How to use Lords in a sentence
Laws, however, did not protect the women, who were the mere chattels of their lords.
The Estensi made themselves lords of Ferrara; the Torriani headed the Guelphs of Milan.
Danby had removed to the country, but returned on the 21st of April to avoid the threatened passing by the Lords of the attainder, and was sent to the Tower.
Servants—which her father and mother had been—were listed on the House of their immortal lords.
The new members of council disembarked at Calcutta on the 19th of October 1774; and on the following day commenced the long feud which scarcely terminated twentyone years later with the acquittal of Warren Hastings by the House of Lords.Advertisement
His work as a barrister was chiefly concerned with pedigree cases before the House of Lords.
In 1783, although he declined to re-enter the cabinet, he acted as Speaker of the House of Lords.
The lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of April 1645.
Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate.
He also frequently came forward as a preacher and as a speaker in the House of Lords.Advertisement
For some time all appeals to the king, to parliament, and to the courts of justice were unavailing; but on the 12th of February 1684 his application to Chief Justice Jeffreys was at last successful, and he was set at liberty on finding bail to the amount of X40,000, to appear in the House of Lords in the following session.
He again took his seat in the Lords as a leader of the moderate Tory party.
He returned in October, but was not included among the lords justices appointed regents during William's absence in this year.
In the House of Lords he was prominent as a determined foe of the prime minister, Lord North, who, after he had resigned his position as chamberlain, deprived him of the office of lordlieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1780.
With Anne's condemnation by the House of Lords Cranmer had nothing to do.Advertisement
This writ was one transferring cases concerning the ownership of property from the courts of the feudal lords to those of the king.
This custom, which owes its origin to Henry II., meant a loss of revenue to the lords, whose victory in this matter, however, was a step backwards.
The principle of judgment by one's peers is asserted, and is obviously the privilege of every class of freemen, not of the greater lords alone.
The villains, who formed the majority of the population, got very little from it; in fact the only clauses which protect them do so because they are property - the property of their lords - and therefore valuable.
Cesare's dominion at once began to fall to pieces; Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino, returned to his duchy with Venetian help; and the lords of Piombino, Rimini and Pesaro soon regained their own; Cesena, defended by a governor faithful to Cesare, alone held out.Advertisement
From April to December 1697 he discharged the duties of lord chamberlain, and for part of this time he was one of the lords justices, but the general suspicion with which he was regarded terrified him, and in December he resigned.
His adroitness in intrigue and his fascinating manners were exceptional even in an age when such qualities formed part of every statesman's education; but the characteristics which ensured him success in the House of Lords and in the royal closet led to failure in his attempts to understand the feelings of the mass of his countrymen.
The same year he seized boon secretly sent by Elizabeth to the lords of the congregation.
Thence they marched with a strong force towards Edinburgh, meeting the lords on the 15th of June at Carberry Hill.
And now the younger line, earls of Arundel and Lords Mautravers, were also to have a Howard to represent them.Advertisement
Thomas, son of the fourth duke of Norfolk's marriage with the daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden, founded the line of the present earls of Suffolk and Berkshire and of the extinct Lords Howard of Escrick.
The Protector summoned him in 1657 to his House of Lords, but he was imprisoned in 1659 on suspicion of a share in Booth's insurrection and, after the Restoration, was created, in 1661, earl of Carlisle, Viscount Morpeth and Lord Dacre of Gilsland, titles which are still held by his descendants.
The Viscount Stafford was one of the "five Popish lords" committed to the Tower in 1678 as a result of the slanders of Titus Oates and he died by the axe in 1680 upon testimony which, as the diarist Evelyn protested, "should not be taken against the life of a dog."
The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.
Up to 1861, the date of the emancipation, the peasant serfs had been under the patrimonial jurisdiction of their lords.Advertisement
He was chosen as one of the lords of the congregation in 1557, and commanded the contingents sent by Forfar and Fife against the queen regent in 1559.
He took a prominent part in the dispute in 1671 between the two Houses concerning the right of the Lords to amend money bills, and wrote a learned pamphlet on the question entitled The Privileges of the House of Lords and Commons (1702), in which the right of the Lords was asserted.
The author however of the preface to The Rights of the Lords asserted (1702), while blaming their publication as "scattered and unfinished papers," admits their genuineness.
The principal buildings are the old church of St Vincent, containing the monuments of the lords of Arkel; the town hall, a prison, custom-house, barracks and a military hospital.
His elder brother was drowned in the Thames in the following year; and in 1814, on the death of his father, he took his seat in the House of Lords as Baron Auckland.Advertisement
In that year he was elected member of the Irish parliament for Dungannon, and joined the earl of Antrim and other lords in concerting measures for supporting Charles I.
Various parts of the present territory were, however, held by other lords, such as the duke of Carinthia and the bishop of Freising.
The bishop sits in the House of Lords, but has no vote.
In 1873 Sir George Jessel was made a judge, and Lord Rothschild took his seat in the House of Lords as the first Jewish peer in 1886.
In 1907 he took a prominent part in advocating the ending, rather than the mending, of the House of Lords; and in 1908 he was elected chairman of the party, a post which he held for two years and to which he was reelected in the autumn of 1914 when the then chairman, Mr. Ramsay Macdonald, had to resign owing to his pacifist views.Advertisement
In order to take possession of his new see, he had to brave the wrath of the duke of Burgundy, override the resistance of the clergy and bourgeoisie, and even withstand an armed attack on the part of several lords; but his protector, the duke of Orleans, had his investiture performed by Wenceslaus, king of the Romans.
In that year an act was passed by parliament establishing an agreement with seven of the Lords Proprietors for the surrender of their claims to both provinces.
In 1 534 the Saxon lords of Biinau obtained it and introduced the Protestant religion, which was exterminated when, after the battle of the White Hill (1620) the Bunau family was driven out.
In December 1806 he was elected a representative peer for Scotland, and took his seat as a Tory in the House of Lords, but for some years he took only a slight part in public business.
The fabric of the small chapel is apparently of the 14th century, and may have been attached to the manor house of Portpool, held at that period by the Lords Grey of Wilton.Advertisement
Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rheingrafenstein (12th century), formerly a seat of the count palatine of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Hutten, to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins in 1889.
A bill of attainder, passed by the Lords, was rejected at Cromwell's instigation and probably with Henry's goodwill by the Commons.
The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will, and were pardoned for their recent violence, in return owning allegiance to Edward.
The hostility of Arran and his brother Archbishop Hamilton forced Mary into friendly relations with the lords who favoured the Protestant party.
The lords of the Congregation soon assembled in considerable force on Cupar Muir.Advertisement
The lords of the Congregation sought help from Elizabeth, while the regent had recourse to France, where an expedition under her brother, Rene of Lorraine, marquis of Elbeuf, was already in preparation.
