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machine

machine

machine Sentence Examples

  • The noise from the machine that circulated the oxygen frightened her.

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  • No machine will be a politician.

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  • But what if a machine did everything people really don't want to do?

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  • Maybe he left the machine things...

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  • 16 a somewhat similar machine worked by electric power.

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  • 16 a somewhat similar machine worked by electric power.

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  • Pierre felt himself to be an insignificant chip fallen among the wheels of a machine whose action he did not understand but which was working well.

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  • "We put a 'Bird Song is full' message on the answering machine," Cynthia said.

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  • The currents were produced by a magneto-electric machine resembling that of Clarke.

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  • "Just thank the quarter slot machine at Mr. Trump's place," Fred said, as they rose to leave.

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  • "Just thank the quarter slot machine at Mr. Trump's place," Fred said, as they rose to leave.

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  • Their surroundings looked as if someone had left a fog machine on too long in a gym.

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  • The ink is electrified by a small induction electrical machine E placed on the top of the instrument; this causes it to fall in very minute drops from the open end of the siphon tube upon the brass table or the paper slip passing over it.

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  • Since leaving college, she'd stayed in shape through the local gym, where she lifted weights and forced herself onto a cardio machine twice a week.

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  • People used to sweep the streets at night until a machine replaced them.

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  • There was an old treadle sewing machine with carved drawers and even a grandfathers' clock, stating the permanent time of three p.m.

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  • It is natural for a man who does not understand the workings of a machine to imagine that a shaving that has fallen into it by chance and is interfering with its action and tossing about in it is its most important part.

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  • No matter how convincing the machine is, once I know it is a machine, I won't care about it anymore.

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  • Outsourcing a job to get it done more cheaply or building a machine to do it more cheaply is really the same.

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  • She shoved the machine again until the space was wide enough for him to squeeze through.

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  • The machine should start looking for correlations we would not expect.

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  • Her hair was drawn back severely into a bun and she had black eyes that could render a lie detector machine obsolete.

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  • We've got to start moving everything within twenty-four hours, Lon told them, slinging a machine gun over his shoulder.

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  • A transporter of this kind, when fitted with a grab, is a very efficient machine for taking coal from barges and depositing it in a coal store.

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  • He set the iPad he carried on a totaled machine a few feet away without coming closer.

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  • Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).

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  • Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).

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  • With this machine movable type shuttles can be used, and one can have several shuttles, each with a different set of characters--Greek, French, or mathematical, according to the kind of writing one wishes to do on the typewriter.

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  • I knew Quinn kept cryptic notes of machine settings and results but I was sure the majority of his writings remained in Keene.

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  • No machine will ever be an interior decorator.

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  • No machine will ever star in a Broadway musical.

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  • Yes, our body is just a machine for living, that is all.

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  • I was then for a time the Head of the finest Flying Machine that was ever known to exist, and we did many wonderful things.

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  • He and Fred did not enjoy the same music so when both were home the five-disc machine usually contained two jazz selections for Dean, two country and western for Fred, and a pop group neither liked but both could tolerate.

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  • The insulation is again tested, and if no fault is discovered the served core is passed through the sheathing machine, and the iron sheath and the outer covering are laid on.

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  • In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.

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  • In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.

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  • The man who does not understand the construction of the machine cannot conceive that the small connecting cogwheel which revolves quietly is one of the most essential parts of the machine, and not the shaving which merely harms and hinders the working.

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  • The machine was set for "random selection" so no one was cheated.

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  • The implication is always that some people are simply unable to do any job that a machine cannot do.

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  • If a million people lose their jobs to a machine, then entrepreneurs start businesses that hire those people to do other things.

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  • In the second case every axle in the train may be made a driving-axle if desired, in which case the locomotive as a separate machine disappears.

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  • The pair spent the balance of the morning emptying the washing machine and dryer, only to fill them with never-ending loads, while in between clearing dishes, brewing more coffee, and playing the jovial innkeepers.

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  • The pair spent the balance of the morning emptying the washing machine and dryer, only to fill them with never-ending loads, while in between clearing dishes, brewing more coffee, and playing the jovial innkeepers.

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  • If every job that could be done by a machine was done by a machine tomorrow, the standard of living of virtually everyone on the planet would rise.

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  • This received perforated tape is then used to control what is known as the printer or automatic typewriter, a machine that translates the tape perforations into letters and prints the messages in Roman type in page form.

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  • Any task that could be done a machine is, by definition, dehumanizing to a human being.

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  • No machine will ever be a kindergarten teacher.

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  • Later criticism, orthodox and heterodox, upon the English deists inclines to charge them with the conception of a divine absentee, who wound up the machine of nature and left it to run untended.

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  • Darian swiped his towel from another machine and approached.

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  • In Thomas Walker's harpoon or frictionless log, introduced in 1861, the wheelwork was enclosed in a cylindrical case of the same diameter as the body of the rotator or fan, and the latter was brought close up to the register, forming a compact machine and avoiding the use of the 6-ft.

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  • Machine shops are usually provided to enable minor repairs to be executed; the tendency, both in England and America, is to increase the amount of such repairing plant at engine sheds, thus lengthening the intervals between the visits of the engines to the main repairing shops of the railway.

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  • Have I convinced you that replacing people with machines frees people from the bondage of doing machine work?

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  • When they are worked from a power station the great advantage is gained that the same plant which drives them can be used for many other purposes, such as working machine tools and supplying current for lighting.

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  • Every nail driven should be as another rivet in the machine of the universe, you carrying on the work.

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  • Each of the hotel rooms features a private bedroom with a living room, two cable televisions, mini fridge and microwave, coffee machine, sleep sofa and personal items like a hair dryer, iron and ironing board.

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  • The club owns a party bus you can rent complete with sound effects, tropical interior, a full tiki bar and a smoke machine.

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  • The industries are equal in importance to the transit trade, and embrace metalworking, ironfounding and machine building, the manufacture of electric plant, celluloid, automobiles, furniture, cables and chemicals, sugar refining, cigar and tobacco making, and brewing.

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  • Nature as a machine, governed by changeless causal law, is necessary to thought.

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  • The machine will figure this out as it collects more data and incorporates more variables, and then experiments on people to see which combinations of factors work the best.

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  • But I am not talking about a state of affairs where overnight someone with a "machine job" gets unlimited wealth.

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  • They work at jobs they do not like, doing work a machine should be doing.

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  • She dug through the pockets in her jeans and pulled out the stash of one dollar bills she'd been given for trips to the candy machine down the hall.

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  • A very refined modification of the Cape machine is described by A.

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  • The city has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and foundries (value of products in 1905, $ 1, 743, 1 55, or 31% of the total of the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships (wooden and steel), wooden ware, woodpipe, veneer, railroad machinery, cement, alkali and chicory.

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  • Denver has also large foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, and slaughtering and meat-packing establishments.

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  • The city has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and foundries (value of products in 1905, $ 1, 743, 1 55, or 31% of the total of the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships (wooden and steel), wooden ware, woodpipe, veneer, railroad machinery, cement, alkali and chicory.

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  • They still have the hand-operated machine from the 1940s that was used to make the first Legos, but it is of course now a museum piece.

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  • "I'll find the exact address," she said as she turned on the machine.

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  • Dean called the auctioneer but reached only his answering machine.

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  • A small door—possibly leading to a bathroom or closet—was closed and blocked by one of Ully.s science toys the size of a copy machine.

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  • Hesitating only a moment, she shoved the machine.

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  • Have you been using that machine?

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  • If she were unfamiliar with the accepted societal behaviors of a woman on his planet, he couldn't expect her to be any more familiar with the machine.

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  • I guessed you were, but ma doesn't have an answering machine.

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  • The right mix was in so Dean turned on the machine.

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  • Dean was down to 11 dollars and change, so he used his Visa card, holding his breath that it wasn't maxed-out while the clerk ran it through the recording machine.

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  • And yes, Monica had been right: it was much, much better than a month of Thursdays with Hot-Sheets Rosewater the Sex Machine.

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  • No one outside the woman who adopted me and turned me into a killing machine.

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  • The term is thus applied to a metal bar, slender in proportion to its length, used as a tie, brace or connecting shaft between different parts, of a machine.

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  • With a steam locomotive all the power is concentrated in one machine, and therefore the weight on the drivers available for adhesion is limited.

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  • With a portion of this sum he obtained release from the last six months of his apprenticeship, and with the rest he purchased a glass-polishing machine.

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  • Amongst the earliest mechanical contrivances of Fraunhofer was a machine for polishing mathematically uniform spherical surfaces.

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  • he made a strong speech against the policy of "direct action," pointing out that Labour could capture the political machine if working men were sufficiently united and sufficiently active, but that threats would only throw back their cause and set all other classes against them.

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  • Besides the royal foundry, with which are connected machine manufactories and boilerworks, there are other foundries, meal mills and manufactories of wire, gas pipes, cement and paper.

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  • Marshalltown is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Great Western, and the Iowa Central railways, the last of which has machine shops here.

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  • The party machine, however, did not give him any support.

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  • Ashland has large saw-mills, iron and steel rolling mills, foundries and machine shops, railway repair shops (of the Chicago & NorthWestern railway), knitting works, and manufactories of dynamite, sulphite fibre, charcoal and wood-alcohol.

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  • In the city are machine and car shops of the International & Great Northern railway, and cottoncompresses, and there are manufactures of cotton-seed oil, &c. Taylor, named in honour of Gen.

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  • Columbus is situated in a fine farming region, and has extensive tanneries, threshingmachine and traction and automobile engine works, structural iron works, tool and machine shops, canneries and furniture factories.

