On their removal to Lyons the influence of both became wider and more powerful.
The collected works of Suarez have been printed at Mainz and Lyons (1630), at Venice (1740-1751), at Besancon (1856-1862) and in the collection of the Abbe Migne.
The oldest form of his story is found in the Passio ascribed to Eucherius, bishop of Lyons, c. 450, who relates how the "Theban" legion commanded by Mauritius was sent to north Italy to reinforce the army of Maximinian.
After studying the arts at Toulouse and law at Orleans and Bologna, he became a canon at Bordeaux and then vicar-general to his brother the archbishop of Lyons, who in 1294 was created cardinal bishop of Albano.
At Bordeaux Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy; but he caused his coronation to take place at Lyons on the 14th of November 1305.
The ascent from Chamonix is now frequently made in summer (rarely in winter also), but, owing to the great height of the mountain, the view is unsatisfactory, though very extensive (Lyons is visible).
of Lyons on the Paris-Lyon railway.
In September 1791, Roland's mission being executed, they returned to Lyons.
He was destined by his family for the church, but entered business, and became a partner in a firm at Lyons for which he travelled in the Levant, in Italy, Spain and Portugal.
On his return to Lyons, Chalier was the first to be named member of the municipal bureau.
In the election for mayor of Lyons, in November 1792, he was defeated by a Royalist.
Then Chalier became the orator and leader of the Jacobins of Lyons, and induced the other revolutionary clubs and the commune of his city to arrest a great number of Royalists in the night of the 5th and 6th of February 1793.
The Am, the, Sane (which rises in the Faucilles and in the lower part of its course skirting the regions of Bresse and Dombes, receives the Doubs and joins the Rhone at Lyons), the Ardche and the Gard are the affluents on the right; on the left it is joined by the Arve, the Isre, the Drme and the Durance.
The greatest number of Jews is to be found at Paris, Lyons and Bordeaux, while the departments of the centre and of the south along the range of the Cvennes, where Calvinism flourishes, are the principal Protestant localities, Nimes being the most important centre.
It is grown largely in the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and in those of the Seine basin, the southern limit of its cultivation being roughly a line drawn from Bordeaux to Lyons.
The production of lace and guipure, occupying 112,000 persons, is carried on mainly in the towns and villages of Haute-Loire and in Vosges (Mirecourt), Rhne (Lyons), Pas-de-Calais (Calais) and Paris.
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
The Paris-Lyon-MditerranCe, connecting Paris with Marseilles via Moret, Laroche, Dijon, Macon and Lyons, and with NImes via Moret, Nevers and Clermont-Ferrand.
LYONS - - - Am, Loire, Rhflne.
In addition to these corps there are eight permanent cavalry divisions with headquarters at Paris, Lunyule, Meaux, Sedan, Reims, Lyons, Melun and Dole.
The military government of Lyons is another independent and special command; it comprises practically the XIV.
Behind all this huge development of fixed defences lie the central fortresses of Paris and Lyons.
Examples of such bodies are the Society for Elementary Instruction the Polytechnic Association, the Philotechnic Association and the French Union of the Young at Paris; the Philomathic Society of Bordeaux; the Popular Education Society at Havre; the Rhone Society of Pro-, fessional Instruction at Lyons; the Industrial Society of Amiens and others.
In 1536 his didactic poem in Latin hexameters, De immortalitate animarum, was published at Lyons.
Palearii Verulani Opera), including four books of Epistolae and twelve Orationes besides the De immortalitate, was published at Lyons in 1552; this was followed by two others, at Basel, and several after his death, the fullest being that of Amsterdam, 1696.
Lyons), who died after 22 B.C. It is a circular structure of blocks of travertine 160 ft.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
He returned to Savoy, and after three years more of unwearying labour died at Lyons on the 28th of December 1622.
In 1274 the council of Lyons imposed a tax of a tenth part of all church revenues during the six following years for the relief of the Holy Land.
Forced to fly to France, he there, at Lyons, in 1245, convened a council, which enforced his condemnation of the emperor.
On the pretext 01 consolidating that republic, he invited 450 of its leading men tc come to Lyons to a consulta.
Since then it has been discovered in other botanic gardens in various parts of Europe, its two most recent appearances being at Lyons (1901) and Munich (1905), occurring always in tanks in which the Victoria regia is cultivated, a fact which indicates that tropical South America is its original habitat.
He was educated in Lyons, and from an early age was imbued with royalist principles.
In 1796 he returned to France, and next year he was sent by Lyons as a deputy to the Council of Five Hundred.
The whole area, often collectively styled "Gallia Comata," often "Tres Provinciae," was divided into three provinces, each under a legatus pro praetore appointed by the emperor, with a common capital at Lugudunum (Lyons).
The three provinces were: Aquitania, reaching from the Pyrenees almost to the Loire; Lugudunensis, the land between Loire and Seine, reaching from Brittany in the west to Lyons in the south-east; and Belgica in the north.
Each August, despite the heat, representatives from the 60 (or 64) tribes of Gallia Comata met at Lyons, elected a priest, "sacerdos ad aram Augusti et Romae," and held games.
For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern towns (ARLES, NiMES, ORANGE, &C.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS PORTUS, AQUEDUCT, ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &C.; for religion see DRUIDISM; for the famous schools of Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Marseilles and Narbonne, see J.
He became first a postmaster near Lyons, and in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerning North Africa and colonization in general.
in 1845 he was appointed a director of the Paris & Lyons railway.
He was afterwards attached to the administration of the railway from Lyons to the Mediterranean.
Beudant in 1824) also has reference to the azure-blue colour; the name chessylite, also in common use, is of later date (1852), and is from the locality, Chessy near Lyons, which has supplied the best crystallized specimens of the mineral.
He at once summoned the fourteenth general council of the Catholic Church, which met at Lyons in 1274, with an attendance of some 1600 prelates, for the purpose of considering the eastern schism, the condition of the Holy Land, and the abuses in the church.
Complete works, edited by Luke Wadding (13 vols., Lyons, 1639) and at Paris (26 vols., 1891-1895).
He received, however, the province of Languedoc. The peasant revolt of the Tuchins and Coquins, as the insurgents were called, was suppressed with great harshness, and the duke exacted from the states of Languedoc assembled at Lyons a fine of f i 5,000.
Leo Allatius (Lyons, 1629; cf.
Monfort, Les Tonga, on Archipel des Amis (Lyons, 1893); B.
The bishops, particularly St Irenaeus of Lyons, declared themselves in favour of the usage of Rome, but refused to associate themselves with the excommunication pronounced by Victor against their Asiatic colleagues.
ANDRE MARIE AMPERE (1775-1836), French physicist, was born at Polemieux, near Lyons, on the 22nd of January 1 775.
When Lyons was taken by the army of the Convention in 1793, the father of Ampere, who, holding the office of juge de paix, had stood out resolutely against the previous revolutionary excesses, was at once thrown into prison, and soon after perished on the scaffold.
From about 1796 Ampere gave private lessons at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages; and in 1801 he removed to Bourg, as professor of physics and chemistry, leaving his ailing wife and infant son at Lyons.
In the same year he was appointed professor of mathematics at the lycee of Lyons.
Delambre, whose recommendation obtained for him the Lyons appointment, and afterwards (1804) a subordinate position in the polytechnic school at Paris, where he was elected professor of mathematics in 1809.
The town is hemmed in on the east by the railway line from Lyons to Marseilles, on the south by the Canal de Craponne.
of Paris on the railway to Lyons.
Till near the end of the 2nd century the line between heresy and orthodoxy was less rigidly drawn there than at Ephesus, Lyons, Rome or Carthage.
The judges at Lyons placed it fifteenth in order of merit among the sixteen essays sent in.
Next, he summoned the chief men of the Francophile party in that republic to Lyons in the early days of 1802, in order to arrange with them the appointment of the chiefs of the executive.