The strength of her opponents was increased by the defection of Chatelherault and his son Arran; and an even more serious danger was the treachery of her secretary Maitland, who betrayed her plans to the lords of the Congregation.
When she knew that she was dying Mary sent for the lords of the Congregation, with whom she pleaded for the maintenance of the French alliance.
He took his seat in the Lords on the 25th of May 1711.
Till the fall of Walpole in 1742, Carteret could take no share in public affairs except as a leader of opposition of the Lords.
Some change seems to have come from the north; and there are those who go so far as to say that the centre henceforward was the Argolid, and especially "golden" Mycenae, whose lords imposed a new type of palace and a modification of Aegean art on all other Aegean lands.
He acted as one of the lords justices during the absence from Ireland of the lord deputy, the earl of Sussex, in 1557.
Adjoining the town is the beautiful park of Lord Dynevor, which contains the ruined keep of Dinefawr Castle and the residence of the Rices (Lords Dynevor), erected early in the 17th century but modernized in 1858.
The castle ruins remain in the possession of the Rices, Lords Dynevor, heirs and descendants of Prince Cadell.
The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of Orleans.
The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
The admiralty advocate or advocate to his majesty in his office of admiralty represented specially the lords of the admiralty.
Caub, first mentioned in the year 983, originally belonged to the lords of Falkenstein, passed in 1277 to the Rhenish Palatinate, and attained civic rights in 1324.
He did not, however, sit long in the House of Commons; for, on the death of his mother in 1837, he succeeded to the peerage which had been conferred on her with remainder to her only surviving son, and as Viscount Canning took his seat in the House of Lords.
The resettlement of dignities made in Babylon in 32 3, while it left the eastern commands practically undisturbed as well as that of Antipater in Europe, placed Perdiccas (whether as regent or as chiliarch) in possession of the kings' persons, and this was a position which the other Macedonian lords could not suffer.
Many of the Scots princes received their education as wards of the Lords Erskine and the earls of Mar, the last to be thus educated being Henry, the eldest son of James VI.
This brought the latter into conflict with Alexander, who determined to revenge himself by making an alliance with the king's enemies, especially the Sforza family, lords of Milan.
The lords Burgh or Borough of Gainsborough (1487-1599) were a Lincolnshire family believed to be descended from a younger son of Hubert de Burgh.
When a similar motion was brought forward in the Lords the consideration of it was postponed to the following year, in order to give time for the examination of witnesses by a committee of the House.
A similar resolution was successful in the House of Lords.
Governors were appointed by the lords proprietors, and there are copious records in the state papers of the attempts made to develop the resources of the islands.
In 1784 and 1786 sums were voted in parliament to indemnify the descendants of the old lords proprietors, and the islands.
Below the feudal nobility and their Moslem soldiers came the Christian serfs, tillers of the soil and taxpayers, whose lives and property were at the mercy of their lords.
They had now to satisfy the imperial tax-farmers and excisemen, as well as their feudal lords.
Krumau is principally celebrated because its ancient castle was long the stronghold of the Rosenberg family, known also as pani z ruze, the lords of the rose.
On the conquest of the district by the Normans under Fitz Hamon, Cardiff became the caput of the seigniory of Glamorgan, and the castle the residence of its lords.
In 1284 the inhabitants petitioned the burgesses of Hereford for a certified copy of the customs of the latter town, and these furnished a model for the later demands of the growing community at Cardiff from its lords, while Cardiff in turn furnished the model for the Glamorgan towns such as Neath and Kenfig.
As the chief representative of the Church of England in the House of Lords, his firmness, combined with broadmindedness, in regard to the attitude of the nonconformists towards denominational education, made his influence widely felt.
By the canon law all resignation bonds were simoniacal, and in 1826 the House of Lords held that all resignation bonds, general or special, were illegal.
In the course of the 13th century the idea began to prevail that it was fair for the king, in time of war, to levy a taille upon the subjects of the lords having the haute j ustice in various parts of the royal domain.
He also presided, as an eminent constitutional lawyer, over a committee set up in that year to consider the reconstruction of the House of Lords, and spent much labour in a task which all parties were disposed to shirk.
Other facilities for outdoor enjoyment are provided in Hesketh Park (presented to the town by the Rev. Charles Hesketh, formerly rector of North Meols, and one of the lords of the manor), the Botanic Gardens, Kew Gardens, South Marine Park, and the Winter Gardens.
These early lords of Coucy remained till the 14th century in possession of the land from which they took their name.
Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became duke of Devonshire.
The House of Lords (Herrenhaus) justified the king's insistence in calling it into being by its support of Bismarck against the more popular House during the next reign.
On the 18th of July he succeeded his father as chancellor of the university of Oxford, on the 31st of December he was made a member of the council of state, and about the same time obtained a regiment and a seat in Cromwell's House of Lords.
At first all counts were reckoned as princes of the Empire (Reichsfiirsten); but since the end of the 12th century this rank was restricted to those who were immediate tenants of the crown,' the other counts of the Empire (Reichsgrafen) being placed among the free lords (harones, liberi domini).
In Dean cemetery, partly laid out on the banks of the Water of Leith, and considered the most beautiful in the city (opened 1845), were interred Lords Cockburn, Jeffrey and Rutherford; " Christopher North," Professor Aytoun, Edward Forbes the naturalist, John Goodsir the anatomist; Sir William Allan, L Sam Bough, George Paul Chalmers, the painters; George Combe, the phrenologist; Playfair, the architect; Alexander Russel, editor of the Scotsman; Sir Archibald Alison, the historian; Captain John Grant, the last survivor of the old Peninsular Gordon Highlanders; Captain Charles Gray, of the Royal Marines, writer of Scottish songs; Lieutenant John Irving, of the Franklin expedition, whose remains were sent home many years after his death by Lieut.
It was during the period 1841-1849, when he had no legal duty, except the self-imposed one of occasionally hearing Scottish appeals in the House of Lords, that the unlucky dream of literary fame troubled Lord Campbell's leisure.'
It must not be supposed that during this period the literary lawyer was silent in the House of Lords.
The 3rd volume of the Protests of the Lords, edited by Thorold Rogers (1875), contains no less than ten protests by Campbell, entered in the years 1842-1845.
The great earldoms of the West-Saxon period were allowed to lapse; the new earls, for the most part closely connected with William by the ties of blood or friendship, were lords of single shires; and only on the marches of the kingdom was the whole of the royal jurisdiction delegated to such feudatories.
