How to use Luther in a sentence
Hence they were resolutely opposed to any idea of reform; for to begin making changes in the Church's system would be a tacit admission that Luther had some show of reason on his side.
An attempt in 1543 to approach Luther only increased the Reformer's hostility and rendered Schwenkfeld's situation still more precarious.
He wrote many similar works, among which is a Vindication of Luther against his recent English Assailants (1854).
Luther and his followers regarded vestments as among the adiaphora, and in the Churches which afterwards came to be known as "Lutheran" many of the traditional vestments were retained.
After the beginning of the German Reformation many Utraquists adopted to a large extent the doctrines of Luther and Calvin; and in 1567 obtained the repeal of the compacts, which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching.Advertisement
In the following year he went to Germany to be present as papal nuncio at the coronation of Charles V., and was also present at the diet of Worms, where he headed the opposition to Luther, advocating the most extreme measures to repress the doctrines of the reformer.
Ritschl claims to carry on the work of Luther and Schleiermacher, especially in ridding faith of the tyranny of scholastic philosophy.
Still more famous was Albert, count of Mansfeld (1480-1560), an intimate friend of Luther and one of the earliest and staunchest supporters of the Reformation.
Perhaps his best book is the Interpretatio in Librum Psalmorum (1523), and he is also remembered as having helped Luther in his translation of the Bible.
It has three Evangelical churches, among them that of St Anne, built 1499-1525, a Roman Catholic church, several public monuments, among them those of Luther, of the famous arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann.Advertisement
They taught the Apostles' Creed, rejected Purgatory, the worship of saints and the authority of the Catholic Church, practised infant baptism and confirmation, held a view on the Sacrament similar to that of Zwingli, and, differing somewhat from Luther in their doctrine of justification by faith, declared that true faith was "to know God, to love Him, to do His commandments, and to submit to His will."
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.
The Protestant controversy on the Eucharist (1524) revealed his disagreement with Luther on that critical point.
Ottawa is the seat of the Pleasant View Luther College (co-educational), founded in 1896 by the Norwegian Lutherans of Northern Illinois.Advertisement
To the brilliant court of Marienburg, not only a school of chivalry, but under Winrich's predecessor Luther of Brunswick, a literary centre,(fn3) men came from all over Europe to win their spurs.
When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.
Smith and fifty-nine others lost their lives; and St Paul's Church, where Jefferson Davis was attending services, on the 2nd of April 1865, when he received news from 1 As built in Richmond in 1845 by Luther Libby, it was a brick structure, three storeys high in front and four in the rear.
After visiting Luther at Wittenberg, he settled with his amanuensis William Roy in Cologne, where he had made some progress in printing a 4to edition of his New Testament, when the work was discovered by John Cochlaeus, dean at Frankfurt, who not only got the senate of Cologne to interdict further printing, but warned Henry VIII.
Martin Luther was the most ancient type of early Reformation preacher, and he was succeeded by the mystic Johann Arndt (1555-1621); the Catholic church produced in Vienna the eccentric and almost burlesque oratory of Abraham a Santa Clara (1642-1709).Advertisement
Judge Chase was defended by the ablest lawyers in the country, including Luther Martin, Robert Goodloe Harper (1765-1825), Philip Barton Key (1757-1815), Charles Lee (1758-1815), and Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842).
Different from either of these was the Antinomianism charged by Luther against Agricola.
Agricola was apparently satisfied in conference with Luther and Melanchthon at Torgau, December 1527.
Two killed on the patriots' side, and Luther Blanchard wounded!
In 1520 Luther's De Captivitate Babylonica converted him into a zealous supporter of the Reformer's views, to which he won over the abbot among others.Advertisement
He as vainly sought to secure Luther's adoption of a strict rule of church discipline, after the manner of the Moravian Brethren.
The Bull granting the title is dated the 11th of October 1521, and was a reward for the king's treatise, Assertio, septem sacramentorum, against Luther.
This (contemporary with Luther's German version) has been the basis of all subsequent translations into French.
It was doubtless one of the Friends who sent forth anonymously from the house of the Teutonic Order in Frankfort the famous handbook of mystical devotion called Eine deutsche Theologie, first published in 1516 by Luther.
In 1521 the university had condemned Luther's Babylonish Captivity, and in 1527 Erasmus's Colloquies met with the same fate.Advertisement
He worked in conjunction with Luther's friend, John Lange, and was opposed by the Franciscans under Conrad Kling.
In 1529 he brought out his Oeconomia christiana (a treatise in German, on the right ordering of a Christian household) with a dedication to the duchess Sybil of Saxony and a preface by Luther.
His tractate, written in concert with Myconius, controverting Der Wiedertaufer Lehre and Geheimniss (1530) was also prefaced by Luther.
Schmidt gives a full bibliography of the numerous writings of Menius, who translated several of Luther's biblical commentaries into German.
A great friend of Erasmus, whom he invited to Cambridge, whilst earnestly working for a reformation of abuses, he had no sympathy with those who attacked doctrine; and he preached at Paul's Cross (12th of May 1521) at the burning of Luther's books.Advertisement
The Vatican library contains a volume of manuscript letters and other documents written by him in connexion with his various missions against Luther.
Both in the German and English translations (Luther's, 1537; Coverdale's, 1535, &c.) these books are separated from the others and set by themselves; but while in some confessions, e.g.
The resulting Antinomian controversy (the only one within the Lutheran body in Luther's lifetime) is not remarkable for the precision or the moderation of the combatants on either side.
Provided that the preaching of the gospel was free and full, Luther was willing to tolerate episcopacy and even papacy.
The most interesting example of this method is seen in the Tractatus de sacramento altaris where Occam accepts the doctrine of Real Presence as a matter of Faith, and sets forth a rational theory of the Eucharist (afterwards adopted by Luther) known as " Consubstantiation."Advertisement
But Luther elsewhere professed Consubstantiation; that is, in modern Lutheran phraseology, the " presence of our Lord's Body " in, with and under the bread.
He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to cast aside the senseless rules of his order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into an hereditary duchy for himself.
Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, George, prince of Ansbach, laid the scheme before Sigismund of Poland.
