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lunar

lunar

lunar Sentence Examples

  • Clouds drifted away from a full moon, drenching the patio with soft lunar light.

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  • The year 1787 was rendered further memorable by Laplace's announcement on the 19th of November (Memoirs, 1786), of the dependence of lunar acceleration upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.

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  • During the voyage he experimented upon the determination of longitude by lunar distances, and ultimately effected the introduction of the method into navigation (q.v.).

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  • Before he was twenty he had afforded a specimen of his powers by an important contribution to the lunar theory.

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  • The happy coincidence of a lunar eclipse gives us the 20th of September 331 as the exact day upon which the Macedonian army crossed the Tigris.

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  • In none of the existing, and in but few of the extinct types, are collar-bones, or clavicles, developed; and the scaphoid and lunar bones of the carpus are separate.

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  • Positive proof of the high antiquity of the Hindu lunar zodiac is nevertheless afforded by the undoubted fact that the primitive series opened with Krittika (the Pleiades) as the sign of the vernal equinox.

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  • For genethliacal purposes the signs were divided into six solar and six lunar, the former counted onward from Leo, the " house " of the sun, the latter backward from the moon's domicile in Cancer.

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  • Such were the Hindu nakshatras, a word originally signifying stars in general, but appropriated to designate certain small stellar groups marking the divisions of the lunar track.

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  • The alternative view, advocated by Weber, that the lunar zodiac was primitively Chaldaean, rests on a very shadowy foundation.

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  • Acquaintance with foreign systems of twenty-eight lunar divisions tended doubtless to fix its position, which remained, nevertheless, always equivocal.

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  • the os magnum of the second row articulating mainly with the lunar of the first, or with the cuneiform, but not with the scaphoid.

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  • But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods.

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  • The stars had been numbered and named at an early date, and we possess tables of lunar longitudes and observations of the phases of Venus.

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  • The solar day, the solar year, and the lunar month, or lunation, may therefore be called the natural divisions of time.

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  • The solar day, the solar year, and the lunar month, or lunation, may therefore be called the natural divisions of time.

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  • That the Arab was essentially a copy of the Hindu lunar zodiac can scarcely admit of doubt.

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  • Here the " signs " and the " constellations " of the lunar zodiac form two essentially distinct systems. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-seven equal parts, called bhogas or arcs, of Boo' each.

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  • His method of estimating the relative lunar and solar distances is geometrically correct, though the instrumental means at his command rendered his data erroneous.

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  • His method of estimating the relative lunar and solar distances is geometrically correct, though the instrumental means at his command rendered his data erroneous.

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  • This is the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, and is formed by the multiplication of the numbers 28 and 19, that is, of the solar and lunar cycles, into each other.

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  • Each planet had two houses - a solar and a lunar - distributed according to the order of their revolutions.

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  • The os magnum 1, lunar; sc, scaphoid; u, unciform; of the carpus articulates freely m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, with the scaphoid.

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  • When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.

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  • Amongst the most important of his works not already mentioned may be named the following: - Mathematical Tracts (1826) on the Lunar Theory, Figure of the Earth, Precession and Nutation, and Calculus of Variations, to which, in the second edition of 1828, were added tracts on the Planetary Theory and the Undulatory Theory of Light; Experiments on Iron-built Ships, instituted for the purpose of discovering a correction for the deviation of the Compass produced by the Iron of the Ships (1839); On the Theoretical Explanation of an apparent new Polarity in Light (1840); Tides and Waves (1842).

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  • There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.

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  • From the same period also they have employed, in the adjustment of their solar and lunar years, a period of nineteen years, twelve of which are common, containing twelve lunations each, and the remaining seven intercalary, containing thirteen lunations.

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  • In 1763 he published the British Mariner's Guide, which includes the suggestion that in order to facilitate the finding of longitude at sea lunar distances should be calculated beforehand for each year and published in a form accessible to navigators.

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  • Thus Mercury, as the planet nearest the sun, obtained Virgo, the sign adjacent to Leo, with the corresponding lunar house in Gemini; Venus had Libra (solar) and Taurus (lunar); and so for the rest.

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  • The Passover was kept at the full moon of the lunar month Nisan, the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; the Paschal lambs were slain on the afternoon of the, 4th Nisan, and the Passover was eaten after sunset the same day - which, however, as the Jewish day began at sunset, was by their reckoning the early hours of the r 5th Nisan; the first fruits (of the barley harvest) were solemnly offered on the 16th.

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  • The Passover was kept at the full moon of the lunar month Nisan, the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; the Paschal lambs were slain on the afternoon of the, 4th Nisan, and the Passover was eaten after sunset the same day - which, however, as the Jewish day began at sunset, was by their reckoning the early hours of the r 5th Nisan; the first fruits (of the barley harvest) were solemnly offered on the 16th.

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  • A ram frequently stamped on coins of Antiochus, with head reverted towards the moon and a star (the planet Mars), signified Aries to be the lunar house of Mars.

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  • A ram frequently stamped on coins of Antiochus, with head reverted towards the moon and a star (the planet Mars), signified Aries to be the lunar house of Mars.

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  • The calendar was the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a reproduction of the Julian calendar.

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  • The determination of this ratio is one of the most difficult problems in the lunar theory.

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  • The general coincidence of the Sabbath or seventh day with the easily recognized first quarter and full moon established its sacred character as lunar as well as planetary.

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  • Relationship of a more intimate kind connects the Hindu lunar mansions with those of the Arabs and Chinese.

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  • Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy.

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  • 8.773" „ lunar equation..

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  • And the Pleiades continued, within historical memory, to be the first asterism of the lunar zodiac. 2 Lenormant, Origines de l'Histoire, i.

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  • Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.

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  • The synodical revolution of the moon laid down the lines of the solar, its sidereal revolution those of the lunar zodiac. The first was a circlet of " full moons "; the second marked the diurnal stages of the lunar progress round the sky, from and back again to any selected star.

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  • Thus the first moon of the year 1873 being the first of a new cycle, the first moon of every sixth year, reckoned backwards or forwards from that date, as 1868, 1863, &c., or 1877, 1882, &c., also begins a new lunar cycle of sixty moons.

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  • But in the course of a few years the accumulated difference between the solar year and twelve lunar months would become considerable, and have the effect of transporting the commencement of the year to a different season.

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  • At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.

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  • Both festivals, of course, belong to a lunar calendar, and move through the solar year every thirty-two years.

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  • His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.

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  • Both festivals, of course, belong to a lunar calendar, and move through the solar year every thirty-two years.

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  • Several cycles were formerly known in Europe; but most of them were invented for the purpose of adjusting the solar and lunar divisions of time, and were rather employed in the regulation of the calendar than as chronological eras.

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  • Several cycles were formerly known in Europe; but most of them were invented for the purpose of adjusting the solar and lunar divisions of time, and were rather employed in the regulation of the calendar than as chronological eras.

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  • In 1872 Airy conceived the idea of treating the lunar theory in a new way, and at the age of seventy-one he embarked on the prodigious toil which this scheme entailed.

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  • 3 9) it is to be kept for seven days after the first, the first of which is to be "a sabbath," and the eighth "a sabbath" (possibly originally a lunar quarterday): branches of four trees are to be taken.

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  • The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the woodrat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia.

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  • U, ulna; R, radius; c, cuneiform; 1, lunar; s, scaphoid; u, unciform; m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, trapezium.

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  • Though the /see' are thus strictly portions of solar time, yet what is remarkable, though not peculiar to China, they give their name to the lunar months, each month or lunation having the name of the chung-ki or sign at which the sun arrives during that month.

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  • Some authorities regard Medea as a lunar divinity, but the ancient conception of her as a Thessalian sorceress is probably correct.

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  • The larvae of several nocturnal Lepidoptera feed upon the leaves of the willows, and the trunk of the sallow is often injured by the perforations of the lunar hornet sphinx (Trochilium crabroniforme).

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  • Excited to emulation and employing the more rapid wet-collodion process, he succeeded before long in obtaining exquisitely defined lunar pictures, which remained unsurpassed until the appearance of the Rutherfurd photographs in 1865.

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  • Although it did not enter into the calendar of the Greeks, and was not introduced at Rome till after the reign of Theodosius, it has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries; and as it forms neither an aliquot part of the year nor of the lunar month, those who reject the Mosaic recital will be at a loss, as Delambre remarks, to assign it to an origin having much semblance of probability.

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  • The colours are much fainter, and according to Aristotle, who claims to be the first observer of this phenomenon, the lunar bows are only seen when the moon is full.

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  • First time I've seen a total lunar eclipse without clouds.

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  • We note (a) that in the worship of Yahweh the sacred seasons of new moon and Sabbath are obviously lunar.

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  • 32); but the heavenly halting-places which it seems to designate may be solar rather than lunar.

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  • In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun.

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  • The Lunar Year, Consisting Of Twelve Lunar Months, Contains Only 354 Days; Its Commencement Consequently Anticipates That Of The Solar Year By Eleven Days, And Passes Through The Whole Circle Of The Seasons In About Thirty Four Lunar Years.

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  • The Lunar Year, Therefore, Contained 354 Days, Falling Short Of The Exact Time Of Twelve Lunations By About 8.8 Hours.

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  • The First Expedient Adopted To Reconcile The Lunar And Solar Years Seems To Have Been The Addition Of A Month Of Thirty Days To Every Second Year.

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  • Two Lunar Years Would Thus Contain 25 Months, Or 738 Days, While Two Solar Years, Of 3654 Days Each, Contain 7302 Days.V The `, Difference Of 72 Days Was Still Too Great To Escape Observation; It Was Accordingly Proposed By Cleostratus Of Tenedos, Who Flourished Shortly After The Time Of Thales, To Omit The Biennary Intercalation Every Eighth Year.

