Lower sentence example

lower
  • She bit her lower lip.

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  • She rubbed a sore spot in her lower back.

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  • Tears burned her eyes and her lower lip trembled.

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  • The pad of his thumb traced across her lower lip.

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  • Only in the lower part of it something quivered.

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  • She gnawed at her lower lip.

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  • How much lower could she sink?

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  • She gnawed on her lower lip.

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  • She nibbled on her lower lip.

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  • She chewed her lower lip, warm eyes troubled.

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  • I shouldn't lower myself to your games.

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  • Warmth ran up her neck and she bit her lower lip.

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  • She nibbled on her lower lip with her tiny fangs.

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  • To keep this a headshot, Xander will need to be lower than last time.

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  • The wages are lower than under the boaria.

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  • She gnawed on her lower lip as she lifted their plates from the table and walked over to the sink.

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  • The memory of what he'd done with his mouth made her lower belly burn.

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  • Silently, he acknowledged that he was a fool to lower his guard around the teens and their cousin, to the point he recognized Ashley the first time he saw her but didn't check her mind.

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  • The scent of oak and amber and his calming presence eased some of her tension while filling her lower belly with fire.

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  • Desire pooled in her lower belly, and the ache at her core was intense enough that she wanted to sit down.

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  • It is intersected from southwest to north-east by the long and handsome KOnigsstrasse, dividing it into an upper and a lower town.

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  • The lower, or south-eastern, part contains both the small group of streets belonging to old Stuttgart, and also the most important part of the new town.

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  • Upper margin of the end of the proboscis developed into a distinct finger-like process, much longer than the lower margins, and the whole trunk uniformly tapering and smooth.

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  • The first rise in the lower Senegal is due to the rains in the source region of the Faleme, the flood water passing down that stream more quickly than down the Bafing owing to its shorter course.

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  • In the rainy season the barriers are submerged in succession, the reaches are filled and the plains of the lower Senegal are changed into immense marshes.

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  • Leo Africanus rightly describes its lower course as "severing by its winding channel the barren and naked soil from the green and fruitful."

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  • On the eastern forested slopes and in the lower valleys tropical conditions prevail.

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  • It next passes Innsbruck and from Hall, a few miles lower down, begins to be navigable for barges.

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  • One of these myths is the famous story of Ishtar's descent to Irkalla or Aralu, as the lower world was called, and her reception by her sister who presides over it; the other is the story of Nergal's offence against Ereshkigal, his banishment to the kingdom controlled by the goddess and the reconciliation between Nergal and Ereshkigal through the latter's offer to have Nergal share the honours of the rule over Irkalla.

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  • Mastodons, like elephants, always have a pair of upper tusks, while the earlier ones likewise have a short pair in the lower jaw, which is prolonged into a snout-like symphysis for their support.

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  • In the former the upper tusks are bent down so as to cross the tips of the short and chisel-like lower pair.

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  • These long-chinned mastodons must have had an extremely elongated muzzle, formed by the upper lip and nose above and the lower lip below, with which they were able to reach the ground, the neck being probably rather longer than in elephants.

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  • Summer Observations On Mountains Have Shown Diurnal Variations Very Large And Fairly Regular, But Widely Different From Those Observed At Lower Levels.

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  • The same observer from four weeks' observations at Hammerfest got the considerably lower mean value 58, with a maximum of 252.

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  • At this station much lower values were found for A with sea breezes than with land breezes.

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  • The judges have appellate jurisdiction of cases civil and criminal coming up from the lower courts.

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  • The general elevation in the south part of the state is much lower, and large areas bordering the Paraguay are swampy, partially submerged plains which the sluggish rivers are unable to drain.

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  • The two ends of the loch are wholly dissimilar in character, the scenery of the upper extremity being majestic, while that of the lower half is pastoral and tame.

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  • The Lohengrin legend is localized on the Lower Rhine, and its incidents take place at Antwerp, Nijmwegen, Cologne and Mainz.

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  • Lower Bavaria was ruled by the descendants of Henry I.

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  • The settlements of Lower Saginaw and Portsmouth were made in 1837, and were later united to form Bay City, which was incorporated as a village in 1859, and chartered as a city in 1865.

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  • The lower districts are hot and often unhealthy in the summer, while the climate of the mountainous portion of the island is less oppressive, and would be still cooler if it possessed more forest.

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  • But the lowness of stature extends to the lower animals - cattle, horses, donkeys, &c. - and this may indicate that climatic causes have some part in the matter also, though Sergi denies this.

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  • This is no doubt accounted for by the extreme poverty which prevails among the lower classes, though beggars, on the other hand, are very few, the convictions being 8.95 per 100,000 against 258.15 per 100,000 for the province of Rome.

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  • On the 21st of August 1715 he summoned all the preachers in the Cevennes and Lower Languedoc to a conference or synod near the village of Monoblet.

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  • The mainland in the north and east is highly mountainous and forest-clad, and the lower portion is cut up into numerous islands by a network of tidal creeks.

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  • Mannheim is the chief commercial town on the upper Rhine, and yields in importance to Cologne alone among the lower Rhenish towns.

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  • In 1862 he was elected a member of the Prussian Lower House.

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  • The name Gheg (Gege-a) is not adopted by the Ghegs themselves, being regarded as a nickname; the designation Tosk (Toske-a) is restricted by the Tosks to the inhabitants of a small region north of the lower Viossa (Toskeria).

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  • These saline basins extend down to the lower terraces of Cordoba, Mendoza and La Pampa.

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  • The lower course of the Desaguadero is known as the Salado because of the .brackish character of its water.

