Lutheran Sentence Examples
He was of "Pennsylvania-German" parentage, his name being originally Albrecht, and was educated in the Lutheran faith.
The liturgy of the Lutheran church of Russia has, since 1898, been based on his Liturgische Formulare (1872).
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
His father, a Lutheran minister, died while he was yet a child, leaving a widow and three children.
In Germany the concessions made to the pope and the reservations maintained by him in the matter of taxes and benefices were deemed excessive, and the prolonged discontent which resulted was one of the causes of the success of the Lutheran Reformation.Advertisement
The great difference is in the attitude towards the Lord's Supper, the Reformed or Calvinistic Churches repudiating not only transubstantiation but also the Lutheran consubstantiation.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
Before that time three religions (cultes) were recognized and supported by the state-the Roman Catholic, the Protestant (subdivided into the Reformed and Lutheran) and the Hebrew.
The organization of the Lutheran Church (Eglise de la confession dAugsburg) is broadly similar.
As in the other Saxon duchies the population is almost exclusively Protestant; in 1905, 262,243 belonged to the Lutheran confession, 4845 were Roman Catholics and 1256 Jews.Advertisement
A few months after the disaster of Jemmingen, Orange, who had now become a Lutheran, himself led a large army into Brabant.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
He was also to sound the Lutheran princes with a view to an alliance, and to obtain the removal of some restrictions on English trade.
A result followed somewhat similar to the effect, on the German language, of the Lutheran reformation.
The Lenten fast was retained at the Reformation in some of the reformed Churches, and is still observed in the Anglican and Lutheran communions.Advertisement
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
He is a good enough Lutheran to quote as a " mystery " the Eucharist no less than the Trinity, while he insists that truths above are not against reason.
There he gained an acquaintance with the Lutheran hymns, which he turned to account on his return to Scotland.
He and his followers withdrew from the Lutheran Church, declined its sacraments, and formed small societies of kindred views.
In his Christology he departed from the Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrine of the two natures by insisting on what he called the Vergotterung des Fleisches Christi, the deification or the glorification of the flesh of Christ.Advertisement
They have continued to be worn, however, by the bishops of the Scandinavian Lutheran Y P Churches.
The sect was the outcome of one of the many Pietistic movements of the 17th century, and was founded in 1708 by Alexander Mack of Schwarzenau, Germany, and seven of his followers, upon the general issue that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the literal teachings of the Scriptures.
His father, a Lutheran clergyman at Leonberg, dabbled in spiritualism, and was deprived of his living in 1771.
In the Lutheran church the title Archidiakonus is given in some places to the senior assistant pastor of a church.
This he was able to do, as a moderate Lutheran, whose calmness and common sense contrasted advantageously with the unbridled violence of his contemporaries.Advertisement
In theology he followed Zwingli, and at the sacramentarian conferences of Heidelberg (1560) and Maulbronn (1564) he advocated by voice and pen the Zwinglian doctrine of the Lord's Supper, replying (1565) to the counter arguments of the Lutheran Johann Marbach, of Strassburg.
Between 1562 and 1567 he published many controversial tracts, especially against the Lutheran, Martin Chemnitz.
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
Although Louis V., who founded the university of Giessen in 1607, was a Lutheran, he and his son, George II.
Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific writer on theological subjects; his chief field of work was practical theology, and his important book on that subject, summing up his long experience and teaching, appeared at Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.).
He was a strong Lutheran and exercised a powerful influence in that direction as court preacher in Dresden and as president of the Protestant consistory at Munich.
Calovius was the most noteworthy of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century.
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
In 1742, in reply to a call from the Lutheran churches of Pennsylvania, he went to Philadelphia, and was joined from time to time, especially in 1745, by students from Halle.
Muhlenberg occupied himself more particularly with the congregation at New Providence (now Trappe), though he was practically overseer of all the Lutheran churches from New York to Maryland.
In 1748 he organized the first Lutheran synod in America.
The importance of his work in organizing and building up the American Lutheran Church, of which he has been called the Patriarch, can hardly be exaggerated; but his example in preaching in English as well as in German was, unfortunately for the growth of the Lutheran Church, not followed by his immediate successors.
It is the seat of Blinn Memorial College (German Methodist Episcopal), opened as "Mission Institute" in 1883, and renamed in 1889 in honour of the Rev. Christian Blinn, of New York, a liberal benefactor; of Brenham Evangelical Lutheran College, and of a German-American institute (1898).
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
In theology, as in ecclesiastical polity, Hofmann was a Lutheran of an extreme type, although the strongly marked individuality of some of his opinions laid him open to repeated accusations of heterodoxy.
During the same period the Lutheran zeal of the citizens led to the expulsion of the Mennonites and other Protestant sects, who founded Altona.
Luther and his followers regarded vestments as among the adiaphora, and in the Churches which afterwards came to be known as "Lutheran" many of the traditional vestments were retained.
The Church of England, in which the Lutheran and Calvinistic points of view struggled for the mastery, a struggle which resulted in a compromise, is separately dealt with below.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
If this be so, the case is exactly parallel with that of the Lutheran Churches which, about the same time, had discarded all the "mass vestments" except the alb and chasuble.
He gives reasons for believing that in the Church of England, under the first Prayer Book, as in the Lutheran Churches, while chasuble and alb were retained, stole, maniple, amice and girdle were discontinued.
In 1823 he married the princess Elizabeth of Bavaria, who adopted the Lutheran creed.
The resulting Antinomian controversy (the only one within the Lutheran body in Luther's lifetime) is not remarkable for the precision or the moderation of the combatants on either side.
The Lutheran Bugenhagen, who was in priest's orders, ordained seven superintendents, afterwards called bishops, for Denmark in 1527, and Norway, then under the same crown, derives its present episcopate from the same source.
The last is a philosophy of naturalism in the form of a conversation between seven learned men - a Jew, a Mahommedan, a Lutheran, a Zwinglian, a Roman Catholic, an Epicurean and a Theist.
Of the reformed Churches of the continent of Europe only the Lutheran Churches of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland preserve the episcopal system in anything of its historical sense; and of these only the two last can lay claim to the possession of bishops in the unbroken line of episcopal succession.
The" bishops "of the Lutheran Church in Transylvania are equivalent to the superintendents.
From the Reformation to the French occupation in the beginning of the 19th century, Hamburg was a purely Lutheran state; according to the "Recess" of 1529, re-enacted in 1603, nonLutherans were subject to legal punishment and expulsion from the country.
By the new constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in 1870 for the city only, but in 1876 extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory, the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of 53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as an executive.