During the rule of the nobles and the mixed rule of nobles and popolani the commune of Siena was enlarged by fortunate acquisitions of neighbouring lands and by the submission of feudal lords, such as the Scialenghi, Aldobrandeschi, Pannocchieschi, Visconti di Campiglia, &c.
The neighbouring lords attacked and ravaged the municipal territories; grave injuries were inflicted by the mercenary bands, especially by the Bretons and Gascons.
The British government appointed Lords Auckland and Holland as negotiators, and the result of the deliberations was the treaty of the 31st of December 1806, which contained no provision against impressments and provided no indemnity for the seizure of goods and vessels.
Under the excitement created by the actions of Wilkes, Horne plunged into politics, and in 1765 brought out a scathing pamphlet on Lords Bute and Mansfield, entitled " The Petition of an Englishman."
Sixty-two of its seventy-one enactments were directed against the peasants, who were henceforth bound to the soil and committed absolutely into the hands of " their natural lords."
The stupid and abortive conspiracy of Peter Zrinyi and three other magnates, who were publicly executed (April 30, 1671), was followed by wholesale arrests and confisca 1 The jobbagyok, or under-tenants, had to follow the example of their lords; they were, by this time, mere serfs with no privileges either political or religious.
As one of the "lords ordainers" he was a recognized leader of the opposition to Edward II.
In 1369 his son Earl Thomas succeeded; from 1376 to 1379 he was among the lords striving for reform, and in the latter year he was appointed governor to the king.
Of the cadet branches of the house, the oldest was that of Powyke and Alcester, which obtained a barony in 1447 and became extinct in 1496; from it sprang the Beauchamps, Lords St Amand from 1448, of whom was Richard, bishop of Salisbury, first chancellor of the order of the Garter, and who became extinct in 1508, being the last known male heirs of the race.
Later cadets were John, brother of the 3rd earl, who carried the standard at Crecy, became captain of Calais, and was summoned as a peer in 1350, but died unmarried; and William, brother of the 4th earl, who was distinguished in the French wars, and succeeding to the lands of the Lords Abergavenny was summoned in that barony 1392; his son was created earl of Worcester in 1420, but died without male issue in 1422; from his daughter, who married Sir Edward Neville, descended the Lords Abergavenny.
In the IIth century its lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson (which also possessed the countships of Montbeliard and Ferrette), and usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of Lorraine, adhered to the German side.
From the time of Hyrcanus downwards the ideal of the princely high priests became more and more divergent from the ideal of the pious in Israel, and in the Psalter of Solomon we see religious poetry turned against the lords of the Temple and its worship.
A few months' rest enabled him to resume his seat in the Lords, of which he was one of the acknowledged leaders.
The Excise Bill, the great premier's favourite measure, was vehemently opposed by him in the Lords, and by his three brothers in the Commons.
In 1559 it was the headquarters of the Lords of the Congregation, and in 1607 the scene of the meetings of the synod of Fife known as the Three Synods of Dysart.
Its inhabitants, though nominally subject to the lords of Glamorgan since Fitzhamon's conquest, enjoyed a large measure of independence and often raided the lowlands.
He was on intimate terms with apologists for assassination; there is some evidence that he favoured a project for the massacre of the Irish peers while in procession to the House of Lords for the trial of Lord Kingston in May 1798.
There had been some question as to whether Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman should go to the House of Lords, but there was a decided unwillingness in the party, and he determined to keep his seat in the Commons.
But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.
His own special "leads" were few, owing to the personal reasons given above; his declaration at the Queen's Hall, London, early in 1907, in favour of drastic land reform, served only to encourage a number of extremists; and the Liberal enthusiasm against the House of Lords, violently excited in 1 9 06 by the fate of the Education Bill and Plural Voting Bill, was rather damped than otherwise, when his method of procedure by resolution of the House of Commons was disclosed in 1907.
The problem still remained, how to get the House of Lords to pass a "law" to restrict their own powers.
After the passing of this resolution the cry against the House of Lords rapidly weakened, since it became clear at the by-elections (culminating at Peckham in March 1908) that the "will of the people" was by no means unanimously on the side of the bills which had failed to pass.
The coinage had not only been seriously debased during the closing years of the Tokugawa regime, but large quantities of paper currency had been issued and circulated, both by many of the feudal lords, and by the central government itself, as a temporary expedient for filling an impoverished exchequer.
On April 11, 1582, the lords of the council wrote to the lord mayor to the effect that, as " her Majesty sometimes took delight in those pastimes, it had been thought not unfit, having regard to the season of the year and the clearance of the city from infection, to allow of certain companies of players in London, partly that they might thereby xvi.
His hopes and expectations were fulfilled when 4 The return was made " by special command from the Right Honourable the Lords of His Majesty's Privy Council."
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
Its early lords were the bishops of Metz, the counts of the lower Saargau, and the counts of the Ardennes.
In the parliament of 1654 he was returned for Oxford county and in that of 1656 for the university, while in January 1658 he was included in Cromwell's House of Lords.
Another castle, built in the same century, on the east bank, was held direct by the lords of Glamorgan, as the westernmost outpost of their lordship. It was frequently attacked by the Welsh, notably in 1231 when it was taken, and the town demolished by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth.
Other charters were granted to it by successive lords of Glamorgan in 1290, 1340, 1 359, 1 397, 1421 and 1423.
This was a blockhouse built for coast defence by Henry VIII., but became the official residence of the Lords Warden of the Cinque Ports, and was in consequence much altered from its original condition.
It is thus not only a general word for a prince or sovereign, but also the common word for a feudal superior, and particularly of a feudal tenant holding directly of the king, a baron (q.v.), hence a peer of the realm, a member of the House of Lords, constituted of the lords temporal and the lords spiritual; this is the chief modern usage.
In certain cases the members of a board which has taken the place of an office of state are known as lords commissioners or, shortly, lords of the office in question, e.g.
On the occasion of the offer of the crown to Cromwell he issued King Richard the Third Revived (1657), and on the creation of the new House of Lords A Plea for the Lords (1658).
In the 12th century the site of Elberfeld was occupied by the castle of the lords of Elverfeld, feudatories of the archbishops of Cologne.
Frequently did great lay lords, as in this case, hold lands by feudal tenure of ecclesiastics.
This was particularly the case in parts of France and Germany where feudalism continued to regulate the property relations of lords and vassals longer than elsewhere, and where the underlying economic feudalism remained in large part unchanged.
A charter was granted to the town by the lords of Powis, confirmed by James I.
It then remained for several years in the hands of the lords of Powis.
Thus three of the rebel lords were pardoned after impeachment and attainder in 1715.
Examples of acts of indemnity are two private acts passed in 1880 to relieve Lords Byron and Plunket from the disabilities and penalties to which they were liable for sitting and voting in the House of Peers without taking the oath.