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  • In 1718 Sir Thomas and John Lombe set up an improved silkthrowing machine at Derby, and in 1758 Jedediah Strutt introduced a machine for making ribbed stockings, which became famous as the "Derby rib."

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  • In 1884, at Shrewsbury, a prize of £Ioo was awarded for a sheafbinding reaper, and one of £50 for a similar machine.

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  • In 1886, at Norwich, a prize of 25 was awarded for a thatch-making machine.

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  • In 1889, at Windsor, prizes were awarded for a fruit and vegetable evaporator, a paring and coring machine, a dairy thermometer, parcel post butter-boxes to carry different weights, and a vessel to contain preserved butter.

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  • He found himself looked upon with curiosity as a precocious phenomenon, a "made man," an intellectual machine set to grind certain tunes.

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  • In modern problems we can watch the economic machine actually at work, cross-examine our witnesses, see that delicate interplay of passions and interests which cannot be set down or described in a document, and acquire a certain sense of touch in relation to the questions at issue which manuscripts and records cannot impart.

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  • There are also tanneries, tobacco manufactories, machine works and foundries.

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  • The principal manufactures are hardware, foundry and machine shop products, ammunition and fire-arms (the Winchester Company), carriages and wagons, malt liquors, paper boxes and corsets.

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  • Lowne's machine is useful in specially wide-planted fields and when the ground is sufficiently hard.

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  • With this primitive machine, worked by hand, about 5 lb of lint is the daily output.

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  • A similar, but larger machine, requiring about horse-power to run it, will turn out 50 to 60 lb of Egyptian or 60 to 80 lb of Sea Island cleaned cotton per hour.

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  • This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.

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  • It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.

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  • The machine which will gin the largest quantity in the shortest time is naturally preferred, unless such injury is, occasioned as materially to diminish the market value of the cotton.

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  • The cotton leaves the ginning machine in a very loose condition, and has to be compressed into bales for convenience of transport.

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  • The shells and kernels are then separated in a winnowing machine.

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  • The miraculous germs always exist alongside other germs in a sort of sheath, like hidden springs in a machine, and emerge into the light when their time comes."

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  • God for him is the creator and ruler of the world, but hardly more; he is the master of a vast machine that grinds out human destinies without sympathy with man and without visible regard for what man deems justice - a being to be acknowledged as lord, not one to be loved.

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  • The silicate in the form of a concentrated solution is crutched or stirred into the soap in a mechanical mixing machine after the completion of the saponification, and it appears to enter into a distinct chemical combination with the soap. While silicate soaps bear heavy watering, the soluble silicate itself is a powerful detergent, and it possesses certain advantages when used with hard waters.

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  • Wood Mowing and Reaping Machine Co., which dates from 1866, the business having been started in 1852 by Walter Abbott Wood (1815-1892), who was a Republican representative in Congress in 1879-1883.

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  • There are also iron foundries and machine factories.

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  • It has woollen mills, cotton compresses, clothing, furniture, and spoke and stave factories and machine shops, and is a cotton market.

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  • by the explosion of an infernal machine: the plot was discovered and Alexander Oulianov was hanged together with four of his accomplices.

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  • Then he had stood with 420,000 men on a front of 160 m., now he had only 229,000 men on a front of 135; he had missed three great opportunities of destroying his enemy in detail, and in five weeks, during which time he had only traversed 200 m., he had seen his troops reduced numerically at least one-third, and, worse still, his army was now far from being the fighting machine it had been at the outset.

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  • There are extensive coal-fields and important iron, metal and machine industries, together with the manufacture of chemicals and corn-milling.

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  • The city is situated in an agricultural and cotton-raising region, and has cotton compresses and gins, cotton mills, cotton-seed oil refineries, foundries and machine shops, and furniture and wagon factories.

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  • Among the manufactures of the township are carriages and products of planing mills, foundries and machine shops; and grapes and fruits are raised in the surrounding country.

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  • This separation can be rapidly effected with some latices by the use of a centrifugal machine, but this method has not yet been applied to any extent commercially.

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  • As the removal of the impurities of the latex is one of the essential points to be aimed at, it was thought that the use of a centrifugal machine to separate the caoutchouc as a cream from the watery part of the latex would prove to be a satisfactory process.

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  • The coagulated rubber separated from the watery fluid is cut up into small pieces and passed through the grooved rollers of the washing machine, from which it issues in sheets, long crinkled ribbons or " crepe," which are then dried in hot air chambers or in a vacuum dryer, by which means the water is dissipated at a lower temperature.

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  • - Roller of Washing Machine.

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  • It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.

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  • The mixed rubber thus obtained is readily softened by heat, and can be very easily worked into any desired form or rolled into sheets by an apparatus known as the calendering machine.

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  • Indiarubber stereotypes are now extensively made use of as hand stamps, and attempts have been made to introduce them for press and machine printing.

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  • Next in importance are the machine, linen, cotton and paper manufactures, the milling, brewing and distilling industries and shipbuilding.

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  • Utilizing this principle he constructed the radiometer, which he was at first disposed to regard as a machine that directly transformed light into motion, but which was afterwards perceived to depend on thermal action.

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  • It is at this point that Van Buren's connexion began with so-called "machine politics," a connexion which has made his name odious to some historians of the period.

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  • Huntington is served by three railways - the Wabash, the Erie (which has car shops and division headquarters here) and the Cincinnati, Bluffton & Chicago (which has machine shops here), and by the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, whose car and repair shops and power station are in Huntington.

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  • The agricultural trade is extensive, and there are iron, brass and agricultural machine works.

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  • On his farm Smith carried out his experiments in deep and thorough draining, and also invented a reaping machine, the subsoil plough and numerous other valuable appliances.

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  • Among Bristol's manufacturing establishments are machine shops, rolling mills, a planing mill, yarn, hosiery and worsted mills, and factories for making carpets, wall paper and patent leather.

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  • The Ars magna of the former professed by means of a species of logical machine to give a rigid demonstration of all the fundamental Christian doctrines, and was intended by its author as an unfailing instrument for the conversion of the Saracens and heathen.

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  • The army of Matthias was not only a military machine of first-rate efficiency, but an indispensable civilizing medium.

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  • the Varga Mozsar, or great mortar, which sixty horses could scarce move from its place, and a ballistic machine invented by Matthias which could hurl stones of 3 cwt.

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  • The general working of the great machine was now laid bare, and it needed a further advance of knowledge to bring a fresh set of problems within reach of investigation.

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  • During 1919 internal politics centred in a struggle between the Radicals, who still possessed the best party machine and stood for a narrowly Serbian as opposed to a Yugoslav programme, and the newly constituted Democratic party, which absorbed most of the Serbian Opposition parties, the old Serbo-Croat coalition of Zagreb, and the Slovene Liberals.

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  • There were a few small reverses, of which De la Rey's successful rush upon Paris's column and capture of Lord Methuen was the most important, but when some initial mistakes in the composition of the driving lines, which robbed the earlier drives of part of their effect, were made good, the system worked like a machine.

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  • Brewing, distilling, cooperage, iron-founding, hatmaking and machine construction are carried on, and there are flour-mills, brick-works, saw-mills, sulphur refineries and leather and paper works.

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  • A mass of living protoplasm is simply a molecular machine of great complexity, the total results of the working of which, or its vital phenomena, depend - on the one hand, Life con- of this water is absolutely incompatible with either moister by a ctual or potential life.

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  • He was the author of numerous inventions, including the cagniardelle, a blowing machine, which consists essentially of an Archimedean screw set obliquely in a tank of water in such a way that its lower end is completely and its upper end partially immersed, and operated by being rotated in the opposite direction to that required for raising water.

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  • Under such conditions the pillar begins to yield, and fragments of mineral fly off with explosive violence, exactly as a specimen of rock will splinter under pressure in a testing machine.

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  • This seems to be due to the dust abundantly produced in mining operations, and especially by machine drills when boring " dry " (rising) blast holes.

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  • The increased mortality seems to be due to the general tendency toward forced speed in development work, which is secured by rapid drilling, and by an increase in the number of machine drills used in a single working-place.

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  • A bottle-making machine combines the process of pressing with a plunger with that of blowing by compressed air.

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  • Each machine (fig.

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  • After removal from the machine, the tumbler is severed from the blowing iron, and its fractured edge is trimmed.

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  • - Owens's Glass-blowing Machine.

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  • The Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands.

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  • They are weighed and then dumped into a washing machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.

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  • Sometimes the cells are erected in a circle, so that the spout below the slicing machine revolving above them with a corresponding radius can discharge the slices into the centre of any of the cells.

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  • The slabs are sent by a conveyor to a drying stove, whence they issue to pass through a cutting machine, provided with knives so arranged that the cutting takes place both downwards and upwards, and here the slabs are cut into cubes.

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  • The cubes fall from the cutting machine on to a riddling machine, which separates those which are defective in size from the rest.

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  • The prepared tobacco, while still moist and pliant, is pressed between cylinders into a light cake, and cut into fine uniform shreds by a machine analogous to the chaff-cutter.

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  • The roasting is most simply effected by spreading it on heated slabs, on which it is constantly turned, or a roasting machine is used, consisting of a revolving drum in which the tobacco is rotated, gradually passing from one end to the other, and all the time under the influence of a current of heated air.

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  • From the drum of the twisting machine the spun tobacco is rolled into cylinders of various sizes.

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  • Even a machine of simple type, like the ordinary drain-pipe machine, in which the retorts are made by forcing the plastic clay mixture through a die, may result in greater economy and uniformity than is possible when retorts are made by hand.

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  • As the machine is drawn forward the disk revolves and cuts deeply into the ground, and by reason of its inclination crowds the earth outwards and thus turns a furrow.