But Luther elsewhere professed Consubstantiation; that is, in modern Lutheran phraseology, the " presence of our Lord's Body " in, with and under the bread.
Its public institutions include the MorrissonReeves (public) Library (1864), one of the largest (39,000 volumes in 1909) and oldest in the state, an art gallery, the Reid Memorial Hospital, a Home for Friendless Women, the Margaret Smith Home for Aged Women (1888), the Wernle Orphans' Home (1879; Evangelical Lutheran), and the Eastern Indiana Hospital for the Insane (1890).
Hutter was a stern champion of Lutheran orthodoxy, as set down in the confessions and embodied in his own Compendium locorum theologicorum (1610; reprinted 1863), being so faithful to his master as to win the title of "Luther redonatus."
In Prussia there are two Feldprobste (who are directly under the war minister), one Lutheran, one Roman Catholic. The latter is a titular bishop, and has sole spiritual authority over soldiers.
C. Baur, and became in 1858 pastor of the church of St Thomas, professor ordinarius of historical theology and superintendent of the Lutheran church of Leipzig.
Allentown is the seat of a state homoeopathic hospital for the insane, of the Allentown College for Women (Reformed Church, 1867), and of Muhlenberg College (1867), an Evangelical Lutheran institution which grew out of the Allentown Seminary (established in 1848 and incorporated as the "Allentown Collegiate Institute and Military Academy" in 1864); in 1907 the college had 191 students, of whom 109 were in the Allentown Preparatory School (1904), formerly the academic department of the college and still closely affiliated with it.
On Mary's accession Vermigli was permitted to return to Strassburg, where, after some opposition raised on the ground that he had abandoned Lutheran doctrine, he was reappointed professor of theology.
The Paulskirche, the principal Evangelical (Lutheran) church, built between 1786 and 1833, is a red sandstone edifice of no architectural pretensions, but interesting as the seat of the national parliament of 1848-1849.
In Coburg the people belong to the Franconian and in Gotha to the Thuringian branch of the Teutonic family, and, according to religious confessions, almost the entire population is Lutheran, Roman Catholics only numbering some 3000 and Jews about 700.
The Formula of Concord (1577),which gave to the whole Lutheran Church of Germany a common doctrinal system, declined to accept the Calvinistic position that man's condemnation as well as his salvation is an object of divine predestination.
It has a public library and the Freeborn County Court House, and is the seat of Albert Lea College (Presbyterian, for women), founded in 1884, and of Luther Academy (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran), founded in 1888.
The opposition to Wollner was, indeed, at the outset strong enough to prevent his being entrusted with the department of religion; but this too in time was overcome, and on the 3rd of July 1788 he was appointed active privy councillor of state and of justice and head of the spiritual department for Lutheran and Catholic affairs.
Two years afterwards he was appointed preacher in the St Lorenz Kirche, and about the same time he publicly joined the Lutheran party, taking a prominent part in the discussion which ultimately led to the adoption of the Reformation by the city.
At the present day, the title of archbishop is retained in the Roman Catholic Church, the various oriental churches, the Anglican Church, and certain branches of the Lutheran (Evangelical) Church.
It is, however, still borne by the Lutheran bishop of Upsala, who is metropolitan of Sweden, and by the Lutheran bishop of tkbo in Finland.
In Prussia the title has occasionally been bestowed by the king on general superintendents of the Lutheran church, as in 1829, when Frederick William III.
Osiander, maintaining the infusion of Christ's righteousness into the believer, impugned the Lutheran doctrine of imputation; Chemnitz defended it with striking ability.
As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.
His personal influence, at a critical period, did much to secure strictness of doctrine and compactness of organization in the Lutheran Church.
Against Crypto-Calvinists he upheld the Lutheran view of the eucharist in his Repetitio sanae doctrinae de Vera Praesentia (1560; in German, 1561).
An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.
Its thirty-five articles contain a moderate statement of Lutheran teaching.
Two years later, after negotiations with the Lutheran princes, a conference on theological matters was held at Lambeth with Lutheran envoys.
The personal contact between Luther and Zwingli led to no mental rapprochement between the two; but in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.
Des Moines is the seat of Des Moines College, a Baptist institution, co-educational, founded in 1865 (enrolment, 1907-1908, 21 4); of Drake University (co-educational; founded in 1881 by the Disciples of Christ; now non-sectarian), with colleges of liberal arts, law, medicine, dental surgery and of the Bible, a conservatory of music, and a normal school, in which are departments of oratory and commercial training, and having in 1907-1908 -1764 students, of whom 520 were in the summer school only; of the Highland Park College, founded in 1890; of Grand View College (Danish Lutheran), founded in 1895; and of the Capital City commercial college (founded 1884).
Among its principal buildings are the castle, several Roman Catholic (from the 13th and 14th centuries) and Lutheran churches, a Franciscan monastery (founded 1634), the town-hall, and the mint where the celebrated Kremnitz gold ducats were formerly struck.
He continued his studies in Strassburg, under the professor of Hebrew, Johannes Pappus (1549-1610), a zealous Lutheran, the crown of whose life's work was the forcible suppression of Calvinistic preaching and worship in the city, and who had great influence over him.
In Basel, again, he studied theology under Simon Sulzer (1508-1585), a broadminded divine of Lutheran sympathies, whose aim was to reconcile the churches of the Helvetic and Wittenberg confessions.
After some time his Lutheran tendencies exposed him to the anger of the authorities, who were of the Reformed Church.
Brought up a Lutheran, and fond of pleasure, she had shown no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and soon incurred rebukes on account of her religion, "vanity," absence from church, "night waking and balling."
The principal churches, in order of their membership were, in 1890, the Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Quaker and Lutheran.
The authenticity of the book was unquestioned thenceforward till the Reformation, when the view of Jerome was revived by Erasmus, Carlstadt, Luther and others under various forms. In the Lutheran Church this opposition lasted into the next century, but in the Reformed it gave way much earlier.
He urged the separation of the High Lutheran party from Melanchthon (1557), got the Saxon dukes to oppose the Frankfort Recess (1558) and continued to fight for the purity of Lutheran doctrine.
Before entering on his new duties he travelled through the greater part of Germany, studying the systems of education which were in use, and visiting the seminaries of the Jesuits as well as those of the Lutheran and Reformed churches.
That the religious elements in the Reformation have been greatly overestimated from a modern point of view can hardly be questioned, and one of the most distinguished students of Church history has ventured the assertion that " The motives, both remote and proximate, which led to the Lutheran revolt were largely secular rather than spiritual."
Formerly, writers accounted for the Lutheran movement by so magnifying the horrors of the pre-existing regime ity of the that it appeared intolerable, and its abolition consequently inevitable.