In Naples he fomented a conspiracy among the feudal lords, who were discontented with the centralized government established under the auspices of Frederick's chancellor, Piero della Vigna.
He was succeeded by other lords or tyrants, of whom the most renowned was Castruccio Castracane, a political and military adventurer of much the same stamp as Uguccione himself.
New lords, or petty tyrants, rose to power in turn during this period of civil discord, but the military valour of the Pisans was not yet extinguished By sea they were almost impotent - Corsica and Sardinia were lost to them for ever; but they were still formidable by land.
Thenceforth the Florentines remained lords of Pisa.
The Eremitani is an Augustinian church of the 13th century, distinguished as containing the tombs of Jacopo (1324) and Ubertino (1345) da Carrara, lords of Padua, and for the chapel of SS James and Christopher, illustrated by Mantegna's frescoes.
From that date till 1405, with the exception of two years (1388-1390) when Gian Galeazzo Visconti held the town, nine members of the Carrara family succeeded one another as lords of the city.
On the 11th of March 1884 he took his seat in the House of Lords as Baron Tennyson of Aldworth and Farringford.
The Corn Bill passed the House of Lords on the 28th of June 1846, and on the same day the government were beaten in the House of Commons on an Irish Coercion Bill.
Encouraged by this triumph, he brought in a Bill to prevent any fresh appointments in the Irish Church, and this also passed the Commons, though it was defeated in the Lords.
This was thrown out by the Lords, but became law a year later.
The House of Lords threw out a bill to abolish the purchase of commissions in the army.
On the 12th of March 1874 he informed Lord Granville that he could give only occasional attendance in the House of Commons during the current session, and that he must " reserve his entire freedom to divest himself of all the was carried, but the abolition of the paper-duty was defeated in the House of Lords.
By this device the Lords were obliged to acquiesce in the repeal of the paper-duty.
It passed the House of Commons, but was thrown out by the House of Lords on the second reading on the 8th of September 1893.
He made his last speech in the House of Commons on the 1st of March 1894, acquiescing in some amendments introduced by the Lords into the Parish Councils Bill; and on the 3rd of March he placed his resignation in the queen's hands.
The strongly fortified castle (Castel Vecchio) built by the Della Scala lords in the 14th century stands on the line of the wall of Theodoric, close by the river.
This is exemplified in the magnificently sculptured tombs of the Della Scala lords, designed with steadily growing splendour, from the simple sarcophagus of Martino I.
His only published works are two sermons, one preached before the Lords (London, 1794), the other before the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (London, 1797).
During the first of these periods he deepened his unpopularity by assailing the undoubted prerogatives of the crown, by claiming for the House of Commons the right to override not only the king and the Lords but the opinion of the country, and by resisting a dissolution.
These proceedings were challenged in the House of Lords by Lord Houghton, and the lord chancellor (Westbury), speaking on behalf of the government, stated that if there was any ' `synodical judgment" it would be a violation of the law, subjecting those concerned in it to the penalties of a praemunire, but that the sentence in question was "simply nothing, literally no sentence at all."
Owing to the influx caused by the periodical visits of the daimyos (feudal lords) with their numerous attendants, it probably exceeded qmillion during the early part of the 19th century.
Rappoltsweiler, known in the 8th century as Rathaldovilare, passed from the bishops of Basel to the lords of Rappoltstein, who were among the most famous nobles in Alsace.
Near the town are the ruins of three famous castles, Ulrichsburg, Girsberg and Hohrappoltstein, which formerly belonged to the lords of Rappoltstein._ See Bernhard, Recherches sur l'histoire de la vine de Rappoltsweiler (Colmar, 1888); and Kube, Rappoltsweiler, das Carolabad and Umgebung (Strassburg, 1905).
In May he had charge of the bill for securing the Protestant succession; he took part in the impeachment of the Whig lords for their conduct concerning the Partition treaties, and opposed the oath abjuring the Pretender.
But this had been effected in consequence of a peremptory order of the king, against Walpole's wishes, who succeeded in maintaining his exclusion from the House of Lords.
The great landowners who were developing into feudal lords, and the smaller freemen who were becoming independent burghers, broke the imperial.
It is, therefore, as regards both the potestas ordinis and jurisdiction, substantially the same as other offences, the legality of the sentence being finally confirmed by the House of Lords on the 25th of January 1705.
As both his chiefs were in the Lords, he was the spokesman of the office in the Commons, and he acquitted himself well.
After the collapse of that monarchy its territories passed to the German kings, and Savoy was divided between the counts of Provence, of Albon, of Gex, of Bresse, of the Genevois, of Maurienne, the lords of Habsburg, of Zahringen, &c., and several prelates.
In spite of his incapacity lie acquired the city of Freiburg and the homage of the lords of Monaco.
In Flanders, Lincoln joined Lord Lovell, who had headed an unsuccessful Yorkist rising in 1486, and in May 1487 the two lords proceeded to Dublin, where they landed a few days before the coronation of Lambert Simnel.
Exemption was obtained from these incidences of feudalism by large payments to the Crown in return for charters covenanting that Malta should for ever be administered under the royal exchequer without the intervention of intermediary feudal lords.
The bishops, in their turn, had to exercise their temporal rights through lay vassals, of whom the most powerful in the course of the 12th century were the lords of Andechs, near Munich.
Lenthall and Manchester, the speaker of the Lords, headed the fugitive members at the review on Hounslow Heath on the 3rd of August, being received by the soldiers "as so many angels sent from heaven for their good."
Lenthall, however, had no wish to resume his duties as speaker, preferring the House of Lords, and made various excuses for not complying.
In the House of Lords, however, Monk's testimony and intercession were effectual, and Lenthall was only declared incapable of holding for the future any public office.
During a speech which he delivered in the House of Lords on the 2nd of December 1902 on the Education Bill of that year, he was seized with sudden illness, and, though he revived sufficiently to finish his speech, he never fully recovered, and died on the 23rd of December 1902.
His ancestry claimed blood relationship with the lords of Montespertoli, a fief situated between Val di Pesa and Val d'Elsa, at no great distance from the city.
Five confederate lords with Gloucester at their head took up arms against the king's favourite ministers, and the Wonderful Parliament put to death without remorse almost every agent of his former administration who had not fled the country.
He at once received the support of the northern lords, and as he marched southwards the whole kingdom was soon practically at his command.
This letter, professing to come from "Presbyter Joannes, by the power and virtue of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, Lord of Lords,"claimed that he was the greatest monarch under heaven, as well as a devout Christian.
One of the points which he constantly pressed, with eventual success, was that the terms of Government employment should be as good as those offered by the best private firms. In the controversy with the House of Lords he openly proclaimed himself a Single-Chamber man.
