Lorraine sentence example
In 1627 he commanded the large forces assembled at the siege of La Rochelle; and some years after in 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, he was general of the French army in Lorraine.
The German populations of these lands seem in Roman times to have been scanty, and Roman subjects from the modern Alsace and Lorraine had drifted across the river eastwards.
In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, the nobles of which district had sworn an oath of fidelity to the king of France.
When Louis married Gerberga, sister of Otto, and widow of Giselbert, duke of Lorraine, there seemed to be a The emperor Louis I.
Finally in 924 Lorraine passed in the reign of Henry the Fowler under German (East Frankish) overlordship. Henry's son, Otto the Great, owing to the disordered state of the country, placed it in 953 in the hands of his able brother, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, for pacification.Advertisement
Bruno, who kept for himself the title of archduke, divided the territory into the two duchies of Upper and Lower Lorraine.
Godfrey of Verdun was invested by him with the government of Lower Lorraine (Nieder-LOthringen).
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the expedition and the first king of Jerusalem, was duke of Lower Lorraine, and the names of his brothers Baldwin of Edessa and Eustace of Boulogne, and of Count Robert II.Advertisement
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
But he was now transferred to the Two Sicilies, while Francis of Lorraine, the husband of Maria Theresa, took Tuscany and Parma.
But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
The city passed to Lorraine in 843, and to the East Frankish kingdom in 870.
In 1553, on the recommendation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, he was named master of the requests, and afterwards president of the chambre des comptes.Advertisement
The civil and military government of the province, as well as that of Lorraine, was assumed by the Germans as soon as they obtained possession of those parts of France, which was very shortly after the commencement of the war.
When the preliminaries of peace came to be discussed at Versailles in February 1871, the cession of Alsace, together with what is called German Lorraine, was one of the earliest conditions laid down by Bismarck and accepted by Thiers.
By the bill for the incorporation of Alsace and German Lorraine, introduced into the German parliament in May 1871, it was provided that the sole and supreme control of the two provinces should be vested in the German emperor and the federal council until the 1st of January 1874, when the constitution of the German empire was established.
In 899, when Arnulf died, Hatto became regent of Germany, and guardian of the young king, Louis the Child, whose authority he compelled Zwentibold, king of Lorraine, an illegitimate son of Arnulf, to recognize.
Cardinal David Beton, the head of the French and Catholic party and therefore Mary of Lorraine's friend and ally, produced a will of the late king in which the primacy in the regency was assigned to himself.Advertisement
Mary of Lorraine was approached by the English commissioner, Sir Ralph Sadler, to induce her to further her daughter's marriage contract with Edward VI.
After the queen's coronation in September Mary of Lorraine was made principal member of the council appointed to direct the affairs of the kingdom.
Mary of Lorraine now gave her energies to the expulsion of the English and to the difficult task of keeping the peace between the Scots and their French auxiliaries.
Soon after her marriage miners had been brought from Lorraine to dig for gold at Crawford Moor, and she now carried on successful mining enterprises for coal and lead, which enabled her to meet the expenses of her government.
Mary of Lorraine broke the spirit of this agreement by garrisoning Perth with Scottish troops in the pay of France.Advertisement
The lords of the Congregation sought help from Elizabeth, while the regent had recourse to France, where an expedition under her brother, Rene of Lorraine, marquis of Elbeuf, was already in preparation.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
His work was checked by the active hostility of the duke of Lorraine, and in 1544 he returned to Neuchatel.
Godfrey of Bouillon, with his brother Baldwin, led the crusaders of Lorraine along "the road of Charles the Great," through Hungary, to Constantinople, where he arrived on the 23rd of December.
Fulcher of Chartres originally followed Robert of Normandy, but in October 1097 he joined Baldwin of Lorraine in his expedition to Edessa, and afterwards followed his fortunes.Advertisement
On the 12th of February 1736 she was married to her cousin Francis of Lorraine, then grand duke of Tuscany, and afterwards emperor.
It passed into the hands of the houses of Rieux and Lorraine, and was raised to the rank of a duchy in the peerage of France by Henry III.
The last duke of Elbeuf was Charles Eugene of Lorraine, prince de Lambesc, who distinguished himself in 1789 by his energy in repressing risings of the people at Paris.
A son of John Bethune of Auchmuty and a nephew of Cardinal Beaton, James was a trusted adviser of the Scottish regent, Mary of Lorraine, widow of James V., and a determined foe of the reformers.
In November the conferences broke up; in the spring of the following year Austrian divisions advanced simultaneously into Bosnia, Servia and Walachia; and in July the main army, under the prince of Lorraine, crossed the frontier and captured Nish.Advertisement
During the Peasants' War the town was occupied, in 1525, by the insurgents, who were driven out in their turn by Duke Anton of Lorraine.
In April 1907 he returned to his native Lorraine, to Ceffonds by Montier-en-Der, and to his relatives there.
Then Gaston of Orleans, who had fled to Lorraine, came back with a small troop to head a rebellion to free the king and country from "the tyrant."
In the IIth century its lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson (which also possessed the countships of Montbeliard and Ferrette), and usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of Lorraine, adhered to the German side.
In 1419 Louis of Bar, brother of the last-named, a cardinal and bishop of Chalons, gave the duchy of Bar to Rene of Anjou, the grandson of his sister Yolande, who married Isabella, duchess of Lorraine.Advertisement
Yolande of Anjou, who in 1444 had married Ferri of Lorraine, count of Vaudemont, became heiress of Nicholas of Anjou, duke of Calabria and of Lorraine, in 1473, and of Rene of Anjou, duke of Bar, in 1480; thus Lorraine, with Barrois added to it, once more returned to the family of its ancient dukes.
United with Lorraine to France in 1634, Barrois remained, except for short intervals, part of the royal domain.
The last seventeen years of Retz's life were passed partly in his diplomatic duties (he was again in Rome at the papal election of 1668), partly at Paris, partly at his estate of Cornmercy, but latterly at St Mihiel in Lorraine.