To continue the strife when Wellington was firmly established on the line of the Garonne, and Lyons and Bordeaux had hoisted the Bourbonfleur de lys, was seen by all but Napoleon to be sheer madness; but it needed the pressure of his marshals in painful interviews at Fontainebleau to bring him to reason.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
Not all the gorgeous display of the Champ de Mai (held on the 1st of June) could hide the discontent at the meagre fulfilment of the promises given at Lyons.
Their recollection of his conduct during the congress of Chatillon was the determining fact at this crisis; his professions at Lyons or Paris had not the slightest effect; his efforts to detach Austria from the coalition, as also the feelers put forth tentatively by Fouche at Vienna, were fruitless.
Finally, by the peace of Lyons (1601), he gave up all territories beyond the Rhone, but his possession of Saluzzo was confirmed.
JACQUES SPON (1647-1685), French doctor and archaeologist, was born at Lyons and died at Vevey.
- As the loss of Jerusalem in 1187 produced the Third Crusade, so its loss in 1244 produced the Seventh: as the preaching of the Fifth Crusade had taken place in the Lateran council of 1215, so that of the Seventh Crusade began in the council of Lyons of 1245.
at Lyons was a curious thing.
Charles of Anjou had succeeded, as a result of the long "crusade" waged by the papacy against the Hohenstaufen from the council of Lyons to the battle of Tagliacozzo (1245-1268), in establishing himself in the kingdom of Sicily.
In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes.
The union of the two orders, already suggested at the council of Lyons in 1245, was nominally achieved by the council of Vienne in 1311; but the so-called "union" was in reality the suppression of the Templars, and the confiscation of all their resources by the cupidity of Philippe le Bel.
' The union of 1274, conceded by the Palaeologi at the council of Lyons in order to defeat the plans of Charles of Anjou, had only been temporary.
Antipas was deprived of his dominions and banished to Lyons, Herodias voluntarily sharing his exile.
The vehement protest made in the 9th century by Agobard, bishop of Lyons, against the Lex Gundobada shows that it was still in use at that period.
Besides the four great orders of friars, the Trinitarians, though really canons, were in England called Trinity Friars or Red Friars; the Crutched or Crossed Friars were often identified with them, but were really a distinct order; there were also a number of lesser orders of friars, many of which were suppressed by the second council of Lyons in 1274.
Lyons up to 1909.
ANTOINE ELISABETH CLEOPHAS DARESTE DE LA CHAVANNE (1820-1882), French historian, was born in Paris on the 28th of October 1820, of an old Lyons family.
Educated at the Ecole des Chartes, he became professor in the faculty of letters at Grenoble in 1844, and in 1849 at Lyons, where he remained nearly thirty years.
The town itself is a pleasant residence, and contains a 16th century cathedral church, an 18th century bishop's palace, a 14th-16th century castle (formerly the residence of the counts of the Genevois), and the reconstructed convent of the Visitation, wherein now reposes the body of St Francois de Sales (born at the castle of Sales, close by, in 1567; died at Lyons in 1622), who held the see from 1602 to 1622.
A Roman named' Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army, upon which Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyons, where, through the treachery of the governor, he was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on.
816) of Lyons, being on one of these commissions, persuaded Felix to appear before a synod at Aix-laChapelle in 799.
The rest of his life was spent under the supervision of the archbishop at Lyons, where he died in 816.
Lavigerie, however, continued his self-imposed task, refused the archbishopric of Lyons, which was offered to him by the emperor, and won his point.
He founded a short-lived order, the Brothers of the Virgin, suppressed by the council of Lyons (1274), and died a Franciscan.
On leaving the university, the two brothers travelled abroad, visiting Lyons and Geneva, and residing for some while at Augsburg.
When the spring had come, being still very poor and in feeble health, he started homewards on foot by Florence, across the Apennines, through Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Turin, over the Alps, through Savoy and Dauphine to Lyons, andfinally to Paris, where he arrived in excellent health.
was very ill at Lyons, the two queens, Marie and Anne of Austria, reconciled for the time, won the king's promise to dismiss Richelieu.
This vain young favourite of the king was treated as though he were really a formidable traitor, and his friend, De Thou, son of the historian, whose sole guilt was not to have revealed the plot, was placed in a boat behind the stately barge of the cardinal and thus conveyed up the Rhone to his trial and death at Lyons.
He was sent to school at Lyons in 1805, but not being happy there was transferred to the care of the Peres de la Foi at Belley, where he remained until 1809.
Symphorien Champier (Champerius or Campegius) of Lyons (1472-1539), a contemporary of Rabelais, and the patron of Servetus, wrote with fantastic enthusiasm on the superiority of the Greek to the Arabian physicians, and possibly did something to enlist in the same cause the two far greater men just mentioned.
Lyons' The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906), and the authorities quoted in those works.
In the summer he went to Plombieres, and after returning to Colmar for some time journeyed in the beginning of winter to Lyons, and thence in the middle of December to Geneva.
Trained for the scholastic profession, he was appointed assistant professor at the Academy of Paris in 1831, professor of mathematics at Lyons in 1834, rector of the Academy of Grenoble in 1835, inspector-general of studies in 1838, rector of the Academy of Dijon and honorary inspectorgeneral in 1854, retiring in 1862.
He was then sent on a mission to Lyons to investigate the frauds in connexion with the supplies of the army of the Alps.
Fearing a plan to kidnap him, he left Rome, ostensibly to meet the emperor, and from Sutri fled by night on horseback, pursued by 300 of the emperor's cavalry, to Civitavecchia, whence he took ship for Genoa and thence proceeded across the Alps to Lyons, at that time a merely nominal dependence of the Empire.
Innocent, therefore, remained at Lyons, whence he issued a summons to a general council, before which he cited Frederick to appear in person, or by deputy.
Even the clergy were by no means altogether on Innocent's side; the council of Lyons was attended by but 150 bishops, mainly French and Spanish, and the deputation from England, headed by Robert Grossetete of Lincoln and Roger Bigod, came mainly in order to obtain the canonization of Edmund of Canterbury and to protest against papal exactions.
On the 19th of April 1251 Innocent left Lyons, which had suffered severely from his presence, and returned to Italy.
who, at the council of Lyons, first bestowed the red hat on the Roman cardinals, as a symbol of their readiness to shed their blood in the cause of the church.
His small work De exceptionibus was probably written before he became pope; but the Apparatus in quinque libros decretalium, which displays both practical sense and a remarkable mastery of the available materials, was written at Lyons immediately after the council.
A better edition, founded on a Netherlandish MS., appeared at Lyons in 1601.
Alongside Bernard may be placed the two mystics of St Victor, Hugo and Richard, and a little later Peter Waldo of Lyons, who, like Henry of Lausanne, preached a plain message to the poor and lowly.
The confessors of the Gallican Church at Lyons were of opinion that communion ought to be maintained with the zealots of Asia and Phrygia; and they addressed a letter to this effect to the Roman bishop, Eleutherus.
Yolande died in 1472, and the regency was disputed by various claimants; Philip of Bresse having obtained it by force, he carried off Philibert, who died in 1482 at Lyons.
In the war between France and Spain after the accession of Henry IV., he took the Spanish side, and at the peace of Lyons (1601), although he gave up all his territories beyond the Rhone, his possession of Saluzzo was confirmed.
It has been greatly strengthened by the discovery of a MS. which was presented by Bishop Leidrad of Lyons with an autograph inscription to the altar of St Stephen in'that town;some time before 814.
He rejoices to learn that his writings are read at Lyons (ix.
The most important was the town at the confluence of the Saone and Rhone now called Lyons.
Collombet (Paris and Lyons, 2844); 0.
He took part in the various expeditions against the kingdom of Burgundy, and in 534 received as his share of the spoils of that kingdom the towns of Macon, Geneva and Lyons.
Under the Roman emperors Metz was connected by military roads with Toul, Langres, Lyons, Strassburg, Verdun, Reims and Trier.
He left Quintana, visited Lyons and Geneva, repaired to Oecolampadius at Basel, and pushed on to Bucer and Capito at Strassburg.