Franklin contended that the governor, as a mere agent of the king, could have nothing to do with the assembly's appointment of its agent to the king; that " the King, and not the King, Lords, and Commons collectively, is their sovereign; and that the King, with their respective Parliaments, is their only legislator."
Glover (" Leonidas ") attended every performance; the duke of Argyll, Lords Cobham and Lyttelton, Pitt, and several other members of parliament testified their admiration.
In 1310 the emperor mortgaged the valley to the lords of Weissenburg, who sold it in 1334 to the town of Bern.
The caliph has the style of Amir ul Omara, " lord of lords."
On the 3rd of November Bute appeared in his new capacity as prime minister in the House of Lords, where he had not been seen for twenty years.
Among those who revolted were Guy of Laval, Giraud of Montreuil-Bellay, the viscount of Thouars, the lords of Mirebeau, Amboise, Parthenay and Sable.
The " parsons " must be killed, and the lords reduced to earn their bread by daily labour.
The German feudal lords he pronounced hangmen, who knew only how to swindle the poor man - " such fellows were formerly called scoundrels, but now we must call them ` Christians and revered princes.'
These " Lords of the Congregation " were able to force some concessions from the queen regent.
He opened negotiations with Cecil, who induced the reluctant Elizabeth to form an alliance with the Lords of the Congregation, and the English sent a fleet to drive away the French, who were endeavouring to keep their hold on Scotland.
The lords of Zuilen grew very powerful and built a castle here at the end of the 13th century.
In 1302 this possession passed by marriage to the influential family of van Borsele, lords of Veere and governors of Zeeland.
In Catalonia and Valencia the "germanias" were combinations of the peasantry to resist the exactions of the feudal lords.
Thanks to the moral support and material resources which it found in the ecclesiastical lords of central and northern France, and to the growing popular desire for the suppression of feuds, royalty was able to support its pretension to the general government of the kingdom.
The word is generally supposed to mean "lords," and identified with Etruscan larth, lar; but this is by no means certain.
They delegated their rights to the protector Somerset, with the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal.
In the course of the debate in the House of Lords the duke of York disclaimed on behalf of the prince of Wales any right to assume the regency without the consent of parliament.
After passing that House, however, the bill was thrown out by the House of Lords.
In 1354, having shortly before been made a knight, he was sent into England with the lords of Brittany to treat for the ransom of Charles of Blois, who had been defeated and captured by the English in 1347.
In 1641 he recovered his liberty on the demand of the House of Lords, who maintained that as a peer he was entitled to be summoned to parliament.
Lords Onslow and Glasgow came into collision with Ballance over a proposal to nominate a large batch of Liberals to the then Conservative legislative council.
In the 12th century it came into the possession of the lords of Reuss.
Under it all the principal officers of state, including the first lords of the treasury and admiralty, the secretaries of state, and certain members of the privy council, among whom was the archbishop of Canterbury, obtained seats at the board ex officio; and ten unofficial members, including several eminent statesmen, were also placed on the committee.
This document described the queen as Alexandrina Victoria, and all the peers who subscribed the roll in the House of Lords on the 10th of June swore allegiance to her under those names.
Sir Robert was ready to form a cabinet in which the duke of Wellington, Lords Lyndhurst, Aberdeen and Stanley, and Sir James Graham would have served; but he stipulated that the mistress of the robes and the ladies of the bedchamber appointed by the Whig administration should be removed, and to this the queen would not consent.
But neither his courage nor his industry forsook him; and he found, in opposing the new views of his old colleague, ample scope for both voice and pen; and as a member of the House of Lords he continued almost to the last to take part in hearing and deciding appeals, and sometimes in the ordinary business of the House.
But Lord Selborne did not carry on his opposition to Gladstone's proposals only in his library or by his pen; in the year1886-1887he travelled to many parts of the country, and addressed meetings in defence of the union between the Church and state and against Home Rule; and in September 1893, in his eighty-first year, he addressed a powerful speech to the House of Lords in opposition to the Home Rule Bill.
There was some opposition to his taking his seat in the House of Lords.
In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.
The same !year he engaged in a contest with the judges, and exhibited articles of complaint against them before the lords of the council; but these complaints were overruled.
The sacrifices and offerings were acknowledgments of divine bounty and means used to insure its continuance; the Arab was the " slave " of his god and paid him tribute, as slaves used to do to their masters, or subjects to their lords; and the free Bedouin, trained in the solitude of the desert to habits of absolute self-reliance, knew no master except his god, and acknowledged no other will before which his own should bend.
A branch of the Cadolingi di Borgonuovo family, lords of Fucecchio in Tuscany from the 10th century onwards, which had acquired the name of Bonaparte, had settled near Sarzana before 1264; in 1512 a member of the family took up his residence in Ajaccio, and hence, according to some authorities, was descended the emperor Napoleon I.
In consequence of this law the great lords were compelled to put forces in the field proportioned to their enormous fortunes, and Sigismund was able in 1529 to raise 300 foot and 3200 horse from the province of Podolia alone.
The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
The castles of these great lords were the foci of the social and political life of their respective provinces.
The lordship of Almelo belonged to the lords of Heeckeren, who acquired the barony of Rechteren by marriage in 1350 and the countship of Limpourg in 1711.
The articles of impeachment were sent up to the Lords in October, the trial beginning on the 12th of March 1644, but the attempt to bring his conduct under a charge of high treason proving hopeless, an attainder was substituted and sent up to the Lords on the 22nd of November.
In these proceedings there was no semblance of respect for law or justice, the Lords yielding (4th of January 1645) to the menaces of the Commons, who arrogated to themselves the right to declare any crimes they pleased high treason.
The government had been losing ground in the country, and Mr Lloyd George and Mr Winston Churchill were conspicuously in alliance in advocating the use of the budget for introducing drastic reforms in regard to licensing and land, which the resistance of the House of Lords prevented the Radical party from effecting by ordinary legislation.
The well-established doctrine that the House of Lords could not amend, though it might reject, a money-bill, coupled with the fact that it never had gone so far as to reject a budget, was relied on by the extremists as dictating the obvious party tactics; and before the year 1909 opened, the possibility of the Lords being driven to compel a dissolution by standing on their extreme rights as regards the financial provision for the year was already canvassed in political circles, though it was hardly credited that the government would precipitate a constitutional crisis of such magnitude.
When the Finance Bill went up to the House of Lords, Lord Lansdowne gave notice that on the second reading he would move "that this House is not justified in giving its consent to this bill until it has been submitted to the judgment of the country," and on the last day of November this motion was carried by an overwhelming majority of peers.