The estates of the land then met at Konigsberg and took the oath of allegiance to the new duke, who used his full powers to forward the doctrines of Luther.
As a national reformer he has been not inaptly compared to Luther.Advertisement
Hutter was a stern champion of Lutheran orthodoxy, as set down in the confessions and embodied in his own Compendium locorum theologicorum (1610; reprinted 1863), being so faithful to his master as to win the title of "Luther redonatus."
Nanak seems to have been produced by the same cyclic wave of reformation as fourteen years later gave Martin Luther to Europe.
Martin Luther regarded Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and many scholars since have shared his view.
In the 16th century we find faith cures recorded of Luther and other reformers, in the next century of the Baptists, Quakers and other Puritan sects, and in the 18th century the faith healing of the Methodists in this country was paralleled by Pietism in Germany, which drew into its ranks so distinguished a man of science as Stahl (1660-1734) In the 19th century Prince Hohenlohe-WaldenburgSchillingsfiirst, canon of Grosswardein, was a famous healer on the continent; the Mormons and Irvingites were prominent among English-speaking peoples; in the last quarter of the 19th century faith healing became popular in London, and Bethshan homes were opened in 1881, and since then it has found many adherents in England.
He had abandoned Luther's doctrine of consubstantiation and adopted the doctrine of a Real Presence conditioned by the faith of the recipient.Advertisement
Luther, for instance, would not tolerate Zwingli's view on the Lord's Supper, while Zwingli was willing to fraternize with him notwithstanding this difference."
At the colloquy of Marburg "Zwingli offered his hand to Luther with the entreaty that they be at least Christian brethren, but Luther refused it and declared that the Swiss were of another spirit.
At the Reformation Luther laid down the principle that the civil government is concerned with the province of the external and temporal life, and has nothing to do with faith and conscience.
The Word of God alone is there to do it."Nevertheless Luther assigned to the state, which he assumes to be Christian, the function of maintaining the Gospel and the Word of God in public life.
It has a public library and the Freeborn County Court House, and is the seat of Albert Lea College (Presbyterian, for women), founded in 1884, and of Luther Academy (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran), founded in 1888.
While he was fundamentally at one with Luther in opposing both Romanism and Calvinism, his mysticism led him to interpret justification by faith as not an imputation but an infusion of the essential righteousness or divine nature of Christ.
Here he heard Luther preach, but was more attracted by Melanchthon, who interested him in mathematics and astrology.
Among the Reformers were, of course, Martin Luther and most of his German collaborators; the Swiss Zwingli, Bullinger, Farel and Calvin; the English Latimer, John Bradford, John Jewel; the Scot John Knox.
The famous theses which Luther nailed to the door of the church at Wittenberg in 1517 cannot be called a confession, but they expressed a protest which could not rest there.
Luther himself had a gift of words which through his catechisms made the reformed theologypopular in Germany.
In this respect catechisms of modern times, from Luther's down to the recent Evangelical catechism of the Free Churches, and including from their respective points of view both the catechism of the Church of England and the catechism of the council of Trent, are markedly superior to articles and synodical decrees.
Schmalkalden, drawn up by Luther in 1536, Luther's catechisms, and the Formula of Concord which was an attempt to settle doctrinal divisions promulgated in 1580, sum up what is called " the confessional theology of Lutheranism."
Luther in his Table Talk condemns them as dealing only with fasting, meats, virginity, &c. "If he only had insisted upon the works of faith and performed them!
After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.
It is probable that he had invited Luther to a religious conference as early as the year 1527; but on that occasion he met with a refusal.
Melanchthon, who in the tension which prevailed at the synod had shown himself inclined to negotiation, became suspicious on his return, and endeavoured to influence the elector of Saxony and Luther in accordance with his views.
The personal contact between Luther and Zwingli led to no mental rapprochement between the two; but in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.
The general tendency of his mind ran counter to tradition, and he is remarkable as resuming in his individual history all the phases of Protestant theology from Luther to Socinus.
The year following he went as legate into Germany, to quiet the commotions raised by Luther.
It was before him that the Reformer appeared at the diet of Augsburg; and it was he who, in 1519, helped in drawing up the bull of excommunication against Luther.
Like Luther, Arndt was very fond of the little anonymous book, Deutsche Theologie.
Among its principal buildings are the church of St Andrew (Andreaskirche), which contains numerous monuments of the counts of Mansfeld; the church of St Peter and St Paul (Peter-Paulkirche), containing the font in which Luther was baptized; the royal gymnasium (classical school), founded by Luther shortly before his death in 1546; and the hospital.
Eisleben is celebrated as the place where Luther was born and died.
The house in which Luther died was restored towards the end of the 19th century, and his death chamber is still preserved.
A bronze statue of Luther by Rudolf Siemering (1835-1905) was unveiled in 1883.
Eisleben has long been the centre of an important mining district (Luther was a miner's son), the principal products being silver and copper.
In the train of Quintana he witnessed at Bologna the double coronation of Charles in February 1530, visited Augsburg, and perhaps saw Luther at Coburg.
The authenticity of the book was unquestioned thenceforward till the Reformation, when the view of Jerome was revived by Erasmus, Carlstadt, Luther and others under various forms. In the Lutheran Church this opposition lasted into the next century, but in the Reformed it gave way much earlier.
Under this method might be classed the expositions of Luther, Osiander, Striegel, Flacius, Gerhard and Calovius; and English writers such as Napier, Mede and Newton.
Doubts about transubstantiation made him uneasy; some of Luther's tracts fell in his way, and he was comforted by Luther's dictum that salvation does not depend on human dogmata.
Menno was not satisfied with the inconsistent answers which he got from Luther, Bucer and Bullinger; he resolved to rely on Scripture alone, and from this time describes his preaching as evangelical, not sacramental.
It might not be easy to formulate precisely the doctrines for which he died, and certainly some of them, as, for example, that regarding the church, were such as many Protestants even would regard as unguarded and difficult to harmonize with the maintenance of external church order; but his is undoubtedly the honour of having been the chief intermediary in handing on from Wycliffe to Luther the torch which kindled the Reformation, and of having been one of the bravest of the martyrs who have died in the cause of honesty and freedom, of progress and of growth towards the light.