Lothair, king of the west Franks, claimed the guardianship, and attempted to make use of his position to serve his own purposes in Lorraine, which would in all probability have been lost to the empire but for the efforts of Adalbero and Gerbert.
Everywhere - at Rome, at Treves, at Moutier-en-Der, at Gerona in Spain, at Barcelona - he had friends or agents to procure him copies of the great Latin writers for Bobbio or Reims. To the abbot of Tours he writes that he is "labouring assiduously to form a library," and "throughout Italy, Germany and Lorraine (Belgica) is spending vast sums of money in the acquisition of MSS."Advertisement
The congress of Vienna (1815) restored the lower part of the Rhenish valley to Germany, but it was not till the war of 1870-71 that the recovery of Alsace and Lorraine made the Rhine once more "Germany's river, not Germany's frontier."
He himself was safe in the independent duchy of Lorraine with Emilie de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet,' with whom he began to be intimate in 1733; he had now taken up his abode with her at the château of Cirey.
It was not till the summer of 1734 that Cirey, a half-dismantled country house on the borders of Champagne and Lorraine, was fitted up with Voltaire's money and became the headquarters of himself, of his hostess, and now and then of her accommodating husband.
Schuermans in his researches discovered that during the 15th and 16th centuries many glass-workers left Altare and settled in France, - the Saroldi migrated to Poitou, the Ferri to Provence, the Massari to Lorraine and the Bormioli to Normandy.
Lorraine and Normandy appear to have been the most important centres.Advertisement
To Lorraine belong the well-known names Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac, de Houx; and to Normandy the names de Bongar, de Cacqueray le Vaillant and de Brossard.
It was known as Lorraine glass, and subsequently as " German sheet " or sheetglass.
In 1567 James Carre of Antwerp stated that he had erected two glass-houses at " Fernefol " (Fernfold Wood in Sussex) for Normandy and Lorraine glass for windows, and had brought over workmen.
From this period began the records in England of the great glass-making families of Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac and du Houx from Lorraine, and of de Bongar and de Cacqueray from Normandy.
The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in 1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.
Under the house of Lorraine, or more correctly during the reign of that enlightened reformer the grand duke Peter Leopold (1765-1790), Pisa shared in the general prosperity of Tuscany, and its population constantly increased.
This ceremony, according to the historian Widukind, was followed by a banquet at which the new king was waited upon by the dukes of Lorraine, Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia.
The other conspirators were pardoned, but in 939 a fresh revolt broke out under the leadership of Henry, and Giselbert, duke, of Lorraine.
Otto gained a victory near Xanten, which was followed by the surrender of the fortresses held by his brother's adherents in Saxony, but the rebels, joined by Eberhard of Franconia and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz continued the struggle, and Giselbert of Lorraine transferred his allegiance to Louis IV., king of France.
Henry took refuge with Louis of France, but was soon restored to favour and entrusted with the duchy of Lorraine, where, however, he was unable to restore order.
The deaths of Giselbert of Lorraine and of Eberhard of Franconia, quickly followed by those of two other dukes, enabled Otto to unite the stem-duchies more closely with the royal house.
In 944 Lorraine was given to Conrad, surnamed the Red, who in 947 married the king's daughter Liutgard; Franconia was retained by Otto in his own hands; Henry married a daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, and received that duchy in 947; and Swabia came in 949 to the king's son Ludolf, who had married Ida, a daughter of the late duke, Hermann.
When Adelaide bore a son, and a report gained currency that Otto intended to make this child his heir, Ludolf rose in revolt and was joined by Conrad of Lorraine and Frederick of Mainz.
Ludolf and Conrad were declared deposed, and in 953 war broke out in Lorraine and Swabia, and afterwards in Saxony and Bavaria.
Otto's brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, was successful in restoring the royal authority in Lorraine, so that when Conrad and Frederick soon afterwards submitted to Otto, the struggle was confined to Bavaria.
He withdrew from Paris, but soon afterwards returned, the decree against him being cancelled through the influence of the cardinal of Lorraine.
In 1552, Joinville was made into a principality for the house of Lorraine.
After the hands of Elizabeth of England, Mary of Scotland and Renata of Lorraine had successively been sought for him, the council of state grew anxious about the succession, but he finally married his cousin, Sophia of Mecklenburg, on the 10th of July 1572.
Even at the later sessions the cardinal of Lorraine with the French prelates supported the German representatives in requests for the cup for the laity,the permission of the marriage of priests, and the revision of the breviary.
The public library contains 40,000 volumes, including an extensive collection of works relating to the history of Lorraine.
Corps of observation were formed in Roussillon and Lorraine.
Louis, after the capture of Maastricht led his army southwards into Lorraine and overran the electorate of Trier.
Turenne determined to attack the southern army under the duke of Lorraine and Count Caprara before the junction could be effected.
The result of the battle was a complete victory for the French, who followed up their success by driving a portion of Bournonville's army (on which the duke of Lorraine had rallied his forces) from the Neckar (action of Ladenburg near Heidelberg, July 7th).
After a slight attempt to invade Lorraine, which Turenne easily stopped, the Imperialists suddenly recrossed the Rhine and marched rapidly into the neighbourhood of the Strassburg bridge.
Then he withdrew the whole of the field army quietly into Lorraine.
At the same time the duke of Lorraine defeated Marshal Crequi (August 11th) at Conzer Briicke on the Moselle, and recaptured Trier (September 6th), which, as a set-off against Bonn, Turenne had taken in the autumn of 1673.
Crequi, who had now returned from captivity (he had been taken after the battle of Conzer Briicke) opposed the Imperialists in Lorraine, but he was unable to prevent the fall of Philipsburg, which occurred on the 17th of September.
The French now laid waste the land between the Meuse and Moselle for the same reason which brought about the devastation of the Palatinate in 1674, and the year closed with a war of manoeuvre on the upper Rhine between the Imperialists under the duke of Lorraine and the French under Luxemburg.