Events had now made Mr Lloyd George and his financial policy the centre of the Liberal party programme; but party tactics for the moment prevented the ministry, who remained in office, from simply sending the budget up again to the Lords and allowing them to pass it.
There was no majority in the Commons for the budget as such, since the Irish Nationalists only supported it as an engine for destroying the veto of the Lords and thus preparing the way for Irish Home Rule.
On the disruption of the Scottish Church he took the side of the seceders, giving a judicial opinion in their favour, afterwards reversed by the house of lords.
In Biscay the counts of Haro were lords of Biscay from 1093 to 1350.
The lords opposed to Somerset ordered his detention on the 10th of October, and in November he was in the Tower.
Similarly in the annals and votive inscriptions of the kings, when oracles are referred to, Shamash and Adad are always named as the gods addressed, and their ordinary designation in such instances is bele biri, " lords of divination."
They are always officers of the army, and each of them is "on duty" for about the same time as the lords and grooms in waiting.
They arrived in December 1676, and the case was tried before the Lords Chief Justices of the King's Bench and Common Pleas in April 1677.
The eastern front, which was the entrance of the House of Lords, is, by their special wish, of the Corinthian order, made conformable with the rest of the building not without difficulty to the architect.
The House of Lords contains tapestry dating from 1733, and remains in its original condition, but the octagonal House of Commons was demolished by the bank directors, and replaced with a cash-office.
His third son, Olaf, succeeded to the government about 1103, and the daughter of Olaf was married to Somerled, who became the founder of the dynasty known as Lords of the Isles.
The race of Somerled continued to rule the islands, and from a younger son of the same potentate sprang the lords of Lorne, who took the patronymic of Macdougall.
The lordship of Lorne was wrested from the Macdougalls by Robert Bruce, and their extensive possessions, with Dunstaffnage Castle, bestowed on the king's relative, Stewart, and his descendants, afterwards lords of Lorne.
The Senates act as courts for the trial of state officers impeached by the house (in imitation of the British House of Lords and the Federal Senate), and have in some states Powers and the function of confirming or refusing appointments Funcons made by the governor.
It was enriched by Charles the Bald with two castles, and a Benedictine abbey dedicated to Saint Corneille, the monks of which retained down to the 18th century the privilege of acting for three days as lords of Compiegne, with full power to release prisoners, condemn the guilty, and even inflict sentence of death.
After the annexation of Hohenems (its lords having become extinct in 1759), Maria Theresa united all these lordships into an administrative district of Hither Austria, under the name Vorarlberg, the governor residing at Bregenz.
On the impeachment of Strafford the lords themselves appointed Arundel to be high steward.
Lord Delamere was tried in 1685 in the steward's court; since then all trials of peers have taken place before the lords in parliament.
On Lord Murray's return to England in 1914 he found it necessary to make a statement in the House of Lords with reference to the part he had played in the Marconi episode, and a select committee, appointed to inquire into his action in the matter, reported that he had acted " without sufficient thought," but acquitted him of "dishonourable conduct."
The repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts having been carried in the House of Commons in the session of 1828, Wellington, to the great disappointment of Tories like Lord Eldon, recommended the House of Lords not to offer further resistance, and the measure was accordingly carried through.
In 1818 a select committee of the House of Commons was appointed to consider the Usury Laws and in 1841 a similar committee of the House of Lords was appointed.
When William in 1695 went to take command of the army in the Netherlands, Tenison was appointed one of the seven lords justices to whom his authority was delegated.
The archbishops of York as lords of the manor had various privileges in the town, among which were the right of holding a market and fair, and Archbishop John, being summoned in the reign of Henry I.
Lord Wiltshire, the queen's father, exultingly cried out, " So, did I not tell you, my lords, that you would find this matter true ?"
His local connexions and the incidents of his previous career introduced him to the notice of his countrymen Lords Bute and Mansfield.
For some time after that ministry's fall he was considered the leader of the Whig party in the House of Lords, and, had the illness of the king brought about the return of the Whigs to power, the great seal would have been placed in his hands.
Lord Londonderry now became president of the council, Lord Lansdowne leader of the House of Lords, and Lord Salisbury, son of the late premier, who as Lord Cranborne had for three years been under-secretary for foreign affairs, was included in the cabinet as lord privy seal.
The rejection of this budget in December by the House of Lords led to d desperate struggle at the polls in January 1910, but the confident hopes of the Unionists were doomed to disappointment.
Further, since the grantees as a rule naturally sent their sons into the service of their own lords, such grants tended to become hereditary, and in them we have the origin of the baronage of the middle ages.
The choice of the pope was then subject to the pleasure of the sovereign of Germany, against whom the Roman feudal lords, devoted as they were to the old abuses, were in constant revolt.
He was successful at the council of 1059, the pontifical election was placed out of reach of the schemes of the local feudal lords and restored to the heads of the clergy; certain reservations were made with regard to those rights which the Holy See was considered to have conceded personally to Henry of Germany (the young king Henry IV., son of the emperor Henry III.), but nothing more.
It must not, however, be forgotten that, in the negotiations at Sutri, Paschal had pride and independence enough to propose to the emperor the only solution of the conflict that was entirely logical and essentially Christian, namely, the renunciation by the Church of its temporal power and the renunciation by the lay lords of all intervention in elections and investitures - in other words, the absolute separation of the priesthood and the state.
The greater part of the district belonged in the middle ages to the lords of Bage, from whom it passed in 1272 to the house of Savoy.
Hamilton originated in the 15th century under the protecting influence of the lords of Hamilton, and became a burgh of barony in 1456 and a royal burgh in 1548.
In 1710, after the lords proprietors had issued directions for "the building of a town to be called Beaufort Town," in honour of Henry Somerset, duke of Beaufort (1629-1700), the first permanent settlement was established on the island.
In 1752 he was appointed a judge in the court of session under the title of Lord Kames, and in 1763 he was made one of the lords of justiciary.
But in Scotland the ordinary judges of the Inner and Outer Houses are called lords ordinary, the junior lord ordinary of the Outer House acts as lord ordinary of the bills, the second junior as lord ordinary on teinds, the third junior as lord ordinary on Exchequer causes.
And if the designation of knights was first applied to the military tenants of the earls, bishops and barons - who although they held their lands of mesne lords owed their services to the king - the extension of that designation to the whole body of military tenants need not have been a very violent or prolonged process.
In Scotland, even as late as the reign of James VI., lords of parliament were always created bannerets as well as barons at their investiture, " part of the ceremony consisting in the display of a banner, and such ` barones majores ' were thereby entitled to the privilege of having one borne by a retainer before them to the field of a quadrilateral form."