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  • None of the tributaries of the La Plata system thus far mentioned is navigable except the lower Pilcomayo and Bermejo for a few miles.

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  • Other small harbours on the lower Patagonian coast are not prominent, owing to lack of population.

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  • The Lower Tertiary consists largely of reddish sandstones resting upon the old rocks of the Cordillera and of the Sierras.

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  • Towards the east they lie at a lower level; but in the Andes they reach a height of nearly 10,000 ft., and are strongly folded, showing that the elevation of the chain was not completed until after their deposition.

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  • On the lower slopes of the Andes are found oak, beech, cedar, Winter's bark, pine (Araucaria imbricata), laurel and calden (Prosopis algarobilla).

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  • Forty years were now to elapse before any further efforts were made by the Spaniards to colonize any part of the territory of the river Plate and lower Parana.

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  • The Am, the, Sane (which rises in the Faucilles and in the lower part of its course skirting the regions of Bresse and Dombes, receives the Doubs and joins the Rhone at Lyons), the Ardche and the Gard are the affluents on the right; on the left it is joined by the Arve, the Isre, the Drme and the Durance.

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  • In the lower part of its course, from the Bec-dAnibez, where it receives the Dordogne, it becomes considerably wider, and takes the name of Gironde.

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  • The Roman priests are drawn from the seminaries, established by the church for the education of young men intending to join its ranks, and divided into lower and higher seminaries (grands et petits sminaires), the latter giving the same class of instruction as the tyces.

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  • For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.

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  • Colsa, grown chiefly in the lower basin of the Seine (SeineInfrieure and Eure), is the most important of the oil-producing plants, all of which show a diminishing acreage.

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  • The lower valley of the Loire, including Touraine and Anjou, and the district of Saumur.

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  • The hilly regions of Limousin, Prigord and the Cvennes are the home of the chestnut, which in some places is still a staple food; walnuts grow on the lower levels of the central plateau and in lower Dauphin and Provence, figs and almonds in Provence, oranges and citrons on the Mediterranean coast, apricots in central France, the olive in Provcnce and the lower valleys of the Rhneand Durancc. Truffles arc found under Silk Cocoons.

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  • The plain of Toulouse, which with the rest of south-western France produces good draught oxen, the Parisian basin, the plains of the north to the east of the maritime region, the lower valley of the Rhflne and tile Bresse, where there is little or no natural pasturage, and forage is grown from seed.

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  • Its function is to examine criminal cases and to decide whether they shall be referred for trial to the lower courts or the cours dassises.

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  • The municipality has to pay the Cost of building, furnishing and upkeep. At the head of the lyce is the principal (proviseur), an official nominated by the minister, and assisted by a teaching staff of professors and charges de cours or teachers of somewhat lower standing.

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  • It formerly joined the Kura; but in 1897 it changed its lower course, and now runs direct to the Kizil-agach Bay of the Caspian.

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  • From July to November the clouds hang low on the mountains, and give moisture to the upper zone, while the climate of the lower is dry.

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  • Rain in the lower zone is scanty, and from May to January does not occur.

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  • There are museums of mineralogy and geology, a lower school of mining, model room and scientific library.

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  • His father, John Bouguer, one of the best hydrographers of his time, was regius, professor of hydrography at Croisic in lower Brittany, and author of a treatise on navigation.

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  • A fort was erected here in the 16th century to prevent the incursions of the free Cossacks and runaway serfs who gathered on the lower Volga, as also the raids of the Kalmucks and Circassians.

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  • In the winter coat the hair is long and pendent, elongated into a short beard on the sides of the lower jaw behind the chin; and it is also longer than elsewhere on the neck and the chest; at the base of the long hair is a thick growth of short and woolly under-fur.

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  • As regards the teeth, in all cases except the wombats the number of upper incisors differs from that of the corresponding lower teeth.

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  • Summits of the lower incisors, before they are worn, with a deep transverse groove, dividing it into an anterior and a posterior cusp. Canines long, strong and conical.

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  • Lower incisors sloping forward and upward.

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  • On the other hand, it is noteworthy that this marsupial retains in its lower jaw the so-called mylo-hyoid groove, which is found in the aforesaid Jurassic mammals.

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  • As a sub-order, the Paucituberculata are characterized by the presence of four pairs of upper and three of lower incisor teeth; the enlargement and forward inclination of the first pair of lower incisors, and the presence of four or five sharp cusps on the cheek-teeth, coupled with the absence of "syndactylism" in the hind limbs.

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  • The cheek-teeth strongly curved, forming from the base to the summit about a quarter of a circle, the concavity being directed outwards in the upper and inwards in the lower teeth.

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  • The lower incisors are partially inclined forwards, compressed and tapering, bevelled at the ends.

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  • In the lower jaw there are also one or two small and early deciduous premolars; third premolars of both jaws formed on the same type as that of the rat-kangaroos, but relatively much larger; molars rudimentary, tubercular.

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  • The tail is long and in some cases prehensile; the first hind-toe may be either large, small or absent; the dentition usually includes three pairs of upper and one of lower incisors, and six or seven pairs of cheekteeth in each jaw; the stomach is either simple or sadculated, without a cardiac gland; and there are four teats.

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  • With the exception of the aberrant long-snouted phalanger, the members of the family Phalangeridae have the normal number of functional incisors, in addition to which there may be one or two rudimentary pairs in the lower jaw.

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  • The first in the upper jaw is strong, curved and cutting, the other two generally somewhat smaller; the single lower functional incisor large, more or less.

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  • The lower jaw has no pocket on the outer side.