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  • The chief industries are cotton spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, printing, machine building and lithography, and there is an active trade in wine, beer and cheese.

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  • It is then separated in a centrifugal machine, the low melting-point impurities are removed by means of hot water, and the residue is finally hot-pressed.

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  • Corn and saw mills, distilleries, chemical factories, breweries, candle-works, ink-works, foundries, agricultural machine and automobile works, have been established and are flourishing.

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  • Its most distinctive manufactures are paper and wood pulp; more valuable are foundry and machine shop products; other manufactures are safes, malt liquors, flour, woollens, Corliss engines, carriages and wagons and agricultural implements.

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  • Cotton was first imported to Providence from Spain in 1785; a company to carry on cotton-spinning, formed at Providence in 1786, established there in the following year a factory containing a spinning jenny of 28 spindles (the first machine of the kind to be used in the United States), and also a carding machine and a spinning frame with which was manufactured a kind of jean having a linen warp and a cotton filling.

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  • were: combined textiles (not including flax, hemp and jute products) in 1900, $77,998,396; in 1905, $103,096, 311; foundry and machine shop products in 1900, $13,269,086; in 1905, $16,338,512; woollen goods in 1900, $5,330,550; in 1905, $8,163,167; rubber boots and shoes in 1 9 00, $8,034,417; electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies in 1900, $5,113,292; in 1905, $5,435,474; silversmithing and silverware in 1900, $4,249,190; in 1905, $5,323,264; gold and silver, reducing and refining (not from ore) in 1900, $3,484,454; in 1905, $4,260,698; cotton small wares in 1900, $2,379,500; in 1 905, $3,944, 60 7; hosiery and knit goods in 1900, $2,713,850; in 1905, $3,344,655; silk and silk goods in 1900, $1,311,333; in 1905, $2,555,986.

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  • The Republican machine finds it easy with the support of the millionaire summer colony at Newport and the street railway corporations to corrupt the French-Canadians and a portion of the native element in the rural towns and maintain absolute control of the state government.

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  • Rather it was a resolute determination to possess that control over the machine of state which should enable him to fulfil without let or hindrance the political mission with which he believed that Providence had charged him.

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  • He suggested the use of experimental tanks for testing the powers of ship models, invented an ear-trumpet for the deaf, improved the common house-stove of his native land, cured smoky chimneys, took a lively interest in machine-guns and even sketched a flying machine.

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  • This flying machine consisted of a light frame covered with strong canvas and provided with two large oars or wings moving on a horizontal axis, and so arranged that the upstroke met with no resistance while the downstroke provided the lifting power.

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  • Swedenborg knew that the machine would not fly, but suggested it as a start and was confident that the problem would be solved.

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  • He said "It seems easier to talk of such a machine than to put it into actuality, for it requires greater force and less weight than exists in a human body.

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  • In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.

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  • The construction of a flying machine was next attempted.

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  • About 1893 a satisfactory machine was ready, and a new series of troubles had to be faced, for it had to be launched at a certain initial speed, and in the face of any wind that might be blowing.

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  • To enable these conditions to be fulfilled, as well as to ensure that the machine, when it fell, should fall on water, the experiments were carried out on the Potomac river, some 30 m.

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  • Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establishments.

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  • Albert Lea is a railway and manufacturing centre of considerable importance, has grain elevators and foundries and machine shops, and manufactures bricks, tiles, carriages, wagons, flour, corsets, refrigerators and woollen goods.

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  • An ample supply of natural gas is utilized by its manufacturing establishments; and among its manufactures are axes, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, furniture, boilers, woollen goods, glass and chemical fire-engines.

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  • The initial difficulties of setting up an administrative machine on national lines were the greater as the troops of the occupying Power, affected by the revolution which had broken out in Germany, engaged in pillage and highway robbery, which a national militia as yet barely armed had to suppress.

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  • Sometimes the stuff is disintegrated with water in a " puddling machine," which was used, especially in Australia, when the earthy matters are tenacious and water scarce.

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  • The machine frequently resembles a brickmaker's wash-mill, and is worked by horse or steam power.

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  • The old handicraftsman has been superseded by machine labour and the village artisan by the factory hand.

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  • He invented a machine which so supported his hand that he could write legibly with closed eyes.

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  • Among the leading products are those of the furnaces, foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, planing mills, creameries, bridge and iron works, publishing houses and a packing house; and brick, tile, pottery, patent medicines, furniture, caskets, tombstones, carriages, farm machinery, Portland cement, glue, gloves and?hosiery.

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  • He laboriously perfected the military machine, which when once set in motion went on to victory.

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  • The climate and the scenery in and about Biddeford attract summer visitors and there are two resorts, Biddeford Pool and Fortune Rocks within the municipal limits; but the city is chiefly a manufacturing centre (third in rank among the cities of the state in 1905) - good water-power being furnished by the river - and cotton goods, foundry and machine shop products and lumber are the principal products, the first being by far the most important.

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  • The principal industry was the manufacture of iron and steel products, which, including steel and rolling mills, car, foundry and machine shops, and shipyards, represented more than 30% of the total capital, and approximately 25% of the total gross product of the manufactures in the state.

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  • 1841, in Pennsylvania), became a citizen of the state, and after securing for himself the control of the Wilmington gas supply, systematically set about building up a personal " machine " that would secure his election to the national Senate as a Republican.

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  • The soundings are made by means of a special machine fitted with a brake so adjusted that the revolution of the drum is stopped automatically the instant the lead touches the bottom, and the depth can then be read directly from an indicator.

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  • All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is perpendicular throughout its run.

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  • The use of this machine has allowed a thin seam of cannel, from 10 to 14 in.

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  • In the Gartsherrie machine of Messrs Baird, the earliest of the flexible chain cutter type, the chain of cutters works round a fixed frame or jib projecting at right angles from the engine carriage, an arrangement which makes it necessary to cut from the end of the block of coal to the full depth, instead of holing into it from the face.

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  • This is one of the most compact forms of machine, the smaller size being only 20 in.

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  • The chain machine has been largely developed in America in the Jeffrey, Link Bell, and Morgan Gardner coal cutters.

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  • These are similar in principle to the Baird machine, the cutting agent being a flat link chain carrying a double set of chisel points, which are drawn across the coal face at the rate of about 5 ft.

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  • The carrying frame, while the work is going on, is fixed in position by jackscrews bearing against the roof of the seam, which, when the cut is completed, are withdrawn, and the machine shifted laterally through a distance equal to the breadth of the cut and fixed in position again.

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  • - Winstanly & Barker's Coal-cutting Machine - Plan.

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  • This type has been greatly improved and now is the most popular machine in Great Britain, especially in long-wall workings.

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  • When in use the machine is placed upon a wooden platform inclining vi.

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  • 19 a - towards the face, upon which the miner lies and controls the direction of the blow by a pair of handles at the back of the machine, which is kept stationary by wedging the wheels against a stop on the platform.

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  • The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

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  • An early and very successful machine of this class, the Guibal fan, is represented in fig.

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  • The smaller duff is separated by vibrating or rotating screens into a great number of sizes, which are cleaned by washing in continuous current or pulsating jigging machines, where the lighter coal rises to the surface and is removed by a stream of water, while the heavier waste falls and is discharged at a lower level, or through a valve at the bottom of the machine.

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  • There are ship-yards, iron foundries and forges, machine shops, shirt factories, a pottery for the manufacture of sanitary earthenware, a woollen mill and canning factories.

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  • Every part of a machine transmitting force suffers elastic defor mation, and the force may be measured indirectly by measuring the deformation.

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  • The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.

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  • The leading manufacturing industries in 1905, with the product-value of each in this year, were slaughtering and meat-packing ($4,040,162), foundry and machine shop work ($3,146,914), flour and grist milling ($ 2, 79 8, 74 0), lumber manufacturing and planing ($2,519,081), printing and publishing (newspapers and periodicals, $2,097,339 and book and job printing, $1,278,841), car construction and repairing ($1,549,836) - in 1910 there were railway shops here of the Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric, Los Angeles Street, Salt Lake and Santa Fe railways - and the manufacture of confectionery ($953,915), furniture ($879,910) and malt liquors ($789,393).

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  • This subject he was led to study by the experience of a colliery engineman, who noticed that he received a sharp shock on exposing one hand to a jet of steam issuing from a boiler with which his other hand was in contact, and the inquiry was followed by the invention of the "hydro-electric" machine, a powerful generator of electricity, which was thought worthy of careful investigation by Faraday.

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  • This machine depended simply on the pressure of water acting directly in a cylinder on a piston, which was connected with suitable multiplying gear.

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  • It has iron and brass foundries, machine factories and textile establishments.

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  • When they have been reduced to the correct thickness they are examined by the " tryer," who cuts out one or two blanks from each fillet with a hand machine and weighs them on a delicate balance.

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  • The cutting machine used in the Mint is shown in fig.

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  • The revolution of an eccentric A causes two short steel cylinders or cutters mounted on a block of iron B, suitably guided, to enter two holes in a plate fixed to the bed of the machine.

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  • In the case of very large silver coins only one blank is cut in the width of the fillet, but bronze fillets are made wider so that three penny blanks are cut out at each stroke of the machine.

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  • The blanks are then passed to an edge rolling machine, by which they are thickened at the edge so as to form a rim to protect the finished coin from wear.

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  • - Cutting Machine.

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  • The distance between the block and the plate is adjusted so as to be slightly less than the diameter of the blank, and the result is that the edge of the blank is thickened and its diameter reduced before it escapes from the machine.

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  • About 720 blanks are passed through this machine per minute.

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  • of many foreign coins, are put on by the marking machine, and a plain collar is used in striking.