Smyth's record of this great family shows that, from the middle of the r3th century onwards, the lords were not only statesmen and warriors, but still more distinguished as gentlemen-farmers on a great scale, even selling fruit from the castle gardens, while their ladies would go round on tours of inspection from dairy to dairy.
This great missionary was well received by the daimios (feudal lords), and though he remained only 22 years, with the help of a Japanese whom he had converted at Malacca he organized many congregations.
A bond was drawn in which Darnley pledged himself to support the confederates who undertook to punish "certain privy persons" offensive to the state, "especially a strange Italian, called Davie"; another was subscribed by Darnley and the banished lords, then biding their time in Newcastle, which engaged him to procure their pardon and restoration, while pledging them to insure to him the enjoyment of the title he coveted, with the consequent security of an undisputed succession to the crown, despite the counter claims of the house of Hamilton, in case his wife should die without issue - a result which, intentionally or not, he and his fellow-conspirators did all that brutality could have suggested to accelerate and secure.
The parliament was discharged by proclamation issued in the name of Darnley as king; and in the evening of the next day the banished lords, whom it was to have condemned to outlawry, returned to Edinburgh.
On the Sunday following, Mary left Edinburgh for Seton Palace, 12 miles from the capital, where scandal asserted that she passed the time merrily in shooting-matches with Bothwell for her partner against Lords Seton and Huntly; other accounts represent Huntly and Bothwell as left at Holyrood in charge of the infant prince.
The confederate lords on entering Edinburgh were welcomed by the citizens, and after three hours' persuasion Lethington, who had now joined them, prevailed on the captain of the castle to deliver it also into their hands.
The terror of the Hunnish invasion, in 899, further assisted the people in their progress towards freedom, for it compelled them to take arms and to fortify their city, rendering Milan more than ever independent of the feudal lords who lived in their castles in the country.
Martino was followed by two other Torriani, Filippo his brother (1263-1265) and Napoleone his cousin (1265-1277), as lords of Milan.
Otto Visconti, archbishop of Milan (1262), the victor of Desio, became lord of Milan, and founded the house of Visconti, who ruled the city - except from 1302 to 13 10 - till 1447, giving twelve lords to Milan.
In the case of the Western Alps (minus the bit from the chain of Mont Blanc to the Simplon, which followed the fortunes of the Valais), a prolonged struggle for the Alpine region took place between the feudal lords of Savoy, the Dauphine and Provence.
From this date the Beauchamps were lords of the whole manor until it passed by female descent to the Grevilles in the reign of Henry VIII.
He justified his appointment by his magnificent speech when the Disestablishment Bill reached the House of Lords in 1869, and then plunged into diocesan and general work in England.
He took up the temperance question, and declared in the House of Lords that he would.
He approved of the "Petition and Advice," only objecting to the conferring of the title of king on Cromwell; became a member of the new House of Lords; and supported ardently Cromwell's foreign policy in Europe, based on religious divisions, and his defence of the Protestants persecuted abroad.
The poet Edmund Waller was one of the 17th century lords of the manor.
As Archbishop of the Northern Province he took a conspicuous part in the social and economic, as well as the religious, questions agitating an industrial community, while in the House of Lords his eloquence and clear common-sense gave him an influence not confined to ecclesiastical matters.
More recent English acts had further emphasized the complete dependence of the Irish parliament, and the appellate jurisdiction of the Irish House of Lords had also been annulled.
The Clitheroe Estate Company are the present lords of the Honour.
He was acknowledged to be the finest speaker in the House of Lords.
A strong check was thus imposed upon the tendency of freemen to become the vassals of great lords.
In dealing with the revolt of nobles Ernest of Swabia Conrad was aided by the reluctance a-nd the of the vassals of the great lords to follow them against land.
In Germany Conrad did not definitely decree that fiefs should pass from father to son, but he encouraged and took advantage of the tendency in this direction, a tendency which was, obviously, a serious blow at the pow-er of the great lords over their vassals.
Under his severe but beneficent rule, Germany enjoyed, a period of internal quiet such as she had probably never experienced before, but even Henry could not permanently divert from its course the main political tendency of the age, the desire of the great feudal lords for independence.
Several of them, especially Mainz,Worms and Spires, had received The cities valuable rights from the kings and other lords; they were becoming self-governing and to some extent independent communities and an important and growing element in the state.
In many places the lords yielded to these demands, among those who granted conCessions being the elector palatine of the Rhine, the bishops of Bamberg and of Spires, and the abbots of Fulda and of Hersfeld.
The general result was that the power of the territorial lords became greater than eve-r, although in some cases, especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants was somewhat improved.
With the cession of French North America to Great Britain in 1763, the Indian lords of the soil rose under Pontiac in a last attempt to shake off the white man, and in1763-1765there was hard fighting along the western frontier from Sault-Ste-Marie to Detroit.
From about 81 9 to 1082 Carcassonne formed a separate countship, and from the latter date till 1247 a viscountship. Towards the end of the 11th century the viscounts of Carcassonne assumed the style of viscounts of Beziers, which town and its lords they had dominated since the fall of the Carolingian empire.
The lords of Aremberg first appear early in the 5 2th century, but had died out in the male line by 1279.
Since that year the empire had been the subject of numerous experiments in government; by the last, which began in 1860, Landtage or diets have been instituted in each of the territories on a nearly uniform system and with nearly identical powers, and by the constitution published in February 1861 (the February Constitution, as it is called), which is still the ultimate basis for the government, there was instituted a Reichsrath or parliament for the whole empire; it consisted of a House of Lords (Herren- haus), in which sat the archbishops and prince bishops, members of the imperial family, and other members appointed for life, besides some hereditary members, and a Chamber of Deputies.
He made a great speech on the second reading of the Irish Church Bill, and wrote a letter on the House of Lords, in which he said, "In harmony with the nation they may go on for a long time, but throwing themselves athwart its course they may meet with accidents not pleasant for them to think of."
He was now enabled to carry a philanthropic measure, of which from his first entry into the House of Lords he had been a great promoter, namely, the Debtor and Creditor Bill for relief of poor debtors.
In early times the feudal lords were themselves the chief priests of the local temples.
He spoke and voted for exclusion in the House of Lords, and used language not likely to be forgotten by James when an opportunity should come for resenting it.
In Melbourne's government of 1835 he was president of the board of control, in which position he strongly supported the Indian policy of Lord Auckland; he returned to the same office in July 1846 as a member of Lord John Russell's cabinet; and in February 1851 he went to the House of Lords as Baron Broughton of Broughton Gyfford.
As this dispute was still unsettled when the parliament met at Leicester in February 1426, Bedford and the lords undertook to arbitrate.