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  • In Fact, The 72 Days By Which Two Lunar Years Exceeded Two Solar Years, Amounted To Thirty Days, Or A Full Month, In Eight Years.

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  • By Inserting, Therefore, Three Additional Months Instead Of Four In Every Period Of Eight Years, The Coincidence Between The Solar And Lunar Year Would Have Been Exactly Restored If The Latter Had Contained Only 354 Days, Inasmuch As The Period Contains 354X8 3 X 30 = 2922 Days, Corresponding With Eight Solar Years Of 3654 Days Each.

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  • The Number Of Days In The Period Being Known, It Is Easy To Ascertain Its Accuracy Both In Respect Of The Solar And Lunar Motions.

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  • The Ecclesiastical Calendar, Which Is Adopted In All The Catholic, And Most Of The Protestant Countries Of Europe, Is Luni Solar, Being Regulated Partly By The Solar, And Partly By The Lunar Year, A Circumstance Which Gives Rise To The Distinction Between The Movable And Immovable Feasts.

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  • The Jews Celebrated Their Passover On The 14Th Day Of The First Month, That Is To Say, The Lunar Month Of Which The Fourteenth Day Either Falls On, Or Next Follows, The Day Of The Vernal Equinox.

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  • The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication.

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  • In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which they supposed to be exact.

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  • The lunations are supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end.

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  • This gives 19 X354+6 X 30429 = 6 935 days, to be distributed among 235 lunar months.

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  • But every leap year one day must be added to the lunar month in which the 29th of February is included.

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  • The reason is that the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities, which are compensated in the whole period, may amount in certain cases to io, and thereby cause the new moon to arrive on the second day before or after its mean time.

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  • The cycle of the sun brings back the days of the month to the same day of the week; the lunar cycle restores the new moons to the same day of the month; therefore 28 X 19 = 53 2 years, includes all the variations in respect of the new moons and the dominical letters, and is consequently a period after which the new moons again occur on the same day of the month and the same day of the week.

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  • Besides the solar and lunar cycles, there is a third of 15 years, called the cycle of indiction, frequently employed in the computations of chronologists.

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  • By means of the lunar cycle the new moons of the calendar were indicated before the Reformation.

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  • We have already seen that the year 1 of the era had Io for its number in the solar cycle, 2 in the lunar cycle, and 4 in the cycle of indiction; the question is therefore to find a number such, that Iv.

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  • The Lunar Cycle Contained 6 939 Days 18 Hours, Whereas The Exact Time Of 235 Lunations, As We Have Already Seen, Is 235X29.530588= 6939 Days 16 Hours 31 Minutes.

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  • 4711,...4714 X; The Common Solar Year Containing 365 Days, And The Lunar Year Only 354 Days, The Difference Is Eleven; Whence, If A New Moon Fall On The 1St Of January In Any Year, The Moon Will Be Eleven Days Old On The First Day Of The Following Year, And Twentytwo Days On The First Of The Third Year.

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  • Another Addition Of Eleven Gives Thirty Three For The Epact Of The Fourth Year; But In Consequence Of The Insertion Of The Intercalary Month In Each Third Year Of The Lunar Cycle, This Epact Is Reduced To Three.

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  • They Are Therefore Connected With The Golden Numbers By The Formula (I), In Which N Is Any Whole Number; Andor A Whole Lunar Cycle (Supposing The First Epact To Be 11), They Are As Follows: 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, I, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 29.

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  • This Method Of Forming The Epacts Might Have Been Continued Indefinitely If The Julian Intercalation Had Been Followed Without Correction, And The Cycle Been Perfectly Exact; But As Neither Of These Suppositions Is True, Two Equations Or Corrections Must Be Applied, One Depending On The Error Of The Julian Year, Which Is Called The Solar Equation; The Other On The Error Of The Lunar Cycle, Which Is Called The Lunar Equation.

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  • Thus The Epacts I 1, 22, 3, 14, &C., Become 10, 21, 2, 13, &C. On The Other Hand, When The Time By Which The New Moons Anticipate The Lunar Cycle Amounts To A Whole Day, Which, As We Have Seen, It Does In 308 Years, The New Moons Will Arrive One Day Earlier, And The Epacts Must Consequently Be Increased By Unity.

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  • Thus The Epacts 11, 22, 3, 14, &C., In Consequence Of The Lunar Equation, Become 12, 23, 4, 15, &C. In Order To Preserve The Uniformity Of The Calendar, The Epacts Are Changed Only At The Commencement Of A Century; The Correction Of The Error Of The Lunar Cycle Is Therefore Made At The End Of 300 Years.

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  • The Years In Which The Solar Equation Occurs, Counting From The Reformation, Are 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500, &C. Those In Which The Lunar Equation Occurs Are 1800, 2100, 2400, 2700, 3000, 3300, 3600, 3900, After Which, 4300, 4600 And So On.

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  • In Consequence Of The Solar And Lunar Equations, It Is Evident That The Epact Or Moon'S Age At The Beginning Of The Year, Must, In The Course Of Centuries, Have All Different Values From One To Thirty Inclusive, Corresponding To The Days In A Full Lunar Month.

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  • The Second Column, Corresponding To The Following Year In The Lunar Cycle, Must Have All Its Epacts Augmented By 11; The Lowest Number, Therefore, In The Column Is 12, Then 13, 14, 15 And So On.

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  • In That Year The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Rendered It Necessary To Diminish The Epacts By Unity, Or To Pass To The Line C. In 1800 The Solar Equation Again Occurred, In Consequence Of Which It Was Necessary To Descend One Line To Have The Epacts Diminished By Unity; But In This Year The Lunar Equation Also Occurred, The Anticipation Of The New Moons Having Amounted To A Day; The New Moons Accordingly Happened A Day Earlier, Which Rendered It Necessary To Take The Epacts In The Next Higher Line.

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  • When The Solar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Of Epacts Is Changed To The Next Lower In The Table; When The Lunar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Is Changed To The Next Higher; When Both Equations Occur Together, No Change Takes Place.

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  • Epacts Correspond To The Thirty Days Of A Full Lunar Month; But The Lunar Months Consist Of Twenty Nine And Thirty Days Alternately, Therefore In Six Months Of The Year The Thirty Epacts Must Correspond Only To Twenty Nine Days.

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  • The Reason For Doubling The 25 Was To Prevent The New Moons From Being Indicated In The Calendar As Happening Twice .On The Same Day In The Course Of The Lunar Cycle, A Thing Which Actually Cannot Take Place.

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  • When The Golden Number Is 19, That Is To Say, In The Last Year Of The Lunar Cycle, The Supplementary Month Contains Only 29 Days.

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  • In Order To Investigate A Formula For The Epact, Let Us Make E=The True Epact Of The Given Year; J =The Julian Epact, That Is To Say, The Number The Epact Would Have Been If The Julian Year Had Been Still In Use And The Lunar Cycle Had Been Exact;, S =The Correction Depending On The Solar Year; M =The Correction Depending On The Lunar Cycle; Then The Equation Of The Epact Will Be E=J S M; So That E Will Be Known When The Numbers J, S, And M Are Determined.

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  • We Have Therefore S= (C 16) (C 16) 4 With Regard To The Lunar Equation M, We Have Already Stated That In The Gregorian Calendar The Epacts Are Increased By Unity At The End Of Every Period Of 300 Years Seven Times Successively, And Then The Increase Takes Place Once At The End Of 400 Years.

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  • Had The Anticipation Of The New Moons Been Taken, As It Ought To Have Been, At One Day In 308 Years Instead Of 3121, The Lunar Equation Would Have Occurred Only Twelve Times In 3700 Years, Or Eleven Times Successively At The End Of 300 Years, And Then At The End Of 400.

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  • In Those Years In Which The Line Of Epacts Is Changed In The Gregorian Calendar, The Golden Numbers Are Removed To Different Days, And Of Course A New Table Is Required Whenever The Solar Or Lunar Equation Occurs.

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  • The Year Is Luni Solar, And, According As It Is Ordinary Or Embolismic, Consists Of Twelve Or Thirteen Lunar Months, Each Of Which Has 29 Or 30 Days.

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  • The Years Of The Hegira Are Purely Lunar, And Always Consist Of Twelve Lunar Months, Commencing With The Approximate New Moon, Without Any Intercalation To Keep Them To The Same Season With Respect To The Sun, So That They Retrograde Through All The Seasons In About 321 Years.

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  • Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.

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  • The humerus often has a foramen (entepicondylar) on the inner side of its lower end; the tibia and fibula may be separate or united; but the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus are also united, while the centrale is free.

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  • In the carpus the scaphoid and lunar bones are united.

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  • In the carpus the scaphoid and lunar are welded, but the centrale remains distinct.

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  • In the Bathyergoidea the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus are separate, the tibia and fibula united and the clavicles normal.

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  • The tibia and fibula are separate, but the scaphoid and lunar are united, and the clavicles are generally incomplete.

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  • Pickering, Lunar and Hawaiian Physical Features compared (1906); C. H.

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  • As clerk (1795) and then as supercargo (1796, 1798, 1799) he made four long voyages; and, being an excellent navigator, he afterwards (1802) commanded a vessel, instructing his crews in lunar and other observations.

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  • The phenomenon of a solar (or lunar) halo as seen from the earth is represented in fig.

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  • He made the lunar month consist of 291 days, the lunar year of 354, and the solar year of 365; days.

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  • It contains a large number of interesting monuments, including a brass with the date 873 (supposed to mark the restingplace of King !Ethelred I.), a lunar orrery of the 14th century and an octagonal Norman font of Purbeck marble.

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  • Lunar and other Periods.

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  • - The action of moonlight necessarily gives rise to a true lunar period in the visibility of aurora.

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  • Ekholm and Arrhenius(11) claim to have established the existence of a true tropical lunar period of 27.32 days, and also of a 26-day period, or, as they make it, a 25.9 2 9 -day period.