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  • The lever M worked from the front of the machine causes the flywheel to be connected with the driving-wheel and the machine starts.

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  • to the bed of the machine, and the blank is placed exactly upon it.

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  • The machine can be set to deliver a certain number of coins, after which the counting wheel stops automatically.

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  • Barley is cut, either with scythe or machine, when it is quite ripe with the ears bending over.

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  • In any case it must not be stacked while damp, and if cut by machine is therefore sometimes tied in sheaves and set up in stooks as in the case of wheat.

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  • Chebichev further constructed an instrument for drawing large circles, and an arithmetical machine with continuous motion.

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  • Among Davenport's manufactures are the products of foundries and machine shops, and of flouring, grist and planing mills; glucose syrup and products; locomotives, steel cars and car parts, washing machines, waggons, carriages, agricultural implements, buttons, macaroni, crackers and brooms. The value of the total factory product for 1905 was $13,695,978, an increase of 38.7% over that of 1900.

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  • Besides machine shops and shipbuilding facilities, the important industries are the weaving of hats and hammocks, and the preparation of salt fish; and there is a considerable export of rubber and straw hats.

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  • Other important manufactures are: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $6,251,705 in 1905; malt liquors, $4,471,777; and foundry and machine shop products, $3,862,279.

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  • Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.

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  • The Russians, with the resources of the fleet at their disposal (just as at Sevastopol), used great numbers of machine guns and electric lights, and the available garrison at first was probably, including sailors, 47,000 men.

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  • At Pan-Lung the machine guns on the Wall prevented them from leaving the parallel.

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  • At Chi-Kuan Fort the terreplein of the fort had been covered with entanglements defended by machine guns on the gorge parapets, and the Japanese could make no way.

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  • It was very commonly believed at the time that this nomination for the vice-presidency was participated in and heartily approved of by the machine politicians or "bosses" of the State of New York in their belief that it would result in his elimination from active political life.

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  • The growth of the corporation as an industrial machine had in recent years been very rapid in the United States.

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  • The Specula Melitensis Encyclica (1638) gives an account of a kind of calculating machine of his invention.

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  • By rot ting a small electro-magnet in water, between the poles of ano her magnet, and then measuring the heat developed in the wat r and other parts of the machine, the current induced in the coils, and the energy required to maintain rotation, he cal b lated that the quantity of heat capable of warming one you d of water one degree F.

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  • The situation was often such that Parliament would not work, and the Government was faced with the alternative of stopping the machine of State or availing itself of emergency decrees.

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  • Other products exceeding $1,000,000 in value were: leather ($14, 0 74,397), Milwaukee being second in the manufacture of leather among the cities of the United States; foundry and machine shop products ($10,232,723); iron and steel ($7,010,793); flour and grist-mill products ($6,320,428) slaughtering and meat-packing products ($5,95 8, 5 1 5); men's clothing ($4,759,54 8); boots and shoes ($2,929,405); electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($2,257,229); chewing and smoking tobacco ($1,966,930) and cigars and cigarettes ($1,540,019); furniture ($1,767,290); trunks and valises ($1,623,310); hosiery and knit goods ($ 1, 535, 1 7 6); confectionery ($1,379,668); stoves and furnaces ($1,288,931); leather gloves and mittens 41,207,633); structural iron work ($1,037,217); wooden packing boxes ($1,024,750); and paints ($ 1, 01 5,774).

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  • the machine shops (35 acres) of the Allis-Chalmers Company at West Allis, employing about 5000 men and making engines of all kinds; and the plant of the Illinois Steel Company, at Bay View on the south side, which covers 154 acres.

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  • Coal-mining and iron and machine manufactures are also carried on.

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  • There are various important manufactures, such as soap and candles, subsidiary to the packing industry; and the city has large flour mills, railway and machine shops, and foundries.

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  • The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.

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  • The idea underlying these councils was to create, as it were, a certain constitution for factories by which the workman who had hitherto been a mere machine should become a creative factor, closely identified with the organization of the undertaking, conscious of responsibility, and thus making of democracy the same reality in economic life as it had already become in political life.

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  • This force, which is in essence a militia, is designed to be something different from a mere fighting machine.

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  • In the manufacture of vehicles, harness, leather, hardwood lumber, wood-working machinery, machine tools, printing ink, soap, pig-iron, malt liquors, whisky, shoes, clothing, cigars and tobacco, furniture, cooperage goods, iron and steel safes and vaults, and pianos, also in the packing of meat, especially pork,' it ranks very high among the cities of the Union.

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  • These figures are from the U.S. census, and are of course for Cincinnati proper: some of the largest industrial establishments, however, are just outside the city limits - among these are manufactories of soap (the Ivory Soap Works), machine tools, electrical machinery and appliances, structural and architectural iron work, and office furnishings.

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  • Although he was not the founder of Tammany Hall, he began the construction of the political machine upon which the power of that organization is based.

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  • The value of its factory products in 1905 was $ 1 7, 1 4 6, 33 8 (1 4.3% more than in 1900), the more important being those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), blast furnaces, steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette factories ($1,258,498), foundries and machine shops ($953,617), boot and shoe factories ($922,568), flouring and grist mills, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments and silk mills.

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  • In Brewster's Edinburgh Journal of Science for 1828 he described his machine for polishing the speculum, which in all essential points remained unaltered afterwards.

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  • Other important manufactures, with their product values in 1900 and in 1905, are iron and steel ($5,004,572 in 1900; $6,167,542 in 1905); railway cars ($4,248,029 in 1900; $5,739,071 in 1905); packed meats ($5, 1 77, 16 7 in 1900; $5, 6 93,73 1 in 1905); foundry and machine shop products ($4,434,610 in 1900; $4, 6 99,559 in 1905); planing mill products, including sash, doors and blinds ($1,891,517 in 1900; $4,593, 2 5 1 in 1905-an increase already remarked); carriages and wagons ($2,849,713 in 1900; $4,059,438 in 1905); tanned and curried leather ($3,757,016 in 1900; $3,952,277 in 1905); and malt liquors ($3,186,627 in 1900; $3,673,678 in 1905).

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  • The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway has since built large machine and car shops.

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  • Foundry and machine shop products, hosiery and knit goods, wooden boxes, flour and grist mill products, and malt liquors are other important manufactures; the value of wooden boxes increased from $979,758 in 1900 to $2,565,612 in 1905, or 161.9%, and the value of hosiery and knit goods increased during the same period from $2,592,829 to $3,974,290, or 53.3%.

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  • It is a shipping and transfer point and has paper mills, machine shops, flour mills, sash, door and blind factories, a launch and pleasure-boat factory, and knitting works, cheese factories and dairies, brick yards and grain elevators.

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  • In the engineering industries milling machines constitute a very important class of machine tools, the characteristic of which is that rotary cutters are employed for shaping the metal.

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  • This machine also enabled legends to be impressed round the edges of coins, such as the Decus et tutamen suggested by Evelyn (see W.

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  • Like the town of Dewsbury, on the south-east, it is an important centre of the blanket and carpet manufactures, and there are also machine works, dye works and iron foundries.

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  • The twelve constellations of the zodiac form an ingenious machine, a great wheel with buckets, which pour into the sun and moon, those shining ships that sail continually through space, the portions of light set free from the world.

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  • The manufacture of lumber and timber gave employment to the largest total number of workers; and this industry, together with those of foundry and machine shops (including locomotives, stoves and furnaces), cotton goods (including small wares), railway car and repair shops, and iron and steel, were (in order) the five greatest employers of labor.

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  • In each of four other industries the products exceeded in value five hundred millions of dollars, namely, those of foundry and machine shops, flour and grist mills, iron and steel, and lumber and timber.

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  • Trinidad has railway shops, foundry and machine shops, and coking ovens, ships large quantities of coal, has a woolscouring mill, and various manufactures.

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  • So great was the outcry caused by its publication that Lamettrie was forced to take refuge in Leiden, where he developed his doctrines still more boldly and completely, and with great originality, in L'Homme machine (Eng.

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  • of Homme machine).

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  • A cryptographic machine, which changed the cipher automatically and printed a message, entirely unintelligible until translated by a duplicate instrument, was one of the most perfect examples of this.

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  • The above example illustrates how Nicholson's or Fahrenheit's hydrometer may be employed as a weighing machine for small weights.

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  • The establishments include slaughtering and meat-packing houses, whose product is by far the most valuable in the city, bleacheries, finishing factories, glassworks, machine shops, tube works, jewelry factories, and a desk factory.

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  • Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.

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  • The iron works are very important: smelting is carried on in the Harz and near Osnabruck; there are extensive foundries and machine factories at Hanover, Linden, Osnabruck, Hameln, Geestemunde, Harburg, Osterode, &c., and manufactories of arms at Herzberg, and of cutlery in the towns of the Harz and in the Sollinger Forest.

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  • The value of the principal products in 1900 was as follows: slaughtering and meat packing, $9,631,187 (in 1905 slaughtering and meat-packing $ 12, 2 16,433, and slaughtering, not including meat-packing, $3,9 1 9,94 0); foundry and machine shop products, $6,816,057 (1905, $11,402,855); linseed oil, $6,271,170; cars and shop construction, $4,513,333(1905, $3,609,471); malt liquors, $4,269,973 (1905, $5,187,216); soap and candles, $3,818,571 (in 1905, soap $4,79 2, 9 1 5); flour and grist mill products, $3,263,697 (1905, $9,807,906); lumber and planing mill products, $3,095,760 (1905, $4,186,668); clothing, $3, 2 4 6, 7 2 3 (1905, $4,231,126); iron and steel products, $2,624,547.

