Lubeck sentence example
He died after a protracted illness at Israelsdorf, near Lubeck, on the 21st of May 1894.
Stralsund entertains passengerboat communications with Barth, Stettin, Rostock and Lubeck as well as with various small ports on the isle of Riigen.
It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.
In 1528 he arranged the church affairs of Brunswick and Hamburg; in 1530 those of Lubeck and Pomerania.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.Advertisement
Thus the three bishoprics of Lubeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin, which hitherto had been fief of the Reich, now passed under Danish suzerainty.
Lubeck was a peculiarly valuable possession.
Only through Lubeck, moreover, could supplies and reinforcements be poured into the German military colonies in Livonia.
By closing Lubeck Valdemar had German trade and the German over-seas settlements entirely at his mercy.
Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.Advertisement
The towns possessed the rights of Magdeburg, or (like Elbing) those of Lubeck; the most important of them soon came to join the Hanseatic League.
In 1250 it received a town constitution and Lubeck rights from Duke Wratislaw of Pomerania.
In 1270 it joined the Hanse towns, Stralsund, Rostock, Wismar and Lubeck, and took part in the wars which they carried on against the kings of Denmark and Norway.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.Advertisement
Yet as systematists their authors were no worse than Klein, whose Historiae Avium Prodromus, appearing at Lubeck in 1750, and Stemmata Avium at Leipzig in 1759, met with considerable favour in some quarters.
Even the free cities were divided, Hamburg and Lubeck for, Bremen and Frankfort against.
Those in the Rudimentum novitiarum published at Lubeck in 1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates.
The troops had got much mixed up, but as the French did not immediately press the pursuit home, order was soon re-established and a combined retreat was begun towards the mouth of the Elbe and Lubeck.
Only Blucher now remained in the field, and he too was driven at length into Lubeck with his back to the sea.Advertisement
The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.
Craft gilds were already in existence, but these had no share in the government; for, though the Lubeck rule excluding craftsmen from the Rath did not obtain, they were excluded in practice.
The counts, of course, as over-lords, had their Vogt (advocatus) in the town, but this official, as the city grew in power, became subordinate to the Rath, as at Lubeck.
The defensive alliance of the city with Lubeck in 1241, extended for other purpose by the treaty of 1255, practically laid the foundations of the Hanseatic League, of which Hamburg continued to be one of the principal members.
He was educated at the Lubeck gymnasium and the university of Kiel, with which he was connected for nearly 65 years.Advertisement
In 1900 Lubeck was put into direct communication with the Elbe at Lauenburg by the opening of the Elbe-Trave Canal, 42 m.
It is thus able to accommodate vessels up to Boo tons burden; and the passage from Lubeck to Lauenburg occupies 18 to 21 hours.
Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
His brother, Georg Curtius (1820-1885), philologist, was born at Lubeck on the 16th of April 1820.
It received civic rights in 1275, belonged to Lubeck and Hamburg conjointly from 1420 to 1868, and in the latter year was purchased by Hamburg.Advertisement
The town, which obtained civic rights in 1200, also became the seat of the dukes of Schleswig, but its commerce gradually dwindled owing to the rivalry of Lubeck, the numerous wars in which the district was involved, and the silting up of the Schlei.
His father sent him in his sixteenth year to the gymnasium at Lubeck, where he became so much interested in ancient languages that he abandoned his idea of a legal career and resolved to devote himself to the study of theology.
In 1241 we find Lubeck and Hamburg agreeing to safeguard the important road connecting the Baltic and the North Sea.
The first known meeting of the "maritime towns," later known as the Wendish group and including Lubeck, Hamburg, Luneburg, Wismar, Rostock and Stralsund, took place in 1256.