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  • The two lower incisors are long, very slender, sharp-pointed and horizontally placed.

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  • The lower jaw is slender, nearly straight, 2-3 and without a coronoid process or inflected angle.

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  • The remaining members of the family may be included in the sub family Phalangerinae, characterized by the normal nature of the dentition (which shows redimentary lower canines) and tongue.

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  • The broad molars are either bluntly tuberculated or transversely ridged; the outer side of the hind part of the lower jaw has a deep pocket; and the hind-limbs are generally very long, with the structure of the foot similar to that of the bandicoots.

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  • These ancient opossums have been separated generically from Didelphys (in its widest sense) on account of certain differences in the relative sizes of the lower premolars, but as nearly the whole of the species have been formed .on lower jaws, of which some hundreds have been found, it is impossible to judge how far these differences are correlated with other dental or osteological characters.

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  • It will be observed from the figures of the lower jaws, which are in most cases the only parts known, that in many instances the number of cheek-teeth exceeds that found in modern marsupials except Myrmecobius.

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  • From the Valley Gate the wall took an easterly course for a distance of woo cubits to the Dung Gate, near which on the east was the Fountain Gate, not far from the lower pool of Siloam.

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  • There is no municipal water-supply, and the main drain of the city discharges into the lower pool of Siloam, which has become an open cesspit.

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  • Beneath these hills the surface of the island falls lower, and several hills in the form of amphitheatres extend their bases as far as the sea.

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  • No evidences of recent lava flows can be found in the interior over the great alluvial plain, the Lower, or the Higher Steppes.

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  • But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.

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  • The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.

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  • The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast.

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  • The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.

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  • The lower jaw is heavy; the cheekbones somewhat high, and the chin small and receding.

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  • In his treatment of women the aboriginal may be ranked lower than even the Fuegians.

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  • On the Lower Murray the body is placed on a platform of sticks and left to decay.

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  • Some of the interior structures and the detached one on the lower southern terrace are in a fair state of preservation.

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  • He was twice prolocutor of the lower house of convocation for the province of Canterbury.

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  • Bruno, who kept for himself the title of archduke, divided the territory into the two duchies of Upper and Lower Lorraine.

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  • Godfrey of Verdun was invested by him with the government of Lower Lorraine (Nieder-LOthringen).

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  • The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.

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  • Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.

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  • Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the expedition and the first king of Jerusalem, was duke of Lower Lorraine, and the names of his brothers Baldwin of Edessa and Eustace of Boulogne, and of Count Robert II.

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  • The right of voting being confined to members of the Communist party, the Government represented by no means one really elected by universal suffrage but rather a dictatorship of the lower classes.

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  • The Russians in Turkestan form only about 5% of the total pop., and since most of the rural Mussulman pop. take no part in the voting, the country is governed to all intents and purposes by men elected by the very small proportion of Russians of the lower classes living in the towns.

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  • The depression separating the two lower lobes from the lobus caudatus, and known as the porta hepatis, was appropriately designated as the "crucible" of the liver.

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  • It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.

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  • Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.

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  • On the higher elevations it is generally stony and sterile, but in the valleys and on many of the lower hills, where it consists largely of clay and sand, it is quite productive.

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  • Aston Lower Grounds, adjoining the park, contain an assembly hall, and the playing field of the Aston Villa Football Club, where the more important games are witnessed by many thousands of spectators.

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  • The soil is in general very fertile, the principal products being rice, maize and pulse (kachang) in the lower grounds, and cinchona, coffee and tea, as well as cocoa, tobacco and fibrous plants in the hills.

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  • Mustapha Inferieur is built on the lower slopes of the hills.

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  • But the most distinguishing features of Fermanagh are the Upper and Lower Loughs Erne, which occupy a great extent of its surface, stretching for about 45 m.

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  • Garrison, a fishing station on the wild Lough Melvin, and Pettigo, near to the lower Lough Erne, are market villages.

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  • Oracular possession of the kind above described is also common among savages and people of lower culture; and Dr Tylor, in his Primitive Culture, ii.

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  • The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.

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  • For a considerable distance the left bank of the Volta itself is in German territory, but its lower course is wholly in the Gold Coast colony.

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  • In 1508, however, it was separated from this and was divided into an upper and a lower county, but the two were united in 1 541.

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  • After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.

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  • The smoother we make the pulley the more nearly does the amount of useful work which the weight is capable of doing approach ro foot-pounds, and if we take into account the work done against the friction of the pulley, we may say that the work done by the descending weight is ro foot-pounds, and hence when the weight is in its elevated position we have at disposal r o foot-pounds more energy than when it is in the lower position.

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  • The direct connecting link between God and man is the "genius," a higher spiritual individuality existing in man by the side of his lower, earthly individuality.

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  • In his 5th symphony he introduced 3 trombones and extended both the upper and lower extremes of the windband by a piccolo and a double bassoon.

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  • A frequent combination was flute, violin and harpsichord (very probably with a violoncello doubling the bass), and in more than one case the violin was partly tuned lower to soften its tone.

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  • While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.

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  • This horizontal movement of the lower end of the back leg allows the whole arrangement to assume the position shown in fig.

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  • From the lower flange of a suspended !; runway, made of a single I section, run wheels, from the axles of which the transporter is suspended.

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  • The climate throughout Rajputana is very dry and hot during the summer; while in the winter it is much colder in the north than in the lower districts, with hard frost and ice on the Bikanir borders.

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  • The lower end e of the cable in the tank T is taken to the testing room, so that continuous tests for electrical condition can be made.