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  • In these the cocoons are immersed in rectangular perforated boxes for about three minutes, when they are transferred to the beating machine (batteuse), an earthenware trough having a perforated false bottom through which steam keeps the water at a temperature of from 140° to 160°.

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  • Each separate strand passes through the eye of a faller, which, should the fibre break, falls down and instantly stops the machine, thus effectually calling attention to the fact that a thread has failed.

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  • Numerous attempts have been made to simplify the silk-throwing by combining two or more operations on one machine, but not as yet with much success.

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  • Thence the silk is taken to a washing machine, and the loosened gum thoroughly washed away.

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  • When the waste contains any large percentage of worm or chrysalis, it is taken to a " cocoon beater," a machine which has a large revolving disk on which the silk is put, and while revolving slowly is beaten by a leather whip or flail, which loosens the silk and knocks out the wormy matter.

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  • The object of the spinner at this point is to straighten out the tangles and lumps, and to lay the fibres parallel: the first machine to assist in this process being known as an opening machine, and the second as a filling engine.

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  • When the teeth are full the machine is stopped, and the silk stripped off the drum, then presenting a sheet-like appearance technically known as a " lap."

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  • with rows of coarser straight teeth, each row set parallel with the axle of the machine.

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  • The silk drawn by the rows of teeth on the drum through the porcupine rollers (or porcupine sheets in some cases) covers the whole of the drum, hooked at certain intervals round the teeth; and when a sufficient weight is on the machine, it is stopped, and an attendant cuts, with a knife, the silk along the back of each row of teeth, thus leaving a fringe of silk hooked on the pins or teeth.

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  • This fringe of silk is placed by the attendant between two hinged boards, and whilst held firmly in these boards (called book-boards) is pulled off the machine, and is called a " strip "; the part which has been hooked round the teeth is called the " face," and the other portion the " tail."

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  • In each machine the object is the same.

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  • This fibre again yields combings which will also be combed, and so on for five or six times until the combings are too short, and are taken from the machine and known as noils.

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  • The flat frame is the most gentle in its usage of the silk, but is most costly in labour; whilst the circular frame, being more severe in its action, is not suitable for the thoroughly degummed silks, but on the other hand is best for silks containing much wormy matter, because the silk hanging down into the combing teeth is thoroughly cleansed of such foreign matter, which is deposited under the machine.

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  • Recently a new machine has been invented giving the same results as circular frame: the silk depends from boxes into combs, and at the same time has the gentle action of the flat frame.

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  • The cost of the operations is as cheap as the circular frame, therefore the machine combines the advantages of each of its predecessors.

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  • A faller or gill drawing machine consists of a long feeding sheet which conveys silk to a pair of rollers (back rollers).

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  • This lap is sometimes re-spread to make it more even, and at other times taken to a drawing machine which delivers in a sliver form.

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  • Eight or more slivers are put behind the first drawing head, conveyed through the fallers and made into one sliver in front of the machine.

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  • From the last head of drawing the sliver is taken to a machine known as a gill rover.

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  • This is a drawing machine fitted with fallers through which the sliver is drawn, but the end from the front roller is wound on to a bobbin.

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  • The machine is fitted with 20 to 40 of these bobbins placed side by side, and its product is known as " slubbing roving," it being now a soft, thick thread of silk, measuring usually either 840 or 1260 yds.

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  • Hitherto all the drawing has been by rollers and fallers, but in the next machine the drawing is done by rollers only.

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  • Two or three slubbing rovings are put up behind the machine opposite each spindle; each end is guided separately into back rollers and thence between smaller rollers, known as carrier rollers, to the front rollers.

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  • either mules, ring frames, cap or flyer frames, the choice of machine being determined by the size or count of yarn intended to be produced.

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  • The fibre and nibs have to be cleaned off by means of a gassing machine so constructed that the end of silk (silk yarn) is frictioned to throw off the nibs, and at the same time is run very rapidly through a gas flame a sufficient number of times to burn off the hairy and fibrous matter without injuring the main thread.

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  • The usual method of obtaining spectra by the discharges from a Ruhmkorff coil or Wimshurst machine needs no description.

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  • Huntington has extensive railway car and repair shops, besides foundries and machine shops, steel rolling mills, manufactories of stoves and ranges, breweries and glass works.

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  • The manufactures are chiefly sugar, fertilizers, and such products of the foundry and machine shop as are required for the machinery of the sugar factories.

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  • There are rock quarries here, and the city manufactures sewing machines, musical instruments, especially pianos, foundry and machine shop products, agricultural implements and furniture.

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  • Soon afterwards he constructed a machine from which the liquefied gas could be drawn off through a valve for use as a cooling agent, and he showed its employment for this purpose'in connexion with some researches on meteorites; about the same time he also obtained oxygen in the solid state.

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  • He next experimented with a highpressure hydrogen jet by which low temperatures were realized through the Thomson-Joule effect, and the successful results thus obtained led him to build at the Royal Institution the large refrigerating machine by which in 1898 hydrogen was for the first time collected in the liquid state, its solidification following in 1899.

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  • Besides investigating other phenomena connected with a vacuum, he constructed an electrical machine which depended on the excitation of a rotating ball of sulphur; and he made successful researches in astronomy, predicting the periodicity of the return of comets.

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  • On the political side the chief features in the history of the state since 1865 have been the adoption of the constitution of 1873, the growth of the Cameron-Quay-Penrose political machine, and the attempts of the reformers to overthrow its domination.

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  • In the southern part of the city is a United States navy yard and station, officially the Norfolk Yard (the second largest in the country), of about 450 acres, with three immense dry docks, machine shops, warehouses, travelling and water cranes, a training station, torpedoboat headquarters, a powder plant (20 acres), a naval magazine, a naval hospital and the distribution headquarters of the United State Marine Corps.

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  • When the mixed gases were in the right proportion, the rate of absorption was about 3 o c.c. per hour, about: thirty times as fast as Cavendish could work with the electrical machine of his day.

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  • Its object is to distribute all the materials evenly throughout the mass, and it is performed in many different ways, both by hand and by machine.

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  • The relative values of hand and machine work are often discussed.

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  • Roughly it may be said that where a large mass of concrete is to be mixed at one or two places a good machine will be of great advantage.

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  • It is usually done in one of three ways: - (a) By moulding the concrete ashore into large blocks, which, when sufficiently hard, are lowered through the water into position by a crane or similar machine with the aid of divers.

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  • Krupp for use for the outer tube of the German navy periscope used before the war, and a similar steel was developed and used in the British service, but it is costly and more difficult to machine to the required accuracy than is the case with bronze.

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  • Its chief industries are iron foundries, machine shops, salt works and breweries - other articles of manufacture being bricks and cement.

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  • Nowadays, however, quite large trees, chiefly of an ornamental character, and perhaps weighing several tons, are lifted with a large ball of soil attached to the roots, by means of a special tree-lifting machine, and are readily transferred from one part of the garden to another, or even for a distance of several miles, without serious injury.

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  • At least as early as the 3rd century B.C. the custom was introduced of spreading the peplus like a sail on the mast of a ship, which was rolled on a machine in the procession.

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  • ELECTRICAL (or [[Electrostatic) Machine]], a machine operating by manual or other power for transforming mechanical work into electric energy in the form of electrostatic charges of opposite sign delivered to separate conductors.

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  • A primitive form of frictional electrical machine was constructed about 1663 by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686).

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  • It was found that the machine acted better if the rubbers were covered with bisulphide of tin or with F.

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  • Edward Nairne's electrical machine (1787) consisted of a glass cylinder with two insulated conductors, called prime conductors, on glass legs placed near it.

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  • - Ramsden's electrical machine.

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  • Nairne's machine could give either positive or negative electricity, the first named being collected from the prime conductor carrying the collecting points and the second from the prime conductor carrying the cushion.

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  • The first suggestion for a machine of the above kind seems to have grown out of the invention of Volta's electrophorus.

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  • Abraham Bennet, the inventor of the gold leaf electro e described a doubler or machine for multiplying Bennet'.

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  • P. Thompson, "The Influence Machine from 1788 to 1888," Journ.

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  • Nicholson thus described the operation of his machine: "When the plates A and B are opposite each other, the two fixed plates A and C may be considered as one mass, and the revolving plate B, together with the ball D, will constitute another mass.

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  • Modern types of influence machine may be said to date from 1860 when C. F.

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  • Varley patented a type of influence machine which has been the parent of numerous subsequent forms (Brit.

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  • Varley also constructed a multiple form of influence machine having six rotating disks, each having a number of carriers and rotating between field plates.

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  • Toepler, who in 1865 constructed an influence machine consisting of FIG.

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  • - Varley's Machine.

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  • Holtz constructed and described a large number of influence machines which were for a long time considered the most advanced development of this type of electrostatic machine.

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  • In one form the Holtz machine consisted of a glass disk mounted on a horizontal axis F (fig.

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  • To start the machine the balls were brought in contact, one of the paper armatures electrified, say, with positive electricity, and the disk set in motion.

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  • Thereupon very shortly a hissing sound was heard and the machine became harder to turn as if the disk were moving through a resisting medium.

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  • The action of the machine is as follows: Suppose one paper armature to be charged positively, it acts by induction on the right hand comb, causing negative electricity to issue from the comb points upon the glass revolving disk; at the same time the positive electricity passes through the closed discharge circuit to the left comb and issues from its teeth upon the part of the glass disk at the opposite end of the diameter.

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  • Holtz's machine is very uncertain in its action in a moist climate, and has generally to be enclosed in a chamber in which the air is kept artificially dry.

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  • All the above described machines, however, have been thrown into the shade by the invention of a greatly improved type of influence machine first constructed by James Wimshurst about 1878.