According to the "Skra," the by-laws of the Novgorod branch, the four aldermen of the community of Germans, who among other duties held the keys of the common chest, deposited in Wisby, were to be chosen from the merchants of the Gothland association and of the towns of Lubeck, Soest and Dortmund.Advertisement
But with the extension of the East and West trade beyond the confines of the Baltic, this association by the end of the century was losing its position of leadership. Its inheritance passed to the gradually forming union of towns, chiefly those known as Wendish, which looked to Lubeck as their head.
In 1293 the Saxon and Wendish merchants at Rostock decided that all appeals from Novgorod be taken to Lubeck instead of to Wisby, and six years later the Wendish and Westphalian towns, meeting at Lubeck, ordered that the Gothland association should no longer use a common seal.
Though Lubeck's right as court of appeal from the Hanseatic counter at Novgorod was not recognized by the general assembly of the League until 1373, the long-existing practice had simply accorded with the actual shifting of commercial power.
A similar and contemporary extension of the influence of the Baltic traders under Lubeck's leadership may be witnessed in the West.
In 1266 and 1267 the merchants of Hamburg and Lubeck received from Henry III.Advertisement
Lubeck and Hamburg, however, dominated the German trade in the ports of the east coast, notably in Lynn and Boston, while they were strong in the organized trading settlements at York, Hull, Ipswich, Norwich, Yarmouth and Bristol.
In 1252 the first treaty privileges for German trade in Flanders show two men of Lubeck and Hamburg heading the "Merchants of the Roman Empire," and in the later organization of the counter at Bruges four or five of the six aldermen were chosen from towns east of the Elbe, with Lubeck steadily predominant.
It had come to depend largely upon the Germans for the importation of all its luxuries and of many of its necessities, as well as for the exportation of its products, but regular trade with the three kingdoms was confined for the most part to the Wendish towns, with Lubeck steadily asserting an exclusive ascendancy.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
Unsuccessful in obtaining redress from the English government, the German merchants finally, in 1374, appealed for aid to the home towns, especially to Lubeck.Advertisement
Under the pressure of commercial and political necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity had become such that in 1380 a Lubeck official could declare that "whatever touches one town touches all."
The governing body of the Hansa was the assembly of town representatives, the "Hansetage," held irregularly as occasion required at the summons of Lubeck, and, with few exceptions, attended but scantily.
It had no common seal, though that of Lubeck was accepted, particularly by foreigners, in behalf of the League.
Lubeck, with the counters abroad, watched over the execution of the measures voted by the assembly, but there was no regular administrative mi.
Since the authority of the League rested primarily on the moral support of its members, allied in common trade interests and acquiescing in the able leadership of Lubeck, its only means of compulsion was the "Verhansung," or exclusion of a recalcitrant town from the benefits of the trade privileges of the League.Advertisement
Always a place of great trading importance, long the place of election for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres of the German empire.
His father was Christian Augustus (1673-1726), duke of Schleswig-HolsteinGottorp, bishop of Lubeck, and administrator, during the war of 1700-1721, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his nephew Charles Frederick; his mother was Albertina Frederica of BadenDurlach.
From 1727 to 1750 he was bishop of Lubeck, and administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of Duke Charles Peter Ulrich, afterwards Peter III.
He obtained a situation at Lubeck, where he had leisure to cultivate his natural taste for drawing and poetry.
Its lower course from Lubeck to the sea has been dredged to a depth of 25 ft., permitting sea-going vessels to lie alongside the wharves and quays.
He was apparently much in East Friesland till 1541; in North Holland, with Amsterdam as centre, from 1541 to 1543; again till '545 in East Friesland (where he held a disputation at Emden with John a Lasco in January 1 544); till 1547 in South Holland; next, about Lubeck; at Wismar in1553-1554(he held two disputations with Martin Micronius at Norden in February 1 554); lastly at Wustenfelde, a village near Oldesloo, between Hamburg and Lubeck, where he died on the 13th of January 1 559.
He also built Stockholm, and enriched it by making it the chief mart for the trade of Lubeck, with which city he concluded a commercial treaty.