The Lutheran heresy he held to be God's terrible judgment on the sins of the clergy.
He induced these to unite in opposing the Lutheran heresy on condition that the pope would issue a decree providing for some of the most needed reforms. There was to be no more financial oppression on the part of the clergy, and no unseemly payments for performing the church services.
The terror inspired by the Peasant War led to a new alliance, the League of Dessau, formed by some of the leading rulers of central and northern Germany, to stamp out the accursed Lutheran sect."
The Lutheran princes protested, together with fourteen cities, and left the diet.
In 1 534 the Schmalkaldic League succeeded in restoring the banished duke of Wurttemberg, who declared himself in favour of the Lutheran reformation, and thus added another to the list of German Protestant states.
To the north, Lutheran influence had spread into Denmark; Sweden and Norway were also brought within its sphere.
Finally Christian III., an ardent Lutheran, ascended the throne in 1536; with the sanction of the diet he severed, in 1537, all connexion with the pope, introducing the Lutheran system of Church government and accepting the Augsburg Confession.
He used the Lutheran theories as an excuse for overthrowing the ecclesiastical aristocracy, which had been insolently powerful in Sweden.
In 1527, supported by the diet, he carried his measures for secularizing such portions of the Church property as he thought fit, and for subjecting the Church to the royal power (Ordinances of Vesteras); but many of the old religious ceremonies and practices were permitted to continue, and it was not until 1592 that Lutheranism was officially sanctioned by the Swedish synod .2 Charles V., finding that his efforts to check the spread of the religious schism were unsuccessful, resorted once more to conferences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran theologians, but it became apparent that no permanent compromise was possible.
The Dominicans and, later, members of the newly born Order of Jesus, were conspicuous, among the 1 The episcopal office was retained, but the " succession " broken, the new Lutheran bishops being consecrated by Buggenhagen, who was only in priest's orders.
Three theologians, including a conservative Lutheran, were chosen to draft 1555.
The principle cujus regio ejus religio was adopted, according to which each secular ruler might choose between the old faith and the Lutheran.
During the three or four years which followed the signing of the Augsburg Confession in 1530 and the formation of the Schmalkaldic League, England, while bitterly dep ouncing and burning Lutheran heretics in the name of the Holy Catholic Church, was herself engaged in severing the bonds which had for well-nigh a thousand of years bound her to the Apostolic See.
On the 30th of July 1540 three Lutheran clergymen were burned and three Roman Catholics beheaded, the latter for denying the king's spiritual supremacy.
The university (Collegium Albertinum) was founded in 1544 by Albert duke of Prussia, as a "purely Lutheran" place of learning.
On the Protestant side the identity is still clear in the Lutheran Formula of Concord (1577).
Here then, under Protestant scholasticism (Lutheran and Reformed), we have the first perfectly definite conception of dogma, and the most definite ever reached.
Every true dogma, says Johann Gerhard 8 - the most representative figure of Lutheran scholasticism - occurs in plain terms somewhere in Scripture.
They contain the elements of Reformed as distinguished from Lutheran doctrine.
It is connected with the mainland by a pontoon bridge, and has a castle, now used as barracks, in the beautiful chapel of which many members of the Sonderburg-Augustenburg line lie buried; a Lutheran church and a town hall.
After giving this account of themselves they ask for information about several points in a way which shows the exigencies of a rude and isolated society, and finally they say that they have been much disturbed by the Lutheran teaching about freewill and predestination, for they had held that men did good works through natural virtue stimulated by God's grace, and they thought of predestination in no other way than as a part of God's foreknowledge.
The church of the Magdalene possesses two candelabra, a gold cross, and various other works in metal by Bishop Bernward; and the Lutheran church of St Andrew has a choir dating from 1389 and a tower 385 ft.
The educational establishments include a Roman Catholic and a Lutheran gymnasium, a Roman Catholic school and college and two technical institutions, the Georgstift for daughters of state servants and a conservatoire of music. Hildesheim is the seat of considerable industry.
The prevailing religion is the Lutheran (79.8%); 1 4.3% belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; of the Russians, however, a considerable proportion are Raskolniks (Nonconformists); the Roman Catholics amount to 2.3%, and the Jews to 2%.
A handsome Gothic Lutheran church was erected in 1892-1897, a post office (Renaissance) in 1881, and new administrative offices and law courts in 1876-1880.
The first chamber consists of the adult princes of the blood, two representatives of the Lutheran and one of the Roman Catholic Church, a representative of Leipzig university, the proprietor (or a deputy) of the Herrschaft of Wildenfels, a proprietor of the mediatized domains, two of Standesherrschaften, one of those of four estates in fee, the superintendent at Leipzig, a deputy of the collegiate institution at Wurzen, 12 deputies elected by owners of nobiliar estates, ten landed proprietors and five other members nominated by the king and the burgomasters of eight towns.
With all his virtues, however, Augustus was an intolerant Lutheran, and used very severe means to exterminate the Calvinists; in his electorate he is said to have expelled 111 Calvinist preachers in a single month.
He unquestionably did much to revive the spiritual life of the northern Lutheran Church.
It has a Carnegie library, and is the seat of an Evangelical Lutheran theological seminary (1865), of Lutheran homes for the aged and orphan, of the Milwaukee county hospital for the insane, of the Milwaukee sanatorium for nervous diseases, and of the north-western branch of the national soldiers' home, which has grounds covering 385 acres and with main building and barracks affording quarters for over 2000 disabled veterans, and has a hospital, a theatre, and a library of 15,000 volumes.
In Milwaukee are St John's Roman Catholic Cathedral and All Saints Protestant Episcopal Cathedral - the city is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric (established in 1892) and of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. Among other church structures are Plymouth Congregational, Westminster Presbyterian, Church of Gesu (Roman Catholic) and Trinity Lutheran.
Other institutions are Concordia College (1881, Lutheran), a state normal school (1880), the Wisconsin College of physicians and surgeons (1893), the national German-American teachers' seminary (normal), Milwaukee academy (1864), Milwaukee University school, Milwaukee school of engineering (1904), Milwaukee Turnverein school of physical culture, one of the largest schools of the sort in the United States, St John's Catholic institute, Our Lady of Mercy academy (Roman Catholic), Wisconsin academy of music, the Wisconsin school of art (art students' league), a Catholic normal school, St Rose's manual training school, the industrial chemical institute (the only technical school for brewers in the United States) and several business and commercial schools.
It is the seat of North-western University (1865; Lutheran), which includes collegiate, pre - paratory and academic departments, and had in1908-1909instructors and 283 students, and of the Sacred Heart College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1872 and chartered in 1874), under the Congregation of the Holy Cross.