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  • The operation of the machine is as follows: Let us suppose that one of the studs on the back plate is positively electrified and one at the opposite end of a diameter is negatively electrified, and that at that moment two corresponding studs on the front plate passing opposite to these back studs are momentarily connected together by the neutralizing wire belonging to the front plate.

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  • - Holtz's Machine.

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  • - Wimshurst's Machine.

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  • He also devised an alternating current electrical machine in which the discharge balls were alternately positive and negative.

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  • Tudsbury that if an influence machine is enclosed in a metallic chamber containing compressed air, or better, carbon dioxide, the insulating properties of compressed gases enable a greatly improved effect to be obtained owing to the diminution of the leakage across the plates and from the supports.

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  • In one case a machine with plates 8 in.

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  • Lord Kelvin also devised an influence machine, commonly called a" mouse mill,"for electrifying the ink in connexion with his siphon recorder.

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  • It was an electrostatic and electromagnetic machine combined, driven by an electric current and producing in turn electrostatic charges of electricity.

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  • In connexion with this subject mention must also be made of the water dropping influence machine of the same inventor.'

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  • Kohlrausch, using a Holtz machine with a plate 16 in.

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  • The chief industries are flax-spinning, rope-making, sugar refining, book printing, wool combing and dyeing, and it also manufactures beer, tobacco and cigars, cotton and woollen stuffs, furniture, organs and pianos; besides which there are saw, oil and grain mills, machine works, and numerous goldsmiths and silversmiths.

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  • - Diagram of Pig-Casting Machine.

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  • The Uehling casting machine (fig.

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  • Machine Puddling.

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  • Here the charging machine lifts one box at a time from its car, pushes it through the momentarily opened furnace door, and empties the metal upon the hearth of the furnace by inverting the box, which it then replaces on its car.

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  • If a thousand like gears are to be cast, a thousand moulds must be made up, at least to an important extent by hand, for even machine moulding leaves something for careful manipulation by the moulder.

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  • Special grease is then rubbed in and the skin placed in a machine which softly and continuously beats in the softening mixture, after which it is put into a slowly revolving drum, fitted with wooden paddles, partly filled with various kinds of fine hard sawdust according to the nature of the furs dealt with.

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  • 6, the flow is what is called mixed, that is, it is partly a radial inward and partly an axial flow machine.

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  • The city is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway, which maintains here an engine house and extensive machine shops, and of which it is a division headquarters.

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  • The town has railway, machine and electrical works; cloth, gloves and buttons are also manufactured here, and there are spinning-mills.

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  • The industrial establishments include a few ironfoundries, wool-spinning mills, carriage and machine factories, dyeworks, tanneries, brick-fields, soap-works, breweries, distilleries, numerous limekilns and tar-boiling works, tobacco and cigar factories, and numerous mills of various kinds.

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  • The principal manufactures are tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, malt liquors, distilled liquors, cotton fabrics, clothing, ice, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, carriages, waggons, furniture and boots and shoes.

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  • In the foundries and machine shops small engines, boiler§ and church bells are made, and the government maintains an ice and cold-storage plant.

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  • Hornell has extensive car shops of the Erie railroad, and among its manufactures are silk goods (silk gloves being a specially important product), sash, doors and blinds, leather, furniture, shoes, white-goods, wire-fences, foundry and machine shop products, electric motors, and brick and tile.

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  • But the fibre produced by these rapid and economical means was very inferior in quality to the product of Maori handiwork, mainly because weak and undeveloped strands are, by machine preparation, unavoidably intermixed with the perfect fibres, which alone the Maoris select, and so the uniform quality and strength of the material are destroyed.

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  • The New Zealand government in 1893 offered a premium of £1750 for a machine which would treat the fibre satisfactorily, and a further £250 for a process of treating the tow; and with a view to creating further interest in the matter a member of a commission of inquiry visited England during 1897.

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  • The leaves are passed repeatedly through a machine driven by steam or other power giving a rotary motion, the operation occupying about 40 to 60 minutes.

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  • Machine gun detachments, resembling 4-gun batteries and horsed as artillery, were formed to the number of sixteen in 1904-1906.

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  • New Britain is an important manufacturing centre; its principal products are hardware, cutlery and edge tools, hosiery, and foundry and machine shop products.

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  • The three entrances to the old and new harbours are sheltered by long and massive moles; and the whole complex of docks, building slips, machine shops, &c., forms the government dockyard, which is enclosed by a lofty wall with fourteen iron gates.

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  • The industries of the place are almost exclusively connected with the requirements of the dockyard, and embrace machine shops, iron foundries and boiler works.

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  • Sometimes a Holtz machine was employed, but even without it illumination resembling aurora was seen on several occasions, extending apparently to a considerable height.

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  • The Senate refused to confirm the appointment until his record as alien property custodian had been investigated, on the ground that he had made his office a " political machine."

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  • The result was the gradual atrophy of the whole administrative machine.

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  • (The architect being at that time also the contractor.) The chapters are -- (1) on various machines, such as scaling-ladders, windmills, &c.; (2) on windlasses, axles, pulleys and cranes for moving heavy weights, such as those used by Chersiphron in building the great temple of Diana at Ephesus, and on the discovery by a shepherd of a quarry of marble required to build the same temple; (3) on dynamics; (4) on machines for drawing water; (5) on wheels for irrigation worked by a river; (6) on raising water by a revolving spiral tube; (7) on the machine of Ctesibius for raising water to a height; (8) on a very complicated water engine, the description of which is not intelligible, though Vitruvius remarks that he has tried to make the matter clear; (9) on machines with wheels to register the distance travelled, either by land or water; (10) on the construction of scorpiones for hurling stones; (11) and (12) on balistae and catapults; (13) on battering rams and other machines for the attack of a fortress; (14) on shields (testudines) to enable soldiers to fill up the enemy's ditches; (15) on other kinds of testudines; (16) on machines for defence, and examples of their use in ancient times.

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  • Corn is threshed by a norag, a machine resembling a chair, which moves on small iron wheels or thin circular plates fixed to axle-trees, and is drawn in a circle by oxen.

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  • He was attacked by 1200 tribesmen and utterly routed, losing 4 Krupp guns, 2 machine guns and 3000 rifles.

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  • Lyttelton (1st Northumberlands and Grenadier Guards, 2nd Lancashire and Rifle Brigade); Egyptian division, under Major-General Hunter, consisting of four brigades, commanded by Colonels MacDonald, Maxwell, Lewis and, Collinson; mounted troops2Ist Lancers, camel corps, and Egyptian cavalry; artillery, under Colonel Long, 2 British batteries, 5 Egyptian batteries, and 20 machine guns; detachment of Royal Engineers.

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  • A flying column, comprising a squadron of cavalry, a field battery, 6 machine guns, 6 companies of the camel corps, and a brigade of infantry and details, in all 3700 men, under Wingate, left Faki Kohi on the 21st of November.

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  • The muscle is a machine for utilizing the energy contained in its own chemical compounds.

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  • The town has a Gothic church (1581), a château, schools, cloth and cigar factories, iron-foundries, flour and saw mills and factories for machine building.

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  • The method once exclusively used consists in mixing the raw materials with a large quantity of water in a wash mill, a machine having radial horizontal arms driven from a central vertical spindle and carrying harrows which stir up and intermix any soft material placed in the pit in which the apparatus revolves.

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  • The city has important interests in lumber, besides foundries, machine shops, granite works - there are several granite (notably red granite) quarries in the vicinity - a tannery, and manufactories of shoes and calcined plaster.

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  • Atwood's published works, exclusive of papers contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, for one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows: - Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1784); Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name, for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion; Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th of his present Majesty (London, 1801), a work of some historical research; Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches (London, 1801), with supplement, pt.

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  • The principal manufactures are machineshop products (the Delaware & Hudson has repair and machine shops at Oneonta), knit goods, silk goods, lumber and planing mill products, &c. The first settlement was made about 1780.

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  • It has cotton and knitting mills, cotton-seed oil factories, machine shops, and wagon, stove, plough and fertilizer factories; and is a market and jobbing centre for a fertile agricultural region.

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  • Indeed, in the manufacture of iron and steel, Illinois was surpassed in 1900 only by Pennsylvania and Ohio, the 1900 product being valued at $60,303,144; but the value of foundry and machine shop products was even greater ($63,878,352).

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  • In 1905 the iron and steel product had increased in value since 1900 44.9%, to $ 8 7,35 2, 7 61; the foundry and machine shop products 25.2%, to $79,9 61, 4 82; and the wire product showed even greater increase, largely because of a difference of classification in the two censuses, the value in 1905 being $14,099,566, as against $2,879,188 in 1900, showing an increase of nearly 390%.

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  • There are also machine works, nail works, paper mills, and iron and brass foundries.

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  • The village has woollen mills, knitting mills, stereoscope, box, and collar and cuff factories and machine shops.

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  • It is continued until the contents of the pan have been coverted into a thick paste of small crystals of monohydrated sodium carbonate, permeated by a mother-liquor which is removed by draining on perforated plates or by a centrifugal machine, and is always returned to the pans.

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  • The first patents for the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides were taken out in 1851 and several others later on; but commercial success was utterly impossible until the invention of the dynamo machine allowed the production of the electric current at a sufficiently cheap rate.

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  • The first application of this machine for the present purpose seems to have been made in 1875 and the number of patents soon rapidly increased; but although a large amount of capital was invested and many very ingenious inventions made their appearance, it took nearly another twenty years before the manufacture of alkali in this way was carried out in a continuous way on a large scale and with profitable results.

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  • The reflecting surface is first ground to a spherical form, the parabolic figure being given in the final process by regulating the size of the pitch squares and the stroke of the polishing machine.