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  • The lower ends of these wires are connected through the secondary coil of an oscillation transformer to an earth plate, or to a large conductor placed on or near the earth called a " balancing capacity."

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  • If the direct coupling is adopted then the lower end of the antenna is connected directly to the condenser circuit.

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  • He showed that if an antenna were constructed with a short part of its length vertical and the greater part horizontal, the lower end of the vertical part being earthed, and if oscillations were created in it, electric waves were sent out most powerfully in the plane of the antenna and in the direction opposite to that in which the free end pointed.

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  • The Umbrian town had three gates only, and probably lay on the steep mountain side as the present town does, while the Roman city lay in the lower ground.

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  • The space enclosed between the front and rear faces of the box is filled about three-quarters full of finely granulated hard carbon, which therefore lies in contact with the front and rear carbon disks of the apparatus, and also fills up the space lying between the lower edge of these disks and the curved surface of the case.

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  • The congeries of small groups of lower hills in the north are known as the Hessische Bergland.

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  • This area is termed the "conducting" area, as distinguished from the lower or "detentive" gland-bearing area.

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  • Part of the state on the Atlantic coast and along the lower Parnahyba is low, swampy and malarial.

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  • The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands and along the lower Parnahyba, but in the uplands it is dry with high sun temperatures and cool nights.

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  • Many important differences are also recorded between the skulls of the two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race.

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  • In view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped from captivity.

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  • During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.

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  • There is no other instance in Europe of a basin of similar extent equally clearly characterized—the perfectly level character of the plain being as striking as the boldness with which the lower slopes of the mountain ranges begin to rise on each side of it.

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  • Or the west side of the lake the Toccia or Tosa descends from the pass of the Gries nearly due south to Domodossola, where it receives the waters of the Doveria from the Simplon, and a few miles lower down those of the Val d'Anzasca from the foot of Monte Rosa, and 12 m.

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  • In this lower part it receives the smaller streams of the Mella, which flows by Brescia, and the Chiese, which proceeds from the small Lago d'Idro, between the Lago d'Iseo and that of Garda.

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  • In its lower course it flows near Canosa and traverses the celebrated battlefield of Cannae.

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  • The Roman district, the largest of the four, extends from the hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, and from the lower slopes of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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  • Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.

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  • The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.

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  • Wages are higher, the cost of the prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of work has improved.

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  • Elementary, of two grades, of the lower of which there must legally be at least one for boys and one for girls in each commune; while the upper grade elementary school is required in communes having normal and secondary schools or over 4000 inhabitants.

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  • The age limit is six to nine years for the lower grade, and up to twelve for the higher grade, attendance being obligatory at the latter also where it exists.

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  • In 1901-1902 only 65% out of the whole number of children between six and nine years of age were registered in the lower standards of the elementary and private schools.

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  • The Italian suicide rate of 63.6 per 1,000,000 is, however, lower than those of Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and France, while it approximates to that of England.

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  • Emilia gives a maximum rate of 10.48 per ioo,ooo, while that of Liguria and Lazio is little lower.

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  • From Beneventum, another important road centre, the Via Appia itself ran south-east through the mountains past Venusia to Tarentum on the south-west coast of the heel, and thence across Calabria to Brundusium, while Trajans correction of it, following an older mule-track, ran north-east through the mountains and then through the lower ground of Apulia, reaching the coast at Barium.

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  • The cause of his son Conrad was sustained in Lower Italy by Manfred, one of Fredericks many natural children; and, when Frede- Conrad died in 1254, Manfred still acted as vicegerent ricks for the Swabians, who were now represented by a boy SUCCCS Conradin.

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  • Durazzo, the last male scion of the Angevine house in Lower Italy, murdered Joan in 1382, and held the kingdom for five years.

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  • Alfonso reigned alone and undisturbed in Lower Italy, combining for the first time since the year 1282 the crowns of Sicily and Naples.

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  • Leo for a while relied on Francis; for the vast power of Charles V., who succeeded to the empire in 1519, as in 1516 he had succeeded to the crowns of Spain and Lower Italy, threatened the whole of Europe.

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  • This decline of vigour was felt, with the customary effects of discord and bad government, in Lower Italy.

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  • The lower classes provoked disorders, which were very serious at Leghorn, and were only quelled by Guerrazzis energy.

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  • On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.

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  • The immediate result of the reform was to increase the political influence of large cities where the proportion of illiterate workmen was lower than.

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  • In view of the violence of Extremist obstruction, an effort was made to reform the standing orders of the Lower House, but parliamentary feeling ran so high that General Pelloux thought it expedient to appeal to the country.

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  • In March 1902 agrarian strikes organized by the leg/fe broke out in the district of Copparo and Polesine (lower valley of the Po), owing to a dispute about the labor contracts, and in Apulia on account of unemployment.

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  • The spirit of indiscipline had begun to reach the lower classes of state employees, especially the school teachers and the postal and telegraph clerks, and at one time it seemed as though the country were about to face a situation similar to that which arose in France in the spring of 1909.

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  • On the principle of contradiction this division is both exhaustive and exclusive; there can be no overlapping, and no members of the original genus or the lower groups are omitted.

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  • Mill recognizes an ultimate difference in quality between higher and lower pleasures.

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  • But there are gaps in Kant's system - a imperfect gap between sensation and the sense-forms of time and space; a gap between sense-forms and thought; a gap between the lower but practicable processes of the Understanding and the higher but unrealizable ideas of Reason.

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  • The threatened dualism of ideal and material becomes for Aristotle mainly a contrast of matter and form; the lower stage in development desires or aims at the higher, matter more and more tending to pass into form, till God is form without any matter.