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  • His consort was sometimes called Amaune (feminine of Amun), but more usually mother ": she was human-headed, wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, and their son was Khons (Chon or Chons), a lunar god, represented as a youth wearing the crescent and disk of the moon.

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  • Further, the Greeks themselves, who were always ready to identify Artemis with the moon, do not seem to have recognized any lunar connexion in Hera.

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  • Following the order of the lunar year, the next festival is that of the Return of the Pilgrims, which is the occasion of great rejoicing, many having friends or relatives in the caravan.

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  • for a lunar month under the chief priest or prophet.

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  • Lunar months were observed in the regulation of temples, and lunar years, &c., have been.

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  • Society on the constant of lunar parallax.

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  • Days are distinguished as solar, sidereal or lunar, according as the revolution is taken relatively to the sun, the stars or the moon.

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  • He now fixed his residence at Islington, engaged chiefly upon lunar observations, with a view to the great desideratum of a method of finding the longitude at sea.

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  • In Sanskrit, it would be called " Bharata-varsha," from Bharata, a legendary monarch of the Lunar line; but Sanskrit is no more the vernacular of India than Latin is of Europe.

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  • and very delicate planetary or lunar details.

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  • Besides the chief deities and their consorts, various minor ones, representing likewise patron gods of less important localities and in most cases of a solar character were added at one time or the other to the court of Marduk, though there is also to be noted a tendency on the part of the chief solar deity, Shamash of Sippara, and for the chief moon-god to absorb the solar and lunar deities of ]ess important sites, leading in the case of the solar gods to the differentiation of the functions of Shamash during the various seasons of the year and the various times of the day among these minor deities.

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  • In a lunar eclipse, on the other hand, the earth is the shadow-casting body, and the moon is the screen, and we observe things according to our first point of view.

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  • Among these are papers on The Recurrence of Solar Eclipses, A Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory, Development of the Perturbative Function and its Derivatives.

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  • Five days later he would have entered the fiftieth (lunar)

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  • As the most uncompromising 5Ufis appear the greatest pantheistic writer of all ages, Jelal ud-din Rumi (1207-1273; 604672 Au.; see RUM!), and his scarcely less renowned predecessor Farid ud-din Aflar, who was slain by the Moguls at the age of 114 lunar years in 1230 (627 A.H.).

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  • In strong contrast to these advanced 5ufls stands the greatest moral teacher of Persia, Sheikh SadI of Shirz (died about i,c lunar years old in 1292; 691 AlL; see SAD!), whose two best known works are the Bstan, or Fruit-garden, and the Gulislo.n, or Rose-garden.

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  • The alchemists named it Luna or Diana, and denoted it by the crescent moon; the first name has survived in lunar caustic, silver nitrate.

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  • It fuses at 218°; and when cast in quill-like moulds, it constitutes the lunar caustic of medicine, principally used as a cauterizing agent.

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  • (r) Argenti nitras (United States and British pharmacopoeia), lunar caustic, incompatible with alkalis, chlorides, acids, except nitric and acetic, potassium iodide and arsenical solutions.

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  • 8, 9), and in the Homilies she is mystically .connected with the lunar month (Hom.

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  • Such substances are silver nitrate (lunar caustic), the caustic alkalis (potassium and sodium hydrates), zinc chloride, an acid solution of mercuric nitrate, and pure carbolic acid.

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  • The lunar theory connects it with the disappearance of the moon at the time of change or during an eclipse.

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  • It is suggested that this is due to the fact that, at the time of the adoption of the oriental goddess, the Greeks already possessed lunar divinities in Hecate, Selene, Artemis.

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  • It has been explained by reference to the lunar character of the goddess, but more probably signifies " she whose seat is in heaven," whence she exercises her sway over the whole world - earth, sea, and air alike.

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  • It derived its name, according to the etymology of the Pundits, from a prince of the Mahabharata, to whose portion it fell on the primitive partition of the country among the Lunar race of Delhi.

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  • The chief term in the lunar longitude which introduces the ratio of the distances of the sun and moon from the earth explicitly is known as the parallactic inequality; by analysis of the observations P. H.

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  • Brown's lunar theory would imply a parallax 8.778".

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  • Instead of confining himself, as before, to the fruitless integration of three differential equations of the second degree, which are furnished by mathematical principles, he reduced them to the three co-ordinates which determine the place of the moon; and he divided into classes all the inequalities of that planet, as far as they depend either on the elongation of the sun and moon, or upon the eccentricity, or the parallax, or the inclination of the lunar orbit.

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  • The treatise on "Mechanics" in Lardner's Cyclopaedia was partly written by him; and his interest in more purely astronomical questions was evidenced by two communications to the Astronomical Society's Memoirs for 1831-1833 - the one on an observation of Saturn's outer ring, the other on a method of determining longitude by means of lunar eclipses.

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  • The system of intercalation in the lunar calendar of the heathen Arabs was designed to secure that the feast should always fall at the time when the hides, fruits and other merchandise were ready for market, 4 and the Meccans, who knew how to attract the Bedouins by hospitality, bought up these wares in exchange for imported goods, and so became the leaders of the international trade of Arabia.

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  • I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece, so much to your own and the nation's credit, but rather, after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies, that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success, and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory, which will be of prodigious use in navigation, as well as of profound and public speculation..

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  • the lunar theory would, if its creator did not overrate his own powers, have been completely investigated, so far as he could do it, in the first few months of 1695, and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval."

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  • The grateful Byzantines erected a statue to "torch-bearing" Hecate, and adopted the lunar crescent as the badge of the city.

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  • Hill of Washington expounded a new and beautiful method for dealing with the problem of the lunar motions, Adams briefly announced his own unpublished work in the same field, which, following a parallel course had confirmed and supplemented Hill's.

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  • The first volume contains his previously published writings; the second those left in manuscript, including the substance of his lectures on the Lunar Theory.

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  • Sir Isaac Newton, who depended for the perfecting of his lunar theory upon "places of the moon" reluctantly doled out from Greenwich, led the movement for immediate communication; whence arose much ill-feeling between him and Flamsteed.

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  • They were, on the other hand, probably acquainted, a couple of millenniums before Meton gave it his name, with the nineteen-year cycle, by which solar and lunar years were harmonized; 1 they immemorially made observations in the meridian; regulated time by water-clocks, and used measuring instruments of the nature of armillary spheres and quadrants.

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  • In the Ephemerides published year by year, the times of new moon were given, together with the calculated intervals to the first visibility of the crescent, from which the beginning of each month was reckoned; the dates and circumstances of solar and lunar eclipses were predicted; and due information was supplied as to the forthcoming heliacal risings and settings, conjunctions and oppositions of the planets.

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  • Kugler 7 that the various periods underlying their lunar predictions were identical with those heretofore believed to have been independently arrived at by Hipparchus, who accordingly must be held to have borrowed from Chaldaea the lengths of the synodic, sidereal, anomalistic and draconitic months.

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  • He compiled the Hakimite Tables of the planets, and observed at Cairo, in 977 and 978, two solar eclipses which, as being the first recorded with scientific accuracy, 4 were made available in fixing the amount of lunar acceleration.

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  • Yet his rationale of the tides in De Motibus Stellae is not only memorable as an astonishing forecast of the principle of reciprocal attraction in the proportion of mass, but for its bold extension to the earth of the lunar sphere of influence.

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  • Gravitation was thus shown to be the sole influence governing the movements of planets and satellites; the figure of the rotating earth was successfully explained by its action on the minuter particles of matter; tides and the precession of the equinoxes proved amenable to reasonings based on the same principle; and it satisfactorily accounted as well for some of the chief lunar and planetary inequalities.

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  • The subject of the lunar librations was treated by Lagrange w i th great originality in an essay crowned by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1764; and he filled up the lacunae in his theory of them in a memoir communicated to the Berlin Academy in 1780.

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  • The lunar acceleration, too, obtains ultimate compensation, though only after a vastly protracted term of years.

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  • He, nevertheless, used telescopes to good purpose in his studies of lunar topography, and his designations for the chief mountainchains and " seas " of the moon have never been superseded.

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  • And this kind of interaction has gone on ever since Flamsteed reluctantly furnished the " places of the moon," which enabled Newton to lay the foundations of lunar theory.

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  • He executed besides a chart and forty drawings of the moon (published at Göttingen in 1881), and calculated lunar tables from a skilful development of Euler's theory, for which a reward of boo() was in 1765 paid to his widow by the British government.

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  • Hansen's announcement of its incompatibility with lunar theory.

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  • Conceiving the line NN' to be that of the nodes at any time, and the earth and lunar orbit to be moving in the direction of the straight arrows, the earth will be on one side of the ecliptic from M2 to M5, and on the other side from M6 to M 1, intersecting it at the nodes.

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  • This excess is, however, subject to wide variation, owing to the obliquity of the ecliptic and of the lunar orbit to the equator, and therefore to the horizon.

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  • The other side of the moon is therefore invisible from the earth, but in consequence of the libration about six-tenths of the lunar surface may be seen at one time or another, while the remaining four-tenths are for ever hidden from our view.

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  • This shows that the side of the moon presented to us is held in position as it were by the earth, from which it also follows that the lunar globe is more or less elliptical, the longer axis being directed toward the earth.

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  • One is the existence of dark and bright regions, irregular in form, on its surface; the other is the complete illumination of the lunar disk when seen as a crescent, a faint light revealing the dark hemisphere.

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  • To an observer on the moon our earth would present a surface more than ten times as large as the moon presents to us, consequently this earth-light is more than ten times brighter than our moonlight, thus enabling the lunar surface to be seen by us.

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  • The work of drawing up a detailed description of the lunar surface, and laying its features down on maps, has from time to time occupied telescopic observers.