He began by driving back the duke of Lorraine to the Rhine.
Another attempt by the Lorraine family to reconquer their duchy was thus foiled, and at the same time a second imperial army under the duke of Saxe-Eisenach, which had crossed the Rhine by Philipsburg, was shut up in an island of the Rhine and forced to make terms with the French.
A large reinforcement sent by the duke of Lorraine to the assistance of Saxe-Eisenach was completely defeated by Crequi in the battle of Kochersberg near Strassburg (October 7th) and the marshal followed up his successes by the capture of Freiburg on the 14th of November.
A struggle soon took place between Henry and Charles III., the Simple, king of France, for the possession of Lorraine.
In 921 Charles recognized Henry as king of the East Franks, and when in 9 2 3 the French king was taken prisoner by Herbert, count of Vermandois, Lorraine came under Henry's authority, and Giselbert, who married his daughter Gerberga, was recognized as duke.
The hills in the south of the duchy are a continuation of the Lorraine plateau, and the northern districts are crossed in all directions by outrunners from the Ardennes.
Besides the iron furnaces, situated in the south near the Lorraine plateau, there are tanneries, weaving and glove-making factories, paper-mills for all sorts of paper, breweries and distilleries, and sugar refineries.
By her marriage with Claude of Lorraine, duke of Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan, the widow of the first duke of Luynes, acquired in 1655 the duchy of Chevreuse, which she gave in 1663 to Louis Charles d'Albert, her son by her first husband; and from that time the title of duke of Chevreuse and duke of Luynes was borne by the eldest sons of the family of Luynes, which also inherited the title of duke of Chaulnes on the extinction of the descendants of Honore d'Albert in 1698.
While hundreds were imprisoned or burned, Protestants seemed steadily to increase in numbers, and finally only the expostulations of the parlement of Paris prevented the king from introducing the Inquisition in France in accordance with the wishes of the pope and the cardinal of Lorraine.
Du Bourg and others ventured warmly to defend the Protestants in the parlement of Paris in the very presence of the king and of the cardinal of Lorraine.
This struggle was accompanied by disturbances in Lorraine, Saxony and Thuringia, but order was soon restored after the resistance of the Hohenstaufen had been beaten down.
His baptismal name was Frederick, and he was a younger brother of Godfrey, duke of Upper Lorraine, marquis of Tuscany (by his marriage with Beatrice, widow of Boniface, marquis of Tuscany).
He supported the revolutionary cause in Lorraine, and fought at Valmy (1792) and Wissembourg (1793) in the republican army.
This description embraces also the production of Lorraine, where agriculture is less strenuously carried on, and the fertility of the soil is less.
The farms in Alsace are mostly small and are held partly as a private possession, partly on the communal system; in Lorraine there are some larger occupations.
In 1631 Gaston fled to Lorraine and the queen-mother to Brussels.
With regard to the fine boulevards of the Upper Town, it may be mentioned that about 1765 they were planted with the double row of lime trees which still constitute their chief ornament by Prince Charles of Lorraine while governing the Netherlands for his sister-in-law, the empress Maria Theresa.
He retired once more to his little court in Lorraine, with the title of king, leaving Augustus III.
In the Thirty Years' War Belfort was twice besieged, 1633 and 1634, and in 1635 there was a battle here between the duke of Lorraine and the allied French and Swedes under Marshal de la Force.
In 1871 he was appointed president of the governmental district of Gumbinnen in East Prussia, in 1875 district president (Bezirksprdsident) in Lorraine, and in 1877 Oberprdsident in Silesia.
Saarburg, which has been identified with the Pons Saravi of the Romans, belonged to France from 1661 to 1871, its earlier owners having been the bishops of Metz and the dukes of Lorraine.
In 1663 he published Le Palais de l'honneur, which besides giving the genealogy of the houses of Lorraine and Savoy, is a complete treatise on heraldry, and in 1664 Le Palais de la gloire, dealing with the genealogy of various illustrious French and European families.
Charles received a portion of the kingdom of Lothair afterwards called Lorraine, extending from the mouths of the Rhine to Toul, together with the town of Besancon, the Lyonnais, the Viennais, the Vivarais, and the Uzege, i.e.
A few days later he was appointed ambassador extraordinary, and despatched to Lorraine to resume the negotiations for Eric's marriage with the princess Renata.
Two days later Nils Sture arrived at Upsala fresh from his embassy to Lorraine, and was at once thrown into prison, where other members of the nobility were already detained.
This had long given its name to the countship of Bitsch, which was originally in the possession of the dukes of Lorraine.
The citadel, which had been constructed by Vauban on the site of the old castle after the capture of Bitsch by the French in 1624, had been destroyed when it was restored to Lorraine in 1698.
In 1604 it reverted to the Turks, who held it till 1683, when it was regained by the united forces of John Sobieski, king of Poland, and Prince Charles of Lorraine.
During his short reign the young king, a sickly youth and of feeble understanding, was the mere tool of his uncles Francis, duke of Guise, and Charles, cardinal of Lorraine, into whose hands he virtually delivered the reins of government.
After the conclusion of the Armistice Poincare made a tour in Alsace and Lorraine, his official entrance into Metz taking place on Dec. 4 1918.
He returned to England in the same year; but in 1571 he was in Lorraine, whither two physicians were sent by the queen to his relief in a dangerous illness.
After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II., the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
In 976 Otto deposed Duke Henry, restored order for the second time in Lorraine, and made another expedition into Bohemia in 977, when King Boleslaus II.
An expedition against the Poles was followed by peace with France, when Lothair renounced his claim on Lorraine.
Having made peace with the Moravians, he gained a great and splendid victory over the Northmen near Louvain in October 891, and in spite of some opposition succeeded in establishing his illegitimate son, Zwentibold, as king of the district afterwards called Lorraine.
A synod was held at Sutri, at which the powerful Godfrey, duke of Lorraine and Spoleto, and margrave of Tuscany, and the chancellor Wibert were present.