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  • In declaring the supreme doctrines of Christianity to be mysteries above reason, he marks off a lower region where reason is to reign; the study of that lower region may well be called, as later centuries have called it, Natural Theology; and as such it presents strong intuitionalist affinities.

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  • The uppermost is a purely muscular cell from the sub-umbrella; the two lower are epidermo-muscular cells from the base of a tentacle; the upstanding nucleated portion forms part of the epidermal mosaic on the free surface of the body.

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  • B, The lower layer forms a solid G,H, Formation of the medusae.

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  • Trophosome, polyps with two whorls of tentacles, the lower filiform, the upper capitate; gonosome, free medusae, with tentacles solid and branched.

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  • In A two medusa-buds are seen within the gonotheca (gth), the upper more advanced than the lower one.

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  • The cormus is always differentiated into two parts; an upper portion termed the nectosome, in which the appendages are locomotor or hydrostatic in function, that is to say, serve for swimming or floating; and a lower portion termed the siphosome, bearing appendages which are nutritive, reproductive or simply protective in function.

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  • The individual is the product of sexual reproduction; a person is an individual of lower rank, which may be produced asexually.

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  • The Auronectae are peculiar deep-sea forms, little known except from Haeckel's descriptions, in which the large pneumatophore has a peculiar duct, termed the aurophore, placed on its lower side in the midst of a circle of swimming-bells.

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  • In the later and developed form of the Kabbala, the origin of the world is represented as a gradually descending emanation of the lower out of the higher.

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  • He sought (L'Homme-machine) to connect man in his original condition with the lower animals, and emphasized (L'Homme-plante) the essential unity of plan of all living things.

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  • Helvetius, in his work on man, referred all differences between our species and the lower animals to certain peculiarities of organization, and so prepared the way for a conception of human development out of lower forms as a process of physical evolution.

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  • Lewes points out that Leibnitz is inconsistent in his account of the intelligence of man in relation to that of lower animals, since when answering Locke he no longer regards these as differing in degree only.

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  • We see how different this metaphysical conception is from that scientific notion of cosmic evolution in which the lower stages are the antecedents and conditions of the higher.

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  • In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.

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  • Thus man is said to be the highest product of nature, and as such to be dependent on all lower products.

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  • Just as Kant thus sharply marks off the regions of the inorganic and the organic, so he sets man in strong opposition to the lower animals.

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  • On the contrary, the lower members of each tend to converge towards the lower members of all the others.

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  • Meckel proceeds to exemplify the thesis, that the lower forms of animals represent stages in the course of the development of the higher, with a large series of illustrations.

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  • In Lower Canada, by treaty, the Roman Catholic Church remained established.

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  • The position is the same now through all the British colonies (except, as already mentioned, Lower Canada or Quebec).

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  • In the Roman communion, on the other hand, both where the Church is established and where it is not, the tendency is to reduce the status of cure to that of desservant, and to deal with all members of the priestly or lower orders by administrative methods.

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  • In the more typical Lemuridae there are two pairs of upper incisor teeth, separated by a gap in the middle line; the premolars may be either two or three, but the molars, as in the lower jaw, are always three on each side.

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  • In the lower jaw the incisors and canines are directed straight forwards, and are of small size and nearly similar form; the function of the canine being discharged by the first premolar, which is larger than the other teeth of the same series.

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  • In this campaign Aurelius, after a series of successes, was attacked, according to some authorities, by an infectious disease, of which he died after a seven days' illness, either in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovitz), on the Save, in Lower Pannonia, or at Vindobona (Vienna), on the 17th of March 180, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.

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  • The prices charged for dispensing are lower in countries where the number of pharmacies is limited by law, the larger returns enabling the profit to be lessened.

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  • It may be entirely bordered by fleshy papillae, or these may be restricted to the sides, or to the sides and the lower border.

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  • The skeleton is cartilaginous, and the skull is remarkable for the very elongate suspensorium of the lower jaw; the tail remains in the notochordal condition, no cartilages being formed in this organ, which is destined to disappear with the gills.

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  • Orpheus went down to the lower world and by his music softened the heart of Pluto and Persephone, who allowed Eurydice to return with him to earth.

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  • In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.

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  • The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.

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  • Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.

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  • The gametophyte, which bears the sexual organs, is either a free-living thallus corresponding in degree of differentiation with the lower liverworts, or it is a mass of cells which always remains enclosed in a spore and is parasitic upon the sporophyte.

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  • From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.

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  • Usually they are absent from the cells of the epidermis, though in some of the lower plants they are met with there also.

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  • The prothalli of the Pterido phytes, which form similar symbioses, show a somewhat different mode of arrangement, the Fungi occupying the external or the lower layers of the thalloid body.

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  • This has a relatively large development of succulent parenchyma on its upper and lower sides.

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  • In the erect position of the leaf the lower side has its cells extremely turgid, and the pulvinus thus forms a cushion, holding up the petiole.

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    0
  • On stimulation these cells part with their water, the lower side of the organ becomes flaccid and the weight of the leaf causes it to fall.

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  • For instance, the difference between the long-stalked and finely-cut leaves of Anemone attacked with rust and the normal leaves with broad segments, or between the urceolate leaves occasionally found on cabbages and the ordinary formin these cases undoubtedly pathological and teratological respectivelyis nothing like so great as between the upper and lower normalleaves of many Umhelliferae or the submerged and floating leaves of an aquatic Ranunculus or Cabomba.

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  • In inland localities, where the rainfall is much lower, steppes occur.

