of Egypt, the Samians Lysander of Sparta, the Athenians Demetrius, the Delphians Craterus of Macedon.
of Macedon, occurred sporadically even before Alexander's conquests brought Greek life into contact with oriental traditions.
of Macedon (338).
of Macedon, and Olympias, an Epirote princess.
Macedon to the headship of the Greek states, and the air was charged with great ideas.
- Aegina passed with the rest of Greece under the successive dominations of Macedon, the Aetolians, Attalus of Pergamum and Rome.
of Macedon and Antiochus III.
The first eruptions piled up huge domes of lavas rich in soda, including the geburite-dacites and sOlvsbergites of Mount Macedon in Victoria, and the kenyte and tephrite domes of Dunedin, in New Zealand.
of Macedon was returning from his expedition against the Scythians, the Triballi refused to allow him to pass the Haemus unless they received a share of the booty.
of Macedon's victory more than two and a half centuries before, and in the year following, at the neighbouring Orchomenus, he scattered immense hosts of the enemy with trifling loss to himself.
He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon).
- The second great period of the history of the Jews begins with the conquest of Asia by Alexander the Great, disciple of Aristotle, king of Macedon and captaingeneral of the Greeks.
With the help of these troops the Phocian League at first carried the war into Boeotia and Thessaly, and though driven out of the latter country by Philip of Macedon, maintained itself for ten years, until the exhaustion of the temple treasures and the treachery of its leaders placed it at Philip's mercy.
When Philip of Macedon began to grow.
By his wife, Eurydice, he had three sons, the youngest of whom was the famous Philip of Macedon.
MACEDONIAN EMPIRE, the name generally given to the empire founded by Alexander the Great of Macedon in the countries now represented by Greece and European Turkey, Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, Persia and eastwards as far as northern India.'
Again, in the time of Philip of Macedon we find Cersobleptes, who ruled the south-eastern portion of the country, exercising an important influence on the policy of Athens.
of Macedon defeated and slew their king Ateas in 339 B.C., and from this time on the representatives of the old Scythic power are petty chieftains in the western part of the country about Olbia, where they could still be dangerous, and about Tomi.
of Macedon, and mother of Alexander the Great.
Of these the most important are Alexander of Macedon and Charlemagne, while alongside of them Priam and other heroes of the Trojan war appear during the middle ages in strangely altered guise.
After having withstood an attempt under Epaminondas to restore it to the Lacedaemonians, Byzantium joined with Rhodes, Chios, Cos, and Mausolus, king of Caria, in throwing off the yoke of Athens, but soon after sought Athenian assistance when Philip of Macedon, having overrun Thrace, advanced against it.
of Macedon and the Epirotes against the Aetolian league (220-205) Ambracia passed from one alliance to the other, but ultimately joined the latter confederacy.
The fall of Olynthus (348) brought Aeschines into the political arena, and he was sent on an embassy to rouse the Peloponnesus against Philip. In 347 he was a member of the peace embassy to Philip of Macedon, who seems to have won him over entirely to his side.
of Macedon at Chaeronea.
of Macedon had begun his career of conquest, and had shattered an embryonic alliance between the league and certain princes of Thrace (Cetriporis), Paeonia (Lyppeius) and Illyria (Grabus).
The 5th-century tradition that the Heracleid kings of Macedon were Temenid exiles from Argos may belong to the same cycle.
Andron in Strabo 475) derived the Cretan Dorians of Homer from those of Histiaeotis, and that other legends connected Cretan peoples and places with certain districts of Macedon.
The national kingdoms founded by the Northern races, after the fall of the Roman Empire, under the influence of the classical tradition, are the beginnings of the modern European system; Philip of Macedon foreshadows Theodoric, Charlemagne and William the Conqueror.
of Macedon summoned a Greek congress at Corinth and left a garrison on the citadel.
Most of them obeyed; Artabazus of Phrygia, who tried to resist and was supported by his brothersin-law, Mentor and Memnon of Rhodes, was defeated and fled to Philip of Macedon.
and Alexander of Macedon were confronted by a confederate host from central Greece and Peloponnese under the leadership of Thebes and Athens, which here made the last stand on behalf of Greek liberty.