When Laon was taken by Charles, duke of Lorraine, in 988, he was put into prison, whence he escaped and sought the protection of Hugh Capet, king of France.
Winning the confidence of Charles of Lorraine and of Arnulf, archbishop of Reims, he was restored to his see; but he soon took the opportunity to betray Laon, together with Charles and Arnulf, into the hands of Hugh Capet.
In 870 he had married Richilde, who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine, but none of the children whom he had by her played a part of any importance.
On the 17th of November Elizabeth became queen of England, and the princes of Lorraine - Francis the great duke of Guise, and his brother the cardinal - induced their niece and her husband to assume, in addition to the arms of France and Scotland, the arms of a country over which they asserted the right of Mary Stuart to reign as legitimate heiress of Mary Tudor.
She arrived nevertheless in safety at Leith, escorted by three of her uncles of the house of Lorraine, and bringing in her train her future biographer, Brantome, and Chastelard, the first of all her voluntary victims. On the 21st of August she first met the only man able to withstand her; and their first passage of arms left, as he has recorded, upon the mind of John Knox an ineffaceable impression of her "proud mind, crafty wit and indurate heart against God and His truth."
Germany gets about two-thirds of her total ore supply from the great Jurassic " Minette " ore deposit of Luxemburg and Lorraine, which reaches also into France and Belgium.
France draws most of her iron ore from her own part of the great Minette ore deposit, and from those parts of it which were taken from her when she lost Alsace and Lorraine.
The old Lotharingian divisions passed wholly out of use, and the name of Lorraine became restricted to the district that still bears it.
In 1297 it was ceded by the count of Saarbrucken to the duke of Lorraine, and passed with Lorraine in 1766 to France, being transferred to Germany in 1871.
Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
Charles of Lorraine thoroughly identified himself with the best interests of the country, and was the champion of its liberties, and though he had at times to make a stand against the imperialistic tendencies of the chancellor Kaunitz, he was able to rely on the steady support of the empress, who appreciated the wise and liberal policy of her brother-in-law.
The death of Charles of Lorraine preceded only by a few months that of Maria Theresa, whose son Joseph II.
Of his successors o'ne of the most illustrious was Bruno, brother of the emperor Otto I., archbishop from 953 to 965, who was the first of the archbishops to exercise temporal jurisdiction, and was also "archduke" of Lorraine.
To Rene of Anjou, the duke of Lorraine, he showed himself less generous, setting up another claimant to the duchy of Lorraine in the person of Anthony of Vaudemont, and taking Rene prisoner in 1431; it was not until 1436 that he consented definitively to release Rene on condition that he should abandon several strong places and pay an enormous ransom.
These hills are bordered on the west by the high plain of Lorraine and the coalfields of Saarbrucken, the former being traversed by the river Mosel.
The larger part of Lorraine belongs to France, but the German part nossesses great mineral wealth in its rich layers of ironstone (siderite) and in the coal-fields of the Saar.
In Alsace-Lorraine the Vosges and the plateau of Lorraine are also remarkable for low temperatures.
With respect to Alsace-Lorraine, detailed estimates (but no census) gave the number of French in the territory of Lorraine at about f 70,000, and in that of Alsace at about 46,000.
The largest stock of pigs is in central Germany and Saxony, in Westphalia, on the lower Rhine, in Lorraine and Hesse.
Poultry farming is a considerable industry, thegeeseof Pomerania and thefowls of Thuringia and Lorraine being in especial favor.
The greater part of the basin belongs to Prussia, the rest to Lorraine.
Hesse and Baden, Lorraine and the upper Palatinate have also saltworks.
The total number of breweries in the beer excise district was, in 1905-1906, 5995, which produced I017 millior gallons; in Bavaria nearly 6000 breweries with 392 million gallons in Baden over 700 breweries with 68 million gallons; in WUrttem berg over 5000 breweries with 87 million gallons; and in Alsace Lorraine 95 breweries with about 29 million gallons.
They were bounded on the east by the Elbe and the Bohemian mountains, and on the west beyond the Rhine they included the districts known afterwards as Alsace and Lorraine.
In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century dukes appear id Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine.
The dukes of Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine were displeased at this election, probably because Conrad was likely to prove considerably more powerful than they wished.
Rather than acknowledge him, the duke of Lotharingia-, or Lorraine, transferred his allegiance to Charles the Simple of France; and it was in vain that Conrad protested and despatched armies into Lorraine.
Almost immediately he overcame the opposition of the dukes of Swabia and Bavaria; some time later, taking advantage of the troubled state of France, he accepted the homage of the duke of Lorraine, which for many centuries afterwards remained a part of the German kingdom.
This happened in 938, and in 939 a second rebellion, led by Ottos brother Henry, was supported by the duke of Franconia and by Giselbert, duke of Lorraine.
He went to an old enemy of his father, Frederick, archbishop of Mains, and the two plotted together against the king, who, hearing of their proceedings, returned to Germany in 952, leaving Duke Conrad of Lorraine as his representative in Italy.
Lorraine was divided into two duchies, Upper Lorraine and Lower Lorraine.
But he was detained for some time owing to the sudden invasion of Lower Lorraine by Lothair, king of France, in 978.
Having been recognized as king by the Saxons, the Thuringians and the nobles of Lorraine, the new king was able to turn his attention to the affairs of government, but on the whole his reign was an unfortunate one for Germany.
Franconia was in the hands of Conrad himself; thus Saxony, Thuringia, Carinthia and Lorraine were the only duchies not completely dependent upon the king.
Early in his reign he had made a determined enemy of Godfrey the Bearded duke of Henrj s Internal upper Lorraine, who, in 1044, conspired against him policy.
He had put down the disorder in Bavaria, in Saxony and in Lorraine; a diet held at Magdeburg in 1135 was attended by representatives from the vassal states of Denmark, Hungary, Bohemia and Poland; and in 1136, when he visited Italy for the second time, Germany was in a very peaceful condition.