We next find him at Lyons (1535) editing scientific works for the Trechsel firm, adopting the " Villanovanus " surname, which he constantly used till the year of his death.
At Lyons he found a new patron in Dr Symphorien Champier (Campegius) (1472-1539), whose profession he resolved to follow.
He thus acted for twelve years (1541-1553), making money by his practice, and also by renewed editorial work for the Lyons publishers - work in which he constantly displayed his passion for original discovery in all departments.
Ready by the 3rd of January 1553, the bulk of the impression was privately consigned to Lyons and Frankfort for the Easter market.
C. de Trye, formerly echevin of Lyons, to his cousin Antoine Arneys in that city.
The inquisitor-general at Lyons, Matthieu Ory (the " Doribus " of Rabelais) took up the case on 12th March; Servetus was interrogated on 16th March, arrested on 4th April, and examined on the two following days.
Adjecta insuper ab eodem scholia, &c. Lyons, Melchior and Gaspar Trechsel (1 535; 2nd ed., Lyons, Hugo a Porta (1541), i.e.
recognita et scholiis illustrata, &c. (Lyons, Hugo a Porta, 1542, fol.), remarkable for its theory of prophecy, explained in the preface and illustrated in the notes.
108, &c.); in Rome by its inclusion in the Muratorian canon, and in Gaul by its use in the Epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eus.
Dufour, Giordano Bruno et Geneve, Geneva, 1884), and he travelled on through Lyons, Toulouse and Montpellier, arriving at Paris in 1581.
During the meeting of Italian notables at Lyons early in 1802 Talleyrand was serviceable in manipulating affairs in the way desired by Bonaparte, and it is known that the foreign minister suggested to them the desirability of appointing Bonaparte president of the Cisalpine Republic, which was thenceforth to be called the Italian Republic. In the negotiations for peace with England which went on at Amiens during the winter of 1801-2 Talleyrand had no direct share, these (like those at Luneville) being transacted by Napoleon's eldest brother, Joseph Bonaparte (q.v.).
He joined the Society of Jesus and became professor at the Jesuit college at Lyons.
into Italy, but on his return he was seized at the city of Lyons with a fatal attack of gout in the stomach.
of Savoy at the peace of Lyons in 1601.
frontier from Basel to Nice, and covered Lyons;.
It was at this time (1170) that a rich merchant of Lyons, Peter Waldo, sold his goods and gave them to the poor; then he went forth as a preacher of voluntary poverty.
His followers, the Waldenses, or poor men of Lyons, were moved by a religious feeling which could find no satisfaction within the actual system of the church, as they saw it before them.
It is thus the concluding scene of the persecution under Marcus Aurelius, which is best known from the sufferings of the churches of Vienne and Lyons in South Gaul.
AUGUSTE LAURENT BURDEAU (1851-1894), French politician, was the son of a labourer at Lyons.
education by bursarships at the Lycee at Lyons and at the Lycee Louis Le Grand in Paris.
JEAN BAPTISTE SAY (1767-1832), French economist, was born at Lyons on the 5th of January 1767.
But Irenaeus was at most fifteen when thus frequenting Polycarp; writes thirty-five to fifty years later in Lyons, admitting that he noted down nothing at the time; and, since his mistaken description of Papias as " a hearer of John " the Zebedean was certainly reached by mistaking the presbyter for the apostle, his additional words " and a companion of Polycarp " point to this same mistaken identification having also operated in his mind with regard to Polycarp. In any case, the very real and important presbyter is completely unknown to Irenaeus, and his conclusion as to the book's authorship resulted apparently from a comparison of its contents with Polycarp's teaching.
At the age of ten he composed a tragedy under the inspiration of Caesarotti's translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin sister Rosina with a maternal cousin at Lyons he went to reside in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study of French literature.
Though the son of a poor joiner, he received a good education in the Oratorian colleges of Tournon and Lyons.
His reward came in the prize of the archbishopric of Lyons, on the duties of which he entered in August 1802.
The events of the Hundred Days (March-June, 1815) brought him back to France; he resumed his archiepiscopal duties at Lyons and was further named a member of the senate.
On the second abdication of the emperor (June 22nd, 1815) Fesch retired to Rome, where he spent the rest of his days in dignified ease, surrounded by numerous masterpieces of art, many of which he bequeathed to the city of Lyons.
Monseigneur Lyonnet, Le Cardinal Fesch (2 vols., Lyons, 1841); Ricard, Le Cardinal Fesch (Paris, 1893); H.
Peckham was always a strenuous advocate of the papal power, especially as shown in the council of Lyons in 1274.
Wadding, Annales minorum (Lyons, 1625, 1654).
When the boy was ten years old his father got entangled in a dispute with a fellow-citizen, and being condemned to a short term of imprisonment abandoned Geneva and took refuge at Lyons.
In one of his incomprehensible freaks he set off for Lyons, and, after abandoning his companion in an epileptic fit, returned to Annecy to find Madame de Warens gone.
Then he became, or says he became, secretary to a Greek archimandrite who was travelling in Switzerland to collect subscriptions for the rebuilding of the Holy Sepulchre; then he went to Paris, and, with recommendations from the French ambassador at Soleure, saw something of good society; then he returned on foot through Lyons to Savoy, hearing that Madame de Warens was at Chambery.
He was, however, less likely than most men to endure the position of second in command, and in 1740 he became tutor at Lyons to the children of M.
In 1784 he ran away from school to enlist in the artillery, but was brought back and sent to study law at Lyons and Dijon.
1 45 0, but declined after Louis XI.'s grants of 1462-1463 in favour of the fairs of Lyons.
of France, to forbid French merchants to attend the fairs of Geneva, altering also the days of the fairs at Lyons (established in 1 4 20 and increased in number in 1463) so as to make them clash with those fixed for the fairs of Geneva.
Towards the end of the 2nd century they were combined by Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons.
On the other hand it had not been able to overcome the less radical opposition of the " Poor Man of Lyons " (Waldo, d.
JEAN MATHIEU DE CHAZELLES (1657-1710), French hydrographer, was born at Lyons on the 24th of July 1657.
It is situated among wooded hills on the Savoureuse at the intersection of the roads and railway lines from Paris to Basel and from Lyons to Mizlhausen and Strassburg, by which it maintains considerable trade with Germany and Switzerland.
At Lyons and at Marseilles in France there are beautifully situated Gardens with small collections, in each case owned and controlled by the municipalities.
In May 1894 he again became premier and minister of the interior; and he was by President Carnot's side when the latter was stabbed to death at Lyons in June.
An interest in Latin literature lived longest in Gaul, where schools of learning flourished as early as the 1st century at Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Narbonne and Marseilles; and, from the 3rd century onwards, at Trier, Poitiers, Besancon and Bordeaux.
Shortly afterwards he was arrested by the French government, and, after a trial at Lyons, sentenced by a police-court magistrate (under a special law passed on the fall of the Commune) to five years' imprisonment, on the ground that he had belonged to the International Workingmen's Association (1883).
Beza stated that it came from Lyons and had been always preserved in the monastery of St Irenaeus there.
These points suggest that the MS. had only been a short time at Lyons when Beza obtained it.
Quentin has produced some interesting but not convincing evidence to show that the MS. was used in Lyons in the 12th century, and Rendel Harris at one time thought that there were traces of Gallicism in the Latin, but the latter's more recent researches go to show that the corrections and annotations varying in date between the 7th and 12th centuries point to a district which was at first predominantly Greek and afterwards became Latin.
This would suit South Italy, but not Lyons.
A beautiful set of multiples of the scripulum was found near Lyons (38), from 1 to 10 x 17.28 grains, showing a libra of 4976.
In the same year (1620) Napier's Descriptio (1614) and Constructio (1619) were reprinted by Bartholomew Vincent at Lyons and issued together.5 Napier calculated no logarithms of numbers, and, as already stated, the logarithms invented by him were not to base e.
A facsimile reproduction of Bartholomew Vincent's Lyons edition (1620) of the Constructio was issued in 1895 by A.
