part of Louisiana, and the biggest distributing point for agricultural machinery in the South-west.
It is a livestock market, and one of the chief centres in the United States for the manufacture of saddlery and leather goods, and of cotton-gin machinery.
It has flour and grist mills (the products of which ranked first in value among the city's manufactures in 1905), wholesale slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cooperage works, railway repair shops, cotton compresses, lumber yards, salt works, and manufactories of cotton-seed oil and cake, boots and shoes and cotton and agricultural machinery.
The Whigs did the same; and when the Republicans organized themselves, shortly after the fall of the Whigs, they created a party machinery on lines resembling those which their predecessors had struck out.
In this way a few leaders may sometimes be able to obtain control of the nominating machinery of a city, or even of a state, for the local committees usually obey instructions received from the committees above them.
(See, as to the details of party machinery, American Commonwealth, chs.
Ostrogorski on Democracy in England and America, and Professor Jesse Macy on Party Organizalion and Machinery, 1904.)
McConachie, Congressional Committees: a Study of the Origins and Development of our National and Local Legislative Methods (ibid., 1898); Woodrow Wilson, Col1gres.,ional Governinent: a Study in American Politics (15th ed., Boston, 1900); Jesse Macy, Party Organization and Machinery (New York, 1904); M.
The industries comprise boatbuilding, rope-making, steam-sawing, distilling and the manufacture of chocolate, machinery and sacks and coarse coverings, and at Margny, a suburb, there are manufactures of chemicals and felt hats.
Woollen cloth, machinery and spirits are manufactured; there is an extensive salt-mine in the neighbouring Zillenberg; the salmon and lamprey fisheries are important; and a fair amount of commercial activity is maintained.
Suitable machinery for cleaning the grain is everywhere in general use, so that weed seeds are removed before the wheat is ground.
While the new machinery of state was thus being put in operation other large questions presented themselves.
Coburg is a place of considerable industry, the chief branches of the latter being brewing, manufactures of machinery, colours and porcelain, iron-founding and saw-milling; and there is an important trade in the cattle reared in the neighbourhood.
Its principal manufactures are flour, sugar, oil, beer and machinery.
These and the manufacture of mining machinery employ most of the inhabitants.
To encourage the establishment of cotton mills the legislature of 1896-1897 exempted from taxation during the succeeding ten years all capital that should be invested in the manufacture of cotton, provided that $50,000 or more be invested in buildings and machinery.
It is a flourishing town, containing shipbuilding yards, and manufactories of mill machinery, agricultural implements, furniture and sewing-machines, flour-mills, saw-mills and large grain elevators.
The chief local industries are tanning and the manufacture of petroleum drums. The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, which crosses the Danube by a bridge at Cerna Voda, brought Constantza a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, which are largely exported; coal and coke head the list of imports, followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen fabrics.
The total trade of the port increased from £3,853,593 in 1897 to £5, 6 75, 28 5 in 1905 and £7,009,758 in 1906 (the large increase being mainly due to a rise of over Li,000,000 in imports - mainly of coal, building materials and machinery), the average ratio of imports to exports being as three to two.
The imports consist principally of machinery, coal, grain, dried fish, tobacco and hides, and the exports of hemp, hides, olive oil, soap, coral, candied fruit, wine, straw hats, boracic acid, mercury, and marble and alabaster.
There are considerable manufactures, notably agricultural machinery and buttons, and its beer has a great repute.
The imports include wheat, flour, Indian corn, jerked beef (carne secca), lard, bacon, wines and liquors, butter, cheese, conserves of all kinds, coal, cotton, woollen, linen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, earthenand glasswares, railway material, machinery, furniture, building material, including pine lumber, drugs and chemicals, and hardware.
The imports are coal, machinery and grain.
In 1548 he took the degree of master of arts; but in the same year he found it necessary to leave England on account of the suspicions entertained of his being a conjurer; these were first excited by a piece of machinery, which, in the Pax of Aristophanes, he exhibited to the university, representing the scarabaeus flying up to Jupiter, with a man and a basket of victuals on its back.
But in that year Lombe of Derby, disguised as a common workman, and obtaining entrance as such into one of the Italian throwing mills, made drawings of the machinery used for this process.
Before the introduction of machinery applicable to the spinning of silk waste, the refuse from cocoon reeling, and also from silk winding, which is now used in producing spun silk fabrics, hosiery, &c., was nearly all destroyed as being useless, with the exception of that which could be hand-combed and spun by means of the distaff and spinning wheel, a method which is still practised by some of the peasantry in India and other Eastern countries.
It is the spinner's business to straighten out these fibres, with the aid of machinery, and then to so join them that they become a thread, which is known as spun silk.