At a later stage in his reign he was guilty of an act of even grosser selfishness; for after the War of the Polish Succession, in which he supported the claims of Augustus III.,elector of Saxony,he yielded Lorraine to Stanislaus Leszczynski, whose claims had been defended by France, and through whom France ultimately secured this beautiful German province.
The cession of Alsace and the greater part of Lorraine, wrested two centuries before by Louis XIV.
In the meantime the queen saw her father Stanislas established in Lorraine, and the affectionate intimacy which she maintained with him was the chief consolation of her harassed life.
In 1731 Great Britain and Holland agreed to respect it, in return for the cession of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to Don Carlos; but the hostility of the Bourbon powers continued, resulting in 1733 in the War of Polish Succession, the outcome of which was the acquisition of Lorraine by France, and of Naples, Sicily and the Tuscan ports by Don Carlos, while the power of the Habsburg monarchy in northern Italy was strengthened by the acquisition of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
Francis, the dispossessed duke of Lorraine, was to be compensated with Tuscany.
On the 12th of February 1736 he was married to the archduchess Maria Theresa, and on the 11th of May following he signed the formal act ceding Lorraine to France.
But by the decree of the 4th of August, which in the general abolition of feudal rights involved the possessions of many German princes enclaves in Alsace and Lorraine, the Constituent Assembly had made the first move in the war against the established European system.
Towards the further development of events in France, therefore, Leopold assumed at first a studiously moderate attitude; but his refusal to respond to the demand of the French government for the dispersal of the corps of emigres assembled under the protection of the German princes on the frontier of France, and the insistence on the rights of princes dispossessed in Alsace and Lorraine, precipitated the crisis.
Yet in this latter sense it would seem to have been assumed by Bruno of Saxony, archbishop of Cologne, and duke of Lorraine (953-965), when he divided his duchy into the dukedoms of Upper and Lower Lorraine.
The title of archduke of Lorraine ceased with the circumstances which had produced it.
The later dynasties of Brabant and Lorraine, when these fiefs became hereditary, bore only the title of duke.
The house of Habsburg, therefore, did not acquire this title with the inheritance of the dukes of Lorraine.
Meanwhile the many noble and dissatisfied pensioners of England adopted Protestantism, which also made its way among the barons, burgesses and clergy, so that, for political reasons, James at last could not but be hostile to the new creed; he bequeathed this anti-protestantism, with the French alliance, through his wife, Mary of Guise, and the influence of the house of Lorraine, to his unhappy daughter, Mary Stuart.
Mary shines like a good deed in a naughty world; but she was a Catholic, was of the house of Lorraine, and in diplomacy was almost as other diplomatists.
In 843, by the treaty of Verdun, it became part of Lotharingia (Lorraine), and in 879 was annexed to the kingdom of East Francia (Germany) by the treaty of Meerssen.
In 1815 he attended the Congress of Vienna, where he was especially occupied in endeavouring to obtain the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany; and later in the year he was with the allies in Paris, using his influence to secure the return of the art treasures carried off by the French.
In 1466 it was transferred to the duchy of Lorraine, and in 1766 it was, along with that duchy, incorporated with France.
Owing to family quarrels, he could not prevent the kingdom of Burgundy, or Arles, from passing into the hands of the emperor Conrad II., and no serious results followed his interference in Flanders or in Lorraine.
Meanwhile his father, making a parallel campaign in Lorraine, had assembled his first brilliant court at Nancy, and when Louis returned it was to find the king completely under the spell of Agnes Sorel.
Of the inheritance of the house of Anjou only Lorraine escaped the king.
In 1719, while Prince Elbeuf of the house of Lorraine, in command of the armies of Charles VI., was seeking crushed marble to make plaster for his new villa near Portici, he learned from the peasants that there were in the vicinity some pits from which they not only quarried excellent marble, but had extracted many statues in the course of years (see Jorio, Notizia degli scavi d'Ercolano, Naples, 1827).
By his wife Louise of Lorraine, daughter of the count of Vaudemont, he had no children, and on his deathbed he recognized Henry of Navarre as his successor.
It was left for the Poussins and Claude Lorraine in the next century, acting under mingled Italian and Flemish influences, to embody the still active spirit of the classical revival.
On his return from the third of these journeys he died at Metz in Lorraine on the 21st of June 1040.
On the contrary, the cardinal of Lorraine, by his question whether the Calvinists were prepared to sign the Confession of Augsburg, attempted to sow dissension between them and the Lutheran Protestants of Germany, on whose continued support they calculated.
Jung (La Verite sur la masque de fer) had brought forward another candidate, with the attractive name of "Marechiel," a soldier of Lorraine who had taken part in a poisoning plot against Louis XIV., and was arrested at Peronne by Louvois in 1673, and said to be lodged in the Bastille and then sent to Pignerol.
While still a girl she was attached to the service of Isabel of Lorraine, queen of Sicily, wife of Rene of Anjou, the brother-in-law of Charles VII.
France was unsuccessful in her immediate object, but at the peace of Vienna (1735) secured the possession of Lorraine.
In August 1555 he visited his native country and found the queen-mother, Mary of Lorraine, acting as regent in place of the real "sovereign," the youthful and better-known Mary, now being brought up at the court of France.
The rule of Charles, and especially his partiality for a certain Hagano, had aroused some irritation; and, supported by many of the clergy and by some of the most powerful of the Frankish nobles, Robert took up arms, drove Charles into Lorraine, and was himself crowned king of the Franks at Reims on the 29th of June 922.
The attempt to prove a pre-contract with the son of the duke of Lorraine broke down, and Henry was forced to resign himself to the sacrifice.
Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine, who was thrown into prison by Hugh Capet in 991, left two sons, the last male descendants of the Carolingians, Otto, who was also duke of Lower Lorraine and died without issue, and Louis, who after the year loon vanishes from history.