Like Andreas Carlstadt, he was at first a leading exponent of the older type of scholastic theology, but under the influence of Luther abandoned his Aristotelian positions for a theology based on the Augustinian doctrine of grace.
Throughout his life he remained one of Luther's most determined supporters; was with him at the Leipzig conference (1519), and the diet of Worms (1521); and was in the secret of his Wartburg seclusion.
After the death of the count palatine, bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, he was installed there (January 20, 1542), though in opposition to the chapter, by the elector of Saxony and Luther.
His position was a painful one, and he longed to get back to Magdeburg, but was persuaded by Luther to stay.
After Luther's death (1546) and the battle of Miihlberg (1547) he had to yield to his rival, Julius von Pflug, and retire to the protection of the young duke of Weimar.
They are a valuable source for our knowledge of Luther.
The unmeasured invective of Luther and Aleander has not ceased to re-echo, and the old issues are by no means dead.
When Luther made his first great appeal to the German people in his Address to the German Nobility, he scarcely adverts to religious matters at all.
If Luther, who above all others had the religious issue ever before him, attacks the Church as a source of worldly disorder, it is not surprising that his contemporary Ulrich von Hutten should take a purely secular view of the issues involved.
Unfortunately this crude solution of the problem proved too much; for conditions were no worse immediately before the revolt than they had been for centuries, and German complaints of papal tyranny go back to Hildegard of Bingen and Walther von der Vogeiweide, who antedated Luther by more than three centuries.
Every one knows that one at least of these older books, The German Theology, was a great favourite of Luther's; but there are many more in Hasak's collection which breathe the same spirit of piety and spiritual emulation.
Building upon the foundations laid by Hasak and other Catholic writers who have been too much neglected by Protestant historians, Janssen produced a monumental work in defence of the German Church before Luther's defection.
In this manner Martin Luther, with the hearty sympathy of a considerable number of his countrymen, publicly proclaimed and illustrated his repudiation of the papal government under which western Europe had lived for centuries.
Individuals, often large groups, and even whole districts, had indeed earlier rejected some portions of the Roman Catholic faith, or refused obedience to the ecclesiastical government; but previously to the burning of the canon law by Luther no prince had openly and permanently cast off his allegiance to the international conceived them is found in his Dictatus.
Tetzel's preaching and the exaggerated claims that he was reported to be making for the indulgences attracted the attention of an Augustinian friar, Martin Luther, who had for some years been lecturing on theology at the university of Wittenberg.
It must not be assumed that Luther's ninety-five theses produced any considerable direct results.
Two or three years elapsed before Luther began to be generally known and to exercise a perceptible influence upon affairs.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
This was the society to which Luther spoke, and its discontent was the sounding board which made his words reverberate."
He, at least, among the well-known scholars eagerly espoused Luther's cause, as he understood it.
A few of the humanists became Protestants - Melanchthon, Bucer, Oecolampadius and others - but the great majority of them, even if attracted for the moment by Luther's denunciation of scholasticism, speedily repudiated the movement.
Luther was reaching somewhat similar views at the same time, ists.
Martin Luther was beyond doubt the most important single figure in the Protestant revolt.
They soon reached Rome, and a Dominican monk, Prierius, wrote a reply in defence of the papal power, in an insolent tone which first served to rouse Luther's suspicion of the theology of the papal Curia.
It was not, however, until 1520 that Luther became in a sense the leader of the German people by issuing his three great pamphlets, all of which were published in German as well as in Latin - his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, his Babylonish Captivity of the Church, and his Freedom of the Christian.
After overthrowing the other two walls, Luther invites the attention of the German rulers to the old theme of the pomp of the pope and cardinals, for which the Germans must pay.
After proving that the secular rulers were free and in duty bound to correct the evils of the Church, Luther sketches a plan for preventing money from going to Italy, for reducing the number of idle, begging monks, harmful pilgrimages and excessive holidays.
Apart from fundamental rejection of the papal supremacy, there was little novel in Luther's appeal.
In addressing the German nobility Luther had refrained from taking up theological or religious doctrines; but in September 1520 he attacked the whole sacramental system of the medieval Church in his Babylonish Captivity of the Church.
It is, however, in the Freedom of the Christian that the essence of Luther's religion is to be found.
Man's utter incapacity to do anything to please God, and his utter personal dependence on God's grace seemed to render the whole system of the Church well-nigh gratuitous even if it were purged of all the " sophistry " which to Luther seemed to bury out of sight all that was essential in religion.
Luther's gospel was one of love and confidence, not of fear and trembling, and came as an overwhelming revelation to those who understood and accepted it.
The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.
They were glad to leave Luther unmolested in order to spite the " Curtizanen," as the adherents of the papal Curia were called.
The governing council, which had been organized to represent him in Germany, fell rapidly into disrepute, and exercised no restraining influence on those princes who might desire to act on Luther's theory that the civil government was supreme in matters of Church reform.
Hans Sachs, on the other hand, sang the praises of the " Wittenberg Nightingale," and a considerable number of prominent men of letters accepted Luther as their guide - Zell and Bucer, in Strassburg, Eberlin in Ulm, Oecolampadius in Augsburg, Osiander and others in Nuremberg, Pellicanus in NOrdlingen.
Moreover, there gradually developed a group of radicals who were convinced that Luther had not the courage of his convictions.
Luther's colleague at Wittenberg, Carlstadt, began denouncing the monastic life, the celibacy of the clergy, the veneration of images; and before the end of 1521 we find the first characteristic outward symptoms of Protestantism.
Luther had meanwhile been concealed by his friends in the Wartburg, near Eisenach, where he busied himself with a new German translation of the New Testament, to be followed in a few years by the Old Testament.
Luther, however, possessed resources of style which served to render his version far superior to the older one, and to give it an important place in the development of German literature, as well as in the history of the Protestant churches.
These measures, and the excitement which followed the arrival of the radicals from Zwickau, led Luther to return to Wittenberg in March 1522, where he preached a series of sermons attacking the impatience of the radical party, and setting forth clearly his own views of what the progress of the Reformation should be.