Rome, it is certain, deliberately favoured her ally's unjust claims with the view of keeping Carthage weak, and Massinissa on his part was cunning enough to retain the friendship of the Roman people by helping them with liberal supplies in their wars against Perseus of Macedon and Antiochus.
Such were the tetrarchies of Thessaly as reconstructed by Philip of Macedon and of Galatia before its conquest by the Romans (169 B.C.).
One of her successors, Pixodarus, tried to ally himself with the rising power of Macedon, and is said to have gained the momentary consent of the young Alexander to wed his daughter.
Philip of Macedon made a special point of occupying it (357), and under the early empire it became the headquarters of the Roman propraetor, though it was recognized as independent.
of Macedon, and finally into those of the Romans.
of Macedon Chalcis was called one of the three fetters of Greece, Demetrias on the Gulf of Pagasae and Corinth being the other two.
On the death of Plato (May 347) in the archonship of Theophilus (348-347) he departed to Hermias, tyrant of Atarneus, and, after three years' stay, during the archonship of Eubulus (345-344) he moved to Mitylene, whence he went to Philip of Macedon in the archonship of Pythodotus (343-342), and spent eight years with him as tutor of Alexander.
After the tragic death of Hermias, he retired for a time to Mitylene, and in 343-342 was summoned to Macedon by Philip to teach Alexander, who was then a boy of thirteen.
On his first visit to Athens, during which occurred the fatal battle of Mantineia (362 B.C.), Aristotle had seen the confusion of Greece becoming the opportunity of Macedon under Philip; and on his second visit he was supported at Athens by the complete domination of Macedon under Alexander.
Boeotian contingents fought in all the campaigns of Epaminondas, and in the later wars against Phocis (356-346); while in the dealings with Philip of Macedon the federal cities appear merely as the tools of Thebes.
These are all in the Osroene district; but Nasibin became an Antioch, and as its district was known as Mygdonia (from Macedon) there were doubtless many other Greek settlements.
The latter, through their general Phocion, rescued it from the tyrants suborned by Philip of Macedon (354 and 341).
Hannibal's oath to Philip of Macedon; beside the named deities he invokes the gods of " sun and moon and earth, of rivers and meadows and waters " (Polyb.
Philip of Macedon and Nero are, as we shall see, among those whose names have a record in the Altis.
It was dedicated by Philip of Macedon, after his victory at Chaeronea (338 B.C.).
of Macedon came to expel these marauders, Aratus became the king's adviser, and averted a treacherous attack on Messene (215); before long, however, he lost favour and in 213 was poisoned.
of Macedon attempted to poison him.
In the 4th century the Aetolians began to take a greater part in Greek politics, and, in return for helpingEpaminondas (367) and Philip of Macedon (338), recovered control of their sea-board, to which they annexed the Acarnanian coast and the Oeniadae.
of Macedon, who assailed the invaders with great energy, driving them out of Peloponnesus and marching into Aetolia itself, where he surprised and sacked the federal capital Thermon.
of Macedon against his Thracian neighbours.
of Macedon, who made himself master of the neighbouring gold mines of the Hill of Dionysus, and fortified the city as one of his frontier-towns.
of Macedon, who presented her to a Macedonian soldier Loqus shortly before Ptolemy was born.
The history of Philip of Macedon by Theopompus probably furnished the author with a model.
When Ptolemy Philopater died in 205 B.C., Antiochus and Philip of Macedon, his nominal friends, made a secret compact for the division of his possessions outside Egypt.
When pressed in turn by their old foes the Argives were among the first to call in Philip of Macedon, who reinstated them in Cynuria after becoming master of Greece.
of Macedon and took no part in the battle of Chaeroneia (338 B.C.).
For centuries there had been a dispute between Messenia and Sparta about the possession of the Ager Dentheliates on the western slope of Taygetus: after various decisions by Philip of Macedon, Antigonus, Mummius, Caesar, Antony, Augustus and others, the question was settled in A.D.