Hastening back to Italy he withdrew his three remaining legions from Aquileia, raised two more, and, crossing the Alps by forced marches, arrived in the neighbourhood of Lyons to find that three-fourths of the Helvetii had already crossed the Saone, marching westward.
Parkman, Pioneers of France in the New World and The Jesuits in North America (Boston, 1868); Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, ecrites des missions etrangeres, avec les Annales de la propagation de la foi (40 vols., Lyons, 1819-1854); Saint-Priest, Histoire de la chute des Jesuites au X VIII € Siecle (Paris, 1844); Ranke, Romische Pcipste (3 vols., Berlin, 1838); E.
Smile Etienne Guimet, born at Lyons on the 26th of June 1836, succeeded him in the direction of the factory, and founded the Musee Guimet, which was first located at Lyons in 1879 and was handed over to the state and transferred to Paris in 1885.
Sibilet replied in the preface to his translation (1549) of the Iphigenia of Euripides; Guillaume des Autels, a Lyonnese poet, reproached du Bellay with ingratitude to his predecessors, and showed the weakness of his argument for imitation as opposed to translation in a digression in his Replique aux furieuses defenses de Louis Meigret (Lyons, 1550); Barthelemy Aneau, regent of the 1 For the date of his birth, commonly given as 1525, see H.
College de la Trinite at Lyons,attacked him in his Quintil Horatian (Lyons, 1551), the authorship of which was commonly attributed to Charles Fontaine.
The Marcionites, the Ebionites, or Judaeo-Christians of Palestine, the Montanists of Phrygia, Africa and Galatia, the confessor Alcibiades of Lyons, c. A.D.
Another element in the circle of ideas appropriated by the Bolsheviks was provided by the activity of Bakunin, the indefatigable Russian anarchist, who fought for world revolution in 1849 in Dresden and in 1870 in Lyons, and who passed 12 years of his life in prison and in exile.
He was made archbishop of Lyons in 1271; cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, and grand penitentiary in 1275; and, partly through the influence of Charles of Anjou, was elected to succeed Gregory X.
He was seeking to carry out the Lyons agreement with the Eastern Church when he died.
He preached the funeral sermon at Lyons over St Bonaventura.
C. Gaillard, La Faune momifiee de l'ancienne Egypte (Lyons, 1905); A.
Of his numerous works the most important are the Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (Paris, 1678), and the Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis (Lyons, 1688), which are indispensable aids to the student of the history and literature of the middle ages.
If the latter course be followed, Mr Lyons's genera must be reduced to the rank of sub-genera, and his sub-generic divisions of Lepus and Sylvilagus ignored.
In his " Report on English Silk Industry " to the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction (1885) Sir Thomas Wardle of Leek says: " Colours and white of all possible shades can very easily be imparted to this compound of silk and tin, and this method is becoming extensively used in Lyons.
The supplies available for European and American consumption have been carefully tabulated by the Lyons Chamber of Commerce, as shown by the table.
Up to the year 1860 the bulk of the silks from the East was shipped to London, but subsequently, owing to the importance of continental demands, a large portion of the supplies has been unshipped at Genoa and Marseilles (especially the finer reeled silks from Japan and Canton), which are sold in the Milan and Lyons markets.
of Lyons, Marseilles and Milan, and issued in 1905.
Lyons is the headquarters of the trade, principally in the production of dress fabrics, plain and figured, and other light and heavier fabrics.
This visit was followed by a return visit to Paris and a similar exchange of visits between the London City Corporation and the Paris Municipal Council, exchange visits Of the city corporations of Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh and Lyons, and a visit of the Manchester Corporation to Dusseldorf, Barmen and Cologne.
Though a Catholic priest and professor of history at the Catholic university of Lyons, the Abbe (afterwards Canon) Chevalier knew how to maintain an independent critical attitude even in religious questions.
MARIE JOSEPH DE GERANDO (1772-1842), French philosopher, was born at Lyons on the 29th of February 1772.
On several occasions between the years 1271 and 1273 the Angevins of Naples, who had great influence in Achaea and Albania and were solidly supported by their allies in the Balkan Peninsula, nearly carried out their project; and in 1274 the opposition of Charles of Anjou came near to compromising the operations of the council of Lyons and ruining the work of Gregory X.
In 1601 it was ceded to France by the treaty of Lyons, after which it formed (together with the province of Bugey) first a separate government and afterwards part of the government of Burgundy.
of the "Bibliotheca Patrum Maxima" (Lyons, 1677).
- Editions by Hermolaus Barbarus (Rome, 1492); Dalecampius (Lyons, 1587); Gronovius (Leiden, 1669); Hardouin (Paris, 1685); Franz (Leipzig, 1778-1791); Sillig, with index by O.
The amice is now worn under the alb, except at Milan and Lyons, where it is put on over it.
404 an institution in which Goths might be trained to preach the Gospel to their own people; 3 Martin of Tours, who evangelized the central districts of Gaul; Valentinus, the " apostle of Noricum," about 440; Honoratus, who from his monastic home in the islet of Lerins, about 410, sent missionaries among the masses of heathendom in the neighbourhood of Arles, Lyons, Troyes, Metz and Nice; and St Patrick, who converted Ireland into " the isle of saints " (died either in 463 or 495).
The revival was not a little due to the foundation in 18 22, by a few earnest but (as they called themselves) " humble and obscure " Catholics at Lyons, of a new voluntary society, called the Institution for the Propagation of the Faith.
It collected in its first year about £2000 from the shopkeepers and artisans of Lyons.
in Lyons, 1822), Society of the Holy Childhood (est.
The Roman Catholic missions are chiefly French, and organized by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Lyons African Mission.
The amount of silk handled and woven in Milan is greater than that dealt with at Lyons.
He was educated first at the college of the Oratorians at Beaune, and then in their college at Lyons - where, at sixteen, the year after he had been learning physics, he was made a teacher of it.
In 1269 Charles of Sicily, aided by John of Thessaly, made war with the alleged purpose of restoring Baldwin to the throne of Constantinople, and pressed Michael so hard that he consented to send deputies to the council of Lyons (1274) and there accept the papal supremacy.
After the revolt at Lyons in 1817 he was nominated procureur-general of the city, and by his sense and moderation did much to restore order and confidence.
The king's son Louis, a layman of twenty-one, was made archbishop of Lyons.
A Latin edition is assigned to about 1469; and a dated one was published at Lyons in 1473.
It rises at the upper or eastern extremity of the Swiss canton of the Valais, flows between the Bernese Alps (N.) and the Lepontine and Pennine Alps (S.) till it expands into the Lake of Geneva, winds round the southernmost spurs of the Jura range, receives at Lyons its principal tributary, the Saline, and then turns southward through France till, by many mouths, it enters that part of the Mediterranean which is rightly called the Golfe du Lion (sometimes wrongly the Gulf of Lyons).
Its course (excluding the Lake of Geneva, q.v.) naturally falls into three divisions: (r) from its source to the Lake of Geneva, (2) from Geneva to Lyons, and (3) from Lyons to the Mediterranean.
The distance from Geneva to Lyons by the tortuous course of the Rhone is about 124 m., the fall being only about 689 ft.
The characteristic feature of this portion of the course of the Rhone is the number of narrow gorges or cluses through which it rushes, while it is forced by the southern spur of the Jura to run in a southerly direction, till, after rounding the base of that spur, it can flow freely westwards to Lyons.
Some way below Bellegarde, between Le Parc and Pyrimont, the Rhone becomes officially "navigable," though as far as Lyons the navigation now consists all but wholly of the floating of flat-bottomed boats, named g igues, laden chiefly with stone quarried from the banks of the river.
by rail from Geneva) the railway from Geneva to Lyons (105 m.) quits the Rhone in order to run west by a direct route past Amberieu.
broad, but it gathers into a single stream before its junction with the Saone, just below Lyons.