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  • Bond at the Harvard observatory, De la Rue in England, and Rutherford in New York, produced lunar photographs of remarkable accuracy and beauty.

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  • The height of the lunar mountains is a subject of interest.

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  • The general trend of lunar investigation has been against the view that there is any resemblance between the surfaces of the moon and of the earth, except in the general features already mentioned.

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  • This result was traced by Z011ner to the general irregularity of the lunar surface, and the inference was drawn that the average slope of the lunar elevation amounts to 47°.

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  • The period of revolution, or the lunar month, depends upon the point to which the revolution is referred.

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  • I° 30' 11 3" The Lunar Theory.

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  • This Hipparchus was enabled to do by lunar eclipses.

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  • During a lunar eclipse we always have D =180°, very nearly, and 2D=360°.

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  • We may conclude the ancient history of the lunar theory by saying that the only real progress from Hipparchus to Newton consisted in the more exact determination of the mean motions of the moon, its perigee and its line of nodes, and in the discovery of three inequalities, the representation of which required geometrical constructions increasing in complexity with every step.

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  • The modern lunar theory began with Newton, and consists in determining the motion of the moon deductively from the theory of gravitation.

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  • But the great founder of celestial mechanics employed a geometrical method, ill-adapted to lead to the desired result; and hence his efforts to construct a lunar theory are of more interest as illustrations of his wonderful power and correctness in mathematical reasoning than as germs of new methods of research.

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  • During the twenty years following he devoted a large part of his energies to the numerical computation of the lunar inequalities, the redetermination of the elements of motion, and the preparation of new tables for computing the moon's position.

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  • Thus a new branch of the lunar theory was suggested - the determination by theory of the effect of planetary action.

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  • It was therefore surprising when, in 1877, Simon Newcomb found, by a study of the lunar eclipses handed down by Ptolemy and those observed by the Arabians - data much more reliable than the vague accounts of ancient solar eclipses - that the actual apparent acceleration was only about 8.3".

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  • On the subject of lunar geology, see N.

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  • Brown, Introductory Treatise on the Lunar Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1896); Hansen, Tables de la lune (London, 1857) (Admiralty publication); W.

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  • Newcomb, " Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory," Ast.

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  • His first recorded observation was made before he was sixteen, and the presentation of an elaborate lunar map procured for him admission to the Academy, on the 21st of April 1736, at the early age of twenty.

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  • Euler in his prize essay of 1748; a series of lunar observations extending over fifty years; some interesting researches in terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, in the latter of which he detected a regular diurnal period; and the determination of the places of a great number of stars, including twelve separate observations of Uranus, between 1765 and its discovery as a planet.

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  • Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the observation of io,000 southern stars.

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  • of his Ephemerides (1755) practical rules for the employment of the lunar method of longitudes, proposing in his additions to Pierre Bouguer's Traite de Navigation (1760) the model of a nautical almanac.

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  • µ7v, &c., in other branches of the Indo-Germanic family; all ultimately from the root seen in the word for the moon in nearly all those languages), originally the period between two returns of the new moon; generally called a lunar and sometimes a synodic or illuminative month.

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  • (For the calendar months see Calendar.) In law a month may mean either a lunar month, that is, a period of twenty-eight days, or a calendar month.

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  • At common law, "month" generally means a lunar month, although in mercantile matters it has been generally understood to mean a calendar month, but there is no general exception giving it that meaning in commercial documents.

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  • In acts of parliament passed before the year 1850 month, unless otherwise specially interpreted, means lunar month, but in all acts passed since that date, month, unless words be added showing that lunar month was intended, means calendar month (Interpretation Act 1889, s.

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  • Solar and Lunar Myths.

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  • Solar and lunar myths usually account for the observed phenomena of eclipse, waning and waxing, sunset, spots on the moon, and so forth by various mythical adventures of the animated heavenly beings.

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  • See Cornhill Magazine, " How the Stars got their Names " (1882, p. 35), and " Some Solar and Lunar Myths " (1882, P. 440); Max Muller, Selected Essays, i.

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  • The imagined existence of mountains - called Kong in the west and Komri (Lunar) in the east - stretching in a high and unbroken chain across Africa about 10° N.

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  • In 1838 he published a revision of the lunar theory, entitled Fundamenta nova investigationis, &c., and the improved Tables of the Moon based upon it were printed in 1857, at the expense of the British government, their merit being further recognized by a grant of 1000, and by their immediate adoption in the Nautical Almanac, and other Ephemerides.

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  • A theoretical discussion of the disturbances embodied in them (still familiarly known to lunar experts as the Darlegung) appeared in the Abhandlungen of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in 1862-1864.

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  • He communicated to that society in 1847 an able paper on a long-period lunar inequality (Memoirs Roy.

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  • Encke's result having been rendered evident through his investigation of a lunar inequality.

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  • The three bones of the first row of the carpus (scaphoid, lunar and cuneiform) are subequal in size.

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  • Damascus occupies an important commercial position, being the market for the whole of the desert; it also is of great importance religiously, as being the startingpoint for the Hajj pilgrimage from Syria to Mecca, which leaves on the 15th of the lunar month of Shawwal each year.

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  • Clouds drifted away from a full moon, drenching the patio with soft lunar light.

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  • The first order of business on lunar New Year's Day is offering ritual homage to one's ancestors.

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  • Three rings surround the central aureole of this lunar corona imaged by Lauri Kangas (site) on 31st January 2004.

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  • Doreen Valiente identified her as the female, lunar counterpart of the male sun god bel, or Belinus.

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  • The Royal Astronomical Society has predicted that the moon is to turn blood-red during a lunar eclipse above British skies tonight.

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  • The 29th January 2006 is Chinese New Year, The Chinese use the lunar calendar for Chinese festivals.

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  • The following are the ROC government¡¦s position on the 2005 Lunar New Year cross-strait charter flights.

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  • High contrast, stark, lunar, chiaroscuro, sharp and brittle.

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  • So terrestrial latitude would have to be 63 north for a lunar standstill north to be truly circumpolar today.

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  • Lunar Return 5th cusp conjunct natal Moon: You tend to be deeply moved by the love you will receive from others.

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  • He is honored by having a large lunar crater named after him.

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  • She often wears the lunar crescent on her brow.

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  • The setting sun cast a golden light on the sand, and sharp dune crests wove their languid path across the lunar landscape.

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  • A lunar month lasts 29.5 days. Many cycles are coordinated with the lunar month or with stages of the lunar cycle.

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  • The first travelers to Mars or the first long-term denizens of a lunar base would confront very hostile environments.

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  • disbelieve in existence of lunar... .

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  • Today's lunar eclipse could coincide with benefits coming your way.

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  • What really separates male from female is not external genitalia, nor the lunar cycle of the female.

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  • instructive to note the appearance of craters throughout the Lunar month.

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  • The second is a fairly rare Glencoe Models kit, a speculative 1950s design for a lunar lander.

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  • Who's made a lunar landing on the level?

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  • When you first arrive you feel like you have entered a strange world, with an almost lunar landscape.

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  • lunar libration from the Astronomy Picture of the Day.

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  • lunar eclipse could coincide with benefits coming your way.

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  • lunar standstill.

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  • lunar lander.

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  • lunar calendar.

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  • lunar orbit in November 2004., with X-ray mapping of the Moon.

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  • lunar craters as being of impact origin.

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  • Very few birds (although including Gray's Lark) but some memorable, almost lunar, scenery.

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  • today's lunar eclipse could coincide with an ethical or financial drama.

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  • A partial lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the penumbra, or partial shadow.

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  • October's lunar eclipse â the view from Greenwich The last total lunar eclipse visible until 2007 took place on October 28 2004.

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  • The next total lunar eclipse after that is in 2007.

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  • In a lunar eclipse the moon often adopts a coppery red color.

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  • The number 7 is also an all-important factor in the lunar mythos, with its twenty-eight days to the month.

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  • January 26 th 2002: lunar occultation of Jupiter - Watch tonight as Jupiter hides behind the Moon.

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  • There was a lunar mythology extant long before it was known that the lunar orb was a reflector of the solar light.

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  • Carefully collected samples have been correlated with data obtained by lunar orbiters, including the most recent lunar missions.

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  • Once the dust has settled, other orbiters will search for the crater left behind â the latest addition to the battered lunar surface.

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  • Held during the sixth full moon of the lunar calendar, it involves chanting, sermons and a candlelit procession to the wat.

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  • quash a robotic rebellion on a lunar mining colony.

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  • El Morso and I did the first, I believe, deuterium/hydrogen analysis of the lunar regolith, in 1994.

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  • They bounced around, they drove lunar rovers, They climbed up hills and rolled over and over.

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  • For example, explain to me how they could fake the dust off the wheels of the lunar rover.

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  • scud across a bright moon it is often surrounded by a bright disk and faint colored rings, a lunar corona.

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  • The key stones are aligned with major major solar and lunar events including solstices and Equinoxes.

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  • stages of the lunar cycle.

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  • For example, say, the rising point of the major lunar standstill.

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  • The following is a diagram showing a major and minor lunar standstill of the Full Moon.

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  • In July 2004, Lunar was granted access to the final tranche of funding to complete the Prototype design.

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  • In a partial lunar eclipse, it partly enters the umbra and only part of its surface is darkened.

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  • The appearance of the Hale Bopp and Halley's comets, followed by solar and lunar eclipses, caused an upsurge in popular astronomy.

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  • This causes the ventricles to contract forcing the blood to leave via the semi lunar valves to the arteries.

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  • Ekholm and Arrhenius (84) claim to have established the existence of a tropical lunar period, and a 25.929-day period; while P. Polis (85) considers a synodic lunar period probable.

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  • The happy coincidence of a lunar eclipse gives us the 20th of September 331 as the exact day upon which the Macedonian army crossed the Tigris.