Both belong to a period in Greek history when the great city states had exhausted themselves in the futile struggle against Macedon and Rome, and both represent a conscious popular determination in the direction of systematic government.
Then in 306 B.C. Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon overran the whole island, besieged Salamis, and utterly defeated there the Egyptian fleet.
The new power which now rose, to the first rank, created by Philip of Macedon, bad no engrained tendency inimical to the Persian.
For an universal empire, however, the forces of Macedonia and Greece were insufficient; the monarch of a world-empire could not be bound by the limitations imposed on the tribal king of Macedon or the general of a league of Hellenic republics.
The town of Pale was vainly besieged by Philip of Macedon in 218 B.C., because it had supported the Aetolian cause.
of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers.
of Macedon, who dedicated it about zoo B.C. This avenue must have formed the usual approach for sacred embassies and processions; but it is probable that the space to the south was not convenient for marshalling them, since Nicias, on the occasion of his famous embassy, built a bridge from the island of Hecate (the Greater Rhevmatiari) to Delos, in order that the imposing Athenian procession might not miss its full effect.
It was a town of considerable importance in ancient times; was destroyed by Philip of Macedon; recovered its prosperity; and was captured by T.
of Macedon, and in 349 he superseded Chares as commander in the Olynthian War.
ALEXANDER I., king of Epirus about 342 B.C., brother of Olympias the mother of Alexander the Great, and son-in-law of Philip of Macedon, whose daughter Cleopatra he married (336).
Eleven hundred and sixty-four years after each city was built, it was tak.en, - Babylon by Cyrus, Rome by Alaric, and Cyrus' conquest took place just when Rome began the Republic. But before Rome becomes a world empire, Macedon and Carthage intervene, gL.ardians of Rome's youth (tutor curatorque).
of Macedon (1789), rather a panegyric than a critical history; translations of Aristotle's Rhetoric (1823) and Ethics and Politics (1786-1797); of the Orations of Lysias and Isocrates (1778); and History of the World from Alexander to Augustus (1807), which, although deficient in style, was commended for its learning and research.
According to the story told by Hesychius of Miletus, during the siege of Byzantium by Philip of Macedon the moon suddenly appeared, the dogs began to bark and aroused the inhabitants, who were thus enabled to frustrate the enemy's scheme of undermining the walls.
of Macedon, in which, after two years, Rome had as yet gained little advantage, were assigned to him.
of Macedon one of the three fetters of Greece, Chalcis and Corinth being the other two.
Among his pupils were his successor, Chrysippus, and Antigonus, king of Macedon, from whom he accepted 2000 minae.
of Macedon (200 B.C.), and is famed in story for the loves of Hero and Leander.
But, for Demosthenes, the special peril represented by Philip, the peril of subjugation to Macedon, was merely a disastrous accident.
Years before the danger from Macedon was urgent, Demosthenes had begun the work of his life, - the effort to lift the spirit of Athens, to revive the old civic loyalty, to rouse the city into taking that place and performing that part which her own welfare as well as the safety of Greece ca uses.
As the inspiration of his life was larger and higher than the mere courage of resistance, so his merit must be regarded as standing altogether outside and above the struggle with Macedon.
473 f.), which came to an end with the supremacy of Macedon.
When after the second Sacred War the Phocians were expelled, Macedon received their two votes (346 B.C.).
The Lacedaemonians refused to pay the fine above mentioned; the Athenians protested against the treatment of Amphissa, and were slow in accepting the decisions given under the influence of Macedon.
The council was a power in politics only when manipulated by a great state, as Thebes, Macedon or Aetolia, and in such a case its decrees were most likely to give offence by their partisanship. Although the council sometimes championed the Hellenic cause, as could any association or individual, it never acquired a recognized authority over all Greece; and notwithstanding its frequent participation in political affairs, it remained essentially a religious convocation.
She did, indeed, join with Athens and Achaea in 353 to prevent Philip of Macedon passing Thermopylae and entering Phocis, but beyond this she took no part in the struggle of Greece with the new power which had sprung up on her northern borders.