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  • Where the rainfall is still lower, deserts occur.

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  • The spindle arises partly from the cytoplasm, partly from the nucleus, or it may be derived entirely from the nucleusintranuclear spindleas occurs in many of the lower plants (Fungi, &c.).

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  • We know very little of the details of reduction in the lower plants, but it probably occurs at some stage in the life history of all plants in which sexual nuclear fusion takes place.

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  • In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.

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  • In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.

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  • The Nuclei of the Lower Plants.It is only in comparatively recent times that it has been possible to determine with any degree of certainty that the minute deeply stainable bodies described more especially by Schmitz (1879) in many Algae and Fungi could be regarded as true nuclei.

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  • The researches of the last twenty years have shown that the structure of the nucleus and the phenomena of nuclear division in these lower forms conforms in all essential details to those in the higher plants.

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  • The evolution of higher from lower plants, it is generally assumed, has proceeded by variation.

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  • Both were in turn replaced by the Lower Mesozoic flora, which again is thought to have had its birth in the hypothetical Gondwana land, and in which Gymnosperms played the leading part formerly taken by vascular Cryptogams. The abundance of Cycadean plants is one of its most striking features.

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  • The latter are retained to warm the air at lower levels, while it remains cold at higher.

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  • At the same time the then existing alpine floras descended to lower levels, though we may agree with Ball that they did not necessarily become extinct at higher ones as long as any land-surface remained uncovered by ice.

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  • In Lower Eocene times its flora appears to have been distinctly related to the existing one.

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  • One end of the hippodrome was semicircular, and the other end square with an extensive portico, in front of which, at a lower level, were the stalls for the horses and chariots.

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  • The valley, composed of two lateral parallel slopes inclined towards a narrow strip of plain at a lower level which itself slopes downwards in the direction of its length.

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  • A mountain may be described (it cannot be defined) as an elevated region of irregular surface rising comparatively abruptly from lower ground.

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  • The first and simplest function of the land surface is that of guiding loose material to a lower level.

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  • They are found in the Lower Greensand, or Upper Neocomian series, in the Atherfield Clay at Stopham, near Pulborough; occasionally at the junction of the Hythe and Sandgate beds; and in the Folkeston beds, at Farnham.

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  • Phosphatic beds, supposed to have had a coprolitic origin, are found in the Lower Silurian rocks of Canada.

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    0
  • Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.

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  • Of the outer eyelids, the lower alone is movable in most birds, as in reptiles, and it frequently contains a rather large saucer-shaped cartilage, the tarsus palpebralis.

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  • This so-called third, upper or posterior conch is not a true conch, nor is that of the vestibulum; only the middle one forms a scroll, and this corresponds to the only one of reptiles and the lower of the mammals.

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  • The syrinx or lower larynx is the most interesting and absolutely avine modification, although absent as a voice-producing organ (probably due to retrogression) in most Ratitae, storks, turkey buzzards (Cathartes) and Steganopodes.

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  • The syrinx is a modification of the lower part of the trachea and of the adjoining bronchi.

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  • The lower portion of the trachea consists of thin membranes, about half a dozen of the rings being very thin or deficient.

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  • The next chamber, the urodaeum, is small, and receives in its dorso-lateral wall the ureters and the genital ducts; above and below this chamber is closed by circular folds, the lower of which, towards the ventral side, passes into the coating of the copulatory organ when such is present.

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  • The imprints in the enormously older new red sandstone or Lower Trias of Connecticut, and originally named Ornithichnites, belong to Dinosaurian Reptiles.

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  • The lower Eocene has furnished a greater number of bird bones.

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  • For instance, from the lower Miocene beds of Allier and Puy-de-Dome MilneEdwards has described about so species.

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  • Instead of the age of lower Eocene, as had been stated originally, these beds are not older than mid-Miocene, and not a few of the bones are of a much younger, even latest Tertiary date.

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  • But the characteristic nature of the avifauna is more clearly brought out when we learn that of the 2000 species just mentioned only about 1070 belong to the higher suborder of Oscines, that means to say, nearly one-half belong to the lower suborder Clamatores.

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  • East of the Ain, forests of fir and oak abound on the mountains, the lower slopes of which give excellent pasture for sheep and cattle, and much cheese is produced.

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  • The principal portal is a fine specimen of 12th-century Romanesque, and the lower part of the nave is of the same period; the choir and the transept are striking examples of the style of the 13th century.

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  • However we may interpret the lower limit of this period, the literature which it embraces is immense.

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  • Of this we may perhaps roughly' distinguish a higher and a lower type, according as there is either complete confidence in the divine benevolence and justice, or a disposition to suppose a certain arbitrariness or at any rate conditionality to attach to the granting of requests.

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  • This frame of mind, however, is mainly symptomatic of the lower levels of cult.

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  • Specifically Table Mountain is the mountain which arises behind Table Bay, in the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town lying at its seaward base and on its adjacent lower slopes.

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  • The summit of the mountain is then covered by a whitish-grey cloud, which is being constantly forced down the northern face towards Cape Town, but never reaches the lower slopes.

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  • The relative luxuriance of the vegetation on the upper part of the mountain, compared with that of its lower slopes, is due not only to the rainfall, but to the large additional moisture condensed from clouds.

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  • Another mountain-complex of much lower elevation runs north-westwards from the Trans-Ili Ala-tau towards the southern extremity of Lake Balkash.

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  • It may be divided into three divisions, upper, lower and middle, each of which is distinguished by special physical features, and has played a conspicuous part in the world's history, retaining to the present day monumental evidence of the races who have lined its banks.