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  • As the result, no less than 8000 lunar observations were rescued from oblivion, and were, 1846, placed at the disposal of astronomers in such a form that they could be used directly for comparison with the theory and for the improvement of the tables of the moon's motion.

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  • In 1872 Airy conceived the idea of treating the lunar theory in a new way, and at the age of seventy-one he embarked on the prodigious toil which this scheme entailed.

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  • Amongst the most important of his works not already mentioned may be named the following: - Mathematical Tracts (1826) on the Lunar Theory, Figure of the Earth, Precession and Nutation, and Calculus of Variations, to which, in the second edition of 1828, were added tracts on the Planetary Theory and the Undulatory Theory of Light; Experiments on Iron-built Ships, instituted for the purpose of discovering a correction for the deviation of the Compass produced by the Iron of the Ships (1839); On the Theoretical Explanation of an apparent new Polarity in Light (1840); Tides and Waves (1842).

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  • We note (a) that in the worship of Yahweh the sacred seasons of new moon and Sabbath are obviously lunar.

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  • The general coincidence of the Sabbath or seventh day with the easily recognized first quarter and full moon established its sacred character as lunar as well as planetary.

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  • At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.

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  • Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy.

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  • The calendar was the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a reproduction of the Julian calendar.

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  • There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.

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  • Whether Astarte was also a lunar goddess has been questioned.

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  • 3 9) it is to be kept for seven days after the first, the first of which is to be "a sabbath," and the eighth "a sabbath" (possibly originally a lunar quarterday): branches of four trees are to be taken.

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  • Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.

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  • U, ulna; R, radius; c, cuneiform; 1, lunar; s, scaphoid; u, unciform; m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, trapezium.

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  • The determination of this ratio is one of the most difficult problems in the lunar theory.

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  • 8.773" „ lunar equation..

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  • His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.

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  • The year 1787 was rendered further memorable by Laplace's announcement on the 19th of November (Memoirs, 1786), of the dependence of lunar acceleration upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.

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  • Lunar rainbows.

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  • The colours are much fainter, and according to Aristotle, who claims to be the first observer of this phenomenon, the lunar bows are only seen when the moon is full.

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  • Some authorities regard Medea as a lunar divinity, but the ancient conception of her as a Thessalian sorceress is probably correct.

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  • The stars had been numbered and named at an early date, and we possess tables of lunar longitudes and observations of the phases of Venus.

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  • The larvae of several nocturnal Lepidoptera feed upon the leaves of the willows, and the trunk of the sallow is often injured by the perforations of the lunar hornet sphinx (Trochilium crabroniforme).

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  • In the article Calendar (q.v.), that part of chronology is treated which relates to the measurement of time, and the principal methods are explained that have been employed, or are still in use, for adjusting the lunar months of the solar year, as well as the intercalations necessary for regulating the civil year according to the celestial motions.

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  • This is the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, and is formed by the multiplication of the numbers 28 and 19, that is, of the solar and lunar cycles, into each other.

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  • From the same period also they have employed, in the adjustment of their solar and lunar years, a period of nineteen years, twelve of which are common, containing twelve lunations each, and the remaining seven intercalary, containing thirteen lunations.

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  • Though the /see' are thus strictly portions of solar time, yet what is remarkable, though not peculiar to China, they give their name to the lunar months, each month or lunation having the name of the chung-ki or sign at which the sun arrives during that month.

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  • Thus the first moon of the year 1873 being the first of a new cycle, the first moon of every sixth year, reckoned backwards or forwards from that date, as 1868, 1863, &c., or 1877, 1882, &c., also begins a new lunar cycle of sixty moons.

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  • In none of the existing, and in but few of the extinct types, are collar-bones, or clavicles, developed; and the scaphoid and lunar bones of the carpus are separate.

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  • the os magnum of the second row articulating mainly with the lunar of the first, or with the cuneiform, but not with the scaphoid.

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  • The os magnum 1, lunar; sc, scaphoid; u, unciform; of the carpus articulates freely m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, with the scaphoid.

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  • C, Camel (Camelus bactrianus), 1, Lunar.

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  • oi rrpov, star, and Xa(3€Iv, to take), an instrument used not only for stellar, but for solar and lunar altitude-taking.

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  • And the Pleiades continued, within historical memory, to be the first asterism of the lunar zodiac. 2 Lenormant, Origines de l'Histoire, i.

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  • The synodical revolution of the moon laid down the lines of the solar, its sidereal revolution those of the lunar zodiac. The first was a circlet of " full moons "; the second marked the diurnal stages of the lunar progress round the sky, from and back again to any selected star.

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  • Such were the Hindu nakshatras, a word originally signifying stars in general, but appropriated to designate certain small stellar groups marking the divisions of the lunar track.

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  • Acquaintance with foreign systems of twenty-eight lunar divisions tended doubtless to fix its position, which remained, nevertheless, always equivocal.

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  • Positive proof of the high antiquity of the Hindu lunar zodiac is nevertheless afforded by the undoubted fact that the primitive series opened with Krittika (the Pleiades) as the sign of the vernal equinox.

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  • Here the " signs " and the " constellations " of the lunar zodiac form two essentially distinct systems. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-seven equal parts, called bhogas or arcs, of Boo' each.

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  • Relationship of a more intimate kind connects the Hindu lunar mansions with those of the Arabs and Chinese.

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  • That the Arab was essentially a copy of the Hindu lunar zodiac can scarcely admit of doubt.

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  • The alternative view, advocated by Weber, that the lunar zodiac was primitively Chaldaean, rests on a very shadowy foundation.

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  • 32); but the heavenly halting-places which it seems to designate may be solar rather than lunar.

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  • Euphratean exploration has so far brought to light no traces of ecliptical partition by the moon's diurnal motion, unless, indeed, zodiacal associations be claimed for a set of twenty-eight deprecatory formulae against evil spirits inscribed on a Ninevite tablet.4 The safest general conclusions regarding this disputed subject appear to be that the sieu, distinctively and unvaryingly Chinese, cannot properly be described as divisions of a lunar zodiac, that the nakshatras, though of purely Indian origin, became modified by the successive adoption of Greek and Chinese rectifications and supposed improvements; while the manazil constituted a frankly eclectic system, in which elements from all quarters were combined.

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  • For genethliacal purposes the signs were divided into six solar and six lunar, the former counted onward from Leo, the " house " of the sun, the latter backward from the moon's domicile in Cancer.

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  • Each planet had two houses - a solar and a lunar - distributed according to the order of their revolutions.

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  • Thus Mercury, as the planet nearest the sun, obtained Virgo, the sign adjacent to Leo, with the corresponding lunar house in Gemini; Venus had Libra (solar) and Taurus (lunar); and so for the rest.

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  • Excited to emulation and employing the more rapid wet-collodion process, he succeeded before long in obtaining exquisitely defined lunar pictures, which remained unsurpassed until the appearance of the Rutherfurd photographs in 1865.

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  • During the voyage he experimented upon the determination of longitude by lunar distances, and ultimately effected the introduction of the method into navigation (q.v.).

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  • In 1763 he published the British Mariner's Guide, which includes the suggestion that in order to facilitate the finding of longitude at sea lunar distances should be calculated beforehand for each year and published in a form accessible to navigators.

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  • The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the woodrat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia.

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  • In this, the most memorable of Kepler's multifarious writings, two of the cardinal principles of modern astronomy - the laws of elliptical orbits and of equal areas - were established (see Astronomy: History); important truths relating to gravity were enunciated, and the tides ascribed to the influence of lunar attraction; while an attempt to explain the planetary revolutions in the then backward condition of mechanical knowledge produced a theory of vortices closely resembling that afterwards adopted by Descartes.

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  • The insurmountable difficulties presented by the lunar theory forced Kepler, after an enormous amount of fruitless labour, to abandon his design of comprehending the whole scheme of the heavens in one great work to be called Hipparchus, and he then threw a portion of his materials into the form of a dialogue intended for the instruction of general readers.

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  • Before he was twenty he had afforded a specimen of his powers by an important contribution to the lunar theory.

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  • Lastly, in astronomy he is credited by Ptolemy with an explanation of the motion of the planets by a system of epicycles; he also made reseafches in the lunar theory, for which he is said to have been called Epsilon (e).

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  • But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods.

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  • Although it did not enter into the calendar of the Greeks, and was not introduced at Rome till after the reign of Theodosius, it has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries; and as it forms neither an aliquot part of the year nor of the lunar month, those who reject the Mosaic recital will be at a loss, as Delambre remarks, to assign it to an origin having much semblance of probability.

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  • But in the course of a few years the accumulated difference between the solar year and twelve lunar months would become considerable, and have the effect of transporting the commencement of the year to a different season.

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  • When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.

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  • In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun.

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  • The Lunar Year, Consisting Of Twelve Lunar Months, Contains Only 354 Days; Its Commencement Consequently Anticipates That Of The Solar Year By Eleven Days, And Passes Through The Whole Circle Of The Seasons In About Thirty Four Lunar Years.

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  • The Lunar Year, Therefore, Contained 354 Days, Falling Short Of The Exact Time Of Twelve Lunations By About 8.8 Hours.

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  • The First Expedient Adopted To Reconcile The Lunar And Solar Years Seems To Have Been The Addition Of A Month Of Thirty Days To Every Second Year.

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  • Two Lunar Years Would Thus Contain 25 Months, Or 738 Days, While Two Solar Years, Of 3654 Days Each, Contain 7302 Days.V The `, Difference Of 72 Days Was Still Too Great To Escape Observation; It Was Accordingly Proposed By Cleostratus Of Tenedos, Who Flourished Shortly After The Time Of Thales, To Omit The Biennary Intercalation Every Eighth Year.