We must admit, however, that a vigorous struggle was maintained with the Achaean League and with Macedon until the Romans, after the conclusion of their war with Philip V., sent an army into Laconia under T.
of Macedon in 336 (Diod.
During the 5th century, they appear as furnishing a contingent of cavalry to Sitalces, king of the Odrysae, in his attack on Perdiccas II., king of Macedon, but the decay of the Odrysian kingdom again left them independent.
of Macedon in 342 reduced the Odrysae to the condition of tributaries, the Getae, fearing that their turn would come next, made overtures to the conqueror.
In 171 war had broken out between Rome and the Macedonian king Perseus, and the Achaean statesmen were divided as to the policy to be pursued; there were good reasons for fearing that the Roman senate would regard neutrality as indicating a secret leaning towards Macedon.
62), and of that between Hannibal and Philip of Macedon (vii.
63); they were chosen to punish the treachery of Philip of Macedon (xv.
LYSIPPUS, Greek sculptor, was head of the school of Argos and Sicyon in the time of Philip and Alexander of Macedon.
The Decline of Athens The growth of Macedon's power under Philip II heralded the demise of Athens as a major power.
of Macedon, whose intervention was successful, but after his withdrawal Alexander treated his subjects as cruelly as before.
ALEXANDER III., known as THE GREAT (356-323 B.C.), king of Macedon, was the son of Philip II.
Hogarth, Philip and Alexander of Macedon (1897), a striking effort of historical imagination to reconstruct Alexander as a man of the real world; Benjamin I.
of Macedon on his conquest of the Bisaltae adopted the native coinage, merely placing on it his own name (see, further, Numismatics: Greek, §§ Thrace and Macedonia).
of Macedon gave Naupactus to the Aetolians, who held it till 191, when after an obstinate siege it was surrendered to the Romans.
His name, in the form of Iskander, is familiar in legend and story all over the East to this day; to the West he was introduced through a Latin translation of the original Greek romance (by the pseudo-Callisthenes) to which the innumerable Oriental versions are likewise traceable (see Alexander Iii., King Of Macedon; sec. The Romance of Alexander).
Archaeological evidence points clearly now to the conclusion that the splendid but overgrown civilization of the Mycenaean or " late Minoan " period of the Aegean Bronze Age collapsed rather suddenly before a rapid succession of assaults by comparatively barbarous invaders from the European mainland north of the Aegean; that these invaders passed partly by way of Thrace and the Hellespont into Asia Minor, partly by Macedon and Thessaly into peninsular Greece and the Aegean islands; that in east Peloponnese and Crete, at all events, a first shock (somewhat later than i soo B.C.) led to the establishment of a cultural, social and political situation which in many respects resembles what is depicted in Homer as the " Achaean " age, with principal centres in Rhodes, Crete, Laconia, Argolis, Attica, Orchomenus and south-east Thessaly; and that this regime was itself shattered by a second shock or series of shocks somewhat earlier than boo B.C. These latter events correspond in character and date with the traditional irruption of the Dorians and their associates.
The whole work was edited by his son Demophilus, who added a 30th book, containing a summary description of the Social War and ending with the taking of Perinthus (340) by Philip of Macedon (cf.
The relative value of gold and silver (17, 21) in Asia is agreed generally to have been 13+1/3 to 1 in the early ages of coinage; at Athens in 434 B.C. it was 14 to 1; in Macedon, 350 B.C., 12+1/2 to 1; in Sicily, 400 B.C., 15 to 1, and 300 B.C., 12 to 1; in Italy in 1st century, it was 12 to 1, in the later empire 13.9 to 1, and under Justinian.
Aristotle from the first profited by having a father who, being physician to Amyntas II., king of Macedon, and one of the Asclepiads who, according to Galen, practised their sons in dissection, both prepared the way for his son's influence at the Macedonian court, and gave him a bias to medicine and biology, which certainly led to his belief in nature and natural science, and perhaps induced him to practise medicine, as he did, according to his enemies, Timaeus and Epicurus, when he first went to Athens.
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