The Germans first penetrated into Livonia in the 11th century, and in 1158 several Lubeck and Visby merchants landed at the mouth of the Dvina.
Adolph II., count of Holstein, was compelled to cede Lubeck to him in 1158; campaigns in 1163 and 1164 beat down further resistance of the Abotrites; and Saxon garrisons were established in the conquered lands.
He found many allies, took Lubeck, and soon almost the whole of Saxony was in his power.
He planted Flemish and Dutch settlers in the land between the Elbe and the Oder, fostered the growth and trade of Lubeck, and in other ways encouraged trade and agriculture.
In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.
The conquest of Gotland at once led to a war between Valdemar and Sweden allied with the Hanseatic towns; but in the spring of 1362 Valdemar repulsed from the fortress of Helsingborg a large Hanseatic fleet provided with "shooting engines" (cannon) and commanded by Johan Wittenburg, the burgomaster of Lubeck.
He also settled some religious disputes in the town of Lubeck.
Our Lady's church, built in the 13th century and restored in1851-1852and again in 1864, contains a carved altarpiece (r6th century) by Claus Berg of Lubeck.
Thus the possession of a superior sea-power enabled Denmark to tide over her worst difficulties, and in May 162 9 Christian was able to conclude peace with the emperor at Lubeck, without any diminution of territory.
Grotius also persuaded seven law students of Lubeck to go to the East as missionaries; the best known of them was Peter Heiling, who worked for 20 years in Abyssinia.
The prosperity of Copenhagen was checked by an attack by the people of Lubeck in 1248, and by another on the part of Prince Jaromir of Riigen in 1259.
He was detained for twelve months in the island fortress of Kalb, on the east coast of Jutland, but contrived to escape to Lubeck in September 1519.
We can form some idea of his difficulties when we learn that, in 1533, he could not send an ambassador to Lubeck because not a single man in his council, except himself, knew German.
It was through his initiative, too, that the convention of KlosterSeven was signed (loth of September 1757), and on the 4th of May 1758 he concluded a still more promising treaty with France, whereby, in consideration of Denmark's holding an army-corps of 24,000 men in Holstein till the end of the war, to secure Hamburg, Lubeck and the Gottorp part of Holstein from invasion, France, and ultimately Austria also, engaged to bring about an exchange between the king of Denmark and the cesarevitch, as regards Holstein.
With the exception of those on the east coast of Schleswig-Holstein, all the important trading ports of Germany are river ports, such as Emden,Bremen, Hamburg, LUbeck, Stettin, Danzig, Konigsberg, Memel.
Long narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of LUbeck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brusterort.
The increase of population during 1895 1900 was greatest in Hamburg, Bremen, LUbeck, Saxony, Prussia and Baden, and least in Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Wakieck.
Since 1868 all German ships have carried a common flagblack, white, red; but formerly Oldenburg, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, LUbeck, Mecklenburg and Prussia had each its own flag, and Schleswig-Holstein vessels sailed under the Danish flag.
The Baltic ports, such as Lubeck, Stettin, Danzig (Neufahrwasser) and Konigsberg, principally provide communication with the coast towns of the adjacent countries, Russia and Sweden.
Great importance was also acquired by the Hanseatic League, which had originated during the interregnum in a treaty of alliance between Lubeck and Hamburg.
After a struggle, the Anabaptists obtained control of Mnster and for a short time governed the town in accordance with their own peculiar ideas, while at LUbeck, under the burgomaster Jurgen Wullenweber, a democratic government was also established.
Denmark, however, was compelled to conclude peace at LUbeck in May 1629.
For the rest the sovereigns of Wflrttemberg and Saxony retained the title of king bestowed upon them by Napoleon, and this title was also given to the elector of Hanover; the dukes of Weimar, Mecklenburg and Oldenburg became grand dukes; and LUbeck, Bremen, Hamburg and Frankfort were declared free cities.
