He first went to take possession of the old Lydian capital Sardis, the headquarters of the Persian government on this side of the Taurus, and the strong city surrendered without a blow.
In the autumn of 546 Sardis was taken and the Lydian kingdom became a province of the Persians.
Schliemann got to work again at Hissarlik in 1878, and greatly increased our knowledge of the lower strata, but did not recognize the Aegean remains in his "Lydian" city of the sixth stratum, which were not to be fully revealed till Dr W.
Lydian) chiefs, and in later times Hyde was said to be the older name of Sardis, or the name of its citadel.
It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century B.C. The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century, by the Persians and by the Athenians in the 6th, and by Antiochus the Great at the end of the 3rd century.
The necropolis of the old Lydian city, a vast series of mounds, some of enormous size, lies on the north side of the Hermus, 4 or 5 m.
The culture appears to find Carian and Lydian parallels, and has been ascribed provisionally to the 13th - Ioth centuries.
The Pythia then sent him to serve the Lydian queen Omphale.
ALYATTES, king of Lydia (609-560 B.C.), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae.
They were incorporated by Croesus with the Lydian monarchy, with which they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 B.C.), and were included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus.
The relation is 258: 229 :: 9:8; but the exact form in which the descent took place is not settled: 1/60 or 129 of gold is worth 57 of silver or a drachm, 1/4 of 230 (or by trade weights 127 and 226); otherwise, deriving it from the silver weight of 86 already formed, the drachm is 1/3 of the stater, 172, or double of the Persian danak of 28.7, and the sacred unit of Didyma in Ionia was this half-drachm, 27; or thirdly, what is indicated by the Lydian coinage (17), 86 of gold was equal to 1150 of silver, 5 shekels or 1/10th mina.
In coinage it is one of the commonest units in early times; from Phoenicia, round the coast to Macedonia, it is predominant (17); at a maximum of 230 (Ialysus), it is in Macedonia 224, but seldom exceeds 220 elsewhere, the earliest Lydian of the 7th century being 219, and the general average of coins 218.
Aristomenes retired to Ialysus in Rhodes, where Damagetus, his son-in-law, was king, and died there while planning a journey to Sardis and Ecbatana to seek aid from the Lydian and Median sovereigns (Pausanias iv.
The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolea of the Lydian kings, the circular, chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Vold, are lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times, modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art at the period of their erection.
The Lydians failed to subdue Lycia, but after the fall of the Lydian empire it was conquered by Harpagus the general of Cyrus, Xanthus or Arnna, the capital, being completely destroyed.
This mass had buried a great part of the Lydian and Greek cities, but on a protected slope some undisturbed Lydian strata were found.
Especially noteworthy are numbers of engraved gems in Graeco-Persian (no doubt Lydian) style.
These have not, however, given the key to the Lydian language, nor do they support the theory that Etruscan was derived from Lydian.
It is expressly recorded that rvpavvos is a Lydian word.
After 585 the country was ruled again by its own princes under subjection to Lydian supremacy.
Under the later Mermnad kings the Lydian empire was penetrated with Greek influence, and Xanthus, the early Lydian historian, wrote his history in Greek.
14) records that a king Midas of Phrygia dedicated his own chair at Delphi; the chair stood in the treasury of Cypselus, and cannot have been deposited there before 680 to 660 B.C. It is not improbable that the event belongs to the time of Alyattes or Croesus, when Greek influence was favoured throughout the Lydian empire; and it is easy to understand how the offering of a king Midas should be considered, in the time of Herodotus, as the earliest made by a foreign prince to a Greek god.
Too jealous of each other to combine, and too demoralized by luxury to resist, they fell an easy prey to Lydia; and when the Lydian kingdom ended with the capture of Sardis by Cyrus, 546 B.C. they passed, almost without resistance, to Persia.
Cappadocia also fell before Cyaxares; in a war with the Lydian Empire the decisive battle was broken off by the celebrated eclipse of the sun on the, 28th of May 585 B.C., foretold by Thales (Herod.
To counteract, perhaps, the growing Lydian influence, Athens, the mother-city of Ephesus, despatched one of her noblest citizens, Aristarchus, to restore law on the basis of the Soloman constitution.
Another derivation suggested is from Aaf3pus, a Lydian or Carian word meaning a "double-edged axe" (Journal of Hellenic Studies, xxi.