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  • In Fact, The 72 Days By Which Two Lunar Years Exceeded Two Solar Years, Amounted To Thirty Days, Or A Full Month, In Eight Years.

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  • By Inserting, Therefore, Three Additional Months Instead Of Four In Every Period Of Eight Years, The Coincidence Between The Solar And Lunar Year Would Have Been Exactly Restored If The Latter Had Contained Only 354 Days, Inasmuch As The Period Contains 354X8 3 X 30 = 2922 Days, Corresponding With Eight Solar Years Of 3654 Days Each.

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  • Thus The Corresponding Relative Mean Geocentric Motion Of The Moon From The Sun Is 12 X360 { 477616" 724; And The Duration Of The Mean Synodic Revolution Of The Moon, Or Lunar Month, Is Therefore 1236776072 25 = 29'530588 Days, Or 29 Days, 12 Hours, 44 Min.

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  • The Number Of Days In The Period Being Known, It Is Easy To Ascertain Its Accuracy Both In Respect Of The Solar And Lunar Motions.

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  • The Ecclesiastical Calendar, Which Is Adopted In All The Catholic, And Most Of The Protestant Countries Of Europe, Is Luni Solar, Being Regulated Partly By The Solar, And Partly By The Lunar Year, A Circumstance Which Gives Rise To The Distinction Between The Movable And Immovable Feasts.

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  • The Jews Celebrated Their Passover On The 14Th Day Of The First Month, That Is To Say, The Lunar Month Of Which The Fourteenth Day Either Falls On, Or Next Follows, The Day Of The Vernal Equinox.

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  • The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication.

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  • In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which they supposed to be exact.

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  • The lunations are supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end.

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  • This gives 19 X354+6 X 30429 = 6 935 days, to be distributed among 235 lunar months.

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  • But every leap year one day must be added to the lunar month in which the 29th of February is included.

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  • The reason is that the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities, which are compensated in the whole period, may amount in certain cases to io, and thereby cause the new moon to arrive on the second day before or after its mean time.

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  • The cycle of the sun brings back the days of the month to the same day of the week; the lunar cycle restores the new moons to the same day of the month; therefore 28 X 19 = 53 2 years, includes all the variations in respect of the new moons and the dominical letters, and is consequently a period after which the new moons again occur on the same day of the month and the same day of the week.

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  • Besides the solar and lunar cycles, there is a third of 15 years, called the cycle of indiction, frequently employed in the computations of chronologists.

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  • By means of the lunar cycle the new moons of the calendar were indicated before the Reformation.

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  • We have already seen that the year 1 of the era had Io for its number in the solar cycle, 2 in the lunar cycle, and 4 in the cycle of indiction; the question is therefore to find a number such, that Iv.

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  • The Restoration Of The Equinox To Its Former Place In The Year And The Correction Of The Intercalary Period, Were Attended With No Difficulty; But Lilius Had Also To Adapt The Lunar Year To The New Rule Of Intercalation.

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  • The Lunar Cycle Contained 6 939 Days 18 Hours, Whereas The Exact Time Of 235 Lunations, As We Have Already Seen, Is 235X29.530588= 6939 Days 16 Hours 31 Minutes.

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  • 4711,...4714 X; The Common Solar Year Containing 365 Days, And The Lunar Year Only 354 Days, The Difference Is Eleven; Whence, If A New Moon Fall On The 1St Of January In Any Year, The Moon Will Be Eleven Days Old On The First Day Of The Following Year, And Twentytwo Days On The First Of The Third Year.

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  • Another Addition Of Eleven Gives Thirty Three For The Epact Of The Fourth Year; But In Consequence Of The Insertion Of The Intercalary Month In Each Third Year Of The Lunar Cycle, This Epact Is Reduced To Three.

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  • They Are Therefore Connected With The Golden Numbers By The Formula (I), In Which N Is Any Whole Number; Andor A Whole Lunar Cycle (Supposing The First Epact To Be 11), They Are As Follows: 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, I, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 29.

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  • This Method Of Forming The Epacts Might Have Been Continued Indefinitely If The Julian Intercalation Had Been Followed Without Correction, And The Cycle Been Perfectly Exact; But As Neither Of These Suppositions Is True, Two Equations Or Corrections Must Be Applied, One Depending On The Error Of The Julian Year, Which Is Called The Solar Equation; The Other On The Error Of The Lunar Cycle, Which Is Called The Lunar Equation.

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  • Thus The Epacts I 1, 22, 3, 14, &C., Become 10, 21, 2, 13, &C. On The Other Hand, When The Time By Which The New Moons Anticipate The Lunar Cycle Amounts To A Whole Day, Which, As We Have Seen, It Does In 308 Years, The New Moons Will Arrive One Day Earlier, And The Epacts Must Consequently Be Increased By Unity.

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  • Thus The Epacts 11, 22, 3, 14, &C., In Consequence Of The Lunar Equation, Become 12, 23, 4, 15, &C. In Order To Preserve The Uniformity Of The Calendar, The Epacts Are Changed Only At The Commencement Of A Century; The Correction Of The Error Of The Lunar Cycle Is Therefore Made At The End Of 300 Years.

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  • The Years In Which The Solar Equation Occurs, Counting From The Reformation, Are 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500, &C. Those In Which The Lunar Equation Occurs Are 1800, 2100, 2400, 2700, 3000, 3300, 3600, 3900, After Which, 4300, 4600 And So On.

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  • When The Solar Equation Occurs, The Epacts Are Diminished By Unity; When The Lunar Equation Occurs, The Epacts Are Augmented By Unity; And When Both Equations Occur Together, As In 1800, 2100, 2700, &C., They Compensate Each Other, And The Epacts Are Not Changed.

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  • In Consequence Of The Solar And Lunar Equations, It Is Evident That The Epact Or Moon'S Age At The Beginning Of The Year, Must, In The Course Of Centuries, Have All Different Values From One To Thirty Inclusive, Corresponding To The Days In A Full Lunar Month.

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  • The Second Column, Corresponding To The Following Year In The Lunar Cycle, Must Have All Its Epacts Augmented By 11; The Lowest Number, Therefore, In The Column Is 12, Then 13, 14, 15 And So On.

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  • In That Year The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Rendered It Necessary To Diminish The Epacts By Unity, Or To Pass To The Line C. In 1800 The Solar Equation Again Occurred, In Consequence Of Which It Was Necessary To Descend One Line To Have The Epacts Diminished By Unity; But In This Year The Lunar Equation Also Occurred, The Anticipation Of The New Moons Having Amounted To A Day; The New Moons Accordingly Happened A Day Earlier, Which Rendered It Necessary To Take The Epacts In The Next Higher Line.

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  • When The Solar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Of Epacts Is Changed To The Next Lower In The Table; When The Lunar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Is Changed To The Next Higher; When Both Equations Occur Together, No Change Takes Place.

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  • Epacts Correspond To The Thirty Days Of A Full Lunar Month; But The Lunar Months Consist Of Twenty Nine And Thirty Days Alternately, Therefore In Six Months Of The Year The Thirty Epacts Must Correspond Only To Twenty Nine Days.

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  • The Reason For Doubling The 25 Was To Prevent The New Moons From Being Indicated In The Calendar As Happening Twice .On The Same Day In The Course Of The Lunar Cycle, A Thing Which Actually Cannot Take Place.

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  • When The Golden Number Is 19, That Is To Say, In The Last Year Of The Lunar Cycle, The Supplementary Month Contains Only 29 Days.

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  • In Order To Investigate A Formula For The Epact, Let Us Make E=The True Epact Of The Given Year; J =The Julian Epact, That Is To Say, The Number The Epact Would Have Been If The Julian Year Had Been Still In Use And The Lunar Cycle Had Been Exact;, S =The Correction Depending On The Solar Year; M =The Correction Depending On The Lunar Cycle; Then The Equation Of The Epact Will Be E=J S M; So That E Will Be Known When The Numbers J, S, And M Are Determined.

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  • We Have Therefore S= (C 16) (C 16) 4 With Regard To The Lunar Equation M, We Have Already Stated That In The Gregorian Calendar The Epacts Are Increased By Unity At The End Of Every Period Of 300 Years Seven Times Successively, And Then The Increase Takes Place Once At The End Of 400 Years.

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  • Had The Anticipation Of The New Moons Been Taken, As It Ought To Have Been, At One Day In 308 Years Instead Of 3121, The Lunar Equation Would Have Occurred Only Twelve Times In 3700 Years, Or Eleven Times Successively At The End Of 300 Years, And Then At The End Of 400.

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  • In Those Years In Which The Line Of Epacts Is Changed In The Gregorian Calendar, The Golden Numbers Are Removed To Different Days, And Of Course A New Table Is Required Whenever The Solar Or Lunar Equation Occurs.

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  • The Year Is Luni Solar, And, According As It Is Ordinary Or Embolismic, Consists Of Twelve Or Thirteen Lunar Months, Each Of Which Has 29 Or 30 Days.

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  • The Years Of The Hegira Are Purely Lunar, And Always Consist Of Twelve Lunar Months, Commencing With The Approximate New Moon, Without Any Intercalation To Keep Them To The Same Season With Respect To The Sun, So That They Retrograde Through All The Seasons In About 321 Years.

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  • But his fame rests chiefly on his lunar tables, communicated in 1752, with new solar tables, to the Royal Society of Gottingen, and published in their Transactions (vol.

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  • Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.

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  • The humerus often has a foramen (entepicondylar) on the inner side of its lower end; the tibia and fibula may be separate or united; but the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus are also united, while the centrale is free.

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  • In the carpus the scaphoid and lunar bones are united.

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  • In the carpus the scaphoid and lunar are welded, but the centrale remains distinct.

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  • In the Bathyergoidea the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus are separate, the tibia and fibula united and the clavicles normal.