In addition to this, however, a large number of smaller works were undertaken, such as the canalization of the Main from Frankfort to the Rhine; and a new canal from the Elbe to LUbeck.
The town, which was the seat of the bishops of Ermeland from 1255 to 1298, was granted the law of Lubeck " by its bishop in 1284, and admitted to the Hanseatic League.
Soon after returning under the protection of Mecklenburg in the 14th century it joined the Hanseatic League; and was one of the original members of the powerful Wendish Hansa, in which it exercised an influence second only to that of Lubeck.
Moreover, this defeat led to a successful rebellion in Sweden, and a long and ruinous war with Lubeck, terminated by the peace of Malmo, 151 2.
The inevitable ecclesiastical crisis was still further postponed by the superior stress of two urgent political events - Christian II.'s invasion of Norway (1531) and the outbreak, in 1533, of " Grevens fejde," or " The Count's War " (1534-36), The the count in question being Christopher of Oldenburg, count's great-nephew of King Christian I., whom Lubeck and War, her allies, on the death of Frederick I., raised up 1533= against Frederick's son Christian III.
The first edition of a Danish Reineke Fuchs, by Herman Weigere, appeared at Lubeck in 1555, and the first authorized Psalter in 1559.
About the same time Lubeck and Bremen merchants settled there, and their settlement became an important seaport of the Hanseatic League.
The peninsula (Chersonese or Cimbric peninsula of ancient geography) extends northward, from a line between Lubeck and the mouth of the Elbe, for 270 m.
Holm, Das alte Catania (Lubeck, 1873).
The principality of Lubeck, lying north of the state, is a constituent of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg.
It consists of the city of Lubeck, the town of Travemiinde, 49 villages and the country districts, embraces 115 sq.
Trade is centred in the city of Lubeck.
Lubeck has a court of first instance (Amtsgericht) and a high court of justice (Landgericht); from the latter appeals lie to the Hanseatic court of appeal (Oberlandesgericht) at Hamburg, and from this again to the supreme court of the empire (Reichsgericht) in Leipzig.
Lubeck has one vote in the federal council (Bundesrat) of the German Empire, and sends one representative to the imperial parliament (Reichstag).
The poet, Emanuel Geibel (1889), and the painter, Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869), were natives of Lubeck.
Old Lubeck stood on the left bank of the Trave, where it is joined by the river Schwartau, and was destroyed in 1138.
About 1157 Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, forced his vassal, the count of Holstein, to give up Lubeck to him; and in 1163 he removed thither the episcopal see of Oldenburg (Stargard), founding at the same time the dioceses of Ratzeburg and Schwerin.
Under these circumstances the population grew rapidly in wealth and influence by land and sea, so that, when Henry was attainted by the emperor, Frederick I., who came in person to besiege Lubeck in 1181, this potentate,"in consideration of its revenues and its situation on the frontier of the Empire," fixed by charter, dated the 19th of September 1188, the limits, and enlarged the liberties, of the free town.
In the year 1201 Lubeck was conquered by Waldemar II.
Emigrants founded new cities and new sees of Low German speech among alien and pagan races; and thus in the course of a century the commerce of Lubeck had supplanted that of Westphalia.
In connexion with the Germans at Visby, the capital of Gotland, and at Riga, where they had a house from 1231, the people of Lubeck with their armed vessels scoured the sea between the Trave and the Neva.
Before the close of the century the statutes of Lubeck were adopted by most Baltic towns having a German population, and Visby protested in vain against the city on the Trave having become the court of appeal for nearly all these cities, and even for the German settlement in Russian Novgorod.
From about 1299 Lubeck presided over a league of cities, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald and some smaller ones, and this Hansa of towns became heir to a Hansa of traders simultaneously on the eastern and the western sea, after Lubeck and her confederates had been admitted to the same privileges with Cologne, Dortmund and Soest at Bruges and in the steelyards of London, Lynn and Boston.