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  • The other industries of the town, notably dyeing, stuff-printing and stamping, are very considerable, and there are also engineering and machine shops, chemical, cellulose, soap, and other factories, breweries, distilleries and tanneries.

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  • In the same way, to infer a machine from hearing the regular tick of a clock, to infer a player from finding a pack of cards arranged in suits, to infer a human origin of stone implements, and all such inferences from patent effects to latent causes, though they appear to Jevons to be typical inductions, are really deductions which, besides the minor premise stating the particular effects, require a major premise discovered by a previous induction and stating the general kind of effects of a general kind of cause.

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  • When the two metal surfaces are connected for a short time with the terminals of some source of electromotive force, such as an electric machine, an induction coil or a voltaic battery, electric energy is stored up in the condenser in the form of electric strain in the glass, and can be recovered again in the form of an electric discharge.

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  • The bottle was held in the hand, and the nail presented to the prime conductor of an electrical machine.

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  • long), foundries and machine shops.

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  • Brooklyn is also an important place for the milling of coffee and spices (the 1905 product was valued at $15,274,092), the building of small boats, and the manufacture of foundry and machine shop products, malt liquors, barrels, shoes, chemicals, paints, cordage, twine, and hosiery and other knitted goods.

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  • The city has large cement works, foundries and machine shops (stone-working machinery being manufactured), and the repair shops of the Southern Indiana railway.

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  • z The 1905 census of manufactures deals only with establishments under the factory system; its figures for 1905 and the figures for 1900 reduced to the same limits are as follows: - total value of products, 1905, $367,218,494; 1900, $ 2 57,3 8 5,5 21, an increase of 4 2.7%; leading industries, with value of product in millions of dollars - canning and preserving, first in 1905 with 23.8 millions, third in 1900 with 13.4 millions; slaughtering and meat-packing, second in 1905 with 21.79 millions, first in 1900 with 15.71 millions; flour and grist mill products, third in 1905 with 20.2 millions, fourth in 1900 with 13.04 millions; lumber and timber, fourth in 1905 with 18.27 millions, second in 1900 with 13.71 millions; printing and publishing, fifth in 1905 with 17.4 millions, sixth in 1900 with 9.6 millions; foundry and machine shop products, sixth in 1905 with 15.7 millions, fifth in 1900 with 12.04 millions; planing mill products, seventh in 1905 with 13.9 millions, twelfth in 1900 with 4.8 millions; bread and other bakery products, eighth in 1905 with 10.6 millions, eleventh in 1900 with 4.87 millions.

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  • The town is flourishing and rapidly increasing, and possesses very extensive wire factories (in connexion with which there are puddling and rolling works), machine works, and manufactories of gloves, baskets, leather, starch, chemicals, varnish, oil and beer.

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  • Next in importance are cotton-spinning and weaving, machine embroidery, brewing, and the mother-of-pearl industry.

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  • The precise date of the invention is not known; but in 1767 he employed John Kay, a watchmaker at Warrington, to assist him in the preparation of the parts of his machine, and he took out a patent for it in 1769.

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  • Parts of a Machine: Frame and MechanismThe parts of a machine may be distinguished into two principal divisions,the frame, or fixed parts, and the mechanism, or moving parts.

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  • - Each indepgndent piece of the mechanism also is a structure, and its dimensions are to be adapted, according to the principles of the strength and stiffness of materials, to the most severe load to which it can he subjected during the action of the machine.

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  • In the action of a machine the following three things take place: Firstly, Some natural source, of energy communicates motion and force to a piece or pieces of the mechanism, called the receiver of Power or prime mover.

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  • Such arc the phenomena of the action of a machine, arranged in the order of can sation.

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  • But in studying or treating of, the theory of machines, the order of simplicity is the best; and in this order the first branch of the subject is the modification of motion and force by the train of mechanism; the next is the effect or purpose of the machine; and the last, or most complex, is the action of the prime mover.

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  • When the pressure and temperature of the air can be maintained constant, this machine fulfils equation (2), like the hydraulic press.

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  • Motions ClassedIn problems of mechanism, each solid piece of the machine is supposed to be so stiff and strong as not to undergo any sensible change of figure or dimensions by the forces applied to ita supposition which is realized in practice if the machine is skilfully designed.

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  • They there fore study that the numbers of teeth in each pair of wheels whici work together shall either be prime to each other, or shall hav their greatest common divisor as small as is consistent with velocity ratio suited for the purposes of the machine.

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  • One train of mechanism may diverge into two or moreas when a single shaft, driven by a prime mover, carries several pulleys, each of which drives a different machine.

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  • Laws of Motion.-The action of a machine in transmitting force and motion simultaneously, or performing work, is governed, in common with the phenomena of moving bodies in general, by two laws of motion.

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  • Thus, the weight of each separate piece in a machine is treated as acting wholly at its centre of gravity, and each pressure applied to it as acting at a point called the centre of pressure of the surface to which the pressure is really applied.

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  • Work is distinguished into useful work and prejudicial or lost work, according as it is performed in producing the useful effect of the machine, or in overcoming prejudicial resistance.

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  • The work done by a machine can be actually measured by means ~f a dynamometer.

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  • Principle of the Equality of Energy and Work.FroIn the first law of motion it follows that in a machine whose pieces move with uniform velocities the efforts and resistances must balance each other.

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  • This principle, applied to a machine whose parts move with uniform velocities, is equivalent to saying that in any given interval of time the energy exerted is equal to the work performed.

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  • The symbolical expression of this law is as follows: let efforts be applied to one or any number of points of a machine; let any one of these efforts be represented by P, and the distance traversed by its point of application in a given interval of time by ds; let resistances be overcome at one or any number of points of the same machine; let any one of these resistances be denoted by R, and the distance traversed by its point of application in the gi- en interval of time by ds; then ~.Pds=2~.Rds.

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  • The lengths ds, ds are proportional to the velocities of the points to whose paths they belong, and the proportions of those velocities to each other are deducible from the construction of the machine ~v the principles of pure mechanism explained in Chapter I.

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  • The relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine to include the effect of friction at the joints has been investigated in a paper by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, On the application of graphrc methods to the determination of the efficiency of machinery (Trans.

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  • It is shown that a machine may at any instant be represented by a frame of links the stresses in which are identical with the pressures at the joints of the mechanism.

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  • EfficiencyThe efficiency of a machine is the ratio of the useful work to the total workthat is, to the energy exertedand is represented by 1~.

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  • The more nearly the efficiency of a machine approaches to unity the better is the machine.

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  • Power and Effect.The power of a machine is the energy exerted, and the effect the useful work performed, in some interval of time of definite length, such as a second, an hour, or a day.

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  • Modulus of a Machine.In the investigation of the properties of a machine, the useful resistances to be overcome and the useful work to be performed are usually given.

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  • The result of this investigation, expressed in the form of an equation between this energy and the useful work, is called by Moseley the modulus of the machine.

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  • Rotating Pieces: Couples of Forces.It is often convenient to express the energy exerted upon and the work performed by a turning piece in a machine in terms of the moment of the couples of forces acting on it, and of the angular velocity.

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  • In oruer to diminish that pressure to the smallest possible amount, the effort, and the resultant of the useful resistance, and the weight of the piece (called above the given force) ought to be opposed to each other as directly as is practicable consistently with the purposes of the machine.

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  • Reciprocating Forces: Stored and Restored Energy.WThen a force acts on a machine alternately as an effort and as a resistance, it may be called a reciprocating force.

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  • Of this kind is the weight of any piece in the mechanism whose centre of gravity alternately rises and falls; for during the rise of the centre of gravity that weight acts as a resistance, and energy is employed in lifting it to an amount expressed by the product of the weight into the vertical height of its rise; and during the fall of the centre of gravity the weight acts as an effort, and exerts in assisting to perform the work of the machine an amount of energy exactly equal to that which had previously been employed in lifting it.

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  • In a machine of which each piece is to move with a uniform velocity, if the effort and the resistance be constant, the weight of each piece must be balanced on its axis, so that it may produce late~ral pressure only, and not act as a reciprocating force.

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  • Hence, unless there be some reason to the contrary, each piece of a machine should be balanced on its axis of rotation; otherwise the centrifugal force will cause strains, vibration and increased friction, and a tendency of the shafts to jump out of their bearings.

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  • It is essential to the steady motion of every rapidly rotating piece in a machine that its axis of rotation should not merely traverse its centre of gravity, but should be a permanent axis; for otherwise the centrifugal couples will increass friction, produce oscillation of the shaft and tend to make it leave its bearings.

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  • When a weight is reciprocated, the equal and opposite force required for its acceleration at any instant appears as an unbalanced force on the frame of the machine to which the weight belongs.

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  • General Principles.In order that the velocity of every piece of a machine may be uniform, it is necessary that the forces acting on each piece should be always exactly balanced.

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  • Also, in order that the forces acting on each piece of a machine may be always exactly balanced, it is necessary that thevelocityof that piece should be uniform.

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  • When a machine is being started from a state of rest, and brought by degrees up to its proper speed, the effort must be in excess; when it is being retarded for the purpose of stopping it, the resistance must be in excess.

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  • When a machine undergoes alternate acceleration and retardation, so that at certain instants of time, occurring at the end of intervals called periods or cycles, it returns to its original speed, then in each of those periods or cycles the alternate excesses of energy and of work neutralize each other; and at the end of each cycle the principle of the equality of energy and work stated in 87, with all, its consequences, is verified exactly as in the case of machines of uniform speed.

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  • In any given interval during the working of a machine, the energy exerted added to the energy restored is equal to the energy stored added to the work performed.