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  • Sarsar, the modern Abu-Ghurayb, leaves the Euphrates three leagues lower down and enters the Tigris between Bagdad and Ctesiphon.

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  • The swamps are full of huge reeds, bordered with tamarisk jungles, and in its lower reaches, where the water stretches out into great marshes, the river is clogged with a growth of agrostis.

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  • But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.

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  • It is no dwelling of the dead nor part of the lower world, but distinguished heroes are translated thither without dying, to live a life of perfect happiness.

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  • Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.

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  • The deputies of the lower house are elected for three years directly by the people, one deputy for every 3000 male adults who can read and write.

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  • Two holes are made near its lower angles.

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  • The lower Cryptogams were contrasted as Amphigenae ("growing all over"), a misnomer, as apical growth is common among them.

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  • The upper river and the left bank of the lower river of the Cavalla are in French territory.

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  • Its lower course is through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the Sulima.

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  • There is the interesting white-necked guineafowl, Agelastes (which is found on the Gold Coast and elsewhere west of the lower Niger); there is one peculiar species of eagle owl (Bubo lettii) and a very handsome sparrow-hawk (Accipiter bitttikoferi); a few sun-birds, warblers and shrikes are peculiar to the region.

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  • In a general way it is supposed that the lands lying between the lower St Paul's river and the Sierra Leone frontier are not much mineralized, except that in the vicinity of river mouths there are indications of bitumen.

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  • His general thought was that " rationalism " represents an uprising of the lower reason or " understanding " against the higher or true " reason."

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  • Aeacus ruled over his people with such justice and impartiality that after his death he was made judge of the lower world together with Minos and Rhadamanthus.

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  • This mode of devotion, however, held its ground among the lower ranks of Catholic piety.

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  • The file may be on the head - either upper or lower surface - and the scraper formed by the front edge of the prothorax, as in various wood-boring beetles (Anobium and Scolytus).

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  • In 1861 he became a member of the Lower Austrian diet and in 1869 was nominated to the Upper House of the Austrian Reichsrath.

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  • Seen in front, its white face, striped with black, and broad black gorget attract attention as it sits, often motionless, on the rocks; while in flight the white of the lower part of the back and white band across the wings are no less conspicuous even at a distance.

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  • A nearer view will reveal the rich chestnut of the mantle and upper wing-coverts, and the combination of colours thus exhibited suggests the term "tortoise-shell" often applied to it - the quill-feathers being mostly of a dark brown and its lower parts pure white.

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  • The coal is here confined to the lower division of the system; the Upper Carboniferous (corresponding with the English Coal-Measures) is exclusively marine, consisting chiefly of Fusulina limestone.

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  • Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.

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  • As a legislative body the powers of the Council are co-ordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation.6 The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which forms the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consists (since the ukaz of the znd of June 1907) on the 27th of April 1906, while the name and princi p le of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word " unlimited " vanished.

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  • It is separated from the Black Sea by a gentle swelling which may be traced from Kremenets in Volhynia to the lower Don, and perhaps farther S.E.

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  • The Onega, which flows into Onega Bay, has rapids; but timber is floated down in spring, and fishing and some navigation are carried on in the lower portion.

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  • Russia from a remote antiquity, but now navigable only in its lower portion, and the Embach, navigated by steamers to Dorpat (Yuryev).

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  • Light boats and rafts are floated at all points, and steamers ply on its lower portion; its estuary has important fisheries.

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  • The Ural, in its lower part, constitutes the frontier between European Russia and the Kirghiz steppe; it receives the Sakmara on the right and the Ilek on the left.

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  • This time the invaders came to stay, and they built for themselves a capital, called Sarai, on the lower Volga.

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  • The khanate closely connected with the history of Russia was that of Kipchak or the Golden Horde, the khans of which settled, as we have seen, on the lower Volga and built for themselves a capital called Sarai.

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  • This change was, of course, popular among the lower and middle ranks of the landlord class, but was very displeasing to the great nobles.

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  • Many believed, or affected to believe, in the pretender, and in a short time he gathered around him a large force of Cossacks, peasants, Tatars and Tchuvash, swept over the basin of the lower Volga, executed mercilessly the landed proprietors, seized and pillaged the town of Kazan, and kept the whole country in a state of alarm for more than a year.

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  • Frederick the Great was at that moment impatient to extend and consolidate his kingdom by getting possession of the basin of the lower Vistula, which separated eastern Prussia from the rest of his dominions, while Austria had also claims on Polish territory and would certainly not submit to be excluded by her two rivals.

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  • In it were found the lower parts of two metopes.

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  • But as it was laid in cast-iron chairs the lower table was exposed to damage under the hammering of the traffic, and thus was liable to be rendered useless as a running surface.

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  • At the same time that these two extensions were being undertaken by old and well-established railways, a new company-the Kansas City, Mexico && Orient-was engaged in constructing a line almost due south-west from Kansas City, Mo., to the lower part of the gulf of California in Mexico; while an additional independent line was under construction from Denver in a north-westerly direction towards the Pacific coast.

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  • This rate increases as the distance increases, but not in equal proportion; while the rates from large trade centres to other trade centres at a great distance are not higher than those to intermediate points somewhat less remote; if the law permits, there is a tendency to make them actually a little lower.

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  • Mention should be made of the mass of general legislation passed, principally by western states, since 1905, in response to a popular demand for lower rates.

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    0
  • Though the standard gauge is in use in Lower Egypt, the line into the Egyptian Sudan was built on a gauge of 3 ft.

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  • The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.