There are also a Carnegie library, a Lutheran Home for the Feeble-Minded, and a City Hospital.
Even after this certain High Churchmen held that a Lutheran was a" dissenter,"and that the prince should be asked to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles.
In the Lutheran church also the practice of private confession survived the Reformation, together with both the exhibitive (I forgive, &c.) and declaratory (I declare and pronounce) forms of absolution.
Three years afterwards he was invited to become the chief pastor in the Lutheran Church at Frankfort-on-Main.
All his life long Spener had been exposed to the attacks and abuse of the orthodox Lutheran theologians; with his years his opponents multiplied, and the movement which he had inaugurated presented increasingly matter for hostile criticism.
The only two points on which he departed from the orthodox Lutheran faith of his day were the requirement of regeneration as the sine qua non of the true theologian, and the expectation of the conversion of the Jews and the fall of Papacy as the prelude of the triumph of the church.
A strong advocate of Lutheran doctrine, and author of the Syngramma Suevicum (October 21, 1525), which set forth Luther's doctrine of the Eucharist, he was free from the persecuting tendencies of the age.
Among the latter, on the other hand, "Protestantism" is used as exclusive of a good many of the doctrines and practices which in the Lutheran Church were at one time "Protestant" as.
Polemic interest led a number of Lutheran scholars of the 16th century to publish the Magdeburg Centuries (1 559 ff.), in which they undertook to show the primitive character of the Protestant faith in contrast with the alleged corruptions of Roman Catholicism.
Although educated as a Lutheran, religious questions had never seriously appealed to Maurice.
The emperor had refused to complete the humiliation of the family of John Frederick; he had embarked upon a course of action which boded danger to the elector's Lutheran subjects, and his increased power was a menace to the position of Maurice.
It was constituted in 1918 by the fusion of two existing Protestant bodies, the Reformed (Calvinist) Church and the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church.
Luther's Catechisms, especially the shorter of the two, have been almost universally accepted, but the Form of Concord was and is expressly rejected by many Lutheran churches.
The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all that is distinctively Lutheran.
As Luther was a much greater preacher than a systematic thinker, it was not easy to say exactly what this deposit was, and controversies resulted among the Lutheran theologians of the 16th century.
The controversy disturbed the Lutheran church for more than twenty years.
In the Lutheran church, Striegel taught that the principal effect of Christ's work on the cross was to change the attitude of God towards the whole human race, and that, in consequence, when men come into being and have faith, they can take advantage of the change of attitude effected by the past historical work of Christ.
The Lutheran church seemed in danger of falling to pieces.
This Book of Concord was accepted by the Lutheran churches of Sweden and of Hungary in 1593 and 1597; but it was rejected by the Lutheran churches of Denmark, of Hesse, of Anhalt, of Pomerania and of several of the imperial cities.
These differences in the German Protestant churches of the second half of the 16th century are reflected in the great American Lutheran church.
The General Council, a secession from the General Synod, was organized in 1867, and accepts the "unaltered" (invariata) Augsburg Confession in its original sense, and the other Lutheran symbols as explanatory of the Augsburg Confession.
These seceders were at first treated with great harshness, but have won their way to toleration, and form the Lutheran Free churches of Germany.
The most important of these latter is the Evangelical Lutheran church of Prussia, sometimes called the Old Lutherans.
The Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Synod came into being in 1864, and has a membership of 5300 with 13 ordained pastors.
The In- dependent Evangelical Lutheran church in the lands of Hesse arose partly on account of the slumbering opposition to the union of 1823 and more particularly in consequence of an attempt made at a stricter union in 1874.
The Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Hanover has a membership of 3050 under io ordained pastors.
The Evangelical Lutheran Community in Baden has a membership of about 1 ioo with 2 ordained pastors.
The Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Saxony has a membership of about 3780 with 15 ordained pastors.
The general system of ecclesiastical government which prevails among all Lutheran churches is called the consistorial.
The liturgies of the Lutheran churches exhibit the same diversities in details as appear in their constitutions.
In 1526 Luther published the German Mass and order of Divine Service, which, without being slavishly copied, served as a model for Lutheran communities.
The consequence was that there is no uniform Lutheran liturgy.
The Lutheran state churches of Denmark, Sweden and Norway have retained the episcopate.
The episcopate in all three countries accommodates itself to something like the Lutheran consistorial system of ecclesiastical government.
The two leading religions within Germany are the Evangelical (Lutheran) and the Roman Catholic, including respectively 58 and 39% of the population.
As early as 1530 Lutheran hymns were sung in the Polish language at Thorn.
On a hill dominating the town stands the old fortress, which contains a beautiful church in Gothic style built about 1446, where in 1571 the diet was held which proclaimed the equality of the Unitarian Church with the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and Calvinistic Churches.
Bengel, abbot of Alpirspach (a Lutheran community), published in 1734, at Tubingen, an edition of the New Testament which marks the beginning of a new era.
It was convenient, too, to profess Lutheran sympathies, for Lutheranism was now an established, monarchical and comparatively respectable religion, very different from the Calvinism against which monarchs directed the Counter-reformation from political motives.
Lutheran dogma, however, had few adherents in England, though its political theory coincided with that of Anglicanism in the 16th century.
The principal hospitals are the Samaritan, the St Joseph's Mercy, and the German Lutheran.
In 1531 Barnes returned to England, and became one of the chief intermediaries between the English government and Lutheran Germany.
In 1J35 he was sent to Germany, in the hope of inducing Lutheran divines to approve of Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, and four years later he was employed in negotiations connected with Anne of Cleves's marriage.
He was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a great scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, the first to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
Nobles and ministers of state, with the chief ecclesiastics not only of the Russian Church but of the Roman, the Uniat, the Armenian, the Greek, the Georgian and the Lutheran Churches, found themselves constrained to serve on its committees.
These works, which did much to mould the character of the German people, were set among the doctrinal standards of the Lutheran Church and powerfully influenced other compilations.
This was Goran Persson, born about 1530, who had been educated abroad in Lutheran principles, and after narrowly escaping hanging at the hands of Gustavus Vasa for some vile action entered the service of his son.
Its use, however, survived in the Lutheran churches; and though in those of Germany it is no longer worn, it still forms part of the liturgical costume of the Scandinavian Evangelical churches.
As yet, however, he had little knowledge of, and less inclination for, astronomy; and it was with extreme reluctance that he turned aside from the more promising career of the ministry to accept, early in 1594, the vacant chair of that science at Gratz, placed at the disposal of the Tubingen professors by the Lutheran states of Styria.