Before the silk can be manipulated by machinery to any advantage, the gum coating must be removed, really dissolved and washed away - and according to the method used in achieving this operation the result is either a " schappe " or a " discharged yarn."
The " degummed silk," after it is dried, is allowed to absorb a certain amount of moisture, and thus it becomes soft and pliable to the touch, and properly conditioned for working by machinery.
The foregoing processes are all peculiar to the silk waste trade, no other fibre having to go through such processes, nor needing such machinery.
Therefore, when gill drawing machinery was invented, the cutting of silk into short fibres ceased, and long silks are now prepared for spinning on what is known as " long spinning process."
The number of mills has decreased, but machinery now runs so much more quickly than formerly that more yarn is being spun on fewer spindles.
The manufacture of machinery, heavy iron goods and nails, and copper and iron founding, are important industries, and there are important metallurgical and engineering works at Montataire, about 2 m.
Carthage is a jobbing centre for a fruit and grain producing region; live-stock (especially harness horses) is raised in the vicinity; and among the city's manufactures are lime, flour, canned fruits, furniture, bed springs and mattresses, mining and quarrying machinery, ploughs and woollen goods.
There is thus still good work for diplomacy to do, and if, in the selection of diplomatic representatives, states followed on the one hand the above-mentioned French example, and on the other hand the American example of selecting for the heads of diplomatic missions men who are not necessarily de la carriere, diplomacy might obtain a new lease of activity, and become once more an extremely useful part of the administrative machinery by which states maintain good business relations as well as friendly political intercourse with one another.
Among the manufactures of Fishkill Landing are rubber-goods, engines (Corliss) and other machinery, hats, silks, woollens, and brick and tile.
The establishment of Dominion government agencies, the formation of a local government, the machinery required for the government of the province, the influx of a small army of surveyors who mapped out and surveyed wide districts of the country, and the taking up of free lands in all directions by Canadian settlers, all tended to build up the hamlet of Winnipeg into a considerable town.
Brand-new institutions on Western models were gradually growing up among the cumbrous, antiquated, wornout machinery of old Muscovy; and new men, like Menshikov, Goloykin, Apraksin, Osterman, Kurakin, Tolstoy, Shafirov, Prokopovich, Yaguszhinsky, Yavorsky, all capable, audacious, and brimful of new ideas, were being trained under the eye of the great regenerator to help him to carry on his herculean task.
There is a considerable textile industry, together with the manufacture of shoes, machinery and milling.
Rice was the second product in importance until competition with Japan, Louisiana and Texas made the crop a poor investment; improved culture and machinery may restore rice culture to its former importance.
The manufactures are chiefly sugar, fertilizers, and such products of the foundry and machine shop as are required for the machinery of the sugar factories.
The Japanese and Koreans, and in less measure the Chinese, act as domestic servants, work under white contractors on irrigating ditches and reservoirs, do most of the plantation labour and compete successfully with whites and native islanders in all save skilled urban occupations, such as printing and the manufacture of machinery.
In machinery, abrasion between moving surfaces has to be prevented as much as possible by the use of suitable materials, good fitting and lubrication.
It manufactures drain-pipes, paper-roofing and machinery, and has saw-mills.
The means, however, which Price proposed for the extinction of the debt are described by Lord Overstone 1 as " a sort of hocus-pocus machinery," supposed to work " without loss to any one," and consequently unsound.
Its principal industries are jute spinning and weaving, and the manufacture of porcelain, flags, machinery and beer, and it has some trade in wine.
They gave answers to such questions as were submitted to them; the machinery moved when set in motion from outside; but the popes did not attempt to interfere on their own initiative.
As nuncio in Brussels he had become acquainted with the trans-Alpine world, and had been initiated into the working of the machinery of modern politics and modern parliamentary government.
Glasgow buys largely of yarns and cloth, some considerable part of which is dyed or printed, for India and elsewhere, and has an indigenous manufacture and trade in fine goods such as book-muslins and lappets, a somewhat delicate department of manufacture which necessitates a slower running of machinery than is usual in Lancashire.
In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consisting most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery and pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,5 02; silk and silk goods, $39,333,520; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mill products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823.
The child-labour law of 1909 forbids the employment of children under eighteen years of age in blast furnaces, tanneries, quarries, in managing elevator lifts or hoisting machines, in oiling dangerous machinery while in motion, at switch tending, as brakesmen, firemen, engineers, motormen and in other positions of similar character.
We deal here only with the permanent ecclesiastical congregations, the real machinery of the papal administration.
- Though it has been relieved of the functions allotted to the Congregations of cardinals, the old machinery of the ecclesiastical administration has not been abolished; and the process of centralization which has been accentuated in the course of the last few centuries, together with the facility of communication, ensured for them a fresh activity, new offices having even been added.