Luther succeeded in quieting the people both in Wittenberg and the neighbouring towns, and in preventing the excesses which had threatened to discredit the whole movement.
While the diet approved the list of abuses drawn up at Worms, it ordered that Luther's books should no longer be published, and that Luther himself should hold his peace, while learned men were to admonish the erring preachers.
They refused to regard Luther as in any way their leader, or even to recognize him as a discreet person.
For Austria, Bavaria and the great ecclesiastical states in the south definitely sided with the pope against Luther's heresies, and to this day they still remain Roman Catholic. In the north, on the other hand, it became more and more apparent that the princes were drifting away from the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1525 the conservative party, which had from the first feared that Luther's teaching would result in sedition, received a new and terrible proof, as it seemed to them, of the noxious influence of the evangelical preachers.
Luther was by no means directly responsible for the civil war which followed, but he had certainly contributed to stir up the ancient discontent.
Luther, who believed that the peasants were trying to cloak their dreadful sins with excuses from the gospel, exhorted the government to put down the insurrection.
The German rulers took Luther's advice with terrible literalness, and avenged themselves upon the peasants, whose lot was apparently worse afterwards than before.
This included Luther's old enemy, Duke George of Saxony, the electors of Bran- denburg and Mainz, and two princes of Brunswick.
For example, George of Saxony viewed Aleander, the pope's nuncio, with almost as much suspicion as he did Luther himself.
The religious ideas in South Germany were affected by the development of a reform party in Switzerland, under the influence of Zwingli, who claimed that at Einsiedeln, near the lake of Zurich, he had begun to preach the gospel of Christ in the year 1516 " before any one in my locality tion in had so much as heard the name of Luther."
He denied the existence of purgatory, and rejected those practices of the Church which Luther had already set aside.
But the league arranged by Zwingli was directed against the house of Habsburg, and Luther did not deem it right to oppose a prince by force of arms.
Never, theless, Philip of Hesse finally arranged a religious conference in the castle of Marburg (1529) where Zwingli and Luther met.
This reaffirmed the seven sacraments, transubstantiation and the invocation of saints, and declared the pope head of the Church, but adopted Luther's doctrine of justification by faith in a conditional way, as well as the marriage of priests, and considerably modified the theory and practice of the Mass.
Scholars, like Colet, read the New Testament in Greek and lectured on justification by faith before they knew of Luther, and More included among the institutions of Utopia a rather more liberal and enlightened religion than that which he observed around him.
Luther's works found their way into England, and were read and studied at both Oxford and Cambridge.
A few months later Thomas Cranmer, who had been one of those to discuss sympathetically Luther's works in the little circle at Cambridge, and who believed the royal supremacy would tend to the remedying of grave abuses and that the pope had acted ultra vires in issuing a dispensation for the king's marriage with Catherine, was induced by Henry to succeed Warham as archbishop of Canterbury.
Later he revised an existing French translation of both the New Testament (which appeared in 1523, almost contemporaneously with Luther's German version) and, two years later, the Old Testament.
He agreed with Luther in rejecting transubstantiation, and in believing that works without the grace of God could not make for salvation.
Luther's works found a good many readers in France, but were condemned (1521) by both the Sorbonne and the parlement of Paris.
The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Protestant literature.
Similar groups are mentioned in the town chronicles of the early 16th century, and there is reason to assume that informal evangelical movements were no new things when Luther first began to preach.
Luther and his sympathizers were blind to the reasonableness of the fundamental teachings of these " brethren."
Luther found no in- orAnti- tellectual difficulties in his acceptance and interpreta- Trinl- tion of the Scriptures as God's word, and in maintaining against the Anabaptists the legitimacy of every old custom that was not obviously contrary to the Swiptures.
But this conservative reformation had begun before Luther's preaching, and might conceivably have followed much the same course had his doctrine never found popular favour or been ratified by the princes.
Luther and his contemporaries had not in any degree the modern idea of progress, which first becomes conspicuous with Bacon and Descartes, but believed, on the contrary, that the strangling of reason was the most precious of offerings to God.
First Principles of the Reformation, the Three Primary Works of Dr Martin Luther, edited by Wace and Buchheim, - an English translation of the famous pamphlets of 1520.
The altar-piece is a triptych, the centre-piece representing the Crucifixion; beside the cross Luther is represented, with the open Bible in his hand, while the blood from the pierced side of the Saviour pours on to his head.
The Augsburg Confession (1530) is divided into numerous " articles," while Luther's Lesser Catechism gathers Christianity under three " articles "- Creation, Redemption, Sanctification.
Another of Luther's assertions branded.
Next the writings of Luther and Melanchthon appealed to him.
His controversies on the Lord's Supper with Luther, and his correspondence with Lelio Sozini (see SocINus), exhibit, in different connexions, his admirable mixture of dignity and tenderness.
The circumstances and surroundings of Zwingli's early life were thus dissimilar from those of his contemporary, Martin Luther.
Zwingli, moreover, never knew anything of those spiritual experiences which drove Luther into a cloister and goaded him to a feverish "searching of the Scriptures" in the hope of finding spiritual peace.
Zwingli was a humanist, a type abhorred of Luther; and he was far more ready for the polite Erasmian society of Basel than for a monastery.
Luther never quite shook off scholasticism, whereas Zwingli had early learnt from Dr Thomas Wyttenbach that the time was at hand when scholastic theology must give place to the purer and more rational theology of the early Fathers and to a fearless study of the New Testament.
Lindsay (History of the Reformation), clearer insight than the Lutherans, and Zwingli rather than Luther was in this matter Calvin's guide, and the guide of the reformed churches of Switzerland, France, England and the Netherlands.
He had none of Luther's distrust of "the common man" and fear of popular government, and this fact won for his teaching the favour of the towns of South Germany not less than of Switzerland.
His correspondence of this year shows him jealous of the growing influence of Luther.
It was his claim that he had discovered the Gospel before ever Luther was heard of in Switzerland, and he was as anxious as Erasmus to make it clear that he was not Luther's disciple.
They proved the occasion of a conflict with Luther which was never settled, but in the meantime more attention was attracted by Zwingli's denunciation of the worship of images and of the Roman doctrine of the mass.