In fact, up to Lyons, the Rhone (save when it expands into the Lake of Geneva) is a huge and very unruly mountain torrent rather than a great European river.
Below Lyons, however, the Rhone becomes one of the great historical rivers of France.
It was up its valley that first Greek, then Latin civilization penetrated from the Mediterranean to Lyons, as well as in the 10th century the Saracen bandits from their settlement at La Garde Freinet, near the coast of Provence.
Then, too, from Lyons downwards, the Rhone serves as a great medium of commerce by which central France sends its products to the sea.
Its length from Lyons to the sea is some 230 m., though its fall is but 530 ft.
from Lyons, the river breaks up into its two main branches, the Grand Rhone running S.E.
Between Lyons and the sea, the Rhone divides four departments on its right bank (Rhone, Loire, Ardeche and Gard) from as many on its left bank (Isere, Drome, Vaucluse and Bouches du Rhone).
At Lyons his strength altogether gave way, and he died on the 11th of December.
In 1 274 he attended the second council of Lyons, and in 1275 he was appointed bishop of Hereford.
After studying theology in Geneva, Leiden and France, he became pastor of the Italian congregation in Geneva in 1647; after a brief pastorate at Lyons he again returned to Geneva as professor of theology in 1653, having modestly declined a professorship of philosophy in 1650.
In addition to the books quoted in the text, the following may be mentioned: - Bontekoe, Tractat van het excellenste Kruyd Thee (The Hague, 1679); Sylvestre Dufour, Traites Nouveaux et Curieux du Café, du The, et du Chocolat (2nd ed., Lyons, 1688; translation of 1st edition by John Chamberlayne, London, 1685; translations also in Spanish and Latin); J.
Gassendi, in his De vita, moribus, et doctrina Epicuri (Lyons, 1647), and his Syntagma philosophiae Epicuri, systematized the doctrine.
Later on Eanfled enabled him to visit Rome in the company of Benedict Biscop. At Lyons Wilfrid's pleasing features and quick intelligence made Annemund, the archbishop, desire to adopt him and marry him to his niece.
Resisting his offers, the youth went on to Rome, received the papal benediction, and then, in accordance with his promise, returned to Lyons, where he stayed for three years, till the murder of his patron, whose fate the executioners would not let him share.
Having declared Frederick deposed at the council of Lyons in 1245, Gregorys successor, Innocent IV., induced a number of princes to choose as their king the landgrave of Thuringia, Henry Raspe, who had served as regent of Germany.
JEAN ADRIEN ANTOINE JULES JUSSERAND (1855-), French author and diplomatist, was born at Lyons on the 18th of February 1855.
This article relates to the Western Cathars, as they appear (1) in the Cathar Ritual written in Provencal and preserved in a 13th -century MS. in Lyons, published by Cledat, Paris, 1888; (2) in Bernard Gui's Practica inquisitionis haereticae pravitatis, edited by Canon C. Douais, Paris, 1886; and (3) in the proces verbal of the inquisitors' reports.
In August 1087 he held a synod at Benevento, which renewed the excommunication of Guibert; banned Archbishop Hugo of Lyons and Abbot Richard of Marseilles as schismatics; and confirmed the prohibition of lay investiture.
Lyons, The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906); Leigh Canney, The Meteorology of Egypt and its Influence on Disease (1897).
C. Gaillard, La Faune momifie de lancienne Egypte (Lyons, 1905).
(Lyons, 1717); Clarke, Travels, iii.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
573) in Lyons, where he still.
In the 16th century we must mention the pilgrimages to the "Holy Mount" at Gorz on the Austrian coast, and to Montserrat in the Spanish province of Barcelona: in the 17th century, those to Luxemburg, Kevelaer (Gelderland), Notre Dame de Fourviere in Lyons, Heiligenberg in Bohemia, Roermond in the Netherlands, &c. The 18th century, which witnessed the religious Aufkleirung, was not favourable to the pilgrimage.
See Tournefort, Relation d'un voyage du Levant (Lyons, 1717); Walpole, Memoirs (relating to Turkey) (London, 1820); Ross, Reisen auf den griechischen Inseln (Stuttgart and Halle, 1840-1852); Guerin, Description de file de Patmos (Paris, 1856); H.
of Lyons by the Paris-Lyons railway.
It was only printed thirteen years after his death under the care of his friend Antoine Marville at Lyons (4 vols.
Deputy from Paris to the Convention, he voted for the death of Louis XVI., and was sent on mission to Lyons (27th of February 1793) before the revolt of that town, and was on mission from August to October 1793 in Seine-Inferieure.
His CEuvres were published in 1752 at Dresden and in 1756 at Lyons.
1281), who stood in the way of the French projects against Greece, weakened the union with the Eastern Christians, dating from the Lyons Council of 1274.
A few years later he was appointed to a professorship of chemistry at Lyons.
In 1781 he obtained the rich priory of Lyons, near Peronne, and in 1785 he was elected to the Academy, as successor of Lefranc de Pompignan.
discovered by Cardinal Capra in 1409, a Lorsch MS. used by Cratander (C), and a French MS. (Z), generally termed Tornaesianus from its owner, Jean de Tournes, a printer of Lyons, probably identical with No.
A strange mystification was practised by the last named, a scholar of singular brilliancy, who claimed to have a mutilated MS. which he called his Decurtatus, bought from a common soldier who had obtained it from a sacked monastery; also to have been furnished by a friend, Pierre de Crouzeil, a doctor of Limoges, with variants taken from an old MS. found at Noyon, and entered in the margin of a copy of the Lyons edition.
Hajjaj, a man of high qualities, re-entered Gaul and pushed forward his raids as far as Lyons, but the Franks again drove back the Arabs as far as Narbonne.
The work was warmly assailed by Drepanius Florus, canon of Lyons, and Prudentius, and was condemned by two councils - that of Valence in 855, and that of Langres in 859.
He became a novice of the Society of Jesus before completing his studies at the university of Lyons, where, after taking the final vows, he lectured on philosophy to students attracted by his fame from all parts of France.
Through the influence of Camille de Villeroy, archbishop of Lyons, Pere de la Chaise was nominated in 1674 confessor of Louis XIV., who intrusted him during the lifetime of Harlay de Champvallon, archbishop of Paris, with the administration of the ecclesiastical patronage of the crown.
Etudes d'histoire religieuse (Paris and Lyons, 1859).
of Lyons on the railway to Marseilles.
After having entrusted him with several missions, the Convention sent him, on the 30th of October 1793, to Lyons to punish the revolt of that city.
In 1570, 200,000 persons died in Moscow and the neighbourhood, in 1572, 50,000 at Lyons; in 1568 and 1574 plague was at Edinburgh, and in 1570 at Newcastle.
Krauss expressed the opinion that the real objective should have been Lyons.
Thenceforth it became part of the theology of the Western Church, and was definitely affirmed at the councils of Lyons (1274), Florence (1439) and Trent.
See Ernest Chantre, Recherches anthropologiques dans l'Asie occidentale (Lyons, 1895).
To the south of Lyons, in the department of the Drome, are made in the district of Valence the celebrated Hermitage red and white Hermitage.
of Avignon on the railway from Lyons to Marseilles.
Created cardinal-priest in 1244, he played an important part in the council of Lyons in 1245, contributed to the institution of the Feast of Holy Sacrament, the reform of the Carmelites (1247), and the condemnations of the Introductorius in evangelium aeternum of Gherardino del Borgo San Donnino (1255), and of William of St Amour's De periculis novissimorum temporum.
Indeed three years before the arrival of Saint-Mars we hear (Gazette d'Amsterdam, March 14, 1695) of another masked man being brought to the Bastille, who eventually was known to be the son of a Lyons banker.
PIERRE SIMON BALLANCHE (1776-1847), French philosopher of the theocratic school, was born at Lyons.
Naturally delicate and highly-strung, he was profoundly stirred by the horrors of the siege of Lyons.