Ohlau is the centre of a tobacco-growing district and has manufactures of tobacco and cigars, machinery, beer, shoes and bricks.
It has an important cloth industry, and manufactures of sugar, ropes, machinery and agricultural implements.
The machinery of expression having thus been indicated, the connexion of the physical actions and the psychical state was made the subject of speculation by Herbert Spencer (Psychology, 1855) These speculations were reduced to a system by Darwin (Expression of Emotions, 1872), who formulated and illustrated the following as fundamental physiognomical principles: (1) Certain complex acts are of direct or indirect service, under certain conditions of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations or desires; and whenever the same states of mind are induced the same sets of actions tend to be performed, even when they have ceased to be of use.
(6) In the "expanded metal" system no bars are used, but instead a strong steel netting is manufactured in large sheets by special machinery.
The administration of the city became famous after 1897 when Samuel Milton Jones (1846-1904), a manufacturer of oil machinery, was elected mayor by the Republican party; he was re-elected on a non-partisan ticket in 1899, 1901 and 1903, and introduced business methods into the city government.
It was left to him to develop the geometry of Monge, and to him also is due in great measure the rapid advancement which France made soon after the establishment of the Ecole Polytechnique in the construction of machinery .
Burlington is the most important manufacturing centre in the state; among its manufactures are sashes, doors and blinds, boxes, furniture and wooden-ware, cotton and woollen goods, patent medicines, refrigerators, house furnishings, paper and machinery.
The principal exports are wines, cereals, olive-oil, cotton goods, soap, cigarette-paper, furniture and barrels, boots, shoes and leather goods, and machinery.
There are several active industries, notably the manufacture of majolica and terra-cotta wares, machinery, gloves, beer, malt, cheese and sugar, while large pig markets are held here.
Grain and timber form the chief articles of export; textiles, machinery, iron goods and coal being most largely imported.
Lying close to the Harkort iron and sulphur mines, and within the populous and rich mineral district on the lower Rhine, it carries on iron-founding, wire-drawing and the manufacture of machinery of various kinds, besides an active trade in iron, steel and brass goods.
The industries include cotton and flax-spinning, and the manufacture of linen cloth, carpets, furniture, machinery, sugar, tobacco and leather.
About 1897 the Bernard factory at St Michel passed into the hands of Messrs Pechiney, the machinery soon being increased, and there, under the control of a firm that has been concerned in the industry almost from its inception, aluminium is being manufactured by the Hall process on a large scale.
The town has important manufactures of cloth, leather and machinery; it has also dyeworks, worsted mills and soap-boiling works.
The Fox river furnishes about 10,000 h.p., which is largely utilized for the manufacture of paper (of which Appleton is one of the largest producers in the United States), wood-pulp, sulphite fibre, machinery, wire screens, woollen goods, knit goods, furniture, dyes and flour.
Among the most noteworthy exhibits were those of machinery, of automobiles and bicycles, of agriculture, of transports by sea, of modern art and architecture, of Italian home industries, of the city of Milan; besides which, all the countries exhibiting had their own separate pavilions.
It has manufactures of jute and machinery, brewing and iron-founding.
In some of the older streets European shops have replaced the picturesque native cupboards; drinking dens have sprung up at many of the corners, while telephones and electric light have been introduced by private companies, and European machinery is used in many of the corn-mills, &c. The main thoroughfare leads from Bab el Marsa (Gate of the Port) to the Bab el Sok (Gate of the Market-place) known to the English as Port Catherine.
The side walls are surmounted by short upright sashes which open outwards by machinery a, and the roof is provided with sliding upper sashes for top ventilation.
The city has large cotton, clothing, and knitting mills, and manufactories of cotton-seed oil, tools, machinery, fertilizers and furniture.
The town is the seat of various industries, the chief products of which are machinery, railway gear, iron wares, tobacco, cigars, paper, sugar, furniture and glass.
It was, however, impossible to make the complicated and creaking machinery of V.
For one kind of meat we could substitute another; wool could be replaced by cotton, silk or fur; were our common silicate glass gone, we could probably perfect and cheapen some other of the transparent solids; but even if the earth could be made to yield any substitute for the forty or fifty million tons of iron which we use each year for rails, wire, machinery, and structural purposes of many kinds, we could not replace either the steel of our cutting tools or the iron of our magnets, the basis of all commercial electricity.
It is used extensively for objects which require both hardness and ductility, such as rock-crushing machinery, railway crossings, mine-car wheels and safes.
It is much used also for certain rock-crushing machinery (the shoes and dies of stamp-mills) and for safes.