It was at this moment that the controversy between Luther and Zwingli took on a deeper significance.
Like others of the Reformers he had been led independently to preach justification by faith and to declare that Jesus Christ was the one and only Mediator between sinful man and God; but his construction rested upon what he regarded as biblical conceptions of the nature of God and man rather than upon such private personal experiences as those which Luther had made basal.
He was quite as clear as Luther in repudiating the medieval doctrine of transubstantiation, but he declined to accept Luther's teaching that Christ's words of institution required the belief that the real flesh and blood of Christ co-exist in and with the natural elements.
He declared that Luther was in a fog, and that Christ had warned His disciples against all such notions, and had proclaimed that by faith alone could His presence be received in a feast which He designed to be commemorative and symbolical.
As opposed to Luther, Zwingli insisted more firmly on the supreme authority of Scripture, and broke more thoroughly and radically with the medieval Church.
Luther was content with changes in one or two fundamental doctrines; Zwingli aimed at a reformation of government and discipline as well as of theology.
His most distinctive doctrine is perhaps his theory of the sacrament, which involved him and his followers in a long and, on Luther's part, an acrimonious dispute with the German Protestants.
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
There is not a trace of human kindness in his satires, which were directed against the corruption of the times, the Reformation, and especially against Luther.
He got an answer couched in somewhat ironical terms to the effect that Protestantism owed its existence in a measure to the house of Saxony, from which the prince descended, seeing that this house and that of the landgrave of Hesse had stood quite alone against Europe in upholding Luther and his cause.
In 1514 he entered the university of Heidelberg, where Oecolampadius was one of his teachers, and where in 1518 he heard Luther discuss.
A strong advocate of Lutheran doctrine, and author of the Syngramma Suevicum (October 21, 1525), which set forth Luther's doctrine of the Eucharist, he was free from the persecuting tendencies of the age.
Luther spoke to the people and the ignorant; Erasmus had the ear of the educated class.
His powerful friends, the pope, Wolsey, Henry VIII., the emperor, called upon him to declare against Luther.
He had employed all his resources of wit and satire against the priests and monks, and the superstitions in which they traded, long before Luther's name was heard of.
The motto which was already current in his lifetime, "that Erasmus laid the egg and Luther hatched it," is so far true, and no more.
And when out of Luther's revolt there arose a new fanaticism - that of evangelism, Erasmus recoiled from the violence of the new preachers.
He is at his weakest in defending free will against Luther, and indeed he can hardly he said to enter on the metaphysical question.
Twenty years after Savonarola's death Martin Luther made public his theses against indulgences.
Yet we may say that this was its salvation; for the struggle against Luther drove the papacy back to its ecclesiastical duties, and the council of Trent established medieval dogma as the doctrine of modern Catholicism in contradistinction to Protestantism.
The harmonious relations which subsisted between the two branches of the Wettins were disturbed by the interference of Maurice in Cleves, a proceeding distasteful to the Saxon elector, John Frederick; and a dispute over the bishopric of Meissen having widened the breach, war was only averted by the mediation of Philip of Hesse and Luther.
Luther's Catechisms, especially the shorter of the two, have been almost universally accepted, but the Form of Concord was and is expressly rejected by many Lutheran churches.
The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all that is distinctively Lutheran.
After Luther's death the more rigid Lutherans declared it to be their duty to preserve the status religionis in Germania per Lutherum instauratus, and to watch over the depositum Jesu Christi which he had committed to their charge.
As Luther was a much greater preacher than a systematic thinker, it was not easy to say exactly what this deposit was, and controversies resulted among the Lutheran theologians of the 16th century.
It arose from differences about the precise meaning of the word "law" in Luther's distinction between law and gospel.
Luther limited the meaning of the word to mean a definite command accompanied by threats, which counts on terror to produce obedience.
But law may mean ethical rule, and the Antinomians so understood it, and interpreted Luther's declaration to mean that believers are not under the dominion of the moral law.
He felt that Luther had omitted to make adequate answer to an important practical question, how Christ's death on the cross could be brought into such actual connexion with every individual believer as to be the ground of his actual justification.
The other controversies concerned mainly the doctrine of the sacrament of the Supper, and Luther's theory of Consubstantiation.
Melanchthon and many Lutherans accepted the theory of Calvin, and alleged that Luther before his death had approved of it.
In 1526 Luther published the German Mass and order of Divine Service, which, without being slavishly copied, served as a model for Lutheran communities.
In short Luther contented himself with setting forth general principles of divine service, leaving them to be applied as his followers thought best.
In Konigsberg, John Seklucyan, a personal friend of Luther, published a collection of Christian Songs.
It was not, however, until after the Leipzig disputation with Eck that Luther won his allegiance.
He accompanied Luther to Worms in 1521, and there was appointed by the elector of Saxony professor of canon law at Wittenberg.
During Luther's stay in the Wartburg Jonas was one of the most active of the Wittenberg reformers.
Giving himself up to preaching and polemics, he aided the Reformation by his gift as a translator, turning Luther's and Melanchthon's works into German or Latin as the case might be, thus becoming a sort of double of both.
In 1546 he was present at Luther's deathbed at Eisleben, and preached the funeral sermon; but in the same year was banished from the duchy by Maurice, duke (later elector) of Saxony.
As Bishop Fisher says in his Confutation of Luther, " in the early church, faith in Purgatory and in Indulgences was less necessary than now..
Between Luther and Lessing there was no great writer of German prose.
The leading Reformers - Luther, Zwingli, Melancthon - frequently expressed themselves against the prevailing view of the manifold sense of Scripture, and in particular questioned the legitimacy of allegorical interpretation - except for purposes of popular and practical exposition.
The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.
At the same time we can see from Luther's attitude how the doctrine of the Reformers (unlike that of the Protestant scholastics who came later) admitted considerable freedom, in particular with reference to the extent of the canon, but also to several questions of higher criticism.
The untrustworthiness of Chronicles - briefly admitted by Luther - he proved in detail, and so cleared the way for that truer view of the history and religion of Israel which the treatment of Chronicles as a trustworthy record of the past hopelessly obscured.