The Lydian king, finding that Nineveh was helpless to assist him, turned instead to Egypt and furnished the mercenaries with whose help Psammetichus drove the Assyrians out of the country and suppressed his brother satraps.
His great wealth was left mainly to the two families that he had in Russia and Greece; but a sum was reserved for Hissarlik, where Dorpfeld in 1891 and 1892, by clearing away the debris of the former excavations, exposed the great walls of the sixth stratum which Schliemann had called Lydian, and proved their synchronism with Mycenae, and identity with Mycenaean remains; that is to say, with Homer's Troy, if Troy ever was.
A victory won about 546 B.C., when the Lydian Empire fell before Cyrus of Persia, made the Spartans masters of the Cynuria, the borderland between Laconia and Argolis, for which there had been an age-long struggle.
20) of their having invaded Europe in conjunction with the Teucrians before the Trojan War is probably a fiction; and the first historical fact we learn is their subjugation, together with all the surrounding nations, by Lydian Croesus.
After the fall of the Lydian monarchy they remained under the Persian Empire until its overthrow by Alexander.
431), and the place of the Lydian capital Sardis is taken by Hyde (Il.
The Greek cities were conquered, and the coast of Ionia included within the Lydian kingdom.
The successes of Alyattes and of Croesus finally changed the Lydian kingdom into a Lydian empire, and all Asia Minor westward of the Halys, except Lycia, owned the supremacy of Sardis.
The statement is on the whole borne out by the few Lydian, Mysian and Carian words that have been preserved, as well as by the general character of the civilization prevailing among the three nations.
The prostitution whereby the Lydian girls gained their dowries (Herod.
In the legend of Heracles, Omphale takes the place of Cybele, and was perhaps her Lydian title.
Heracles is here the sun-god Attis in a new form; his Lydian name is unknown, since E.
The trade and wealth of Lydia rapidly increased, and the Greek towns fell one after the other before the attacks of the Lydian kings.
Alyattes's long reign of fifty-seven years saw the foundation of the Lydian empire.
The Greek cities were allowed to retain their own institutions and government on condition of paying taxes and dues to the Lydian monarch, and the proceeds of their commerce thus flowed into the imperial exchequer.
The Lydian empire may be described as the industrial power of the ancient world.
When the Mermnad kings raised the Lydian power and aggressiveness Smyrna was one of the first points of attack.
But it was not till the reign of Croesus (560-545 B.C.) that the cities of Ionia successively fell under Lydian rule.
In the more considerable of the elegiac fragments which have survived, he ridicules the doctrine of the migration of souls (xviii.), asserts the claims of wisdom against the prevalent athleticism, which seemed to him to conduce neither to the good government of states nor to their material prosperity (xix), reprobates the introduction of Lydian luxury into Colophon (xx.), and recommends the reasonable enjoyment of social pleasures (xxi.).
The early Lydian kingdom was far advanced in the industrial arts (see Lydia), and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures.
Littmann, Lydian Inscriptions, (vol.
complete success, till some time between 6ro and 590 Phrygia then fell under the Lydian power, and by the treaty of 585 the Halys was definitely fixed as the boundary between Lydia and Media (see Lydia and Persia).
The recent discovery by Keil and Premerstein (Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie,'iii., 1908) of Lydian inscriptions containing the symbol 8 suggests that the old derivation of the Etruscans from Lydia may be true and that they brought this symbol with them (see article on F).
That is to say, these gifts were probably paid for out of the proceeds of the sequestration of the property of a rich Lydian merchant, Sadyattes, which Croesus presented to Ephesus (Nic. Damasc. fr.
His father's home was on Mt Sipylus in Asia Minor, whence Pelops is spoken of as a Lydian or a Phrygian.
It appears from Herodotus and Strabo that they were kindred with the Lydians and Carians, a fact attested by their common participation in the sacred rites at the great temple of Zeus at Labranda, as well as by the statement of the historian Xanthus of Lydia that their language was a mixture of Lydian and Phrygian.
Lydian sculpture was probably similar to that of the Phrygians.
Mimnermus laments the degeneracy of the citizens of his day, who could no longer stem the Lydian advance.
Lydian time, they were to ask their respective oracle a question: "What is King Croesus doing right now?"
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