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  • The tibia and fibula are separate, but the scaphoid and lunar are united, and the clavicles are generally incomplete.

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  • Pickering, Lunar and Hawaiian Physical Features compared (1906); C. H.

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  • As clerk (1795) and then as supercargo (1796, 1798, 1799) he made four long voyages; and, being an excellent navigator, he afterwards (1802) commanded a vessel, instructing his crews in lunar and other observations.

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  • The phenomenon of a solar (or lunar) halo as seen from the earth is represented in fig.

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  • He made the lunar month consist of 291 days, the lunar year of 354, and the solar year of 365; days.

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  • It contains a large number of interesting monuments, including a brass with the date 873 (supposed to mark the restingplace of King !Ethelred I.), a lunar orrery of the 14th century and an octagonal Norman font of Purbeck marble.

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  • Lunar and other Periods.

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  • - The action of moonlight necessarily gives rise to a true lunar period in the visibility of aurora.

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  • Ekholm and Arrhenius(11) claim to have established the existence of a true tropical lunar period of 27.32 days, and also of a 26-day period, or, as they make it, a 25.9 2 9 -day period.

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  • His consort was sometimes called Amaune (feminine of Amun), but more usually mother ": she was human-headed, wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, and their son was Khons (Chon or Chons), a lunar god, represented as a youth wearing the crescent and disk of the moon.

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  • Further, the Greeks themselves, who were always ready to identify Artemis with the moon, do not seem to have recognized any lunar connexion in Hera.

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  • Following the order of the lunar year, the next festival is that of the Return of the Pilgrims, which is the occasion of great rejoicing, many having friends or relatives in the caravan.

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  • for a lunar month under the chief priest or prophet.

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  • It was thus an effective compromise between the solar year and the lunar month, and contrasts very favorably with the intricate and clumsy years of other ancient systems. The leap-year of the Julian and Gregorian calendars confers the immense benefit of a fixed correspondence to the seasons which the Egyptian year did not possess, but the uniform length of the Egyptian months is enviable even now.

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  • Lunar months were observed in the regulation of temples, and lunar years, &c., have been.

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  • Society on the constant of lunar parallax.

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  • Days are distinguished as solar, sidereal or lunar, according as the revolution is taken relatively to the sun, the stars or the moon.

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  • He now fixed his residence at Islington, engaged chiefly upon lunar observations, with a view to the great desideratum of a method of finding the longitude at sea.

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  • In Sanskrit, it would be called " Bharata-varsha," from Bharata, a legendary monarch of the Lunar line; but Sanskrit is no more the vernacular of India than Latin is of Europe.

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  • and very delicate planetary or lunar details.

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  • Besides the chief deities and their consorts, various minor ones, representing likewise patron gods of less important localities and in most cases of a solar character were added at one time or the other to the court of Marduk, though there is also to be noted a tendency on the part of the chief solar deity, Shamash of Sippara, and for the chief moon-god to absorb the solar and lunar deities of ]ess important sites, leading in the case of the solar gods to the differentiation of the functions of Shamash during the various seasons of the year and the various times of the day among these minor deities.

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  • In a lunar eclipse, on the other hand, the earth is the shadow-casting body, and the moon is the screen, and we observe things according to our first point of view.

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  • Among these are papers on The Recurrence of Solar Eclipses, A Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory, Development of the Perturbative Function and its Derivatives.

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  • Five days later he would have entered the fiftieth (lunar)

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  • As the most uncompromising 5Ufis appear the greatest pantheistic writer of all ages, Jelal ud-din Rumi (1207-1273; 604672 Au.; see RUM!), and his scarcely less renowned predecessor Farid ud-din Aflar, who was slain by the Moguls at the age of 114 lunar years in 1230 (627 A.H.).

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  • In strong contrast to these advanced 5ufls stands the greatest moral teacher of Persia, Sheikh SadI of Shirz (died about i,c lunar years old in 1292; 691 AlL; see SAD!), whose two best known works are the Bstan, or Fruit-garden, and the Gulislo.n, or Rose-garden.

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  • The alchemists named it Luna or Diana, and denoted it by the crescent moon; the first name has survived in lunar caustic, silver nitrate.

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  • It fuses at 218°; and when cast in quill-like moulds, it constitutes the lunar caustic of medicine, principally used as a cauterizing agent.

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  • (r) Argenti nitras (United States and British pharmacopoeia), lunar caustic, incompatible with alkalis, chlorides, acids, except nitric and acetic, potassium iodide and arsenical solutions.

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  • 8, 9), and in the Homilies she is mystically .connected with the lunar month (Hom.

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  • Such substances are silver nitrate (lunar caustic), the caustic alkalis (potassium and sodium hydrates), zinc chloride, an acid solution of mercuric nitrate, and pure carbolic acid.

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  • Farnell, who regards Artemis as originally an earth-goddess, while recognizing a "genuine lunar element" in Hecate from the 5th century, considers her a chthonian rather than a lunar divinity (see also Warr in Classical Review, ix.

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  • The lunar theory connects it with the disappearance of the moon at the time of change or during an eclipse.

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  • It is suggested that this is due to the fact that, at the time of the adoption of the oriental goddess, the Greeks already possessed lunar divinities in Hecate, Selene, Artemis.

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  • It has been explained by reference to the lunar character of the goddess, but more probably signifies " she whose seat is in heaven," whence she exercises her sway over the whole world - earth, sea, and air alike.

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  • It derived its name, according to the etymology of the Pundits, from a prince of the Mahabharata, to whose portion it fell on the primitive partition of the country among the Lunar race of Delhi.

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  • The chief term in the lunar longitude which introduces the ratio of the distances of the sun and moon from the earth explicitly is known as the parallactic inequality; by analysis of the observations P. H.

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  • Brown's lunar theory would imply a parallax 8.778".

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  • Instead of confining himself, as before, to the fruitless integration of three differential equations of the second degree, which are furnished by mathematical principles, he reduced them to the three co-ordinates which determine the place of the moon; and he divided into classes all the inequalities of that planet, as far as they depend either on the elongation of the sun and moon, or upon the eccentricity, or the parallax, or the inclination of the lunar orbit.

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  • The treatise on "Mechanics" in Lardner's Cyclopaedia was partly written by him; and his interest in more purely astronomical questions was evidenced by two communications to the Astronomical Society's Memoirs for 1831-1833 - the one on an observation of Saturn's outer ring, the other on a method of determining longitude by means of lunar eclipses.

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  • The system of intercalation in the lunar calendar of the heathen Arabs was designed to secure that the feast should always fall at the time when the hides, fruits and other merchandise were ready for market, 4 and the Meccans, who knew how to attract the Bedouins by hospitality, bought up these wares in exchange for imported goods, and so became the leaders of the international trade of Arabia.

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  • I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece, so much to your own and the nation's credit, but rather, after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies, that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success, and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory, which will be of prodigious use in navigation, as well as of profound and public speculation..

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  • the lunar theory would, if its creator did not overrate his own powers, have been completely investigated, so far as he could do it, in the first few months of 1695, and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval."

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  • The grateful Byzantines erected a statue to "torch-bearing" Hecate, and adopted the lunar crescent as the badge of the city.

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  • Hill of Washington expounded a new and beautiful method for dealing with the problem of the lunar motions, Adams briefly announced his own unpublished work in the same field, which, following a parallel course had confirmed and supplemented Hill's.

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  • The first volume contains his previously published writings; the second those left in manuscript, including the substance of his lectures on the Lunar Theory.

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  • Sir Isaac Newton, who depended for the perfecting of his lunar theory upon "places of the moon" reluctantly doled out from Greenwich, led the movement for immediate communication; whence arose much ill-feeling between him and Flamsteed.

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  • They were, on the other hand, probably acquainted, a couple of millenniums before Meton gave it his name, with the nineteen-year cycle, by which solar and lunar years were harmonized; 1 they immemorially made observations in the meridian; regulated time by water-clocks, and used measuring instruments of the nature of armillary spheres and quadrants.

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  • In the Ephemerides published year by year, the times of new moon were given, together with the calculated intervals to the first visibility of the crescent, from which the beginning of each month was reckoned; the dates and circumstances of solar and lunar eclipses were predicted; and due information was supplied as to the forthcoming heliacal risings and settings, conjunctions and oppositions of the planets.

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  • Kugler 7 that the various periods underlying their lunar predictions were identical with those heretofore believed to have been independently arrived at by Hipparchus, who accordingly must be held to have borrowed from Chaldaea the lengths of the synodic, sidereal, anomalistic and draconitic months.

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  • Aristarchus of Samos observed at Alexandria 280-264 B.C. His treatise on the magnitudes and distances of the sun and moon, edited by John Wallis in 1688, describes a theoretically valid method for determining the relative distances of the sun and moon by measuring the angle between their centres when half the lunar disk is illuminated; but the time of dichotomy being widely indeterminate, no useful result was thus obtainable.

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  • He compiled the Hakimite Tables of the planets, and observed at Cairo, in 977 and 978, two solar eclipses which, as being the first recorded with scientific accuracy, 4 were made available in fixing the amount of lunar acceleration.

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  • Yet his rationale of the tides in De Motibus Stellae is not only memorable as an astonishing forecast of the principle of reciprocal attraction in the proportion of mass, but for its bold extension to the earth of the lunar sphere of influence.

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  • Gravitation was thus shown to be the sole influence governing the movements of planets and satellites; the figure of the rotating earth was successfully explained by its action on the minuter particles of matter; tides and the precession of the equinoxes proved amenable to reasonings based on the same principle; and it satisfactorily accounted as well for some of the chief lunar and planetary inequalities.

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  • The first of the outstanding gravitational problems with which they grappled was the unaccountably rapid advance of the lunar perigee.

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  • The subject of the lunar librations was treated by Lagrange w i th great originality in an essay crowned by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1764; and he filled up the lacunae in his theory of them in a memoir communicated to the Berlin Academy in 1780.