The union held its own, chiefly along the maritime outskirts of the Empire, rather against the will of king and emperor, but nevertheless Rudolph of Habsburg and several of his successors issued new charters to Lubeck.
As early as 1241 Lubeck, Hamburg and Soest had combined to secure their highways against robber knights.
Though the great federal armament against Waldemar IV., the destroyer of Visby, was decreed by the city representatives assembled at Cologne in 1367, Lubeck was the leading spirit in the war which ended with the surrender of Copenhagen and the peace concluded at Stralsund on the 24th of May 1370.
Still Lubeck, even when nearly isolated, strove to preserve its predominance in a war with Denmark (1501-12), supporting Gustavus Vasa in Sweden, lording it over the north of Europe during the years 1534 and 1535 in the person of Jurgen Wullenweber, the democratic burgomaster, who professed the most advanced principles of the Reformation, and engaging with Sweden in a severe naval war (1536-70).
The last Hanseatic diet met at Lubeck in 1630, shortly after Wallenstein's unsuccessful attack on Stralsund; and from that time merciless sovereign powers stopped free intercourse on all sides.
The often changing masters of Holstein and Lauenburg abstracted much of the valuable landed property of the city and of the chapter of Lubeck.
But in November 1806, when Blucher, retiring from the catastrophe of Jena, had to capitulate in the vicinity of Lubeck, the town was sacked by the French.
The Hanseatic League, however, having never been officially dissolved, Lubeck still enjoyed its traditional connexion with Bremen and Hamburg.
In 1853 they sold their common property, the London Steelyard; until 1866 they enlisted by special contract their military contingents for the German Confederation, and down to 1879 they had their own court of appeal at Lubeck.
Lubeck joined the North German Confederation in 1866, profiting by the retirement from Holstein and Lauenburg of the Danes, whose interference had prevented as long as possible a direct railway between Lubeck and Hamburg.
On the 27th of June 1867 Lubeck concluded a military convention with Prussia, and on the 11th of August 1868 entered the German Customs Union (Zollverein), though reserving to itself certain privileges in respect of its considerable wine trade and commerce with the Baltic ports.
At the peace in 1815, however, only four were spared, namely, Frankfort, Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck, these being practically the only ones still in a sufficiently flourishing and economically independent position to warrant such preferential treatment.
This system was chiefly developed in the colonial east, where most towns were affiliated directly or indirectly either to Lubeck or to Magdeburg; but it was by no means unknown in the home country.
To the new town the Lubeck rights were granted by Adolphus IV.
Only with the pecuniary assistance of the wealthy merchants of Lubeck had he been able to Foreign establish himself originally; and Lubeck, in return, Policy of had exploited Sweden, as Spain at a later day Gustavus.
For the Monumenta Germaniae historica he edited the Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, the Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum of Adam of Bremen and the Chronica Slavorum of Helmold, with its continuation by Arnold of Lubeck.
From 1762 to 1802 it was held by Frederick, duke of York, the last princebishop. Similarly, the bishopric of Schwerin survived as a Protestant prince-bishopric until 1648, when it was finally secularized and annexed to Mecklenburg, and the see of Lubeck was held by Protestant "bishops" from 1530 till its annexation to Oldenburg in 1803.1 In other Protestant communities, e.g.
Kiel is mentioned as a city in the next century; in 1242 it received the Lubeck rights; in the 14th century it acquired various trading privileges, having in 1284 entered the Hanseatic League.
Thus his relations with the Netherlands were strained, while with Lubeck and her allies he was openly at war.
In 1510 it was captured by the Hanseatic League, in 1522 it came under Danish sway, and in 1526 it was made directly subject to the city of Lubeck.
Modern research and criticism have been applied in Die mittelrilterliche Kunst in Palermo, by Anton Springer (Bonn, 1869); Historische Topographie von Panormus, by Julius Schubring (Lubeck, 1870); Studii di stories palermitana, by Adolf Holm (Palermo, 1880).