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  • Flywheels.A flywheel is a rotating piece in a machine, generally shaped like a wheel (that is to say, consisting of a rim with spokes), and suited to store and restore energy by the periodical variations in its angular velocity.

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  • Let e denote the quantity by which the energy exerted in each cycle of the working of the machine alternately exceeds and falls short of the work performed, and which has consequently to be alternately stored by acceleration and restored by retardation of the flywheel.

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  • Brakes.A brake is an apparatus for stopping and diminishing the velocity of a machine by friction, such as the friction-strap already referred to in 103.

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  • To find the distance s through which a brake, exerting the friction F, must rub in order to stop a machine having the total actual energy E at the moment when the brake begins to act, reduce, by the principles of 96, the various efforts and other resistances of the machine which act at the same time with the friction of the brake to the rubbing surface of the brake, and let R be their resultantpositive if resistance, negative if effort preponderates.

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  • Energy distributed between two Bodies: Projection and Propulsion.Hitherto the effort by which a machine is movet has been treated as a force exerted between a movable body and a fixed body, so that the whole energy exerted by it is employed upon the movable body, and none upon the fixed body.

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  • The liqueuring is nowadays generally carried out by means of a machine which regulates the quantity to a nicety.

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  • Here the stalks are removed, generally by a machine similar to the French egrappoir, and the grapes then placed in the lagar.

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  • It possesses agricultural implement and machine works, grain and flour mills, malt-works and breweries.

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  • The cotton trade developed rapidly after the introduction of the cylindrical carding machine, which was set up here two years before Peel used it at Bolton.

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  • - Action of the Wimshurst Machine.

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  • Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) constructed the first electrical machine with a revolving ball of sulphur (see Electrical Machine), and noticed that light objects were repelled after being attracted by excited electrics.

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  • Sir Isaac Newton substituted a ball of glass for sulphur in the electrical machine and made other not unimportant additions to electrical knowledge.

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  • Various improvements were made in the electrical machine, and thereby experimentalists were provided with the means of generating strong electrification; C. F.

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  • Galvani had made in 1790 his historic observations on the muscular contraction produced in the bodies of recently killed frogs when an electrical machine was being worked in the same room, and described them in 1791 (De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius, Bologna, 1791).

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  • Clarke, and many others in the development of the above-described magneto-electric machine.

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  • Holmes had made a magneto machine with multiple permanent magnets which was installed in 1862 in Dungeness lighthouse.

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  • In 1873 at Vienna the fact was discovered that a dynamo machine of the Gramme type could also act as an electric motor and jwas set in rotation when a current was passed into it from another similar machine.

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  • On the smooth surface the seed is sown broadcast by hand or machine, at the rate of 3 bushels per acre, and covered in the same manner as clover seeds.

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  • from the top. A sheet or other cover being spread on the field, the apparatus is placed in the middle of it, and two ripplers sitting opposite each other, with the machine between them, work at the same time.

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  • The breaking is done by passing the stalks between grooved or fluted rollers of different pitches; these rollers, of which there may be from 5 to 7 pairs, are sometimes arranged to work alternately forwards and backwards in order to thoroughly break the woody material or " boon " of the straw, while the broken " shoves " are beaten out by suspending the fibre in a machine fitted with a series of revolving blades, which, striking violently against the flax, shake out the bruised and broken woody cores.

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  • In England the broad distinction between " presses " and " machines " is generally considered to rest in the fact that the former are worked by hand, and the latter by steam, gas or electricity; and the men who work by these two methods are called respectively " pressmen " and " machine minders " or " machine managers."

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  • It was left to Friedrich Ktinig (1774-1833), a German, to produce the first really practical printing machine.

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  • Two other classes of presses of somewhat different design were largely in operation in the middle of the r9th century - the " double platen," which still printed only one side at each impression from each end, and the " perfecting machine," which was made with two large cylinders and printed from two typeformes placed on separate beds.

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  • Although the latter machine turned out sheets printed on both sides before it delivered them (hence its name), the second impression was still a distinct operation.

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  • A machine of this kind, if it printed a sheet of double demy, which measures 35 X 221 in., was about 13 ft.

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  • There were two type beds and two inking tables, which travelled backwards and forwards, and one platen only, situated in the middle of the machine, which in turn gave the needful impression as the type-formes passed underneath.

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  • The sheets were laid or fed to certain marks between the frisket and tympan, and when these were closed together the carriage was propelled under the platen and the impression was given to that portion of the machine, while at the other end another sheet was being fed in ready to receive its impression in due course.

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  • The perfecting machine has had a great vogue, and has been much improved from time to time, especially in America, though the two-revolution machine in recent years superseded it, whether temporarily or not being still uncertain.

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  • In this class of machine various improvements were made from time to time by different manufacturers, each profiting by the experiences of the others, and two kinds of such revolving presses may now be given as examples.

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  • After many experiments Augustus Applegath (1789-1871) in 1848 constructed for The Times (London), a machine which was an eight-feeder, built entirely on the cylindrical principle, the cylinders placed not in a horizontal but in a vertical position.

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  • of New York, and subsequently of London, had constructed, to meet the increased demands of newspapers, the " Hoe Type Revolving Machine," one good point of which was an apparatus for securely fastening in the type on a large central cylinder fixed horizontally.

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  • This was accomplished by the construction of cast-iron beds, one for each separate page (not column, as in Applegath's machine).

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  • Hoe's first presses were four-feeders, but as many as ten feeds were supplied, as in the case of the two presses built to replace the Applegath machine for The Times, each of which produced about 2000 impressions from each feed, making a total of 20,000 per hour, printed on one side, or from two machines 20,000 sheets printed on both sides.

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  • Bullock (1813-1867) of Philadelphia who in 1865 invented the first machine to print from a continuous web of paper.

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  • Perfecting machines, usually with two cylinders, and printing or " perfecting " both sides of a sheet before it leaves the machine, but with two distinct operations.

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  • Two-colour machines, usually made with one feed, that is, with only one cylinder, but with two printing surfaces, and two sets of inking apparatus one at each end of the machine.

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  • The modern single or " stop " cylinder, quite different in construc- Wharfe= tion from the old single cylinder machines, largely suc dale" ceeded the double platen machine.

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  • All the accessories for inking are placed at the end of the machine, the ink itself being supplied from a ductor, which can be so regulated by the keys attached to it as to let out the precise amount of pigment required.

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  • This revolves with the run of the machine and at the same time has a slight reciprocating action which helps the distribution.

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  • The perfecting machine is so named because it produces sheets printed on both sides or, in technical language, " perfected."

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  • This perfecting class of machine has been in use a great many years, Machines.

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  • The frame of the machine, owing to the fact that it contains two carriages and a double inking apparatus, is long, the exact size depending on the size of the sheet to be printed.

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  • - Dryden & Foord's Perfecting (two-cylinders) Machine.

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  • In the older type of machine it 'is next led up to the right- ' hand one of the two reversing drums, which are placed above the large printing cylinders, and over which it passes with the printed side downwards.

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  • In the more recent type of direct into the machine.

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  • The AngloFrench perfecting machine is one of that class.

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  • The two-revolution machine is another one-cylinder machine built on the reciprocating principle.

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  • also in Great Britain, is a good example of this kind of machine and is much used, especially for illustrated work.

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  • - The Miehle Two-revolution Cylinder Machine.

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  • In the first case a bar descends upon the paper after it is laid to point marks, and this bar, having a rotary motion, runs the sheet between a roller and a small drum into the machine.

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  • The web arrangement consists of a series the high over-feedboard, and the taking-off apparatus is automatic but on a different plan from that of the ordinary Wharfedale, the sheets being carried over tapes with the freshly-printed side uppermost, thus preventing smearing; they are then carried on to the heap or pile by the frame or long arms placed at the end of the machine.

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  • A recent feature of this machine is the tandem equipment, whereby two, three or even four machines may be coupled together for colour work.

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  • These plates were then fixed on the beds of the Hoe type revolving machine, which were adapted to receive them instead of the movable typeformes previously used.

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  • The two-colour machine is generally a single cylinder (fig..8) with one feed only, and the bed motion reciprocating.

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  • A double inking apparatus is of course necessary, and the inking arrangements are placed at the two extreme ends of the machine.

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  • In comparison with the ordinary single cylinder the two-colour machine is built with a longer frame, as is necessary to allow the two type-formes to pass under the cylinder, both in its travel forward and on its return.

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  • This cylinder on its return is stationary, in fact it might be called a double or rather an alternative stop-cylinder machine, with the inking facilities arranged somewhat on the same plan as on either a two-feeder or a perfecting machine.

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  • These two-colour presses are intended only for long runs, short runs may be worked to advantage separately on the ordinary single-colour machine.

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  • Generally, with the exception just mentioned, the machine is much the same as the ordinary stop or Wharfedale.

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  • It seems almost as though this branch had reached its limit, and as though any further developments can only be a question of duplication of the existing facilities so as to print from a greater number of cylinders than, say, an octuple machine.

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  • This would be merely a matter of building a higher machine so as to take a larger number of reels arranged in decks.

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  • Hippolyte Marinoni (1823-1904), of Paris, also devised a machine on a somewhat similar principle, making the impression and type cylinders of one size and placing them one over the other.

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  • About 1870 an English rotary machine called the " Victory " was invented by Messrs Duncan & Wilson.

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  • An improved form of this machine is still in use.

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  • This machine had separate fly-boards for the delivery of the sheets.

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  • arranged with the paper at one end of the machine, and passing through the cylinders to the folder at the other end where the copies are delivered.

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  • When presses are made in double width a two-reel machine is known as a quadruple, a three-reel as a sextuple, and a four-reel as an octuple machine.

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