There is no positive evidence of any measures taken or threatened against him; but it is certain that he passed nearly the whole of 1546 and part of 1547 at Metz in Lorraine as physician to the town at the salary of 120 livres, and Sturm speaks of him as having been "cast out of France by the times" (with the exclamation c56 TLilv xpovwv) in a contemporary letter, and says that he himself in another letter gives a doleful account of his pecuniary affairs and asks for assistance.
By his marriage treaty (1419) with Isabel, elder daughter of Charles II., duke of Lorraine, he became heir to the duchy of Bar, which was claimed as the inheritance of his mother Yolande, and, in right of his wife, heir to the duchy of Lorraine.
Rene, then only ten, was to be brought up in Lorraine under the guardianship of Charles II.
When Louis of Bar died in 1430 Rene came into sole possession of his duchy, and in the next year, on his father-in-law's death, he succeeded to the duchy of Lorraine.
His title as duke of Lorraine was confirmed by his suzerain, the Emperor Sigismund, at Basel in 1434.
After appointing a regency in Bar and Lorraine, he visited his provinces of Anjou and Provence, and in 1438 set sail for Naples, which had been held for him by the Duchess Isabel.
Rene now made over the government of Lorraine to John, duke of Calabria, who was, however, only formally installed as duke of Lorraine on the death of Queen Isabel in 1 453.
His only surviving male descendant was then Rene II., duke of Lorraine, son of his daughter Yolande, comtesse de Vaudemont, who was gained over to the party of Louis XI., who suspected the king of Sicily of complicity with his enemies, the duke of Brittany and the Constable SaintPol.
Rene retired to Provence, and in 1474 made a will by which he left Bar to his grandson Rene II., duke of Lorraine; Anjou and Provence to his nephew Charles, count of Le Maine.
At an early age he entered public life and began in various ways to serve the regent, Mary of Lorraine, becoming her secretary of state in 1558.
By the marriage of Anne of Lorraine with the duke of Nemours in 1618 the duchy of Aumale passed to the house of Savoy-Nemours.
Yet Henry maintained the independence of the clergy against the pope Leo IX., and claimed Lorraine from the emperor Henry III.
The town, which is said to occupy the site of the Roman Neomagus, belonged in the middle ages to the dukes of Lorraine, ruins of whose chateau are still to be seen.
Rid of the affair of Lothair, king of Lorraine, by the death of that prince (869), he endeavoured in vain to mediate between the Frankish princes with a view to assuring to the emperor, Louis II., the heritage of the king of Lorraine.
The question of the divorce of Lothair II., king of Lorraine, who had repudiated his wife Theutberga to marry his concubine Waldrada, engaged Hincmar's literary activities in another direction.
At the request of a number of great personages in Lorraine he composed in 860 his De divortio Lotharii et Teutbergae, in which he vigorously attacked, both from the moral and the legal standpoints, the condemnation pronounced against the queen by the synod of Aix-la-Chapelle (February 860).
Hincmar energetically supported the policy of Charles the Bald in Lorraine, less perhaps from devotion to the king's interests than from a desire to see the whole of the ecclesiastical province of Reims united under the authority of a single sovereign, and in 869 it was he who consecrated Charles at Metz as king of Lorraine.
Duke Godfrey G dfrey o invaded Dirk's lands with a large army, but they were Lorraine.
Dirk allied himself with Godfrey the Bearded of Lorraine, who was at war with the emperor, and his territory was invaded by a powerful imperial fleet and army (1047).
The new duchy passed to Diane de Poitiers (1553), to Catherine of Lorraine, duchess of Montpensier (1578), to Marguerite of Valois (1582) and to Gabrielle d'Estrees (1598).
From him it passed to Geoffrey, duke of Lorraine, and afterwards to the countess Matilda, whose support of the pope led to the conquest of Mantua by the emperor Henry IV.
Tradition says that the straw-plait industry owes its introduction to James I., who transferred to Luton the colony of Lorraine plaiters whom Mary queen of Scots had settled in Scotland.
The last-known "epidemic" of ergotism occurred in Lorraine and Burgundy in the year 1816.
He concluded alliances with the Protestant princes in Germany, with the duke of Lorraine, the Swiss cantons (treaty of Soleure, 1602) and with Sweden.
He was successively prior at Lay, abbot at Nancy and of Senones in Lorraine.
As a historical writer he is best known by his Histoire ecclesiastique et civile de la Lorraine (Nancy, 1728), founded on original research and various useful works on Lorraine, of which a full list is given in Vigouroux's Dictionnaire de la Bible.
He fought for Henry, however, both on the Elster and in the siege of Rome; and he was invested in 1082 with the duchy of Lower Lorraine.
Lorraine had been penetrated by Cluniac influences, and Godfrey would seem to have been a man of notable piety.
Moreover, Charles of Lorraine was not prepared to bow before his successful rival, and before Hugh had secured the coronation of his son Robert as his colleague and successor in December 987, he had found allies and attacked the king.
In 987 the king had appointed to the vacant archbishopric of Reims a certain Arnulf, who at once proved himself a traitor to Hugh and a friend to Charles of Lorraine.
The most influential family in Rhenish Franconia was that of the Salians, the head of which early in the 10th century was Conrad the Red, duke of Lorraine, and son-in-law of Otto the Great.
Pole was required to leave France, and he established himself at Metz, in Lorraine, and built a palace at La Haute Pierre, near St Simphorien.
The famous "Strassburg oaths" between Charles the Bold and Louis the German were taken here in 842, and in 923, through the homage paid by the duke of Lorraine to the German king Henry I., began the connexion of the town with the German kingdom which was to last for over seven centuries.
Lothair then seems to have conceived the design of recovering Lorraine.
Division He managed to become king of Lorraine on the death of the of his nephew Lothair II., and emperor and king of kingdom Germany on that of his other nephew Louis II.
When Louis died two years later (879), the same nobles met, some at Creil, the rest at Meaux, and the first party chose Louis of Germany, who preferred Lorraine to the crown; while the rest anointed Louis III.