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  • The lunar acceleration, too, obtains ultimate compensation, though only after a vastly protracted term of years.

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  • Poisson's application to them in 1809 of Lagrange's theory of the variation of constants; Philippe de Pontecoulant successfully used in 1829, for the prediction of the impending return of Halley's comet, a system of " mechanical quadratures " published by Lagrange in the Berlin Memoirs for 1778; and in his Theorie analytique du systeme du monde (1846) he modified and refined general theories of the lunar and planetary revolutions.

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  • He, nevertheless, used telescopes to good purpose in his studies of lunar topography, and his designations for the chief mountainchains and " seas " of the moon have never been superseded.

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  • And this kind of interaction has gone on ever since Flamsteed reluctantly furnished the " places of the moon," which enabled Newton to lay the foundations of lunar theory.

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  • He executed besides a chart and forty drawings of the moon (published at Göttingen in 1881), and calculated lunar tables from a skilful development of Euler's theory, for which a reward of boo() was in 1765 paid to his widow by the British government.

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  • Hansen's announcement of its incompatibility with lunar theory.

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  • Conceiving the line NN' to be that of the nodes at any time, and the earth and lunar orbit to be moving in the direction of the straight arrows, the earth will be on one side of the ecliptic from M2 to M5, and on the other side from M6 to M 1, intersecting it at the nodes.

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  • This excess is, however, subject to wide variation, owing to the obliquity of the ecliptic and of the lunar orbit to the equator, and therefore to the horizon.

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  • The other side of the moon is therefore invisible from the earth, but in consequence of the libration about six-tenths of the lunar surface may be seen at one time or another, while the remaining four-tenths are for ever hidden from our view.

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  • This shows that the side of the moon presented to us is held in position as it were by the earth, from which it also follows that the lunar globe is more or less elliptical, the longer axis being directed toward the earth.

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  • One is the existence of dark and bright regions, irregular in form, on its surface; the other is the complete illumination of the lunar disk when seen as a crescent, a faint light revealing the dark hemisphere.

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  • To an observer on the moon our earth would present a surface more than ten times as large as the moon presents to us, consequently this earth-light is more than ten times brighter than our moonlight, thus enabling the lunar surface to be seen by us.

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  • The work of drawing up a detailed description of the lunar surface, and laying its features down on maps, has from time to time occupied telescopic observers.

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  • Schrdter of Lilienthal produced another profusely illustrated description of lunar topography.

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  • Bond at the Harvard observatory, De la Rue in England, and Rutherford in New York, produced lunar photographs of remarkable accuracy and beauty.

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  • The height of the lunar mountains is a subject of interest.

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  • The general trend of lunar investigation has been against the view that there is any resemblance between the surfaces of the moon and of the earth, except in the general features already mentioned.

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  • This result was traced by Z011ner to the general irregularity of the lunar surface, and the inference was drawn that the average slope of the lunar elevation amounts to 47°.

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  • The period of revolution, or the lunar month, depends upon the point to which the revolution is referred.

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  • I° 30' 11 3" The Lunar Theory.

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  • This Hipparchus was enabled to do by lunar eclipses.

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  • During a lunar eclipse we always have D =180°, very nearly, and 2D=360°.

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  • We may conclude the ancient history of the lunar theory by saying that the only real progress from Hipparchus to Newton consisted in the more exact determination of the mean motions of the moon, its perigee and its line of nodes, and in the discovery of three inequalities, the representation of which required geometrical constructions increasing in complexity with every step.

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  • The modern lunar theory began with Newton, and consists in determining the motion of the moon deductively from the theory of gravitation.

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  • But the great founder of celestial mechanics employed a geometrical method, ill-adapted to lead to the desired result; and hence his efforts to construct a lunar theory are of more interest as illustrations of his wonderful power and correctness in mathematical reasoning than as germs of new methods of research.

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  • During the twenty years following he devoted a large part of his energies to the numerical computation of the lunar inequalities, the redetermination of the elements of motion, and the preparation of new tables for computing the moon's position.

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  • Thus a new branch of the lunar theory was suggested - the determination by theory of the effect of planetary action.

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  • It was therefore surprising when, in 1877, Simon Newcomb found, by a study of the lunar eclipses handed down by Ptolemy and those observed by the Arabians - data much more reliable than the vague accounts of ancient solar eclipses - that the actual apparent acceleration was only about 8.3".

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  • On the subject of lunar geology, see N.

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  • Brown, Introductory Treatise on the Lunar Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1896); Hansen, Tables de la lune (London, 1857) (Admiralty publication); W.

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  • Newcomb, " Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory," Ast.

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  • His first recorded observation was made before he was sixteen, and the presentation of an elaborate lunar map procured for him admission to the Academy, on the 21st of April 1736, at the early age of twenty.

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  • Euler in his prize essay of 1748; a series of lunar observations extending over fifty years; some interesting researches in terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, in the latter of which he detected a regular diurnal period; and the determination of the places of a great number of stars, including twelve separate observations of Uranus, between 1765 and its discovery as a planet.

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  • Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the observation of io,000 southern stars.

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  • of his Ephemerides (1755) practical rules for the employment of the lunar method of longitudes, proposing in his additions to Pierre Bouguer's Traite de Navigation (1760) the model of a nautical almanac.

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  • µ7v, &c., in other branches of the Indo-Germanic family; all ultimately from the root seen in the word for the moon in nearly all those languages), originally the period between two returns of the new moon; generally called a lunar and sometimes a synodic or illuminative month.

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  • (For the calendar months see Calendar.) In law a month may mean either a lunar month, that is, a period of twenty-eight days, or a calendar month.

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  • At common law, "month" generally means a lunar month, although in mercantile matters it has been generally understood to mean a calendar month, but there is no general exception giving it that meaning in commercial documents.

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  • In acts of parliament passed before the year 1850 month, unless otherwise specially interpreted, means lunar month, but in all acts passed since that date, month, unless words be added showing that lunar month was intended, means calendar month (Interpretation Act 1889, s.

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  • Solar and Lunar Myths.

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  • Solar and lunar myths usually account for the observed phenomena of eclipse, waning and waxing, sunset, spots on the moon, and so forth by various mythical adventures of the animated heavenly beings.

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  • See Cornhill Magazine, " How the Stars got their Names " (1882, p. 35), and " Some Solar and Lunar Myths " (1882, P. 440); Max Muller, Selected Essays, i.

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  • The imagined existence of mountains - called Kong in the west and Komri (Lunar) in the east - stretching in a high and unbroken chain across Africa about 10° N.

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  • In 1838 he published a revision of the lunar theory, entitled Fundamenta nova investigationis, &c., and the improved Tables of the Moon based upon it were printed in 1857, at the expense of the British government, their merit being further recognized by a grant of 1000, and by their immediate adoption in the Nautical Almanac, and other Ephemerides.

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  • A theoretical discussion of the disturbances embodied in them (still familiarly known to lunar experts as the Darlegung) appeared in the Abhandlungen of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in 1862-1864.

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  • He communicated to that society in 1847 an able paper on a long-period lunar inequality (Memoirs Roy.

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  • Encke's result having been rendered evident through his investigation of a lunar inequality.

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  • The three bones of the first row of the carpus (scaphoid, lunar and cuneiform) are subequal in size.

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  • Damascus occupies an important commercial position, being the market for the whole of the desert; it also is of great importance religiously, as being the startingpoint for the Hajj pilgrimage from Syria to Mecca, which leaves on the 15th of the lunar month of Shawwal each year.

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  • You take the part of a mercenary pilot hired to quash a robotic rebellion on a lunar mining colony.

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  • El Morso and I did the first, I believe, deuterium/hydrogen analysis of the lunar regolith, in 1994.

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  • They bounced around, they drove lunar rovers, They climbed up hills and rolled over and over.

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  • For example, explain to me how they could fake the dust off the wheels of the lunar rover.

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  • When thin clouds scud across a bright moon it is often surrounded by a bright disk and faint colored rings, a lunar corona.

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  • The key stones are aligned with major major solar and lunar events including Solstices and Equinoxes.

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  • Measurements of the stones also indicated possible lunar and solstice alignments.

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  • The following is a diagram showing a major and minor lunar standstill of the Full Moon.

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  • In 2005 and 2006 we are in a major lunar standstill season.

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  • In July 2004, Lunar was granted access to the final tranche of funding to complete the Prototype design.

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  • In a partial lunar eclipse, it partly enters the umbra and only part of its surface is darkened.

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  • The appearance of the Hale Bopp and Halley 's comets, followed by solar and lunar eclipses, caused an upsurge in popular astronomy.

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  • This causes the ventricles to contract forcing the blood to leave via the semi lunar valves to the arteries.

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  • A lunar filter is good if you like to look at the moon.

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  • The following games are ready for you to play: Adventure, Asteroids (and the Deluxe version), Battlezone, Crystal Castles, Gravitar, Lunar Lander, and Yars' Revenge.

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  • Lunar necklaces also were popular in the 1970s.

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  • You could, however, go for a pair with interchangeable lenses like the Wiley X SG-1, but the only colorful part here is the pair of Blue Lunar lenses].

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  • Lunar Junction: this metal framed collection focuses more on a sophisticated look.

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  • Samsung Gravity SMART comes in cool colors such as Berry Red, Sapphire Blue, and Lunar Gray.

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  • A full-term pregnancy is considered to be 280 days, nine calendar months or ten lunar months calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period.

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  • Among the many old wives' tales and legends, proponents consider the Chinese Lunar pregnancy calendar to be one of the more accurate means of unscientific sex prediction.

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  • The numbers down the left side of the chart represents the mother's lunar age at the time she conceived.

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  • The months across the top of the chart represent the lunar month when the mother conceived.

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