It was he who coined the phrase (Birmingham, 1894) as to the government's "ploughing the sands" in their endeavour to pass Liberal legislation with a hostile House of Lords.
His Employers' Liability Bill 1893 was lost because the government refused to accept the Lords' amendment as to "contracting-out."
The southern portion was held in succession by the lords of Villars and of Thoire.
Its lords took advantage of the excommunication of the emperor Frederick II.
The antiquities include stone circles, duns, the ruins of Breachacha Castle, once a fortress of the Lords of the Isles.
A clamour was nevertheless raised in regard to the incompatibility of the under-secretaryship with a position in the House of Lords, and Lord Rosebery resigned the post in June 1883.
Albert Hall Lord Rosebery advised them to concentrate upon the reform of the House of Lords, that assembly being, as he said, a foremost obstacle to the passing of legislation on the lines of the Newcastle programme; but he was unable to suggest in what direction it should be reformed.
Nevertheless, in a letter to Captain Lambton, an unsuccessful Liberal candidate for Newcastle, in September 1900, he condemned the general conduct of affairs by Lord Salisbury's government, while in several speeches in the House of Lords he strongly urged the necessity of army reform.
The famous Judge Jeffreys was among the subsequent lords of the manor and was created Baron Jeffreys of Wem in 1685, but upon the death of his only son and heir in 1720 the title became extinct.
The almost absolute power formerly wielded by the landlords, who within their own territories were lords of regality, hindered independent agricultural enterprise, and it was not till after the abolition of hereditable jurisdictions in 1748 that agriculture made real progress.
In the parliament of Great Britain its representation was fixed at sixteen peers elected in Holyrood Palace by the peers of Scotland at each new parliament in the House of Lords, and at forty-five members in the House of Commons, the counties returning thirty and the burghs fifteen.
Malcolm the Maiden, before his early death in 1165, had put down the menacing power of Somerled, lord of the Isles, a chief apparently of mixed Celtic and Scandinavian blood, the founder of the great clan of Macdonald, whose chiefs, the lords of the Isles, were almost royal; Malcolm also subdued the Celts of Galloway, sometimes called Picts, but at this time Gaelic in speech.
This led, after Bruce's death, to an invasion by the disinherited English ci-devant lords of lands in Scotland, and to a long war from which Scotland was only " saved as by fire."
The disinherited lords, deprived of their lands by Bruce, were headed by Edward Baliol, claiming the crown of Scotland as heir of John Baliol, and secretly backed by England.
But these committees, later known as the Lords of the Articles, were to exercise almost the full powers of parliament in accordance with the desires of the crown, or of the dominant faction, and they were among the grievances abolished after the revolution of 1688-1689.
He instantly arrested Murdoch, son of Albany, and Fleming of Cumbernauld, met parliament, dismissed it, retaining a committee (" the Lords of the Articles "), and took measures with landlords, who must display their charters; appointed an inquest into lay and clerical property; and imposed taxes to defray his ransom.
No Scottish king ever embarked on such a coup d'etat as the arrest of " the whole Scottish House of Lords," and Knox, who attributes a much larger design to James V., must have been deceived by rumour.
Angus soon followed, with the lords captured at Solway Moss, all bound more or less to work Henry's will.
Mary, according to Ruthven's published account, had herself unconstitutionally named the executive committee of parliament, the Lords of the Articles, who were usually elected in various ways by the Estates themselves.
On his assurances the lords, expecting an amnesty, withdrew their guards from the palace and next day found that the bird had flown to the strong castle of Dunbar.
A parliament (31st of August) demanded the loss of votes (fourteen) by bishops, and freedom of debate on bills formed by the Lords of the Articles, who had practically held all power; while Argyll carried a bill demanding for each estate the right to select its own representatives among these lords.
The preachers, with Lords Loudoun and Eglintoun, Argyll and Cassilis, armed and raised the godly, and occupied Edinburgh.
The Lords of the Articles were restored, mere nominees of government.
While Dundee was raising the clans and outmanoeuvring Mackay, a party in parliament was agitating for constitutional reforms, and especially for freedom from the Lords of the Articles.
Scotland was to have forty-five members and sixteen elected peers at Westminster; the holders of Darien stock were compensated; as a balance to equality of taxation a pecuniary equivalent was to be paid, the kirk and Scottish courts of justice were safeguarded (final appeal being to the British House of Lords), and Scots shared English facilities and privileges of trade, in name, for many years passed before Scotland really began to enjoy the benefits.
The expenses of the princes and lords were, of course, much heavier.
In 1904 appeared the third volume, La Renaissance de Petal, in which the author describes the efforts of the Capetian kings to reconstruct the power of the Frankish kings over the whole of Gaul; and goes on to show how the clergy, the heirs of the imperial tradition, encouraged this ambition; how the great lords of the kingdom (the "princes," as Flach calls them), whether as allies or foes, pursued the same end; and how, before the close of the 12th century, the Capetian kings were in possession of the organs and the means of action which were to render them so powerful and bring about the early downfall of feudalism.
In December 1657 he became a member of the new House of Lords.
The lords of Glyndyvrdwy had an ancient feud with their.
The king and lords of England would be driven to think that God had taken away from the Holy See the key of knowledge, and that pontifical laws which were not clear to the pope himself might as well be committed to the flames.
He no doubt approved of the act, which passed the House of Lords while he presided there as chancellor, for the revival of the heresy laws.
The considered policy of the British Government was embodied in 1903 in Lord Lansdowne's declaration in the House of Lords that " we should regard the establishment of a naval base or a fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other Power as a very grave menace to British interests, and we should certainly resist it by all the means at our disposal."
In the early middle ages the term was applied to representatives of a count administering justice for him in the country or small towns and dealing with unimportant cases, levying taxes, &c. Monasteries and religious houses often employed a vicar to answer to their feudal lords for those of their lands which did not pass into mortmain.
Lord Birkenhead brought to the performance of his new duties the vigour which had always been characteristic of him; his judgments in the two final Courts of Appeal were weighty and lucid; and he quickly made himself a force in the Lords' debates.
In 1500 he was elected chancellor of Cambridge University, an office not confined to noble lords until a much more democratic age, and in 1507 master of Pembroke Hall in the same university.
Thus the Bruces were lords of Galloway, and the title of earl of Galloway (created 1623) is now held by a branch of the Stewarts.
His ancestors in the 18th century had sent recruits to the famous brigade of Irish exiles in the service of France,' and those who remained at home either lived as tenants on the possessions of which they had once been lords, or gradually made money by smuggling, a very general calling in that wild region.
He was convicted (February 1844) after the trials that followed, but they were not good specimens of equal justice, and the sentence of imprisonment for a year and a fine of £2000 was reversed on a writ of error by the