Besides the Palingenesie, Ballanche wrote a poem on the siege at Lyons (unpublished); Du sentiment considers dans la littrature et dans les arts (i 80 i); Antigone, a prose poem (1814); Essai sur les institutions sociales (1818), intended as a prelude to his great work; Le Vieillard et le jeune homme, a philosophical dialogue (1819); L'Homme sans nom, a novel (1820).
He was descended, it is said, from Vettius Epagathus, who was martyred at Lyons in 177 with St Pothinus; his paternal uncle, Gallus, was bishop of Clermont; his maternal grand-uncle, Nicetius (St Nizier), occupied the see of Lyons; and he was a kinsman of Euphronius, bishop of Tours.
In 1244 he was elected bishop of Chichester, being consecrated at Lyons by Pope Innocent IV.
The writer of the panegyric must be distinguished from Drepanius Florus, deacon of Lyons (c. 850), author of some Christian poems and prose theological works.
The boy was brought up at Lyons and was strongly influenced by one of his masters, the Abbe Noirot.
A year later he was appointed to a professorship of commercial law at Lyons, and in 1840 assistant professor of foreign literature at the Sorbonne.
On the 30th of May 1793 he became a member of the Committee of Public Safety, and in August was sent as one of the commissioners of the Convention attached to the army before Lyons.
Impatient at the slow progress made by the besieging force, he decreed a levee en masse in the department of Puy-de-Dome, collected an army of 60,000 men, and himself led them to Lyons.
The negotiations at the council of Lyons (1274) were, strictly speaking, between the pope and the Byzantine emperor, and were more political than ecclesiastical.
In 1532, however, he had moved from Montpellier to Lyons.
At this time Lyons was the centre and to a great extent the headquarters of an unusually enlightened society, and indirectly it is clear that Rabelais became intimate with this society.
A manuscript distich, which was found in the Toulouse library, deals with the death of an infant named Theodule, whose country was Lyons and his father Rabelais, but we know nothing more about the matter.
What makes the Lyons sojourn of the greatest real importance is that at this time probably appeared the beginnings of the work which was to make Rabelais immortal.
In 1526, however, Charles de Bordigne, in a satiric work of no great merit, entitled la Legende de Pierre Faifeu, has the name Gargantua with an allusion, and in 1532 (if not earlier) there appeared at Lyons les Grandes et inestimables chroniques du grand et enorme grant Gargantua.
This busy and interesting period of Rabelais's life was brought to a close apparently by his introduction or reintroduction to Jean du Bellay, who, in October 1J33, passing through Lyons on an embassy to Rome, engaged Rabelais as physician.
In the spring of 1535 the authorities of the Lyons hospital, considering that Rabelais had twice absented himself without leave, elected Pierre de Castel in his room; but the documents which exist do not seem to infer that any blame was thought due to him, and the appointment of his successor was once definitely postponed in case he should return.
During these two years he seems to have resided either at Montpellier or at Lyons.
Ten years after the publication of the fourth book and nine after the supposed date of the author's death there appeared at Lyons sixteen chapters entitled l&'le sonnante par maistre Francois Rabelais, and two years later the entire fifth book was printed as such.
What may be called the first complete edition appeared in 1567 at Lyons, published by Jean Martin.
The news of the emperor's death (14) found Germanicus at Lugdunum (Lyons), where he was superintending the census of Gaul.
During the same episcopate Irenaeus was appointed bishop of Lyons.
- Bodin, Les Six livres de la Republique (Lyons, 1580); De republica libri sex (Paris, 1586); Stengel, Die Staatsund volkerrechtliche Stellung der deutschen Colonien (1886); Heimburger, Der Erwerb der Gebietshoheit (1888); D'Orgeval, Les Protectorats allemands; annales de l'Ecole des Sciences Politiques (1890); Wilhelm, Theorie juridique des protectorats (1890); Despagnet, Essai sur les protectorats (1896); Heilborn, Das volkerrechtliche Protectorat (1891); Hall, The Foreign Jurisdiction of the British Crown (1894) Stengel, Die deutschen Schutzgebiete (1895); Gairal, Les Protectorats internationaux; Ieze, Etude theorique, eec., sur l'occupation, eec. (1896); Trione, Gli stati civili nei loro rapporti giuridici coi popoli barbari e semibarbari (1889); Ilbert, The Government of India (1898); Jenkyns, British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas (1902); Laband, Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches (1876-1882), Revue de droit international, civilises, et barbares, xvii.
The young king of France had gathered an army about Lyons, wherewith to overrun the Milanese; his allies were the republics of Venice and Genoa.
Chantre, Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase (4 vols., Lyons and Paris, 1885-1887); C. von Hahn, Aus dem Kaukasus (Leipzig, 1892), Kaukasische Reisen and Studien (Leipzig, 1896), and Bilder aus dem Kaukasus (Leipzig, 1900); V.
Between 1302 and 1305 he wrote treatises at Genoa, lectured at Paris, visited Lyons in the vain hope of enlisting the sympathies of Pope Clement V., crossed over to Bougie in Africa, preached the gospel, and was imprisoned there for six months.
For a part at least of his doctrines Gottschalk found ardent defenders, such as Lupus of Ferrieres, the deacon Florus and Amolo of Lyons.
He was sent to school first at Bourg and then at Lyons.
In 1839 he was appointed professor of foreign literature at Lyons, where he began the brilliant course of lectures afterwards embodied in the Two years later he was transferred to the College de France, and the Genie des religions itself appeared (1842) .
As the two-thirds majority requisite for an election could not be obtained, the cardinals separated, and it was not until the 28th of June 1316 that they reassembled in the cloister of the Dominicans at Lyons, and then only in deference to the pressure exerted upon them by Philip V.
Baron Lyons Edmund Lyons >>
Carnot seemed to be arriving at the zenith of popularity, when on the 24th of June 1894, after delivering at a public banquet at Lyons a speech in which he appeared to imply that he nevertheless would not seek re-election, he was stabbed by an Italian anarchist named Caserio and expired almost immediately.
JEAN ETIENNE MONTUCLA (1725-1799), French mathematician, was born at Lyons on the 5th of September 1725.
Lesser mendicant orders sprang up in all directions - Gasquet mentions half a dozen such that found their way into England (English Monastic Life, p. 241) - in such numbers that the Council of Lyons in 1274 found it necessary to suppress all except the orders already named.
His posthumous History of the Interdict was printed at Venice the year after his death, with the disguised imprint of Lyons.
He was educated at Paris and Geneva, and began his life-work in 1825 as founder and pastor of a Protestant church in Naples, whence he removed in 1827 to Lyons.
Instead of leaving Lyons he began to preach in a hall and then in a chapel.
of Lyons on the railway between that city and Marseilles.
On the fall of the Second Empire in September 1870 the government of national defence appointed him prefect of the department of the Rhone, in which capacity he had to suppress the Communist rising at Lyons.
has as its title the words Corpus juris canonici, and we do not meet with this title till the Lyons edition of 1671.
councils of Lyons, and is arranged in books and titles, as above described; the last title, de regulis juris, contains no less than eighty-eight legal axioms, mostly borrowed from Roman law.
The first was of private origin, and had as its author Pierre of P. Mathieu, the Lyons jurist(1563-1621);it a eared Y J appeare 1590 at Lyons.
The duke of Savoy, who had held back from the treaty of Vervins in 1598, signed the treaty of Lyons in 1601; in exchange for the marquisate of Saluzzo, France acquired Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and the bailliage of Gex.
The great increase during the decade 1890-1900 was partly due to the absorption by Clinton in 1895 of the city of Lyons (pop. in 1890, 5700).
Disagreements and disputes were continual, and the easy expedient of rewarding the officials of the Curia and increasing the papal revenue by "reserving" more and more benefices was met by repeated protests, such as that of the bishops and barons of England (the chief sufferers), headed by Robert Grosseteste of Lincoln, at the council of Lyons in 1245.2 The subject, indeed, frequently became one of national interest, on account of the alarming amount of specie which was thus drained away, and hence numerous enactments exist in regard to it by the various national governments.