Luther, like his countrymen of to-day, judged the contents of the New Testament by the light of his leading convictions; and in his German translation, which occupies the same place in Germany as the Authorized Version of 1611 does in English-speaking lands, he even placed four of the books (Hebrews, James, Jude, Apocalypse) in an appendix at the end, with prefaces explanatory of this drastic act of criticism.
But though we may trace a real affiliation between the principles of Luther and modern German critical study - notably in the doctrines of the Gospel within the Gospel and of the residual Essence of Christianity - Luther's discriminations were in the 17th century ignored in practice.
He escaped thence to Antwerp in 1528, and also visited Wittenberg, where he made Luther's acquaintance.
He invented a method of printing, perhaps somewhat akin to stereotyping - though the details are not clearly known, - whereby the Institute could produce Bibles and Testaments in Luther's version at a very low cost, and sell them, in small size, at prices equivalent to 10d.
Now all these efforts were superseded by Luther's Smaller Catechism meant for the people themselves and especially for children, and by his Larger Catechism intended for clergy and schoolmasters.
Just before Ignatius was experiencing the call to conversion, Luther had begun his revolt against the Roman Church by burning the papal bull of excommunication on the 10th of December 1520.
But while Luther's most not to take place for eighteen years.
Oecolampadius was not a great theologian, like Luther, Zwingli or Calvin, and yet he was a trusted theological leader.
To Luther's doctrine of the ubiquity of Christ's body he opposed that of the presence and activity of the Holy Spirit in the church.
He did not minutely analyse the doctrine of predestination as Luther, Calvin and Zwingli did, contenting himself with the summary "Our Salvation is of God, our perdition of ourselves."
The transcriber was in all probability a certain Murdoch Nisbet, who also showed his reforming tendencies by adding to it a rendering of Luther's Prologue to the New Testament.4 2 See Foxe, Acts and Monuments, iv.
For his prefaces and marginal notes he used Luther's Bible freely, even to paraphrasing or verbally translating long passages from it.
The most interesting room in this building is that which was occupied by Luther in 1530, where the surroundings may have inspired, though (as is now proved) he did not compose, the famous hymn, Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott; the bed on which he slept, and the pulpit from which he preached in the old chapel are shown.
He studied at Wittenberg where he heard the lectures of Luther, and afterwards became tutor to Count Mansfeldt.
In the war of 1544-45 he accompanied the army as field-preacher, and then lived with Luther as his famulus or private secretary, being present at his death in 1546.
Besides taking a share in the first collected or Jena edition of Luther's works (1556), Aurifaber sought out and published at Eisleben in 1564-1565 several writings not included in that edition.
He also published Luther's Letters (1556, 1565), and Table Talk (1566).
Martin Luther Seminary, established in 1854, is a theological seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.
The preposterous charge was urged that it was by his advice that the king had committed himself in his book against Luther to an assertion of the pope's authority, whereby the title of " Defender of the Faith " had been gained, but in reality a sword put into the pope's hand to fight against him.
Save in some parts of Germany, where the influence of Luther saved the churches from wreck, an iconoclastic wave spread over the greater part of Western Europe, wherever the " new religion " prevailed; everywhere churches were cleared of images and reduced to the state of those described by William Harrison in his Description of England (1570), only the " pictures in glass " being suffered in some cases to survive for a while " by reason of the extreme cost of replacing them."
Luther distinguished between the Spiritual Church, which he identified with the Communion of Saints, and the Corporeal Church, the outward marks of which are Baptism, Sacrament and Gospel.
Luther, Justus Jonas, Melanchthon and Johann Bugenhagen were appointed to draw up a statement of the Saxon position.
On the 11th of May he sent the draft to Luther, who approved it, adding that he himself "could not tread so softly and gently."
In spite of significant omissions (the sole authority of scripture; rejection of transubstantiation), the Confession contains nothing contradictory to Luther's position, and in its emphasis on justification by faith alone enunciates a cardinal concept of the Evangelical churches.
Dogmatic changes in this seem to have drawn forth no protest from Luther or Brenz, so Melanchthon made fresh alterations in 1542.
Thus Luther assumed the leadership of a national opposition, and appeared as the champion who was to undertake the much-needed reform of abuses which clamoured for redress.
The occasion for the schism was given by the conflict with regard to indulgences, in the course of which Luther was not content to attack actual grievances, but assailed the Catholic doctrine itself.
In June 1518 the canonical proceedings against Luther were begun in Rome; but, owing to political influences, only slow progress was made.
It was not till the 15th of June 1520 that his new theology was condemned by the bull Exsurge, and Luther himself threatened with excommunication - a penalty which was only enforced owing to his refusal to submit, on the 3rd of January 1521.
Luther and his adherents overwhelmed the noble pope with unmeasured abuse.
Wittenberg is interesting chiefly on account of its close connexion with Luther and the dawn of the Reformation; and several of its buildings are associated with the events of that time.
Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, at first as a monk and in later life as owner with his wife and family, is still preserved, and has been fitted up as a Luther museum.
It contains numerous relics of Luther and portraits and other paintings by the Cranachs.
The Schlosskirche, to the doors of which Luther nailed his famous ninety-five theses in 1517, dates from 1439-1499; it was, however, seriously damaged by fire during the bombardment of 1760, was practically rebuilt, and has since (1885-1892) been restored.
In the interior of the church are the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise, by Peter Vischer the elder (1527), and John the Constant, by Hans Vischer; also portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the younger.
The parish church, in which Luther often preached, was built in the 14th century, but has been much altered since Luther's time.
Luther was appointed professor of philosophy here in 1508; and the new university rapidly acquired a considerable reputation from its connexion with the early Reformers.
Statues of Luther (by Schadow), Melanchthon and Bugenhagen embellish the town.
The spot, outside the Elster Gate, where Luther publicly burned the papal bull in 1520, is marked by an oak tree.
It has two Evangelical churches, of which the Nikolai-kirche, dating in its present form from 1485, is a handsome edifice; a medieval town hall, a former Benedictine nunnery and a monument to Luther.