Having thus tranquillized the west, Charles took advantage of Louis the Childs death, and conquered Lorraine, in spite of opposition from Conrad, EngelspIe king of Germany (921).
Thanks to Hughs support and to the good offices of Otto and his brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne and duke of Lorraine, Lothair was chosen king and crowned at Reims. Hugh exacted, as payment for his disinterestedness and fidelity, a renewal of his sovereignty over Burgundy with that of Aquitaine as well; he was in fact the viceroy of the kingdom, and others imitated him by demanding indemnities, privileges and confirmation of rights, as was customary at the beginning of a reign.
Hugh strengthened his position in Burgundy, Lorraine and Normandy by means of marriages; but just as his power was at its height he died (956).
However, Otto died first (983), leaving a three-year-old son, Otto III., and Lothair, hoping for Lorraine, upheld the claims of Henry of Bavaria, who wished to oust Otto.
After Louis Vs sudden death, aged twenty, in 987, Adalbero and Gerbert, with the support of the reformed Cluniac clergy, at the Assembly of Senhis eliminated from the succession the rightful heir, Charles of Lorraine, who, without influence or wealth, had become a stranger in his own country, and elected Hugh Capet, who, though rich and powerful, was superior neither in intellect nor character.
Hugh Capet needed more than three years and the betrayal of his enemy into his hands before he could parry the attack of a quite second-rate adversary, Charles of Lorraine (990), the last descendant of Charlemagne.
In order to retake it Henry ceded the beautiful valley of the Sane and the Rhne to the German emperor Conrad, and henceforth the kingdom of Burgundy was, like Lorraine, to follow the fortunes of Germany.
Like his father, he subsequently managed to retrieve some of the crown lands from William the Bastard, the too-powerful duke of Normandy; and he made a praiseworthy though fruitless attempt to regain possession of Lorraine for the French crown; Finally, by the coronation of his son Philip (1059) he confirmed the hereditary right of the Capets, soon to be superior to the elective rights of the bishops and great barons of the kingdom.
John seized the opportunity to consolidate Coaiftion against Philip a European coalition, which included against most of the feudal lords in Flanders, Belgium and Philip Lorraine, and the emperor Otto IV.
Philip the Fair instituted suits against his natural enemies, the king of England and the count of Flanders, foreign princes Philip the holding possessions within his kingdom; and against the emperor, whose ancient province of Lorraine and kingdom of Arles constantly changed hands between Germany and France.
His Eastern marriage had gained him Champagne; and he afterpolicy of wards extended his influence over Franche Comt, Philip the Bar and the bishoprics of Lorraine, acquiring also Fair.
First came the reconciliation, in his despite, of those irreconcilables, the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria; and then the union of both with the duke of Lorraine, who was also disturbed at the duke of Burgundys ambition.
To the hanging of the brave garrison of Granson the Swiss responded by terrible reprisals at Granson and at Morat (March to June 1476); while the people of Lorraine finally routed Charles at Nancy on the 5th of January 1477, the duke himself falling in the battle.
In vain did the malcontent princes attempt to set up a new League of Public Weal, the Guerre folle (Mad War), in which the duke of Brittany, Francis II., played the part of Charles the Bold, dragging in the people of Lorraine and the king of Navarre, In vain did Charles VIII., his majority attained, at once abandon in the treaty of Sable the benefits gained by the victory of Saint-Aubin du Cormier (1488).
By the possession of the three bishoprics and the recapture of Calais an effort towards a natural line of frontier and towards a national policy seemed indicated; but while the old soldiers could not forget Marignano, Ceresole, nor Italy perishing with the name of France on her lips, the secret alliance between the cardinal of Lorraine and Granvella against the Protestant heresy foretold the approaching subordination of national questions to religious differences, and a decisive attempt to purge the kingdom of the new doctrines.
Cond and Coligny, who, having obtained liberty of conscience in January 1561, now demanded liberty of worship. The colloquy at Poissy between the cardinal of Lorraine and Theodore Bean (September 1561), did not end in the agreement hoped for, and the duke of Guise so far abused its spirit as to embroil the French Calvinists with the German I
Catholic propaganda, revived by the monks and the Jesuits, and backed by the armed confraternities and by Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, now entrusted with a prominent part by the cardinal of Lorraine; Catherines complicity in the duke of Alvas terrible persecution in the Netherlands; and her attempt to capture Coligny and Cond at Noyers all combined to cause a fresh outbreak of hostilities in the west.
In the course of a year Wflrttemberg and Franconia were reconquered from the Swedes; and the duke of Lorraine, who had taken the side of the Empire, called in the Spanish and the imperial forces to open the road to the Netherlands through Franche-Comt.
Turin, the capital of Piedmont, was taken by Henri de Lorraine, comte dHarcourt; the alliance with rebellious portugal facilitated the occupation of Roussillon and almost the whole of Catalonia, and Spain was reduced to defending herself; while the embarrassments of the Habsburgs at Madrid made those of Vienna more tractable.
Roussillon and Artois, with a line of strongholds constituting a formidable northern frontier, were ceded to France; and the acquisition of Alsace and Lorraine under certain conditions was ratified.
In fact, Rashi never went farther than from the Seine to the Rhine; the utmost limit of his travels were the academies of Lorraine.
Situated between France and Germany, Lorraine was more French than German, and French was the common language of Jew and Christian.
Rashi was twenty-five years of age when he returned to Troyes, which town thenceforward eclipsed the cities of Lorraine and became the recognized centre of Jewish learning.
His widow, Beatrice, in 1055 married Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, and governed the country till her death in 1076, when she was succeeded by Matilda (q.v.), her only child by her first husband.
Giovan Gastone was the last Medicean grand duke; being childless, it was agreed by the treaty of Vienna that at his death Tuscany should be given to Francis, duke of Lorraine, husband of the archduchess Maria Theresa, afterwards empress.