Tacoma is the seat of Whitworth College (1890, Presbyterian), the University of Puget Sound (1903, Methodist Episcopal), the Annie Wright Seminary (1884), a boarding and day school for girls, and the Pacific Lutheran Academy and Business College.
As early as 1530 the Lutheran doctrine was preached in Graz by Seifried and Jacob von Eggenberg, and in 1540 Eggenberg founded the Paradies or Lutheran school, in which Kepler afterwards taught.
Joannes, however, found it impossible to conciliate all parties, and in 1565 returned to Breslau, where, in 1567, he became pastor in the church of St Elizabeth and inspector of the Lutheran churches and schools.
In 1566 he was appointed to the Lutheran church at Erfurt, and there remained till his death in November 1575.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
Martin Luther Seminary, established in 1854, is a theological seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.
The royal house belongs to the Roman Catholic confession, but the bulk of the inhabitants are Lutheran Protestants.
Meyer also published an edition of the New Testament, with a translation (1829) and a Latin version of the symbolical books of the Lutheran Church (1830).
The most considerable quantity of the new material which was imported into the Prayer Book was drawn from Lutheran and Genevan service books.
These variations are largely borrowed from and closely follow the language of various Lutheran litanies, especially that given in the consultation of Archbishop Hermann of Cologne issued in 1543.
Lutheran influence can likewise be traced in way of variation introduced into the baptismal and other sacramental or occasional offices.
At the same time, as he could not be suspected of any sympathy with Lutheran or Wickliffite heretics, he might fairly be regarded as qualified to lead the party which aimed at reform in State and Church within the limits of Catholic orthodoxy.
The Growth of the Spirit of Christianity from the First Century to the Dawn of the Lutheran Era, established his reputation as a liberal and spiritually minded theologian; and Queen Victoria invited him to preach at Balmoral.
The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Biisching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg.
Thus by diplomacy as well as by force of arms Catholic France made possible the continued existence of a Protestant Germany, and helped to create the balance of power between Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed within the Empire, that, crystallized in the Peace of Westphalia, fixed the religious boundaries of central Europe for upwards of two centuries.
The spread of toleration, which always savours minorities, broke down between 1845 and 1873 the Lutheran exclusiveness of Norway, Denmark and Sweden; but as yet the Catholics form a disappearing fraction of the population.
There are theological seminaries at Pittsburg, the Allegheny Seminary (United Presbyterian, 1825), Reformed Presbyterian (1856), and Western Theological Seminary (Presbyterian, 1827); at Lancaster (German Reformed, 1827); at Meadville (Unitarian, 18 44); at Bethlehem (Moravian, 1807); at Chester, the Crozer Theological Seminary (Baptist, 1868); at Gettysburg (Lutheran, 1826); and in Philadelphia several schools, notably the Protestant Episcopal Church divinity school (1862) and a Lutheran seminary (1864), at Mount Airy.
It is the seat of a Lutheran bishopric which extends over the provinces of Viborg and St Michel with portions of Tavastehus and Nyland; it possesses a beautiful cathedral, and a high school (where the well-known Finnish poet Runeberg lectured for many years), and is the seat of a court of appeal.
In opposition to the strict Lutheran orthodoxy of Jean it represented the more moderate doctrines of Melanchthon.
Her father, who was a convinced Lutheran, was strongly opposed to his daughter's conversion, and supplied her with books of controversy to protect her Protestantism.
She read them, and she listened to Todorskiy, and to other advisers who told her that the Russian crown was well worth a mass, or that the differences between the Greek and Lutheran churches were mere matters of form.
In Germany the Rhenish Society (1825) became independent of the Basel Mission, but like it and the Berlin Society founded by Neander and Tholuck has preserved a broad basis and includes both Lutheran and Reformed constituents.
The North German or Bremen Society split into a strict Lutheran or Leipzig agency and the Hermannsburg Mission, which aimed at a more primitive and apostolic method.
The celebration of the Feast of the Ascension was also retained in the Lutheran churches as warranted by Holy Scripture.
The state has two Roman Catholic universities, Munich and Wurzburg, and a Lutheran, Erlangen; in Munich there are a polytechnic, an academy of sciences and an academy of art.
His father, Daniel Doddridge, was a London merchant, and his mother the orphan daughter of the Rev. John Bauman, a Lutheran clergyman who had fled from Prague to escape religious persecution, and had held for some time the mastership of the grammar school at Kingston-upon-Thames.
In Lutheran churches the organ is silent on this day, and altar, font and pulpit are draped in black, as indeed throughout Holy Week.
The churches already mentioned belong to the national Lutheran Church; the most important of those belonging to other denominations are the Reformed church, founded in 1688, and rebuilt in 1731, the Catholic church of St Ansgarius, consecrated in 1842, and the Jewish synagogue in Krystalgade, which dates from 1853.
Of the Lutheran churches only that of Brandenburg seems to have kept the Palm Sunday procession for a while.
The New Jersey churches rapidly fell away, becoming Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, or Lutheran.
He also wrote and laboured for the promotion of union between the Reformed and Lutheran Churches, his most important work in this connexion being Nubes testium pro moderato et pacifico de rebus theologicis judicio, et instituenda inter Protestantes concordia (Geneva, 1729).
The adhei-ents of Protestantism are divided by their confessions into Reformed and Lutheran.
The decree of the diet, formulated in April, forbade the reformers to make further religious changes, while the toleration which was conceded to Romanists in Lutheran states was withheld from Lutherans in Romanist states.
Zwinglians to act together even when threatened by a common danger, while a little later the alliance between the Lutheran states of north Germany and the -Zwinglian cities of the south was destroyed by differences upon points of doctrine.
Drawn up by Melanchthon, this pronouncement was intended to widen the breach between the Lutherans and the Zwinglians, and to narrow that between the Lutherans and the Romanists; from this time it was regarded as the chief standard of the Lutheran faith.
But to his surprise the Lutheran princes who attended the diet refused to give way.
In 1539, too, the Protestants received a great accession of strength, the Lutheran prince Henry succeeding his Romanist brother George as duke of Saxony.
The Lutheran cities of southern and central Germany, among them Strassburg, Augsburg, tJlm and Frankfort, now submitted to the emperor, while Ulrich of Wurttemberg and the elector palatine of the Rhine, Frederick II., followed their example.
In consultation with both Romanist and Lutheran divines a confession of faith called the Interim was drawn up; this was in the nature of a compromise and was issued as an edict in May 1548, but owing to the opposition of the Romanist princes it was not made binding upon them, only upon the Lutherans.
He entered into an alliance with John, margrave of Brandenburg-Custrin, with another Hohenzollern prince, Albert Alcibiades of Bayreuth, and with other Lutheran leaders, and also with Henry II.