Of this power about half would be used at the blastfurnaces themselves, leaving 750,000 horsepower available for driving the machinery of the rolling mills, &c. This use of the gas engine is likely to have far - reaching results.
- The few men who have, and are willing to exercise, the great strength and endurance which the puddler needs when he is stirring the pasty iron and balling it up, command such high wages, and with their little Soo-lb charges turn out their iron so slowly, that many ways of puddling by machinery have been tried.
Buyers of certain excellent classes of Swedish iron have been said to object even to the substitution of electricity for water-power as a means of driving the machinery of the forge.
That for the thin-walled water mains must combine strength with the fluidity needed to enable it to run freely into its narrow moulds; that for most machinery must be soft enough to be cut easily to an exact shape; that for hydraulic cylinders must combine strength with density lest the water leak through; and that for car-wheels must be intensely hard in its wearing parts, but in its other parts it must have that shock-resisting power which can be had only along with great softness.
abrasion, such as parts of crushing machinery.
Thus thick machinery castings usually contain between 1.50 and 2.25% of silicon, whereas thin castings and ornamental ones which must reproduce the finest details of the mould accurately may have as much as 3 or even 3.4 0% of it.
Fortunately its embrittling effect on cast iron is very much less than on steel, so that the upper limit or greatest tolerable proportion of phosphorus, instead of being o.10 or better 0.08% as in the case of rail steel, may be put at 0.50% in case of machinery castings even if they are exposed to moderate shocks; at 1.60% for gas and water mains in spite of the gravity of the disasters which extreme brittleness here might cause; and even higher for castings which are not exposed to shock, and are so thin that the iron of which they are made must needs be very fluid.
The steel is cast in lots, weighing in some cases as much as 75 tons, in enduring cast iron moulds into very large ingots, which with their initial heat are immediately rolled down by a series of powerful roll trains into their final shape with but slight wear and tear of the moulds and the machinery.
Statistics.-The cheapening of manufacture by improvements in processes and machinery, and by the increase in the scale of operations, has been very great.
machinery-using work, nearly all machinery being necessarily made of iron.
Budweis has a large, varied and growing industry, which comprises the manufacture, of chemicals, matches, paper, machinery, bricks and tiles, corn and saw mills, boat-building, bell-founding and black-lead pencils.
The borough of Connellsville has various manufactures including iron, tin plate, automobiles and various kinds of machinery; and a state hospital for the treatment of persons injured in mines is located here.
The river furnishes good water-power, and among the manufactures are wood-working machinery, ploughs, steam pumps, windmills, gas engines, paper-mill machinery, cutlery, flour, ladies' shoes, cyclometers and paper; the total value of the factory product in 1905 was $4,485,224, being 60.2% more than in 1900.
Professor Thurston has published the results of a test 1 This and some of the other drawings have been taken from Blaine's Hydraulic Machinery.
- Wood, Theory of Turbines; Bovey, Hydraulics; BjOrling, Hydraulic Motors; Blaine, Hydraulic Machinery; Bodmer, Hydraulic Motors; Unwin, " Water Motors " (Lectures on Hydro-Mechanics, Inst.
At the end of the 18th century the trade was still important, but it began to decline after the invention of machinery, probably owing to the poverty of the manufacturers.
The exports of greatest value are textiles, lace, coal, coke, briquettes, glass, machinery, railway material and fire arms.
The extensive cultivation of beetroot, of potatoes for distilleries, and of fodder crops has led to the introduction of a rotation of several years instead of the former " three-fields " system; and agricultural machinery is in more general use, especially on the larger estates of the west.
Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute, hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
The principal imports are coal, machinery, salt, grain and provisions.
Its manufactures include pianos, paper, cardboard, machinery, boats and barges.
In more modern times there has been the same excavation of shallow pits, and sluicing, sifting and sorting, by hand labour, the only machinery used being chain pumps made of earthen bowls to remove the water from the deeper pits.
For the extraction and treatment of the blue ground the De Beers Company in its great winding and washing plant employs labour-saving machinery on a gigantic scale.
Until recently the final separation of the diamond from the concentrates was made by hand picking, but even this has now been replaced by machinery, owing to the remarkable discovery that a greased surface will hold a diamond while allowing the other heavy minerals to pass over it.
Machinery was invented for disintegrating the leaves and freeing the fibre, and at the same time experiments were made with the view of obtaining it by water-retting, and by means of alkaline solutions and other chemical agencies.
Wool-weaving and the manufacture of woollen goods, machinery, chemicals and bricks are among the other industries.
The conservative tendencies of the Chinese people have prevented them adopting the modern methods of extensive cultivation based on scientific principles, and the manipulation of crops by machinery in place of hand labour.