In the middle ages some knowledge of Hebrew was preserved in the Church by converted Jews and even by non-Jewish scholars, of whom the most notable were the Dominican controversialist Raymundus Martini (in his Pugio fidei) and the Franciscan Nicolaus of Lyra, on whom Luther drew largely in his interpretation of Scripture.
Luther himself looked for the passing away of the present evil world.
A volume containing Robertson's lectures on Martin Luther and other subjects was published in 1892.
Among its auxiliary establishments are a good natural history museum, an observatory, a laboratory, and a library which contains a copy of Erasmus' New Testament with marginal annotations by Luther.
According to Brandes, quoting Martin Luther in the Lexicon Philologicum, the name is derived from Bram, Brim, i.e.
It contains the municipal museum, among the chief treasures of which is a Luther Bible illustrated by Lucas Cranach the younger.
Other works of Delavigne followed each other in rapid succession - Louis XI (1832), Les Enfants d'Edouard (1833), Don Juan d'Autriche (1835), Une Famille au temps du Luther (1836), La Popularite (1838), La Fille du Cid (1839), Le Conseiller ra p porteur (1840), and Charles VI (1843), an opera partly written by his brother.
He retired for a time to Weimar, where he occupied his leisure in the preparation of his edition of Luther, and in writing the romance Theodor oder die Weihe des Zweiflers (Berlin, 1822), in which he describes the education of an evangelical pastor.
De Wette also edited Luther's works (5 vols., 1825-1828).
The popular feeling for the first time found expression when Luther, on All Saints day 1517, nailed to a church door in Wittenberg the theses in which he contested the doctrine Luther which lay at the root of the scandalous traffic in indulgences carried on in the popes name by Tetzel and his like.
Luther had confronted the cardinal legate Cajetan, had passed through his famous controversy at Leipzig with Johann Eck, and was about to burn the bull of excommunication.
After this daring step retreat was impossible, and with Luther.
This was accepted by the diet and Luther was placed under the imperial ban.
But soon the victorious peasants became so violent and so destructive that Luther himself urged that they should be sternly punished, and a number of princes, prominent among whom was Phi.iip of Hesse, banded themselves together to crush the rising.
Guided by Luther and Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of the reformers prevailedelectoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and Augsburgbegan to carry out measures of church reform.
The Romanists saw the significance of this movement and, fortunately for them, were able to profit by the dissensions which were breaking out in the ranks of their opponents, especially the doctrinal differences between the followers of Luther and those of Zwingli.
This happened about a year after war between the two branches of the Saxon house had only been averted by the mediation of Luther and of Philip of Hesse.
In the following year a Church ordinance, based upon the canons of Luther, 1Vlelanchthon and B ugenhagen, was drawn up, submitted to Luther for his approval, and promulgated on the 2nd of September 1537.
But Catholicism could not wholly or immediately be dislodged by the teaching of Luther.
He had at first been inclined to the party of reform, but when Luther broke definitely with the papal authority he became a bitter opponent.
In 1521 Christian travelled in Germany, and was present at the diet of Worms, where Luther's behaviour profoundly impressed him.
The distinction of a permanent and a transitory element in the law of the Sabbath is found, not only in Luther and Melanchthon, but in Calvin and other theologians of the Reformed church.
He took a genuine interest in learning; was a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther and Melanchthon to professorships.
In 1520 he refused to put into execution the papal bull which ordered Luther's writings to be burned and the reformer to be put under restraint or sent to Rome; and in 1521, after Luther had been placed under the imperial ban by the diet at Worms, the elector caused him to be conveyed to his castle at the Wartburg, and afterwards protected him while he attacked the enemies of the Reformation.
As the result of recent investigations by two Swedish algologists, Bohlin and Luther, it has been proposed to make a re-classification of a far-reaching nature.
A still more striking contrast is the passionate outburst of sympathy and indignation with which, in the same diary, he comments on the supposed kidnapping of Luther by foul play on his return from the diet of Worms. Without being one of those who in his city took an avowed part against the old ecclesiastical system, and probably without seeing clearly whither the religious ferment of the time was tending - without, that is, being properly speaking a Reformer - Diirer in his art and his thoughts was the incarnation of those qualities of the German character and conscience which resulted in the Reformation; and, personally, with the fathers of the Reformation he lived in the warmest sympathy.
Luther received a fresh impulse towards the study of Greek, and his translation of the Scriptures, begun as early as 1517, now made rapid progress, Melanchthon helping to collate the Greek versions and revising Luther's translation.
Melanchthon felt the spell of Luther's personality and spiritual depth, and seems to have been prepared on his first arrival at Wittenberg to accept the new theology, which as yet existed mainly in subjective form in the person of Luther.
Melanchthon replied in a brief and moderately worded treatise, setting forth Luther's first principle of the supreme authority of Scripture in opposition to the patristic writings on which Eck relied.
In 1521, during Luther's confinement in the Wartburg, Melanchthon was leader of the Reformation cause at the university.
Their attacks on infant baptism seemed to him not altogether irrational, and in regard to their claim to personal inspiration he said "Luther alone can decide; on the one hand let us beware of quenching the Spirit of God, and on the other of being led astray by the spirit of Satan."
At the Marburg conference (1529) between the German and Swiss reformers, Luther was pitted against Oecolampadius and Melanchthon against Zwingli in the discussion regarding the real presence in the sacrament.
How far the normally conciliatory spirit of Melanchthon was here biased by Luther's intolerance is evident from the exaggerated accounts of the conference written by the former to the elector of Saxony.
He was at this time even more embittered than Luther against the Zwinglians.
The year after Luther's death, when the battle of Miihlberg (1547) had given a seemingly crushing blow to the Protestant cause, an attempt was made to weld together the evangelical and the papal doctrines, which resulted in the compilation by Pflug, Sidonius and Agricola of the Augsburg "Interim."
Luther, though he had probably uttered in private certain expressions of dissatisfaction with Melanchthon, maintained unbroken friendship with him; but after Luther's death certain smaller men formed a party emphasizing the extremest points of his doctrine.'
He died in his sixty-third year, on the 19th of April 1560, and his body was laid beside that of Martin Luther in the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg.
He never attained entire independence of Luther, though he gradually modified some of his positions from those of the pure Lutherism with which he set out.