Tuscany was governed by a series of foreign regents and was a prey to adventurers from Lorraine and elsewhere; although the administration was not wholly inefficient and introduced some useful reforms, the people were ground by taxes to pay for the apanage of Francis in Vienna and for Austrian wars, and reduced to a state of great poverty.
There was a division of opinion between the moderates, who favoured a constitutional Tuscany under Leopold, but forming part of an Italian federation, and the popular party, who aimed at the expulsion of the house of Lorraine and the unity of Italy under Victor Emmanuel.
At the partition treaty of Verdun (843) Frisia became part of Lotharingia or Lorraine; at the treaty of Mersen (870) it was divided between the kingdoms of the East Franks (Austrasia) and the West Franks (Westrasia); in 880 the whole country was united to Austrasia; in 911 it fell under the dominion of Charles the Simple, king of the West Franks, but the districts of East Frisia asserted their independence and for a long time governed themselves after a very simple democratic fashion.
He embroiled himself successively with Sigismund of Austria, to whom he refused to restore his possessions in Alsace for the stipulated sum; with the Swiss, who supported the free towns of Alsace in their revolt against the tyranny of the ducal governor, Peter von Hagenbach (who was condemned and executed by the rebels in May 1474); and finally, with Rene of Lorraine, with whom he disputed the succession of Lorraine, the possession of which had united the two principal portions of Charles's territories - Flanders and the duchy and county of Burgundy.
He was more successful in Lorraine, where he seized Nancy (Both of November 1475).
He succeeded in raising a fresh army of 30,000 men, with which he attacked Morat, but he was again defeated by the Swiss army, assisted by the cavalry of Rene of Lorraine (22nd of June 1476).
Galileo's answer, written, as he said himself, currente calamo, was an exposition of a formal theory as to the relations of physical science to Holy Writ, still further developed in an elaborate apology addressed by him in the following year (1614) to Christina of Lorraine, dowager grand-duchess of Tuscany.
Fears were raised when officers arrived at Lorraine Lovell's parent's home in Emerson Green to find bloodstains and signs of forced entry.
Lorraine At the hospital I train at we also use the gray cannula.
In spite of a troubled childhood, actress and singer Lorraine McIntosh has found true happiness through her own family.
For sun downers, Abi, Ellie, Katrin, Lorraine, Barney and Anna kept together.
We return to Lorraine for our farewell gala dinner.
It shows the influence of the great French landscapist Claude Lorraine, as well as Constable and Turner.
Emile Durkheim was born at Epinal in the eastern French province of Lorraine on April 15, 1858.
Lorraine then went on to work with Selfridges where she was hired to do a range of wool rugs.
Lorraine McAslan produces an appropriately throaty tone for the work's opening, then ruminates long and deeply.
Lorraine visit the Fresh Air studio Posted October 26th, 2006 by Tim Johns Lorraine are a Norwegian indie pop three-piece.
Delft was founded in 1075 by Godfrey III., duke of Lower Lorraine, after his conquest of Holland, and came subsequently into the hands of the counts of Holland.
He himself was safe in the independent duchy of Lorraine with Emilie de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet,' with whom he began to be intimate in 1733; he had now taken up his abode with her at the chÃ¢teau of Cirey.
Francis was under the spell of Mary Stuart, and she, little disposed to meddle with politics on her own account, was managed by her uncles, the cardinal of Lorraine and the duke of Guise.
With various modifications or restrictions this latter system was imported into all the Latin lands, into Spain and Portugal, and thence into Brazil, and into Lorraine and France, where the celebrated congregation of St Maur (see Maurists) was formed early in the 17th century.
He wrote a small book of memoirs of this campaign, Allemands et francais (1871), in which he spoke of the conquerors without bitterness; this attitude was all the more praiseworthy as his mother was an Alsatian, and he was unable to resign, himself to the loss of Alsace and Lorraine.
The oolitic brown ores of Lorraine and Luxemburg are known as "minette," a diminutive of the French mine (ore), in allusion to their low content of metal.
She died (1741) in Mary the Netherlands, and the empress-queen, Maria Theresa, who had succeeded under the Pragmatic Sanction to the Burgundian domains of her father about a year before, appointed her brother-in-law, Charles of Lorraine, to be governorgeneral in her aunt's place, and he retained that post, to the great advantage of Belgium, for nearly forty years.
For ten years civil war raged in Lorraine; in Saxony much blood was shed in petty quarrels; and Henry made expeditions against his turbulent vassals in Flanders and Friesland.
Elizabeth having died in 1000, Fulk married Hildegarde of Lorraine, by whom he had a son, Geoffrey Martel, and a daughter Ermengarde, who married Geoffrey, count of Gatinais, and was the mother of Geoffrey "le Barbu" (the Bearded) and of Fulk "le Rechin" (see ANJou).
Lorraine McAslan produces an appropriately throaty tone for the work 's opening, then ruminates long and deeply.
Paula Julie Abdul was born June 19, 1962 in San Fernando, California, to Harry Abdul and Lorraine Rykiss.
The couple's ring designer, Lorraine Schwartz, cleared the matter up when she spoke to media about Kris' involvement in the ring selection and design.
There are many in the paranormal community, such as the controversial Lorraine Warren, who have dedicated their paranormal careers to demonology.
Selections include an appetizer (typically soup or salad), the entrée (choices range from grilled tuna to Quiche Lorraine), and then the dessert (Crème Brule, ice cream, or fresh fruit).
Free French flag, during WWII, the Free French forces fighting against the Vichy regime and Germany, inserted a red cross of Lorraine (a symbol of Joan of Arc's fight against foreign invaders) on the white stripe of the tricolour.
Indeed, in the season finale, one of the finalists, Erica, had to admit to Michael and Lorraine that she was a Penthouse Pet of the Year.
This house is located on Lorraine Boulevard in Hancock Park, and was once owned by philanthropist Dorothy Chandler.
Founded by Dr. Lorraine Meisner, a cell biologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and pathologist Dr. Michael Schinitsky, Cellex-C is a collection of intensive skin formulations designed to combat the signs of aging.