The Lutherans denied the validity of this clause, and notwithstanding the protests of the Roman Catholics several prelates became Lutheran and kept their territories as secular possessions.
But these divergences of opinion were not only between Roman Catholic and Lutheran or between Lutheran and Calvinist, they were, in electoral and ducal Saxony at least, between.
There was no sense of national unity between the Catholics of the Rhine provinces, long submitted to the influence of liberal France, and the Lutheran squires of the mark of Brandenburg, the most stereotyped class in Europe; there was little in.
He cherished the idea of German unity, but could conceive of it only in the form of the restored Holy Empire under the house of Habsburg; and so little did he understand the growing nationalist temper of his people that he seriously negotiated for a union of the Lutheran and Anglican, churches, of which the sole premature offspring was the Protestant bishopric of Jerusalem.
The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Styria were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol.
Delitzsch was a strict Lutheran.
The national or state church of Denmark is officially styled " Evangelically Reformed," but is popularly described as Lutheran.
The three ensuing years were especially favourable for the Reformation, as during that time the king had unlooked-for opportunities for filling the vacant episcopal sees with men after his own heart, and at heart he was a Lutheran.
Frederick's eldest son Duke Christian had, since 1527, resided at Haderslev, where he collected round him Lutheran teachers from Germany, and made his court the centre of the propaganda of the new doctrine.
The war ended with the capture of Copenhagen by the forces of Christian III., on the 29th of July 1536, and the triumph of so devoted a Lutheran sealed the fate of the Roman Catholic Church in Denmark, though even now it was necessary for the victorious king to proceed against the bishops and their friends by a coup d'etat, engineered by his German generals the Rantzaus.
His earliest teacher, Wolfgang von Utenhof, who came straight from Wittenberg, and the Lutheran Holsteiner Johann Rantzau, who became his tutor, were both able and zealous reformers.
He made no secret of his Lutheran views, and his outspokenness brought him into collision, not only with the Catholic Rigsraad, but also with his cautious and temporizing father.
The question between the Lutheran (Augustinian) and Reformed (Philonic) division of the ten commandments was mixed up with controversy as to the legitimacy of sacred images not designed to be worshipped.
In 1537, when the Protestant divines signed the Lutheran Articles of Schmalkalden, Melanchthon appended to his signature the reservation that he would admit of a pope provided he allowed the gospel and did not claim to rule by divine right.
It was written in Latin in 1652, its principal author being the reformer Matthias Flacius, who was assisted by other Lutheran theologians.
He also considered the possibility of a political and theological alliance with the Lutheran princes of Germany.
Charles V.'s desertion inclined Henry to listen to the proposals of the threatened Lutheran princes, and the last two years of his reign were marked by a renewed tendency to advance in a Protestant direction.
Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
The streets are broad, well paved, and adorned with many elegant buildings, among which are Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist churches, and a new town hall with a tower 165 ft.
It is the seat of a state hospital for the insane (1887) with about 1600 patients, of a business college, of the Park Region Luther College (Norwegian Lutheran, 1892), and of the North-western College (Swedish Lutheran; opened in 1901).
Music with Latin words is not excluded from the Lutheran Church, and the Kyrie and Gloria are frequently sung in succession and entitled a Mass.
Wolf Goethe (Weimar, 1889) is a sympathetic appreciation by Otto Mejer, formerly president of the Lutheran consistory in Hanover.
They contain in the germ the leading thoughts of what became Lutheran theology.
The latter half of 1521 saw the silent spread of Lutheran opinions all over Germany.
One, guided by Luther himself, ended, after a long struggle with pope and emperor, in the establishment of evangelical churches under the rule of the secular authorities of the territories which adopted the Lutheran Reformation.
In the diet held at Speyer in 1529 a compact Roman Catholic majority faced a weak Lutheran minority.
Three separate confessions were presented to the emperor - one from Zwingli, one by the theologians of the four cities of Strassbourg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen (Confessio Tetrapolitana), and the Augsburg Confession, the future symbol of the Lutheran church.
Thereupon the diet resolved that the edict of Worms was to be enforced against Luther and his partizans; that the ecclesiastical jurisdictions were to be preserved; and that all the church property taken possession of by the Lutheran princes was to be restored; and that in all cases of dispute the last court of appeal was to be the Imperial Court of Appeals.
He disclaimed the right of suggesting a common order of worship or a uniform ecclesiastical polity; and Lutheran ritual and polity, while presenting common features, did not follow one common use.
The variations in the details of the polity of the Lutheran churches were very numerous, but they all preserved the same distinctive principles.
In the Lutheran Church the Kyrie is still said or sung in the original Greek.
Born at Freiberg on the 31st of July 1526, and brought up as a Lutheran, he received a good education and studied at the university of Leipzig.
Although a sturdy Lutheran the elector hoped at one time to unite the Protestants, on whom he continually urged the necessity of giving no cause of offence to their opponents, and he favoured the movement to get rid of the clause in the peace of Augsburg concerning ecclesiastical reservation, which was offensive to many Protestants.
The first draft was in Latin and the Zurich delegates objected to its Lutheran phraseology.'
It gained a favourable hold on the Swiss churches, who had found the First Confession too short and too Lutheran.
For two years he stayed with a Lutheran clergyman of the name of Sartorius, whilst attending the lectures of the Athenaeum Illustre.
Pop. (1900) 37,108, mostly Slovaks and Lutherans, who form the largest Lutheran community in Hungary.
The churches include a Lutheran, an English, in the Norman style of architecture, and a Russian, with beautiful frescoes; while on the Michaelsberg is the Greek chapel, with a gilded dome, which was erected over the tomb of a son of the Rumanian prince Michel Stourdza, who died here in 1863.
Of its edifices the most remarkable are the Roman Catholic parish church of St Martin, known also as the Munster, dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, the Lutheran parish church (15th century), the former Dominican monastery (1232-1289), known as "Unterlinden" and now used as a museum, the Kaufhaus (trade-hall) of the 15th century, and the handsome government offices (formerly the Prefecture).
He rendered great services to the Protestant cause in its infancy, but as a Lutheran resolutely refused to come to any understanding with other opponents of the older faith.
In religion George remained a Lutheran, and in general his qualities tended to make him a good husband rather than a soldier or a statesman.
It contains monasteries belonging to the Piarist and Franciscan orders, a Catholic (founded in 1714.), a Calvinistic and a Lutheran school.
Brought up a Lutheran, and at first physician to the duke of Wurttemberg-Oels, he joined in 1652 the Roman Catholic Church, in 1661 took orders as a priest, and became coadjutor to the prince bishop of Breslau.