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  • In other countries they are generally lower; in the United States they are commonly level with, or only a few inches higher than, the top of the rails.

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  • Here, at the highest level, there are a number of " upper reception lines " converging to a single line which leads to a group of " sorting sidings " at a lower level.

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  • These in turn converge to a pair of single lines which lead to two groups of marshalling sidings, called " gridirons " from their shape, and these again converge to single lines leading to " lower reception and departure lines " at the bottom of the slope.

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  • If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.

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  • On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.

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  • The lowlands and the lower mountains, especially southward, are generally treeless.

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  • Though the moralization of gods has only proceeded pari passu with the moralization of mankind, the deities of the more advanced nations are perhaps felt by them to be more terrible and more difficult of access than the divinities of lower races; herein lies one explanation of the power of the priesthood.

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  • On the whole, human sacrifice is far commoner among the semi-civilized and barbarous races than in still lower stages of culture.

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  • The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as is known, of the older Palaeozoic rocks, Lower Devonian or Upper Silurian, slightly metamorphosed and a good deal crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds clay slate and soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone passing into the conspicuous white quartzites.

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  • The upper town is built on seven hills, each crowned by a church, while the lower, still partially surrounded by walls and ditches, is divided by the river and Ludwigskanal into three districts.

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  • Of the bridges connecting the sections of the lower town the most interesting is the Obere Bri cke, completed in 1455.

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  • The lower part of the trunk bears huge buttresses, each of which ends in a long branching far-spreading; root, from the branches of which spring the peculiar knees which, rise above the level of the water.

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  • These first appeared in large numbers in the lower part of the Humboldt Valley in the summer of 1906, and in October and November 1907 it was estimated that they numbered on certain ranches from 8000 to 12,000 on every acre.

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  • The Lower or Bristol Avon rises on the eastern slope of the Cotteswold Hills in Gloucestershire, collecting the waters of several streams south of Tetbury and east of Malmesbury.

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  • The cathedral, originally erected in the 12th century, was reconstructed in the 15th and 16th; the façade shows traces of both periods, the Renaissance work being complete only in the lower portion.

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  • The capitals are, in the lower order, the characteristic funnel-shaped rectangular Byzantine capitals, some of them with open work, bearing cushions; this is a type probably derived from the cushion itself, and developed in the East about the second half of the 5th century.

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  • These districts are pastoral, and the lower fertile lands are cultivated for sugar, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, beans, and mandioca - sugar being the principal product.

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  • It is well stocked with trout, and the steep declivities of the lower valley furnish red wines of excellent quality.

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  • More original, perhaps, is the argument in the immediately preceding work, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884), which is, in substance, that physical evolution is a demonstrated fact; that intellectual force is a later, higher and more potent thing than bodily strength; and that, finally, in most men and some "lower animals" there is developed a new idea of the advantageous, a moral and non-selfish line of thought and procedure, which in itself so transcends the physical that it cannot be identified with it or be measured by its standards, and may or must be enduring, or at its best immortal.

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  • The ague-fit begins with chills proceeding as if from the lower part of the back, and gradually extending until the coldness overtakes the whole body.

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  • Tremors of the muscles more or less violent accompany the cold sensations, beginning with the muscles of the lower jaw (chattering of the teeth), and extending to the extremities and trunk.

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  • Of the fauna of the lower slopes, tracks of elephant, leopard and buffalo have been seen, between 11,500 and 14,500 ft.

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  • So the Galileans with some of the lower classes of " the Jews " allied themselves with a " robber " and burned some of the Samaritan villages.

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  • When Felix was recalled by Nero in 60 the nation was divided against itself, the Gentiles within its gates were watching for their opportunity, and the chief priests robbed the lower priests with a high hand.

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  • The coast plains were in parts very fertile, especially the (now malarious) lower valley of the Crathis.

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  • With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.

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  • The structure is further complicated by a great thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.

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  • The cypress still grows wild in the higher regions; the lower hills and the valleys, which are extremely fertile, are covered with olive woods.

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  • During the Third Middle Minoan period, the lower limits of which approach 1600 B.C., this pictographic script finally gives way to a still more developed linear system - which is itself divided into an earlier and a later class.

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  • The chronological centre of the great beehive tombs seems to be slightly lower.

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  • It is an age indeed in which the culture as a whole, though following a lower level, attains the greatest amount of uniformity.

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  • Assuming that the lower strata were formed at approximately the same rate as the upper, we have an antiquity of from 12,000 to 14,000 years indicated for the first Neolithic settlement on this spot.

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  • A remarkable feature of this quarter is a small council chamber with a gypsum throne of curiously Gothic aspect and lower stone benches round.

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  • Among the more interesting relics found were ivory figures of Egyptian or strongly Egyptianizing fabric. On an adjacent hill were the remains of what seems to have been in later times a temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and from the occurrence of rich deposits of Minoan vases and sacrificial remains at a lower level, the religious tradition represented by the later temple seems to go back to prehistoric times.

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  • Besides the great entrance hall of the cavern, which served as the upper shrine, were descending vaults forming a lower sanctuary going down deep into the bowels of the earth.

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  • On the east and north their boundary was the lower Rhine, on the west the ocean.

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  • In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.

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  • Large numbers of shad, blue fish, weak fish (squeteague), alewives, Spanish mackerel, perch, bass, croakers (Micropogon undulatus), mullet, menhaden, oysters and clams are caught in the sounds, in the lower courses of the rivers flowing into them, or in the neighbouring waters of the sea.

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  • In the sounds along the coast, in the lower courses of the rivers that flow into them, and along the outer shores fishing is an important industry.

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