At first Luther's cardinal doctrine of grace appeared to Melanchthon inconsistent with any view of free will; and, following Luther, he renounced Aristotle and philosophy in general, since "philosophers attribute everything to human power, while the sacred writings represent all moral power as lost by the fall."
In regard to the relation of grace to repentance and good works, Luther was disposed to make faith itself the principle of sanctification.
Luther was at school here, and sang in the streets for bread with other poor choristers.
Henry had defended the papacy against Luther in 1521 and had received in return the title "defender of the faith."
Luther's reform was not thorough enough for them.
Melanchthon, powerless against the enthusiasts with whom his co-reformer Carlstadt sympathized, appealed to Luther, still concealed in the Wartburg.
On the 6th of March Luther returned, interviewed the prophets, scorned their " spirits," forbade them the city, and had their adherents ejected from Zwickau and Erfurt.
They have been reckoned an extreme left wing of the Reformation, because for a time they followed Luther and Zwingli.
The Anabaptists were great readers of Revelation and of the Epistle of James, the latter perhaps by way of counteracting Luther's one-sided teaching of justification by faith alone.
Luther feebly rejected this scripture as " a right strawy epistle."
For Wycliffe and his adherent John Purvey (probably the author of the Commentarius in Apocalypsin ante centum annos editus, edited in 1528 by Luther), as on the other hand for Hus, the conviction that the papacy is essentially Antichrist is absolute.
Finally, if Luther advanced in his contest with the papacy with greater and greater energy, he did so because he was borne on by 1 Latin text by Sackur, cf.
And if in the Augustana the expression of this conviction was suppressed for political reasons, in the Articles of Schmalkalden, drawn up by him, Luther propounded it in the most uncompromising fashion.
The Augustinian monastery, in which Luther lived as a friar, is now used as an orphanage, under the name of the Martinsstift.
The cell of Luther was destroyed by fire in 1872.
There seems to have been at that time in south-west Germany a considerable amount of sturdy independent thought among the Franciscans; Pellicanus himself became a Protestant very gradually, and without any such revulsion of feeling as marked Luther's conversion.
He spoke his views frankly, but he disliked polemic; he found also more toleration than might have been expected, even after he became active in circulating Luther's books.
It is the seat of a state hospital for the insane (1887) with about 1600 patients, of a business college, of the Park Region Luther College (Norwegian Lutheran, 1892), and of the North-western College (Swedish Lutheran; opened in 1901).
His father, Hans Luther (Lyder, Luder, Ludher), a peasant from the township of Mdhra in Thuringia, after his marriage with Margarethe Ziegler, had settled in Mansfeld, attracted by the prospects of work in the mines there.
Hans Luther soon leased one, then three.
At Magdeburg and Eisenach Luther was "a poor student," i.e.
Luther was never a "wandering student"; his parents were too careful of their child to permit him to lead the life of wandering licence which marked these pests of medieval German scholastic life.
After three happy years at Eisenach, Luther entered the university of Erfurt (1501), then the most famous in Germany.
Hans Luther had been prospering, and was more than ever resolved to make his son a lawyer.
Young Luther entered his name on the matriculation book in letters which can still be read "Martinus Ludher ex Mansfelt," a free student, no longer embarrassed by great poverty.
In Luther's time Erfurt was the intellectual centre of Germany and its students were exposed to a variety of influences which could not fail to stimulate young men of mental ability.
Hussite propagandists, even in Luther's time, secretly visited the town and whispered among the students their anti-clerical Christian socialism.
A study of the scholastic philosophy was then the preliminary training for a course of law, and Luther worked so hard at the prescribed studies that he had little leisure, he said, for classical learning.
Nothing is known about the cause of the sudden plunge but what Luther has himself revealed.
But there is no trace of any theological difficulties in Luther's mind in the struggles which sent him into the convent and distracted him there.
The fires of hell and the shades of purgatory, which are the constant background of Dante's "Paradiso," were present to Luther from childhood.
Luther was the greatest religious genius which the 16th century produced, and the roots of the movement in which he was the central figure must be sought for in the popular religious life of the last decades of the 15th and opening decades of the i 6th centuries - a field which has been neglected by almost all his biographers.
Martin Luther and thousands of children like him were trained at home to know the creed, the ten commandments, the Lord's prayer, and such simple hymns as Ein Kindelein so lobelich, Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist and Crist ist erstanden; and they were taught to believe that God for Christ's sake freely pardons sin.
They learned that simple faith which Luther afterwards expounded in his Small Catechism and called the Kinderlehre.
Luther's mind was caught in this current of feeling.
Jesus in the painted window of Mansfeld church, stern of face, sword in hand, sitting on a rainbow, coming to judge; an altarpiece at Magdeburg, in which a ship with its crew was sailing on to heaven, carrying no layman on board; the deeds of St Elizabeth emblazoned on the window of St George's parish church at Eisenach; the living pictures of a young nobleman who had turned monk to save his soul, of a monk, the holiest man Luther had ever known, who was aged far beyond his years by his maceration; and many others of the same kind.
The jus episcopale which Luther afterwards claimed for the secular authorities had been practically exercised in Saxony and Brandenburg; cities and districts had framed police regulations which set aside ecclesiastical decrees about holidays and begging; the supervision of charity was passing from the hands of the church into those of laymen; and religious confraternities which did not take their guidance from the clergy were increasing.
All these influences abounded as Luther was growing to manhood and laid their marks upon him.
In the convent Luther set himself to find salvation.
The last word of that Scotist theology which ruled at the close of the middle ages was that man must work out his own salvation, and Luther tried to do so in the most approved later medieval fashion by the strictest asceticism.
Luther wearied his superiors with his attendance at the confessional.
Thus after two years of indescribable mental conflicts Luther found peace.
Soon after he had attained inward peace, Luther was ordained.
It was there that Luther began to preach, first in a small chapel to the monks of his order; later taking the place of one of the town's clergy who was in ill-health.
From the first Luther's lectures in theology differed from those ordinarily given at the time.
Gradually, however, Luther began to find that there was some real opposition between what he was teaching and the theology he had been taught in the Erfurt convent.