Both Finns and Swedes belong to the Lutheran faith, there being only 46,466 members of the Greek Orthodox Church and 755 Roman Catholics.
This conservative attitude was inevitably strengthened by the attacks first of Lollard and then of Lutheran heretics; and Sir Thomas More was driven to declare, in answer to Tyndale, that the marriage of priests, being essentially null and void, "defileth the priest more than double or treble whoredom."
He then accompanied Edward Fox, bishop of Hereford, on his mission to promote a theological and political understanding with the Lutheran princes of Germany.
But at Viterbo it was in favour, and the orthodox interpretation was regarded rather than the other which might be taken in the Lutheran sense.
On the contrary, the cardinal of Lorraine, by his question whether the Calvinists were prepared to sign the Confession of Augsburg, attempted to sow dissension between them and the Lutheran Protestants of Germany, on whose continued support they calculated.
Only a few great doctrines are seen to have been generally held by Anabaptists - such as the baptism of believers only, the rejection of the Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith as onesided and the simple practice of the breaking of bread.
In addition to the state university, Madison is the seat of several Roman Catholic and Lutheran parochial schools, two business schools, and the Wisconsin academy, a non-sectarian preparatory school of high grade.
This was the house afterwards occupied by Colerus, the worthy Lutheran minister who became Spinoza's biographer.
He occasionally went himself to hear the Lutheran pastor preach - the predecessor of Colerus - and would advise the Van der Spijcks not to miss any sermon of so excellent a preacher.
The earliest publication in Esthonian was a Lutheran catechism in the 16th century.
The Scots confession, though of course drawn up independently, is in substantial accord with the others then springing up in the countries of the Reformation, but is Calvinist rather than Lutheran.
The councillors must be of Swedish birth and adherents of the Lutheran confession.
More than 99% of the total population belong to the Swedish Lutheran Church, of which the king is the supreme head.
Olaus Petri (1493-1552) and Laurentius Petri (1499-1573) were Carmelite monks who adopted the Lutheran doctrine while studying at Wittenberg, and came back to Sweden in 1518 as the apostles of the new faith.
Turrianus - one of the papal theologians at the Council of Justificatione, 1 557), the title was used in 1659 by the Lutheran Lukas Friedrich Reinhard (1623-1688), professor of theology at Altdorf (Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae, eds.
He now believed himself in a position to crush not only the Lutheran heretics, but also his humanist critics.
The estate itself, after passing through various hands, came in 1870 into the possession of the "Association of the Evangelical Lutheran Church for Works of Mercy," which established here an orphanage, known as the "Martin Luther Orphan Home."
Besides these churches there are a number of Lutheran congregations among the Dutch speaking population.
There are a Lutheran and two Roman Catholic churches, one of which, the parish church, contains the monuments of seven Silesian dukes.
In 1849 he founded the Lutheran Society of Home Missions and in 1853 an institution of deaconesses.
In theology Lae was a strict Lutheran, but his piety was of a most attractive kind.
The title of bishop survived the Reformation in certain of the Lutheran churches of the continent, in Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Transylvania; it was tem oraril restored in Prussia in 1 01 for the coronation P Y 7 ?
The Lutheran bishops, as a rule, do not possess or claim unbroken "apostolic succession"; those of Finland and Sweden are, however, an exception.
It has a total area of 24,171 square kilometres and a population (1900) of 447,098, of whom 379,622 spoke Finnish and 67,260 Swedish; 446,900 were of the Lutheran religion.
In 1539, under the elector Joachim II., Berlin embraced the Lutheran religion.
He finally, however, consented to exempt the Lutherans and advanced Utraquists from the jurisdiction of the consistory, and allowed them to choose fifteen defenders - five of whom were to belong to each of the estates - who were to have supreme control over the Lutheran church.
Even the Lutheran elector of Saxony espoused his cause.
There are a government high school, a German Lutheran mission, and a public library endowed by a former maharaja of Hatwa.
The later Lutheran doctrine is "that man, unable as he is to will any good thing, can yet use the means of grace, and that these means of grace, carrying in themselves a divine power, produce a saving effect on all who do not voluntarily oppose their influence.
The city is the seat of Midland College (Lutheran, 1887), St Benedict's College (Roman Catholic, 1858) for boys, Mt.
He greatly disliked the union between the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, which had been accomplished by the Prussian government in 1817, and in 1833 he definitely threw in his lot with the Old Lutherans.
Various foreign churches which have numbers of adherents settled in England have also branch churches and organizations in the country, notably the Orthodox Eastern Church, - with a considerable number of adherents in London, Liverpool and Manchester, - the Lutheran, and the Armenian churches.
Several young men in the town had studied at Wittenberg, and the burghers, in their Lutheran zeal, had already expelled their youthful Bishop Jurgen Friis.
The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, to which 76% of the population belong; the rest belong to the Orthodox Eastern and the Roman Catholic churches.
He then attached himself to the Old Lutheran party, interpreting Lutheranism in a broad and liberal spirit and showing some appreciation of rationalism.
Of the churches the Lutheran Jakobskirche (called the cathedral), a Gothic building with some fine old stained glass, is noteworthy.
Abo remains the ecclesiastical capital of Finland, is the seat of the Lutheran archbishop and contains a fine cathedral dating from 1258 and restored after the fire of 1827.
He entered the Lutheran ministry, had charge of churches at New Germantown and Bedminster, New Jersey, and after 1772 of a church in Woodstock, Virginia, and there in 1775 raised the 8th Virginia (German) regiment, of which he was made colonel; in February 1 77 7 he became a brigadier-general in the Continental Army; and in September 1783 was breveted major-general.
His brother, Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg (1750-1801), became his father's assistant in Philadelphia in 1770; was pastor of the Christ (or Swamp) German Lutheran Church of New York City from 1773 to 1776; and in1777-1779was assistant to his father at New Hanover.
Another brother, Gotthilf Henry Ernest Muhlenberg (1753-1815), was a prominent Lutheran clergyman, and was pastor of a church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, from 1779 to his death; but he is best known as a botanist, and published Catalogus plantarum Americae septentrionalis (1813) and Descriptio uberior graminum et plantarum calamariarum Americae septentrionalis indignarum et circurum (1817).
Gotthilf's SOn, Henry Augustus Muhlenberg (1782-1844), was pastor of a Lutheran Church in Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1802-1828, was a Democratic representative in Congress in 1829-1838, and was United States minister to Austria in 1838-1840.
His translation of the first twenty-five chapters of Luther's commentary on Genesis was published in 1557; in other ways he promoted the spread of Lutheran views.