From Schleswig eastwards to Lubeck Bay the coast is pierced by a number of narrow openings or Fohrden, the result of encroachment of the sea caused by subsidence.
In 1522 it was taken and burnt by Lubeck, but in 1535 was retaken by Christian II.
In 1155 it fell to the bishopric of Lubeck and was often the residence of the prelates of that see.
In Germany two Apostles were burned at Lubeck and Wismar at the beginning of the 15th century (1402-1403) by the inquisitor Eylard.
It lies on the right bank of the Elbe, is bounded by the territories of Hamburg, Lubeck, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the province of Hanover, and comprises an area of 453 sq.
The connecting link between the western and the eastern Baltic was the isle of Gotland, where German merchants from Lubeck had established a depot (the later Visby)_ The fur-trade with the Esthonians and Livonians proved so lucrative that a German colony was planted in Livonia itself at what was afterwards Riga, and in 1201 for its better security the colony was converted into a bishopric. A still firmer footing was gained by the Germans on Livonian soil when Abbot Theoderick of Riga founded the order of the Sword (a foundation confirmed by the pope in 1204), whose duty it was to convert the heathen Esths and Livs and appropriate as much of their land in the process as possible.
On his release Valdemar attempted to retrieve his position by force of arms, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Bornhoved (22nd of July 1227), which deserves a place among the decisive battles of history, for it destroyed at once and for ever the Danish dominion of the Baltic and established the independence of Lubeck, to the immense detriment in the future of all the Scandinavian states.
In the winter of 1190-91 certain pious merchants from Bremen and Lubeck (towns with which the Order was still to be connected in the days of its later history) laid the foundations of a hospital in a vessel which they had drawn ashore.(fn2) Within a few years the foundation apparently became attached to the German Church of St Mary the Virgin at Jerusalem; and in March 1198 (there being present in the Holy Land a number of Germans, the relics of Henry VI.'s projected crusade), the great men of the army and the kingdom raised the brethren of the German Hospital of St Mary to the rank of an order of knights.
He remained, however, in complete ignorance of the degree of preparation attained on the Russian side, and since the seizure of Warsaw together with the control of the resources of Poland in men and material its occupation would afford, was the chief factor in his calculation, he turned at once to the eastward as soon as all further organized resistance in Prussia was ended by the surrender of Prenzlau and Lubeck.
In 1361 representatives from Lubeck and Wisby visited Novgorod to recodify the by-laws of the counter and to admonish it that new statutes required the consent of Lubeck, Wisby, Riga, Dorpat and Reval.
Lubeck, however, supported by the Bruges counter, despite the disaffection and jealousy on all sides hampering and sometimes thwarting its efforts, stood steadfastly for union and the necessity of obedience to the decrees of the assemblies.
By 1477 even Lubeck had become convinced that a continuance of the effort to maintain the compulsory staple against Holland was futile and should be abandoned.
At an assembly of 1629, Lubeck, Bremen and Hamburg were entrusted with the task of safeguarding the general welfare, and after an effort to revive the League in the last general assembly of 1669, these three towns were left alone to preserve the name and small inheritance of the Hansa which in Germany's disunion had upheld the honour of her commerce.
But he was certainly a prudent and circumspect ruler of blameless life, possessing, as Arnold of Lubeck (c. 1160-1212) expresses it, "the sober wisdom of old age even in his tender youth."
The most beautiful form of the chasuble is undoubtedly the " Gothic " (see the figure of Bishop Johannes of Lubeck in the article Vestments), which is the form most affected by the Anglican clergy, as being that worn in the English Church before the Reformation.
The princess of Anhalt-Zerbst was the daughter of Christian Albert, bishop of Lubeck, younger brother of Frederick IV., duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Peter's paternal grandfather.