At Kanopolis in Ellsworth county, at Lyons in Rice county and at Kingman, Kingman county, the salt is mined and sold as rock-salt.
Latimer and Lyons were 3VOU tes.
In his fathers name he released Latimer and Lyons, dismissed the John of council of twelve, imprisoned Peter de la Mare, Gaunt resequestrated the temporalities of Bishop Wykeham, establishes and sent the earl of March out of the realm.
His son, Rene Berenger (1830-), continued the work of his father, and at the outbreak of the revolution of 1870 was avocat general of Lyons.
He took part in the principal events of the reign, negotiated the treaty of Lyons with the duke of Savoy 2 Jean de Meun's translation formed the basis of a rhymed version (1290) by Jean Priorat of Besancon, Li abreyance de l'ordre de chevalerie.
Remains of Christian churches were disclosed by the thorough exploration carried out in1895-1896in view of the Barrage scheme, under the direction of Captain Lyons.
Lyons, A Report on the Island and Temples of Philae (Cairo, 1896), with numerous plans and photographs; a seco!.d report, A Report on the Temples of Philae (1908), deals with the condition of the ruins as affected by the immersions occasioned by the filling of the Assuan dam; Baedeker's Egypt; and on the effects of the submersion, &c., reports in Annales du service des antiquite's, vols.
CARACALLA (or [[Caracallus), Marcus A Urel I Us Antoninus]] (186-217), Roman emperor, eldest son of the emperor Septimius Severus, was born at Lugdunum (Lyons) on the 4th of April 186.
In the Liber Sad-der, indeed (Porta xxv.), we read, " Cavendum est tibi a jejunio; nam a mane ad vesperam nihil comedere non est bonum in religione nostra "; but according to the Pere de Chinon (Lyons, 1671) the Parsee religion enjoins, upon the priesthood at least, no fewer than five yearly fasts.
Although the country is approximately comprised within the latitudes of Sicily and Lyons, it has a south Norwegian January and a Persian summer.
AGOBARD (c. 779-840), Carolingian prelate and reformer, became coadjutor to Leidrad, archbishop of Lyons, in 813, and on the death of the latter succeeded him in the see (816).
Agobard was reverenced as a saint in Lyons, and although his canonization is disputed his life is given by the Bollandists, Ada Sanctorum, Jun.
- Agobard's works were lost until 1605, when a manuscript was discovered in Lyons and published by Papirius Masson, again by Baluze in 1666.
In May Lyons rose.
Lyons, where the Royalists were strong, defended itself with courage, for the trial and execution of Challier made the townsmen hopeless of pardon.
The spirit of those in power was shown by the massacres which followed on the surrender of Lyons in that month.
In 1273 he was sent to Pope Gregory X., and in the following year, at the council of Lyons, in the emperor's name he recognized the spiritual supremacy of Rome.
For some time Proudhon carried on a small printing establishment at Besancon, but without success; afterwards he became connected as a kind of manager with a commercial firm at Lyons.
449), and Eucherius of Lyons (ob.
If French scholars are right in assigning Hilary's Vita Honorati to 430, Salvian, who is there called a priest, had probably already left Lyons for Marseilles, where he is known to have spent the last years of his life (Gennadius, ap. Migne, Iviii.
In 1870 he attempted a rising at Lyons on the principles afterwards exemplified by the Paris Commune.
and Charles V., to reach Strassburg by the ordinary route, he with his younger brother Antoine and his half-sister Marie journeyed to Lyons and so to Geneva, making for Basel.
At the council of Lyons (A.D.
(Lyons, 1649; last edition, 1675).
In the same year the more important Syntagma philosophiae Epicuri (Lyons, 1649; Amsterdam, 1684) was published.
and ii.), were published in 1658 by Montmort (6 vols., Lyons).
He withdrew from Rome, and spent some time at the little village of Schiavi, where he finished his treatise on the atonement, Cur Deus homo, and then retired to Lyons.
Practically this left matters as they were, and Anselm, who had received a message forbidding him to return to England unless on the king's terms, withdrew to Lyons, where he waited to see if Paschal would not take stronger measures.
Victor Augagneur, late mayor of Lyons.
IRENAEUS, bishop of Lyons at the end of the 2nd century, was one of the most distinguished theologians of the anteNicene Church.
The circumstances under which he came into the West are also unknown to us; the only thing which is certain is that at the time of the persecution of the Gallic Church under Marcus Aurelius (177) he was a presbyter of the church at Lyons.
On his return he was called upon to undertake the direction of the church at Lyons in the place of Bishop Pothinus, who had perished in the persecution (Eus.
29), that within a short time he succeeded in converting all Lyons to Christianity, is probably exaggerated, from him at any rate dates the wide spread of Christianity in Lyons and its neighbourhood.
He also wrote or edited various Chinese works on geography, the celestial and terrestrial spheres, geometry and arithmetic. And the detailed history of the mission was drawn out by him, which after his death was brought home by P. Nicolas Trigault, and published at Augsburg, and later in a complete form at Lyons under the name De Expeditione Christiana apud Sinas Suscepta, ab Soc. Jesu, Ex P. Mat.
Lyons in 1905 was 1,107,227 sq.
Caligula visited Gaul and founded literary comoetitions at Lyons, which had become the political and intellectual capital of the country.
Claudius, who was a native of Lyons, extended the right of Roman citizenship to many of his fellow-townsmen, gave them access to the magistracy and to the senate, and supplemented the annexation of Gaul by that of Britain.
The speech which he pronounced on this occasion was engraved on tables of bronze at Lyons, and is the first authentic record of Gauls admission to the citizenship of Rome.
After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).
Christianity, introduced into Gaul during the 1st century of the Christian era by those foreign merchants who traded along the coasts of the Mediterranean, had by the middle of the 2nd century founded communities at Vienne, at Autun and at Lyons.
177, under Marcus Aurelius, the Church of Lyons, founded by St Pothinus, suffered those persecutions which were the effective cause of her ultimate victory.
448), St Eucherius of Lyons (d.
The difference concerning the marquisate of Saluzzo, which the duke of Savoy had seized upon in 1588, profiting by Henry III.s embarrassments, is only worth mentioning because the treaty of Lyons (1601) finally dissipated the Italian mirage, and because, in exchange for the last of Frances possessions beyond the Alps, it added to the royal domain the really French territory of La Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and the district of Gex.
Thus he procured money at all costs, with an extremely crude fiscal judgment which ended by exasperating the people; hence numerous insurrections of the poverty-stricken; Dijon rose in revolt against the aides in 1630, Provence against the tax-officers (lus) in 1631, Paris and Lyons in 1632, and Bordeaux against the increase of customs in 1635.
Having gradually revolutionized the whole economic system, in Paris, in Lyons, in Nantes, in Bordeaux, in Marseilles, they could not tamely put up with being excluded from public affairs, which had so much bearing upon their private or collective enterprises.
Clubs were openly organized, pamphlets and journals appeared, regardless of administrative orders; workmens unions multiplied in Paris, Bordeaux and Lyons, in face of drastic pro hibition; and anarchy finally set in with the defection of the army in Paris on the 23rd of June, at Nancy, at Metz and at Brest.
The complete success of the Girondin proposals; the arrest of Hbertthe violent editor of the Pre Duc/zene; the insurrection of the Girondins of Lyons against the Montagnard Commune; the bad news from La Vendethe military reverses; and the economic situation which had compelled the fixing of a maximum price of corn (May 4) excited the moral insurrections of May 31 and June 2.
In the Angevin Vendee the incapable leaders let themselves be beaten at Aubiers, Beauprau and Thouars, at a time when Cathelineau was taking possession of Saumur and threatening Nantes, the capture of which would have permitted the insurgents in La Vende to join those of Brittany and receive provisions from England; Meanwhile, the remnants of the Girondin federalists were overcome by the disguised royalists, who had aroused the whole of the Rhne valley from Lyons to Marseilles, had called in the Sardinians, and handed over the fleet and the arsenal at Toulon to the English, whilst Paoli left Corsica at their disposal.
Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.
Power reverted to the Girondins and Dantonists, who reentered the Convention on the 18th of December; but with them re-entered likewise the royalists of Lyons, Resuscita Marseilles and Toulon, and further, after the peace of tion of the Basel, many young men set free from the army, hostile royalist to the Jacobins and defenders of the now moderate ~~Y
Writing in 1566 Sixtus Senensis mentions having seen at Lyons a manuscript of a so-called " Fifth Book of Maccabees " in the library of Santas Pagninus, which was soon afterwards destroyed by fire.
The Phoenicians were here traders and not settlers; the Greeks, though they planted early colonies on the Gulf of Lyons, occupied hardly any site south of the Pyrenees, and the seeming likeness in name of Saguntum and the Greek island Zacynthus is mere coincidence.
No satisfactory Roman Catholic history of the subject exists, though reference may be made to Count Joseph de Maistre's De l'eglise gallicane (last ed., 1844), Lyons, 1881).
His views on this head are set out with great force in his pamphlet, La defaicte des Tartares et Turcs (Lyons, 1590).
But in 1245, by a personal visit to the papal court at Lyons, he secured a favourable verdict.
Other lives by Posl (Regensburg, 1847); P. Guerin (Lyons, 1852); Mrs Hope (London, 1859); Abp. Capecelatro (2 vols., 1879; 2nd ed., 1884; Eng.
Negotiations for peace were begun, but the relations of the Lombard cities to the Empire could not be adjusted, and when the emperor began again to ravage the papal territories Innocent fled to Lyons.
For instance, of the living species found at Meximieux, near Lyons, one is American, eight at least belong to the Canaries (six being characteristic of those islands), two are Asiatic, and ten still live in Europe.
A monk at a monastery near Lyons in France who became archbishop there.
Kittredge and others could have known of the success of international accounting congresses in Paris in 1889 and at Lyons in 1895.
Sir Michael Lyons, newly empowered to look at councils ' functions and finance, might be rewriting the entire script.
Making espresso coffee at home has never been easier with the launch of Lyons espresso pods.
maximal subgroups of the Lyons group, Math.
The maximal subgroups of the Lyons group, Math.
John Lyons argues rather cleverly that despite the reservations of people like Ullman, strict synonymy is possible.
Rob Lyons Dark Blue by Ron Shelton Dark Blue has more cop clichÃ©s than you can shake a truncheon at.
Archbishop of Lyons, murdered by the tyrant Ebroin.
Simard (Lyons, 1894).
The mean surface temperature of the waters of the Mediterranean falls from south-east, where it is over 11111123Ã‚° F., to north-west, the average at the coast of the Gulf of Lyons being 60Ã‚°.
CAIUS SOLLIUS APOLLINARIS SIDONIUS (c. 430-487 or 488), Christian writer and bishop, was horn in Lyons about A.D.
But Majorianus, in the year 457, having deprived Avitus of the empire and taken the city of Lyons, Apollinaris fell into the hands of the enemy.
In Lyons their views were publicly known; Roland was elected a member of the municipality, and when the depression of trade in the south demanded representation in Paris he was deputed by the council of Lyons to ask the Constituent Assembly that the municipal debt of Lyons, which had been contracted for the benefit of the state, should be regarded as national debt.
Chalier demanded of the Convention the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal and the levy of a revolutionary army at Lyons.
to attend the council convened at Lyons, to investigate and if possible settle the differences between the Greek and Latin churches.
The Rhne, the source of which is in Mont St Gothard, in Switzerland, enters France by the narrow defile of LEcluse, and has a somewhat meandering course, first flowing south, then north-west, and then west as far as Lyons, whence it runs straight south till it reaches the Mediterranean, into which it discharges itself by two principal branches, which form the delta or island of the Camargue.
The local climates of France may be grouped under the following seven designations: (I) Sequan climate, characterizing the Seine basin and northern France, with a mean temperature of 500 F., the winters being cold, the summers mild; (2) Breton climate, with a mean temperature of 51-8 F., the winters being mild, the summers temperate, it is characterized by, west and south-west winds and frequent fine rains; (3) Girondin climate (characterizing Bordeaux, Agen, Pau, &c.), having a mean of 53.6 F., with mild winters and hot summers, the prevailing wind is from the north-west, the average rainfall about 28 in.; (4) Auvergne climate, comprising the Cvennes, central plateau, Clermont, Lirnoges anti Rodez, mean temperature 51.8 F., with cold winters and hot summers; (5) Vosges climate (comprehending Epinal, Mzires and Nancy), having a mean of 48.2 F., with long and severe winters and hot and rainy summers; (6) Rhne climate (experienced by Lyons, Chalon, Macon, Grenoble) mean temperature 5I~8 F., with cold and wet winters and hot summers, the prevailing winds are north and south; (7) Mediterranean climate, ruling at Valence, NImes, Nice and Marseilles, mean temperature, 57.5 F., with mild winters and hot and almost rainless summers.
Rhflne (Lyons), Saflne-et-Loire (Le Creusot, Chalon-sur-Sane) and Loire-Infrieure (Basse-Indre, Indret, Coueron, Trignac) also play a considerable part in this industry.
The silk fabrics of France hold the first place, particularly the more expensive kinds The industry is concentrated in the departments bordering the river Rhne, the chief centres being Lyons (Rhne), Voiron (Isre), St Etienne and St Chamond (~~oire) (the two latter being especially noted for their ribbons and trimmings) and Annonay (Ardche) and other places in the departments of Am, Gard and Drme.
In a commune of 2500 inhabitants or less there is one deputy; in more populous communes there may be more, but in no case must the number exceed twelve, except at Lyons, where as many as seventeen are allowed.
The chief towns of these districts are Algiers,, Bayonne, Besancon, Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Chambry, Charleville, Dunkirk, ~pinal, La Rochelle, Le Havre, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpllier, Nancy, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Perpignan,Rouen, St-Malo,Valenciennes.
The department is within the judicial circumscription of the appeal court of Lyons and the educational circumscription (academie) of Lyons.
He was unmolested, however, and during the First Empire lived in literary retirement at Lyons with his wife and family, producing for the Lyons academy occasional papers on the Influence reciproque de l'eloquence sur la Revolution et de la Revolution sur l'eloquence; Etudes sur Klopstock, &c. At the restoration in 1814 he again emerged into public life.
Another legend, alluded to in a speech by the emperor Claudius (fragments of which were discovered on a bronze tablet dug up at Lyons in 1524), represented him as an Etruscan soldier of fortune named Mastarna, who attached himself to Caeles Vibenna (Caelius Vivenna), the founder of an Etruscan city on the Caelian Hill (see also Tacitus, Annals, iv.
Besides the celebrated school of the Palace, where Alcuin had among his hearers the members of the imperial family and the dignitaries of the empire as well as talented youths of humbler origin, we hear of the episcopal schools of Lyons, Orleans and St Denis, the cloister schools of St Martin of Tours, of Fulda, Corbie, Fontenelle and many others, besides the older monasteries of St Gall and Reichenau.
Lyons's The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906); also The Geographical Journal, vol.
He issued in 1719 an improved version of his work on perspective, with the title New Principles of Linear Perspective, revised by Colson in 1749, and printed again, with portrait and life of the author, in 1811, A French translation appeared in 1753 at Lyons.
This innovation on the ancient practice was confirmed by the subsequent council of Lyons, 566, and from this period these grants ceased to be regarded as personal, and their substance became annexed to the churches, - in other words, they were henceforth enjoyed jure tituli, and no longer jure personals.
The letter bears no sign of dictation by Calvin (who must, however, have furnished the enclosed sheet), and de Trye's part may be explained by an old grudge of his against the Lyons booksellers.
A zodiac on the " astrological altar of Gabies " in the Louvre illustrates the apportionment of the signs among the inmates of the Roman Pantheon; 3 and they occur as a classical reminiscence in the mosaic pavements of San Miniato and t