The more conservative temper of the Anglican and Lutheran communions, however, suffered the retention of such processions as did not conflict with the reformed doctrines, though even in these Churches they met with opposition and tended after a while to fall into disuse.
The Lutheran practice has varied at different times and in different countries.
It was held in 1642 under the presidency of Peter of Mogila, and a formulary of the Orthodox creed was drawn up. An answer to the Lutheran Catechism of Heidelberg (translated into Rumanian and printed at Fogaras in 1648) was also prepared by Bishop Varlaam.
From the 6th century the season was kept as a period of fasting as strict as that of Lent; but in the Anglican and Lutheran churches the rule is now relaxed.
It must further be considered that, though Sarpi admired the English prayer-book, he was neither Anglican, Lutheran nor Calvinist, and might have found it difficult to accommodate himself to any Protestant church.
The dogmatic formularies of the Lutheran Church had usurped the position which Luther himself had assigned to the Bible alone, and as a consequence only they were studied and preached, while the Bible was neglected in the family, the study, the pulpit and the university.
Instead of advocating the priesthood of all believers, the Lutheran pastors had made themselves a despotic hierarchy, while they neglected their practical pastoral work.
The direct originator of the movement was Philip Jacob Spener, who combined the Lutheran emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed tendency to vigorous Christian life.
Born at Rappoltsweiler, in Alsace on the 13th of, January 1635, trained by a devout godmother, who used books of devotion like Arndt's True Christianity, accustomed to hear the sermons of a pastor who preached the Bible more than the Lutheran creeds, Spener was early convinced of the necessity of a moral and religious reformation of the German Church.
This work produced a great impression throughout Germany, and although large numbers of the orthodox Lutheran theologians and pastors were deeply offended by Spener's book, its complaints and its demands were both too well justified to admit of their being point-blank denied.
It has two Roman Catholic Churches and a Lutheran Church, a fine medieval inspired town-hall, two interesting old gates, remains of its former environing walls and cloister, several public monuments, including one to the veterans of the Napoleonic wars, and a museum.
Born at Torgau on the 30th of June 1503 and educated as a Lutheran, he took some part in imperial politics and in the business of the league of Schmalkalden before he became elector by his father's death in August 1532.
John Frederick, who was an ardent Lutheran and had a high regard for Luther, continued the religious policy of his father.
Clinton is the seat of Wartburg College (1869), a German Evangelical Lutheran institution, and of the Clinton Business College.
In November 1820 he was appointed consistorial president of the evangelical communities at Saratov and subsequently became chief superintendent of the Lutheran communities in St Petersburg.
In 1906 it was estimated that there were 938,405 members of different religious denominations; of this total 2 33,443 were Methodists (210,593 of the Northern Church), 1 74,849 were Roman Catholics, 108,188 were Disciples of Christ (and 10,259 members of the Churches of Christ), 92,705 were Baptists (60,203 of the Northern Convention, 13,526 of the National (Colored) Convention, 8132 Primitive Baptists, and 6671 General Baptists), 58,633 were Presbyterians (49,041 of the Northern Church, and 6376 of the Cumberland Church - since united with the Northern), 55,768 were Lutherans (34,028 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference, 8310 of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and other states), 52,700 were United Brethren (48,059 of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ; the others of the " Old Constitution ") and 21,624 of the German Evangelical Synod.
It was far too democratic to commend itself to the Lutherans, who had by this time bound the Lutheran cause to the support of princes rather than to that of the people.
Lambert was also one of the divines who took part in the great conference of Marburg in 1529; he had long wavered between the Lutheran and the Zwinglian view of the Lord's Supper, but at this conference he definitely adopted the Zwinglian view.
Among the many smaller colleges are Washburn College (Congregational, 1869) at Topeka, the Southwest Kansas College (Methodist Episcopal, opened 1886) at Winfield, the College of Emporia (Presbyterian, 1883) at Emporia, Bethany College (Lutheran, 1881) at Lindsborg, Fairmount College (non-sectarian, 1895) at Wichita, St Mary's College (Roman Catholic,1869)at St Mary's, and Ottawa University (Baptist, 1865) at Ottawa.
About the same time we begin to read of orders issued by the bishops for the discovery and burning of all Lutheran booksa clear sign that they were reaching England in appreciable quantities.
The Lutheran divines who came to England in 1538 with a project for a theological union were rebuffed; the parliament elected in 1539 was Catholic, and only the reforming bishops in the House of Lords offered any resistance to the Six Articles which reaffirmed the chief points in Catholic doctrine and practice.
His father was a Lutheran pastor, and he himself was destined for the ministry.
This work propounded for the first time the so-called "collegial" theory of church government (Kollegialsystem), which, developed later by the learned Lutheran theologian Christoph Mathaus Pfaff (1686-1760), formed the basis of the relations of church and state in Germany and more especially in Prussia.
His defence of the notorious edict of July 9, 1788, issued by the Prussian minister for ecclesiastical affairs, Johann Christoph von Wollner (1732-1800), the object of which was to enforce Lutheran orthodoxy, might with greater justice be cited as a sign of the decline of his powers and of an unfaithfulness to his principles.
The Lutheran bodies ranked next with 284,286 members (including 253,690 of the Evangelical church, 49,535 of the United Norwegian church, 23,927 of the Synod for the Norwegian Evangelical church, 15,471 of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio, 15,22015,220 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa and 8695 of the General Council).
Red Wing is the seat of the Lutheran Ladies' Seminary (1894) and the Red Wing Theological Seminary (Lutheran, 1885), and in the vicinity is the State Training School for Boys and Girls, originally the Minnesota State Reform School.
Luther was no systematic thinker; Melanchthon, the theologian of the Lutheran Church, gave his system, the loose form of Loci communes, and went back more and more in successive editions to the traditional lines of doctrinal theory - a course which could not be followed without bringing back much of the older substance along with the familiar forms of thought.
Nor did the unity of Protestant theology - Lutheran and Calvinist - confine itself to the period before the great divergence.
This is not fully formulated even in the Lutheran Formula of Concord, nor yet in the Calvinistic canons of Dort and Confession of Westminster, though these and other Protestant creeds have various instalments of the finished doctrine.
The Lutherans held that the Incarnate One possessed all divine attributes, but either willed to suspend their use - this is the Kenosis doctrine of the Lutheran school of Tubingen in the 17th century - or concealed their working; the latter was the doctrine of the Giessen school.
This creed may almost rank with the Lutheran Formula of Concord as summing up post-Reformation Protestant orthodoxy.
In Germany, dislike of the Prussian policy of " Union" - the legal fusion of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches - gave life to a High Lutheran reaction to which has shown some vigour in thought and some `Union."